WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent bold contrast

  1. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J.

    2010-01-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2 * -weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  2. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications; Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD). Bildgebung der Nieren. Konzepte und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (DE). Inst. fuer Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin (CKM)

    2010-07-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2{sup *}-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  3. Post-contractile BOLD contrast in skeletal muscle at 7 T reveals inter-individual heterogeneity in the physiological responses to muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Theodore F; Elder, Christopher P; Bush, Emily C; Klockenkemper, Samuel W; Bullock, Jared T; Dortch, Richard D; Damon, Bruce M

    2016-12-01

    Muscle blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) contrast is greater in magnitude and potentially more influenced by extravascular BOLD mechanisms at 7 T than it is at lower field strengths. Muscle BOLD imaging of muscle contractions at 7 T could, therefore, provide greater or different contrast than at 3 T. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using BOLD imaging at 7 T to assess the physiological responses to in vivo muscle contractions. Thirteen subjects (four females) performed a series of isometric contractions of the calf muscles while being scanned in a Philips Achieva 7 T human imager. Following 2 s maximal isometric plantarflexion contractions, BOLD signal transients ranging from 0.3 to 7.0% of the pre-contraction signal intensity were observed in the soleus muscle. We observed considerable inter-subject variability in both the magnitude and time course of the muscle BOLD signal. A subset of subjects (n = 7) repeated the contraction protocol at two different repetition times (T R : 1000 and 2500 ms) to determine the potential of T 1 -related inflow effects on the magnitude of the post-contractile BOLD response. Consistent with previous reports, there was no difference in the magnitude of the responses for the two T R values (3.8 ± 0.9 versus 4.0 ± 0.6% for T R  = 1000 and 2500 ms, respectively; mean ± standard error). These results demonstrate that studies of the muscle BOLD responses to contractions are feasible at 7 T. Compared with studies at lower field strengths, post-contractile 7 T muscle BOLD contrast may afford greater insight into microvascular function and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.; Tank, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity

  5. In contrast to BOLD: signal enhancement by extravascular water protons as an alternative mechanism of endogenous fMRI signal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figley, Chase R; Leitch, Jordan K; Stroman, Patrick W

    2010-10-01

    Despite the popularity and widespread application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in recent years, the physiological bases of signal change are not yet fully understood. Blood oxygen level-dependant (BOLD) contrast - attributed to local changes in blood flow and oxygenation, and therefore magnetic susceptibility - has become the most prevalent means of functional neuroimaging. However, at short echo times, spin-echo sequences show considerable deviations from the BOLD model, implying a second, non-BOLD component of signal change. This has been dubbed "signal enhancement by extravascular water protons" (SEEP) and is proposed to result from proton-density changes associated with cellular swelling. Given that such changes are independent of magnetic susceptibility, SEEP may offer new and improved opportunities for carrying out fMRI in regions with close proximity to air-tissue and/or bone-tissue interfaces (e.g., the prefrontal cortex and spinal cord), as well as regions close to large blood vessels, which may not be ideally suited for BOLD imaging. However, because of the interdisciplinary nature of the literature, there has yet to be a thorough synthesis, tying together the various and sometimes disparate aspects of SEEP theory. As such, we aim to provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of SEEP, including recent and compelling evidence for its validity, its current applications and its future relevance to the rapidly expanding field of functional neuroimaging. Before presenting the evidence for a non-BOLD component of endogenous functional contrast, and to enable a more critical review for the nonexpert reader, we begin by reviewing the fundamental principles underlying BOLD theory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  7. BOLD repetition decreases in object-responsive ventral visual areas depend on spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, E; Henson, R N A; Driver, J; Dolan, R J

    2004-08-01

    Functional imaging studies of priming-related repetition phenomena have become widely used to study neural object representation. Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) repetition decreases can sometimes be observed without awareness of repetition, any role for spatial attention in BOLD repetition effects remains largely unknown. We used fMRI in 13 healthy subjects to test whether BOLD repetition decreases for repeated objects in ventral visual cortices depend on allocation of spatial attention to the prime. Subjects performed a size-judgment task on a probe object that had been attended or ignored in a preceding prime display of 2 lateralized objects. Reaction times showed faster responses when the probe was the same object as the attended prime, independent of the view tested (identical vs. mirror image). No behavioral effect was evident from unattended primes. BOLD repetition decreases for attended primes were found in lateral occipital and fusiform regions bilaterally, which generalized across identical and mirror-image repeats. No repetition decreases were observed for ignored primes. Our results suggest a critical role for attention in achieving visual representations of objects that lead to both BOLD signal decreases and behavioral priming on repeated presentation.

  8. Effect of luminance contrast on BOLD-fMRI response in deaf and normal occipital visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yanping; Zhai Renyou; Jiang Tao; Cui Yong; Zhou Tiangang; Rao Hengyi; Zhuo Yan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of luminance contrast stimulus by using blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) within deaf occipital visual cortex, and to compare the distribution, extent, and intensity of activated areas between deaf subjects and normal hearing subjects. Methods: Twelve deaf subjects (average age 16.5) and 15 normal hearing subjects (average age 23.7) were stimulated by 4 kinds of luminance contrast (0.7, 2.2, 50.0, 180.0 lm). The fMRI data were collected on GE 1.5 T Signa Horizon LX MRI system and analyzed by AFNI to generate the activation map. Results: Responding to all 4 kinds of stimulus luminance contrast, all deaf and normal subjects showed significant activations in occipital visual cortex. For both deaf and normal subjects, the number of activated pixels increased significantly with increasing luminance contrast (F normal = 4.27, P deaf = 6.41, P 0.05). The local mean activation level for all activated pixels remained constant with increasing luminance contrast. However, there was an increase in the mean activation level for those activated pixels common to all trials as the stimulus luminance contrast was increased, but no significant difference was found within them (F normal = 0.79, P > 0.05; F deaf = 1.6, P > 0.05). Conclusion: The effect of luminance contrast on occipital visual cortex of deaf is similar to but somewhat higher than that of normal hearing subjects. In addition, it also proved that fMRI is a feasible method in the study of the deaf visual cortex

  9. Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen (CMRO2 ) Mapping by Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) and Quantitative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Imaging (qBOLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghun; Kee, Youngwook; Spincemaille, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh D; Zhang, Jingwei; Gupta, Ajay; Zhang, Shun; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-07

    To map the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by estimating the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from gradient echo imaging (GRE) using phase and magnitude of the GRE data. 3D multi-echo gradient echo imaging and perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling were performed in 11 healthy subjects. CMRO 2 and OEF maps were reconstructed by joint quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to process GRE phases and quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent (qBOLD) modeling to process GRE magnitudes. Comparisons with QSM and qBOLD alone were performed using ROI analysis, paired t-tests, and Bland-Altman plot. The average CMRO 2 value in cortical gray matter across subjects were 140.4 ± 14.9, 134.1 ± 12.5, and 184.6 ± 17.9 μmol/100 g/min, with corresponding OEFs of 30.9 ± 3.4%, 30.0 ± 1.8%, and 40.9 ± 2.4% for methods based on QSM, qBOLD, and QSM+qBOLD, respectively. QSM+qBOLD provided the highest CMRO 2 contrast between gray and white matter, more uniform OEF than QSM, and less noisy OEF than qBOLD. Quantitative CMRO 2 mapping that fits the entire complex GRE data is feasible by combining QSM analysis of phase and qBOLD analysis of magnitude. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Detection of Acute Tubular Necrosis Using Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To date, there is no imaging technique to assess tubular function in vivo. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI measures tissue oxygenation based on the transverse relaxation rate (R2*. The present study investigates whether BOLD MRI can assess tubular function using a tubule-specific pharmacological maneuver. Methods: Cross sectional study with 28 participants including 9 subjects with ATN-induced acute kidney injury (AKI, 9 healthy controls, and 10 subjects with nephron sparing tumor resection (NSS with clamping of the renal artery serving as a model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced subclinical ATN (median clamping time 15 min, no significant decrease of eGFR, p=0.14. BOLD MRI was performed before and 5, 7, and 10 min after intravenous administration of 40 mg furosemide. Results: Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was significantly higher in ATN-induced AKI and NSS subjects than in healthy controls (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively. Before administration of furosemide, absolute medullary R2*, cortical R2*, and medullary/cortical R2* ratio did not significantly differ between ATN-induced AKI vs. healthy controls and between NSS-I/R vs. contralateral healthy kidneys (p>0.05 each. Furosemide led to a significant decrease in the medullary and cortical R2* of healthy subjects and NSS contralateral kidneys (p<0.05 each, whereas there was no significant change of R2* in ATN-induced AKI and the NSS-I/R kidneys (p>0.05 each. Conclusion: BOLD-MRI is able to detect even mild tubular injury but necessitates a tubule-specific pharmacological maneuver, e.g. blocking the Na+-K+-2Cl- transporter by furosemide.

  11. fMRI BOLD response to the eyes task in offspring from multiplex alcohol dependence families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y; Kostelnik, Bryan; Holmes, Brian; Goradia, Dhruman; McDermott, Michael; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2007-12-01

    Increased susceptibility for developing alcohol dependence (AD) may be related to structural and functional differences in brain circuits that influence social cognition and more specifically, theory of mind (ToM). Alcohol dependent individuals have a greater likelihood of having deficits in social skills and greater social alienation. These characteristics may be related to inherited differences in the neuroanatomical network that comprises the social brain. Adolescent/young adult participants from multiplex AD families and controls (n = 16) were matched for gender, age, IQ, education, and handedness and administered the Eyes Task of Baron-Cohen during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). High-risk (HR) subjects showed significantly diminished blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in comparison with low-risk control young adults in the right middle temporal gyrus (RMTG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), areas that have previously been implicated in ToM tasks. Offspring from multiplex families for AD may manifest one aspect of their genetic susceptibility by having a diminished BOLD response in brain regions associated with performance of ToM tasks. These results suggest that those at risk for developing AD may have reduced ability to empathize with others' state of mind, possibly resulting in diminished social skill.

  12. Frequency-dependent tACS modulation of BOLD signal during rhythmic visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yuhui; Sheng, Jingwei; Bandettini, Peter A; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising tool for modulating cortical oscillations. In previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, tACS has been found to modulate brain oscillatory activity in a frequency-specific manner. However, the spatial distribution and hemodynamic response for this modulation remains poorly understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the advantage of measuring neuronal activity in regions not only below the tACS electrodes but also across the whole brain with high spatial resolution. Here, we measured fMRI signal while applying tACS to modulate rhythmic visual activity. During fMRI acquisition, tACS at different frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz) was applied along with visual flicker stimulation at 8 and 16 Hz. We analyzed the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal difference between tACS-ON vs tACS-OFF, and different frequency combinations (e.g., 4 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker vs 8 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker). We observed significant tACS modulation effects on BOLD responses when the tACS frequency matched the visual flicker frequency or the second harmonic frequency. The main effects were predominantly seen in regions that were activated by the visual task and targeted by the tACS current distribution. These findings bridge different scientific domains of tACS research and demonstrate that fMRI could localize the tACS effect on stimulus-induced brain rhythms, which could lead to a new approach for understanding the high-level cognitive process shaped by the ongoing oscillatory signal. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique.

  14. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique

  15. Spatiotopic coding of BOLD signal in human visual cortex depends on spatial attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Crespi

    Full Text Available The neural substrate of the phenomenological experience of a stable visual world remains obscure. One possible mechanism would be to construct spatiotopic neural maps where the response is selective to the position of the stimulus in external space, rather than to retinal eccentricities, but evidence for these maps has been inconsistent. Here we show, with fMRI, that when human subjects perform concomitantly a demanding attentive task on stimuli displayed at the fovea, BOLD responses evoked by moving stimuli irrelevant to the task were mostly tuned in retinotopic coordinates. However, under more unconstrained conditions, where subjects could attend easily to the motion stimuli, BOLD responses were tuned not in retinal but in external coordinates (spatiotopic selectivity in many visual areas, including MT, MST, LO and V6, agreeing with our previous fMRI study. These results indicate that spatial attention may play an important role in mediating spatiotopic selectivity.

  16. BOLD contrast fMRI of whole rodent tumour during air or carbogen breathing using echo-planar imaging at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landuyt, W.; Bogaert, W. van den; Lambin, P.; Hermans, R.; Bosmans, H.; Sunaert, S.; Beatse, E.; Farina, D.; Meijerink, M.; Zhang, H.; Marchal, G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of functional MR imaging (fMRI) at 1.5 T, exploiting blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, for detecting changes in whole-tumour oxygenation induced by carbogen (5% CO 2 +95% O 2 ) inhalation of the host. Adult WAG/Rij rats with rhabdomyosarcomas growing subcutaneously in the lower flank were imaged when tumours reached sizes between 1 and 11 cm 3 (n=12). Air and carbogen were alternatively supplied at 2 l/min using a snout mask. Imaging was done on a 1.5-T MR scanner using a T2*-weighted gradient-echo, echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence. Analysis of the whole-tumour EPI images was based on statistical parametric maps. Voxels with and without signal intensity changes (SIC) were recorded. Significance thresholds were set at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. In continuous air breathing condition, 3 of 12 tumours showed significant negative SIC and 1 tumour had a clear-cut positive SIC. The remaining tumours showed very little or no change. When switching to carbogen breathing, the SIC were significantly positive in 10 of 12 tumours. Negative SIC were present in 4 tumours, of which three were simultaneously characterised by positive SIC. The overall analysis indicated that 6 of the 12 tumours could be considered as strong positive responders to carbogen. Our research demonstrates the applicability of fMRI GE-EPI at 1.5 T to study whole-tumour oxygenation non-invasively. The observed negative SIC during air condition may reflect the presence of transient hypoxia during these measurements. Selection of tumours on the basis of their individual response to carbogen is possible, indicating a role of such non-invasive measurements for using tailor-made treatments. (orig.)

  17. The dependencies of fronto-parietal BOLD responses evoked by covert visual search suggest eye-centred coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, A; Dicke, P W; Karnath, H-O; Thier, P

    2013-04-01

    Visual scenes explored covertly are initially represented in a retinal frame of reference (FOR). On the other hand, 'later' stages of the cortical network allocating spatial attention most probably use non-retinal or non-eye-centred representations as they may ease the integration of different sensory modalities for the formation of supramodal representations of space. We tested if the cortical areas involved in shifting covert attention are based on eye-centred or non-eye-centred coding by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were scanned while detecting a target item (a regularly oriented 'L') amidst a set of distractors (rotated 'L's). The array was centred either 5° right or left of the fixation point, independent of eye-gaze orientation, the latter varied in three steps: straight relative to the head, 10° left or 10° right. A quantitative comparison of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses for the three eye-gaze orientations revealed stronger BOLD responses in the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the right frontal eye field (FEF) for search in the contralateral (i.e. left) eye-centred space, independent of whether the array was located in the right or left head-centred hemispace. The left IPS showed the reverse pattern, i.e. an activation by search in the right eye-centred hemispace. In other words, the IPS and the right FEF, members of the cortical network underlying covert search, operate in an eye-centred FOR. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael E; Jordan, Jennifer H; Juncos, Luis A; Hundley, W Gregory; Hall, John E

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues. PMID:29559807

  19. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall ME

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jennifer H Jordan,3 Luis A Juncos,1,2 W Gregory Hundley,3 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues. Keywords: functional MRI, kidney, oxygenation, chronic kidney disease 

  20. The Relationship Between Dopamine Neurotransmitter Dynamics and the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD Signal: A Review of Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J. Bruinsma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is widely used in investigations of normal cognition and brain disease and in various clinical applications. Pharmacological fMRI (pharma-fMRI is a relatively new application, which is being used to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of pharmacological modulation of brain activity. Characterizing the effects of neuropharmacological agents on regional brain activity using fMRI is challenging because drugs modulate neuronal function in a wide variety of ways, including through receptor agonist, antagonist, and neurotransmitter reuptake blocker events. Here we review current knowledge on neurotransmitter-mediated blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD fMRI mechanisms as well as recently updated methodologies aimed at more fully describing the effects of neuropharmacologic agents on the BOLD signal. We limit our discussion to dopaminergic signaling as a useful lens through which to analyze and interpret neurochemical-mediated changes in the hemodynamic BOLD response. We also discuss the need for future studies that use multi-modal approaches to expand the understanding and application of pharma-fMRI.

  1. Field strength and dose dependence of contrast enhancement by gadolinium-based MR contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Muller, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    The relaxivities r 1 and r 2 of magnetic resonance contrast agents and the T 1 relaxation time values of tissues are strongly field dependent. We present quantitative data and simulations of different gadolinium-based extracellular fluid contrast agents and the modulation of their contrast enhancement by the magnetic field to be able to answer the following questions: How are the dose and field dependences of their contrast enhancement? Is there an interrelationship between dose and field dependence? Should one increase or decrease doses at specific fields? Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion data were acquired for the following contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadoterate meglumine, gadodiamide injection, and gadoteridol injection, as well as for several normal and pathological human tissue samples. The magnetic field range stretched from 0.0002 to 4.7 T, including the entire clinical imaging range. The data acquired were then fitted with the appropriate theoretical models. The combination of the diamagnetic relaxation rates (R 1 = 1/T 1 and R 2 = 1/T 2 ) of tissues with the respective paramagnetic contributions of the contrast agents allowed the prediction of image contrast at any magnetic field. The results revealed a nearly identical field and dose-dependent increase of contrast enhancement induced by these contrast agents within a certain dose range. The target tissue concentration (TTC) was an important though nonlinear factor for enhancement. The currently recommended dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight seems to be a compromise close to the lower limits of diagnostically sufficient contrast enhancement for clinical imaging at all field strengths. At low field contrast enhancement might be insufficient. Adjustment of dose or concentration, or a new class of contrast agents with optimized relaxivity, would be a valuable contribution to a better diagnostic yield of contrast enhancement at all fields. (orig.)

  2. Combined diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level-dependent, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for characterization and differentiation of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Staehler, Michael; Steiner, Nicole; Schwab, Felix; Sourbron, Steven P; Michaely, Henrik J; Helck, Andreas D; Reiser, Maximilian F; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    To investigate a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach comprising diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), blood oxygen-dependent (BOLD), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI for characterization and differentiation of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Fourteen patients with clear-cell carcinoma and four patients with papillary RCC were examined with DWI, BOLD MRI, and DCE MRI at 1.5T. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated with a monoexponential decay. The spin-dephasing rate R2* was derived from parametric R2* maps. DCE-MRI was analyzed using a two-compartment exchange model allowing separation of perfusion (plasma flow [FP] and plasma volume [VP]), permeability (permeability surface area product [PS]), and extravascular extracellular volume (VE). Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Clear-cell RCC showed higher ADC and lower R2* compared to papillary subtypes, but differences were not significant. FP of clear-cell subtypes was significantly higher than in papillary RCC. Perfusion parameters showed moderate but significant inverse correlation with R2*. VE showed moderate inverse correlation with ADC. Fp and Vp showed best sensitivity for histological differentiation. Multiparametric MRI comprising DWI, BOLD, and DCE MRI is feasible for assessment of primary RCC. BOLD moderately correlates to DCE MRI-derived perfusion. ADC shows moderate correlation to the extracellular volume, but does not correlate to tumor oxygenation or perfusion. In this preliminary study DCE-MRI appeared superior to BOLD and DWI for histological differentiation. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Cook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler, an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer. A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications

  4. Functional BOLD MRI: comparison of different field strengths in a motor task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, T.; Born, C.; Britsch, S.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the benefit of an increased field strength for functional magnetic resonance imaging in a motor task. Six right-handed volunteers were scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using a motor task. Each experiment consisted of two runs with four activation blocks, each with right- and left-hand tapping. Analysis was done using BrainVoyagerQX registered . Differences between both field strengths concerning signal to noise (SNR), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD contrast to noise (CNR) were tested using a paired t test. Delineation of activations and artifacts were graded by two independent readers. Results were further validated by means of a phantom study. The sensorimotor and premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, subcortical and cerebellar structures were activated at each field strength. Additional activations of the right premotor cortex and right superior temporal gyrus were found at 3.0 T. Signal-to-noise, percentage of BOLD signal change, BOLD CNR and functional sensitivity improved at 3.0 T by a factor of up to 2.4. Functional imaging at 3.0 T results in detection of additional activated areas, increased SNR, BOLD signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD CNR. (orig.)

  5. Sonophoresis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Dependence on Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Park

    Full Text Available Sonophoresis can increase skin permeability to various drugs in transdermal drug delivery. Cavitation is recognized as the predominant mechanism of sonophoresis. Recently, a new logical approach to enhance the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery was tried. It is to utilize the engineered microbubble and its resonant frequency for increase of cavitation activity. Actively-induced cavitation with low-intensity ultrasound (less than ~1 MPa causes disordering of the lipid bilayers and the formation of aqueous channels by stable cavitation which indicates a continuous oscillation of bubbles. Furthermore, the mutual interactions of microbubble determined by concentration of added bubble are also thought to be an important factor for activity of stable cavitation, even in different characteristics of drug. In the present study, we addressed the dependence of ultrasound contrast agent concentration using two types of drug on the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery. Two types of experiment were designed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery according to ultrasound contrast agent concentration. First, an experiment of optical clearing using a tissue optical clearing agent was designed to assess the efficiency of sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. Second, a Franz diffusion cell with ferulic acid was used to quantitatively determine the amount of drug delivered to the skin sample by sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. The maximum enhancement ratio of sonophoresis with a concentration of 1:1,000 was approximately 3.1 times greater than that in the ultrasound group without ultrasound contrast agent and approximately 7.5 times greater than that in the control group. These results support our hypothesis that sonophoresis becomes more effective in transdermal drug delivery due to the presence of engineered bubbles, and that the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery using sonophoresis with

  6. Sonophoresis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Dependence on Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghee; Song, Gillsoo; Jo, Yongjun; Won, Jongho; Son, Taeyoon; Cha, Ohrum; Kim, Jinho; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Chul-Woo; Seo, Jongbum

    2016-01-01

    Sonophoresis can increase skin permeability to various drugs in transdermal drug delivery. Cavitation is recognized as the predominant mechanism of sonophoresis. Recently, a new logical approach to enhance the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery was tried. It is to utilize the engineered microbubble and its resonant frequency for increase of cavitation activity. Actively-induced cavitation with low-intensity ultrasound (less than ~1 MPa) causes disordering of the lipid bilayers and the formation of aqueous channels by stable cavitation which indicates a continuous oscillation of bubbles. Furthermore, the mutual interactions of microbubble determined by concentration of added bubble are also thought to be an important factor for activity of stable cavitation, even in different characteristics of drug. In the present study, we addressed the dependence of ultrasound contrast agent concentration using two types of drug on the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery. Two types of experiment were designed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery according to ultrasound contrast agent concentration. First, an experiment of optical clearing using a tissue optical clearing agent was designed to assess the efficiency of sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. Second, a Franz diffusion cell with ferulic acid was used to quantitatively determine the amount of drug delivered to the skin sample by sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. The maximum enhancement ratio of sonophoresis with a concentration of 1:1,000 was approximately 3.1 times greater than that in the ultrasound group without ultrasound contrast agent and approximately 7.5 times greater than that in the control group. These results support our hypothesis that sonophoresis becomes more effective in transdermal drug delivery due to the presence of engineered bubbles, and that the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery using sonophoresis with microbubbles depends on the

  7. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Michels

    Full Text Available In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and

  8. Beware of Boldness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Conrad C

    2006-01-01

    ... to be?"1 Army Field Manual 7.0, Training the Force, states that the goals of operational deployments and major training opportunities are to enhance unit readiness and "produce bold, innovative leaders...

  9. Correlations of noninvasive BOLD and TOLD MRI with pO2 and relevance to tumor radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallac, Rami R; Zhou, Heling; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Song, Kwang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Zhao, Dawen; Solberg, Timothy; Peschke, Peter; Mason, Ralph P

    2014-05-01

    To examine the potential use of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and tissue oxygenation level dependent (TOLD) contrast MRI to assess tumor oxygenation and predict radiation response. BOLD and TOLD MRI were performed on Dunning R3327-AT1 rat prostate tumors during hyperoxic gas breathing challenge at 4.7 T. Animals were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 9), subsequent (19) F MRI based on spin lattice relaxation of hexafluorobenzene reporter molecule provided quantitative oximetry for comparison. For Group 2 rats (n = 13) growth delay following a single dose of 30 Gy was compared with preirradiation BOLD and TOLD assessments. Oxygen (100%O2 ) and carbogen (95%O2 /5%CO2 ) challenge elicited similar BOLD, TOLD and pO2 responses. Strong correlations were observed between BOLD or R2* response and quantitative (19) F pO2 measurements. TOLD response showed a general trend with weaker correlation. Irradiation caused a significant tumor growth delay and tumors with larger changes in TOLD and R1 values upon oxygen breathing exhibited significantly increased tumor growth delay. These results provide further insight into the relationships between oxygen sensitive (BOLD/TOLD) MRI and tumor pO2 . Moreover, a larger increase in R1 response to hyperoxic gas challenge coincided with greater tumor growth delay following irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast in abalone shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Guo, Jinghua; Ariosa, Daniel; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-02-01

    Many biominerals contain micro- or nanocrystalline mineral components, organized accurately into architectures that confer the material with improved mechanical performance at the macroscopic scale. We present here an effect which enables us to observe the relative orientation of individual crystals at the submicron scale. We call it polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC), as it is an imaging development of the well-known x-ray linear dichroism. Most importantly, PIC is obtained in situ, in biominerals. We present here PIC in the prismatic and nacreous layers of Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), confirm it in geologic calcite and aragonite, and corroborate the experimental data with theoretical simulated spectra. PIC reveals different and unexpected aspects of nacre architecture that have inspired theoretical models for nacre formation.

  11. Simultaneous Imaging of CBF Change and BOLD with Saturation-Recovery-T1 Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available A neuroimaging technique based on the saturation-recovery (SR-T1 MRI method was applied for simultaneously imaging blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD contrast and cerebral blood flow change (ΔCBF, which is determined by CBF-sensitive T1 relaxation rate change (ΔR1CBF. This technique was validated by quantitatively examining the relationships among ΔR1CBF, ΔCBF, BOLD and relative CBF change (rCBF, which was simultaneously measured by laser Doppler flowmetry under global ischemia and hypercapnia conditions, respectively, in the rat brain. It was found that during ischemia, BOLD decreased 23.1±2.8% in the cortical area; ΔR1CBF decreased 0.020±0.004s-1 corresponding to a ΔCBF decrease of 1.07±0.24 ml/g/min and 89.5±1.8% CBF reduction (n=5, resulting in a baseline CBF value (=1.18 ml/g/min consistent with the literature reports. The CBF change quantification based on temperature corrected ΔR1CBF had a better accuracy than apparent R1 change (ΔR1app; nevertheless, ΔR1app without temperature correction still provides a good approximation for quantifying CBF change since perfusion dominates the evolution of the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1app. In contrast to the excellent consistency between ΔCBF and rCBF measured during and after ischemia, the BOLD change during the post-ischemia period was temporally disassociated with ΔCBF, indicating distinct CBF and BOLD responses. Similar results were also observed for the hypercapnia study. The overall results demonstrate that the SR-T1 MRI method is effective for noninvasive and quantitative imaging of both ΔCBF and BOLD associated with physiological and/or pathological changes.

  12. Quantifying the microvascular origin of BOLD-fMRI from first principles with two-photon microscopy and an oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Frédéric; Musacchia, Joseph J; Lefebvre, Joël; Fang, Qianqian; Yücel, Meryem A; Evans, Karleyton C; Mandeville, Emiri T; Cohen-Adad, Jülien; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Lo, Eng H; Greve, Douglas N; Buxton, Richard B; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A

    2015-02-25

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast is widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies aimed at investigating neuronal activity. However, the BOLD signal reflects changes in blood volume and oxygenation rather than neuronal activity per se. Therefore, understanding the transformation of microscopic vascular behavior into macroscopic BOLD signals is at the foundation of physiologically informed noninvasive neuroimaging. Here, we use oxygen-sensitive two-photon microscopy to measure the BOLD-relevant microvascular physiology occurring within a typical rodent fMRI voxel and predict the BOLD signal from first principles using those measurements. The predictive power of the approach is illustrated by quantifying variations in the BOLD signal induced by the morphological folding of the human cortex. This framework is then used to quantify the contribution of individual vascular compartments and other factors to the BOLD signal for different magnet strengths and pulse sequences. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353663-13$15.00/0.

  13. Effect of hypoxia on BOLD fMRI response and total cerebral blood flow in migraine with aura patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2018-01-01

    was measured in the visual cortex ROIs V1-V5. Total cerebral blood flow (CBF) was calculated by measuring the blood velocity in the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery using phase-contrast mapping (PCM) MRI. Hypoxia induced a greater decrease in BOLD response to visual stimulation in V1-V4 in MA......Experimentally induced hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura (MA). We investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal response to visual stimulation during hypoxia in MA patients and healthy volunteers. In a randomized double......-blind crossover study design, 15 MA patients were allocated to 180 min of normobaric poikilocapnic hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham (normoxia) on two separate days and 14 healthy volunteers were exposed to hypoxia. The BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) signal response to visual stimulation...

  14. Differentiating BOLD and non-BOLD signals in fMRI time series using multi-echo EPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prantik; Inati, Souheil J; Evans, Jennifer W; Luh, Wen-Ming; Bandettini, Peter A

    2012-04-15

    A central challenge in the fMRI based study of functional connectivity is distinguishing neuronally related signal fluctuations from the effects of motion, physiology, and other nuisance sources. Conventional techniques for removing nuisance effects include modeling of noise time courses based on external measurements followed by temporal filtering. These techniques have limited effectiveness. Previous studies have shown using multi-echo fMRI that neuronally related fluctuations are Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals that can be characterized in terms of changes in R(2)* and initial signal intensity (S(0)) based on the analysis of echo-time (TE) dependence. We hypothesized that if TE-dependence could be used to differentiate BOLD and non-BOLD signals, non-BOLD signal could be removed to denoise data without conventional noise modeling. To test this hypothesis, whole brain multi-echo data were acquired at 3 TEs and decomposed with Independent Components Analysis (ICA) after spatially concatenating data across space and TE. Components were analyzed for the degree to which their signal changes fit models for R(2)* and S(0) change, and summary scores were developed to characterize each component as BOLD-like or not BOLD-like. These scores clearly differentiated BOLD-like "functional network" components from non BOLD-like components related to motion, pulsatility, and other nuisance effects. Using non BOLD-like component time courses as noise regressors dramatically improved seed-based correlation mapping by reducing the effects of high and low frequency non-BOLD fluctuations. A comparison with seed-based correlation mapping using conventional noise regressors demonstrated the superiority of the proposed technique for both individual and group level seed-based connectivity analysis, especially in mapping subcortical-cortical connectivity. The differentiation of BOLD and non-BOLD components based on TE-dependence was highly robust, which allowed for the

  15. Single-trial EEG-informed fMRI reveals spatial dependency of BOLD signal on early and late IC-ERP amplitudes during face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Descoins, Médéric; Soulier, Elisabeth; Le Troter, Arnaud; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Guye, Maxime

    2014-10-15

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI has opened up new avenues for improving the spatio-temporal resolution of functional brain studies. However, this method usually suffers from poor EEG quality, especially for evoked potentials (ERPs), due to specific artifacts. As such, the use of EEG-informed fMRI analysis in the context of cognitive studies has particularly focused on optimizing narrow ERP time windows of interest, which ignores the rich diverse temporal information of the EEG signal. Here, we propose to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate the neural cascade occurring during face recognition in 14 healthy volunteers by using the successive ERP peaks recorded during the cognitive part of this process. N170, N400 and P600 peaks, commonly associated with face recognition, were successfully and reproducibly identified for each trial and each subject by using a group independent component analysis (ICA). For the first time we use this group ICA to extract several independent components (IC) corresponding to the sequence of activation and used single-trial peaks as modulation parameters in a general linear model (GLM) of fMRI data. We obtained an occipital-temporal-frontal stream of BOLD signal modulation, in accordance with the three successive IC-ERPs providing an unprecedented spatio-temporal characterization of the whole cognitive process as defined by BOLD signal modulation. By using this approach, the pattern of EEG-informed BOLD modulation provided improved characterization of the network involved than the fMRI-only analysis or the source reconstruction of the three ERPs; the latter techniques showing only two regions in common localized in the occipital lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrasting gender differences on two measures of exercise dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, M; Hale, B D

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies using multidimensional measures have shown that men (Exercise Dependence Scale; EDS-R) are more exercise-dependent than women, whereas others have found that women (Exercise Dependence Questionnaire; EDQ) are more exercise-dependent than men. This study investigated whether there may be sex differences in exercise dependence or whether the questionnaires may be measuring different dimensions of exercise dependence. Regular exercisers voluntarily completed the EDS-R, EDQ and Drive for Thinness (DFT) subscale before or after a workout. A local health club in the eastern USA. Male (n = 102) and female (n = 102) exercisers completed the three questionnaires, but 11 participants (1 man, 10 women) were excluded from further analysis because scores indicated possible secondary exercise dependence (eating disorder). Eight subscales of the EDQ, seven subscales of the EDS, the DFT subscale, and several demographic variables served as dependent measures. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on the EDS-R showed that men were significantly higher than women on the Withdrawal, Continuance, Tolerance, Lack of Control, Time, and Intention Effect subscales. Another MANOVA on the EDQ indicated that women scored significantly higher than did men on the Interference, Positive Rewards, Withdrawal, and Social Reasons subscales. Statistical analysis using t tests revealed that men had significantly higher total EDS-R scores than women, but women had significantly higher EDQ and DFT scores. These results suggest that both questionnaires measure different aspects of exercise dependence that favour either gender. It remains for further research to determine whether these instruments are equally viable for measurement of ED in both men and women.

  17. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  18. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomically constrained distribution of power for each frequency band. This result was replicated on a repository dataset of 195 subjects. Next, we examined larger-scale organization by parceling the neocortex into regions approximating Brodmann Areas (BAs). This indicated that BAs of simple function/connectivity (unimodal), vs. complex properties (transmodal), are dominated by low frequency BOLD oscillations, and within the visual ventral stream we observe a graded shift of power to higher frequency bands for BAs further removed from the primary visual cortex (increased complexity), linking frequency properties of BOLD to hodology. Additionally, BOLD oscillation properties for the default mode network demonstrated that it is composed of distinct frequency dependent regions. When the same analysis was performed on a visual-motor task, frequency-dependent global and voxel-wise shifts in BOLD oscillations could be detected at brain sites mostly outside those identified with general linear modeling. Thus, analysis of BOLD oscillations in full bandwidth uncovers novel brain organizational rules, linking anatomical structures and functional networks to characteristic BOLD oscillations. The approach also identifies changes in brain intrinsic properties in relation to responses to external inputs. PMID:21613505

  19. Systematic protocol for assessment of the validity of BOLD MRI in a rabbit model of inflammatory arthritis at 1.5 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Michael W.; Nathanael, George; Kis, Antonella; Amirabadi, Afsaneh; Zhong, Anguo; Rayner, Tammy; Weiss, Ruth; Detzler, Garry; Gahunia, Harpal [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Jong, Roland [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Family and Community Medicine, Department of Public Health, Toronto (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI has the potential to identify regions of early hypoxic and vascular joint changes in inflammatory arthritis. There is no standard protocol for analysis of BOLD MRI measurements in musculoskeletal disorders. To optimize the following BOLD MRI reading parameters: (1) statistical threshold values (low, r > 0.01 versus high, r > 0.2); (2) summary measures of BOLD contrast (percentage of activated voxels [PT%] versus percentage signal difference between on-and-off signal intensities [diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff]); and (3) direction of BOLD response (positive, negative and positive + negative). Using BOLD MRI protocols at 1.5 T, arthritic (n = 21) and contralateral (n = 21) knees of 21 juvenile rabbits were imaged at baseline and on days 1, 14 and 28 after a unilateral intra-articular injection of carrageenan. Nine non-injected rabbits served as external control knees (n = 18). By comparing arthritic to contralateral knees, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine diagnostic accuracy. Using diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff and positive + negative responses, a threshold of r > 0.01 was more accurate than r > 0.2 (P = 0.03 at day 28). Comparison of summary measures yielded no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Although positive + negative (AUC = 0.86 at day 28) and negative responses (AUC = 0.90 at day 28) for PT% were the most diagnostically accurate, positive + negative responses for diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff (AUC = 0.78 at day 28) also had acceptable accuracy. The most clinically relevant reading parameters included a lower threshold of r > 0.01 and a positive + negative BOLD response. We propose that diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff is a more clinically relevant summary measure of BOLD MRI, while PT% can be used as an ancillary measure. (orig.)

  20. Mapping transient hyperventilation induced alterations with estimates of the multi-scale dynamics of BOLD signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa J Kiviniemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD trends of the form 1/f α. Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant α, fractal dimension Df, and, Hurst exponent H characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The α was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. Df was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow.

  1. Mapping Transient Hyperventilation Induced Alterations with Estimates of the Multi-Scale Dynamics of BOLD Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Vesa; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Silven, Olli; Tervonen, Osmo

    2009-01-01

    Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD) trends of the form 1/f(alpha). Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant alpha, fractal dimension D(f), and, Hurst exponent H) characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The alpha was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. D(f) was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow.

  2. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  3. Ultrafast bold fMRI using single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujraf Said

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of imaging parameters for functional MRI can have an impact on the accuracy of functional localization by affecting the image quality and the degree of blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD contrast achieved. By improving sampling efficiency, parallel acquisition techniques such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE have been used to shorten readout trains in single-shot (SS echo planar imaging (EPI. This has been applied to susceptibility artifact reduction and improving spatial resolution. SENSE together with single-shot spin-echo (SS-SE imaging may also reduce off-resonance artifacts. The goal of this work was to investigate the BOLD response of a SENSE-adapted SE-EPI on a three Tesla scanner. Whole-brain fMRI studies of seven healthy right hand-dominant volunteers were carried out in a three Tesla scanner. fMRI was performed using an SS-SE EPI sequence with SENSE. The data was processed using statistical parametric mapping. Both, group and individual subject data analyses were performed. Individual average percentage and maximal percentage signal changes attributed to the BOLD effect in M1 were calculated for all the subjects as a function of echo time. Corresponding activation maps and the sizes of the activated clusters were also calculated. Our results show that susceptibility artifacts were reduced with the use of SENSE; and the acquired BOLD images were free of the typical quadrature artifacts of SS-EPI. Such measures are crucial at high field strengths. SS SE-EPI with SENSE offers further benefits in this regard and is more specific for oxygenation changes in the microvasculature bed. Functional brain activity can be investigated with the help of single-shot spin echo EPI using SENSE at high magnetic fields.

  4. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David

    2010-01-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  5. Pharmacological modulation of the BOLD response: a study of acetazolamide and glyceryl trinitrate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammed Sohail; Hansen, Adam E; Pedersen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of acetazolamide, known to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), known to increase cerebral blood volume (CBV) on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in humans using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate how...... pharmacological agents may modulate cerebral hemodynamic and thereby possibly the BOLD signal....

  6. Physiologic characterization of inflammatory arthritis in a rabbit model with BOLD and DCE MRI at 1.5 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasui, Otilia C.; Chan, Michael W.; Nathanael, George; Rayner, Tammy; Weiss, Ruth; Detzler, Garry; Zhong, Anguo [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Miller, Elka [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Belik, Jaques [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cheng, Hai-Ling; Kassner, Andrea; Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Department of Public Health, Family and Community Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jong, Roland; Rogers, Marianne [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    Our aim was to test the feasibility of blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to monitor periarticular hypoxic/inflammatory changes over time in a juvenile rabbit model of arthritis. We examined arthritic and contralateral nonarthritic knees of 21 juvenile rabbits at baseline and days 1,14, and 28 after induction of arthritis by unilateral intra-articular injection of carrageenin with BOLD and DCE MRI at 1.5 Tesla (T). Nine noninjected rabbits served as controls. Associations between BOLD and DCE-MRI and corresponding intra-articular oxygen pressure (PO{sub 2}) and blood flow [blood perfusion units (BPU)] (polarographic probes, reference standards) or clinical-histological data were measured by correlation coefficients. Percentage BOLD MRI change obtained in contralateral knees correlated moderately with BPU on day 0 (r = -0.51, p = 0.02) and excellently on day 28 (r = -0.84, p = 0.03). A moderate correlation was observed between peak enhancement DCE MRI (day 1) and BPU measurements in arthritic knees (r = 0.49, p = 0.04). In acute arthritis, BOLD and DCE MRI highly correlated (r = 0.89, p = 0.04; r = 1.0, p < 0.0001) with histological scores in arthritic knees. The proposed techniques are feasible to perform at 1.5 T, and they hold potential as surrogate measures to monitor hypoxic and inflammatory changes over time in arthritis at higher-strength MRI fields. (orig.)

  7. Energy dependence of contrast-detail-dose and object-detectability-dose curves for CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Cohen, G.

    1982-01-01

    The energy dependence of contrast-detail-dose (CdD) and object-detectability-dose (OdD) curves for computed tomographic scanners is investigated. The effects of changes in beam energy on perceptibility are shown to be due to changes in signal-to-noise ratio resulting from changes in contrast and photon statistics. Energy-dependence analysis of OdD curves is shown to depend on the atomic composition of the phantom used to generate the curves, while such an analysis of CdD curves is independent of the atomic composition of the phantom. It is also shown that any OdD curve can be generated from CdD curves and that use of this fact rectifies any potential energy-dependent interpretation of CdD curves

  8. Relationship between BOLD amplitude and pattern classification of orientation-selective activity in the human visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Frank; Harrison, Stephenie A.; Dewey, John A.; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Orientation-selective responses can be decoded from fMRI activity patterns in the human visual cortex, using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). To what extent do these feature-selective activity patterns depend on the strength and quality of the sensory input, and might the reliability of these activity patterns be predicted by the gross amplitude of the stimulus-driven BOLD response? Observers viewed oriented gratings that varied in luminance contrast (4, 20 or 100%) or spatial frequency (0.25, 1.0 or 4.0 cpd). As predicted, activity patterns in early visual areas led to better discrimination of orientations presented at high than low contrast, with greater effects of contrast found in area V1 than in V3. A second experiment revealed generally better decoding of orientations at low or moderate as compared to high spatial frequencies. Interestingly however, V1 exhibited a relative advantage at discriminating high spatial frequency orientations, consistent with the finer scale of representation in the primary visual cortex. In both experiments, the reliability of these orientation-selective activity patterns was well predicted by the average BOLD amplitude in each region of interest, as indicated by correlation analyses, as well as decoding applied to a simple model of voxel responses to simulated orientation columns. Moreover, individual differences in decoding accuracy could be predicted by the signal-to-noise ratio of an individual's BOLD response. Our results indicate that decoding accuracy can be well predicted by incorporating the amplitude of the BOLD response into simple simulation models of cortical selectivity; such models could prove useful in future applications of fMRI pattern classification. PMID:22917989

  9. Visual BOLD Response in Late Blind Subjects with Argus II Retinal Prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Castaldi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI. After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them. No subject showed any improvement of contrast sensitivity in either eye when not using the Argus II. Before the implant, the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD activity in V1 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN was very weak or absent. Surprisingly, after prolonged use of Argus II, BOLD responses to visual input were enhanced. This is, to our knowledge, the first study tracking the neural changes of visual areas in patients after retinal implant, revealing a capacity to respond to restored visual input even after years of deprivation.

  10. Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Christen, Thomas; Moseley, Michael E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Wright, Clinton B; Tamura, Manjula K; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (P a CO 2 ) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. We studied a cohort of 28 older adults (69 ± 7 years) and found that six of them (21%) could not perform the breath-holding protocol, based on an objective comparison with an idealized respiratory waveform. In the subjects that could comply, we found a strong linear correlation between data extracted from spontaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal fluctuations and the blood oxygenation level-dependent percentage signal change during breath-holding challenge ( R 2  = 0.57 and 0.61 for resting-state physiological fluctuation regression and resting-state coefficient of variation methods, respectively). This technique may eliminate the need for subject cooperation, thus allowing the evaluation of vascular reactivity in a wider range of clinical and research conditions in which it may otherwise be impractical.

  11. Analysis of Time and Space Invariance of BOLD Responses in the Rat Visual System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Christopher; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiology provide the linkage between neural activity and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. Here, BOLD responses to light flashes were imaged at 11.7T and compared with neural recordings from...... for general linear modeling (GLM) of BOLD responses. Light flashes induced high magnitude neural/BOLD responses reproducibly from both regions. However, neural/BOLD responses from SC and V1 were markedly different. SC signals followed the boxcar shape of the stimulation paradigm at all flash rates, whereas V1...... signals were characterized by onset/offset transients that exhibited different flash rate dependencies. We find that IRF(SC) is generally time-invariant across wider flash rate range compared with IRF(V1), whereas IRF(SC) and IRF(V1) are both space invariant. These results illustrate the importance...

  12. Thermal dependence of ultrasound contrast agents scattering efficiency for echographic imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Angelo; Bettucci, Andrea; Passeri, Daniele; Alippi, Adriano

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are used in echographic imaging techniques to enhance image contrast. In addition, they may represent an interesting solution to the problem of non-invasive temperature monitoring inside the human body, based on some thermal variations of their physical properties. Contrast agents, indeed, are inserted into blood circulation and they reach the most important organs inside the human body; consequently, any thermometric property that they may possess, could be exploited for realizing a non-invasive thermometer. They essentially are a suspension of microbubbles containing a gas enclosed in a phospholipid membrane; temperature variations induce structural modifications of the microbubble phospholipid shell, thus causing thermal dependence of contrast agent's elastic characteristics. In this paper, the acoustic scattering efficiency of a bulk suspension of of SonoVue® (Bracco SpA Milan, Italy) has been studied using a pulse-echo technique in the frequency range 1-17 MHz, as it depends upon temperatures between 25 and 65°C. Experimental data confirm that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of SonoVue® depends on temperature between 25 and 60°C. Chemical composition of the bubble shell seem to support the hypothesis that a phase transition in the microstructure of lipid-coated microbubbles could play a key role in explaining such effect.

  13. Resting bold fMRI differentiates dementia with Lewy bodies vs Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.L.; Yan, Z.; Morris, J.C.; Sheline, Y.I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Clinicopathologic phenotypes of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer disease (AD) often overlap, making discrimination difficult. We performed resting state blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether there were differences between AD and DLB. Methods: Participants (n = 88) enrolled in a longitudinal study of memory and aging underwent 3-T fcMRI. Clinical diagnoses of probable DLB (n = 15) were made according to published criteria. Cognitively normal control participants (n = 38) were selected for the absence of cerebral amyloid burden as imaged with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB). Probable AD cases (n = 35) met published criteria and had appreciable amyloid deposits with PiB imaging. Functional images were collected using a gradient spin-echo sequence sensitive to BOLD contrast (T2* weighting). Correlation maps selected a seed region in the combined bilateral precuneus. Results: Participants with DLB had a functional connectivity pattern for the precuneus seed region that was distinct from AD; both the DLB and AD groups had functional connectivity patterns that differed from the cognitively normal group. In the DLB group, we found increased connectivity between the precuneus and regions in the dorsal attention network and the putamen. In contrast, we found decreased connectivity between the precuneus and other task-negative default regions and visual cortices. There was also a reversal of connectivity in the right hippocampus. Conclusions: Changes in functional connectivity in DLB indicate patterns of activation that are distinct from those seen in AD and may improve discrimination of DLB from AD and cognitively normal individuals. Since patterns of connectivity differ between AD and DLB groups, measurements of BOLD functional connectivity can shed further light on neuroanatomic connections that distinguish DLB from AD. PMID:21525427

  14. Identifying and characterizing systematic temporally-lagged BOLD artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrge, Lisa; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2018-05-01

    Residual noise in the BOLD signal remains problematic for fMRI - particularly for techniques such as functional connectivity, where findings can be spuriously influenced by noise sources that can covary with individual differences. Many such potential noise sources - for instance, motion and respiration - can have a temporally lagged effect on the BOLD signal. Thus, here we present a tool for assessing residual lagged structure in the BOLD signal that is associated with nuisance signals, using a construction similar to a peri-event time histogram. Using this method, we find that framewise displacements - both large and very small - were followed by structured, prolonged, and global changes in the BOLD signal that depend on the magnitude of the preceding displacement and extend for tens of seconds. This residual lagged BOLD structure was consistent across datasets, and independently predicted considerable variance in the global cortical signal (as much as 30-40% in some subjects). Mean functional connectivity estimates varied similarly as a function of displacements occurring many seconds in the past, even after strict censoring. Similar patterns of residual lagged BOLD structure were apparent following respiratory fluctuations (which covaried with framewise displacements), implicating respiration as one likely mechanism underlying the displacement-linked structure observed. Global signal regression largely attenuates this artifactual structure. These findings suggest the need for caution in interpreting results of individual difference studies where noise sources might covary with the individual differences of interest, and highlight the need for further development of preprocessing techniques for mitigating such structure in a more nuanced and targeted manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Placental baseline conditions modulate the hyperoxic BOLD-MRI response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Poulsen, Sofie S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Christiansen, Ole B; Petersen, Astrid; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Human pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction may be characterized by a high hyperoxic Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI response. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is associated with altered placental baseline conditions, including a lower oxygenation and altered tissue morphology, as estimated by the placental transverse relaxation time (T2*). We included 49 normal pregnancies (controls) and 13 pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction (cases), defined by a birth weight baseline BOLD)/baseline BOLD) from a dynamic single-echo gradient-recalled echo (GRE) MRI sequence and the absolute ΔT2* (hyperoxic T2*- baseline T2*) from breath-hold multi-echo GRE sequences. In the control group, the relative ΔBOLD response increased during gestation from 5% in gestational week 20 to 20% in week 40. In the case group, the relative ΔBOLD response was significantly higher (mean Z-score 4.94; 95% CI 2.41, 7.47). The absolute ΔT2*, however, did not differ between controls and cases (p = 0.37), whereas the baseline T2* was lower among cases (mean Z-score -3.13; 95% CI -3.94, -2.32). Furthermore, we demonstrated a strong negative linear correlation between the Log 10 ΔBOLD response and the baseline T2* (r = -0.88, p baseline conditions, as the absolute increase in placental oxygenation (ΔT2*) does not differ between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generate the scale-free brain music from BOLD signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Guo, Sijia; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Weixia; Yang, Hua; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to translate a human electroencephalogram (EEG) into music. In addition to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another method used to study the brain and can reflect physiological processes. In 2012, we established a method to use simultaneously recorded fMRI and EEG signals to produce EEG-fMRI music, which represents a step toward scale-free brain music. In this study, we used a neural mass model, the Jansen-Rit model, to simulate activity in several cortical brain regions. The interactions between different brain regions were represented by the average normalized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) structural connectivity with a coupling coefficient that modulated the coupling strength. Seventy-eight brain regions were adopted from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) template. Furthermore, we used the Balloon-Windkessel hemodynamic model to transform neural activity into a blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal. Because the fMRI BOLD signal changes slowly, we used a sampling rate of 250 Hz to produce the temporal series for music generation. Then, the BOLD music was generated for each region using these simulated BOLD signals. Because the BOLD signal is scale free, these music pieces were also scale free, which is similar to classic music. Here, to simulate the case of an epileptic patient, we changed the parameter that determined the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the neural mass model. Finally, we obtained BOLD music for healthy and epileptic patients. The differences in levels of arousal between the 2 pieces of music may provide a potential tool for discriminating the different populations if the differences can be confirmed by more real data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical layers, rhythms and BOLD signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, René; Fries, Pascal

    2017-11-03

    This review investigates how laminar fMRI can complement insights into brain function derived from the study of rhythmic neuronal synchronization. Neuronal synchronization in various frequency bands plays an important role in neuronal communication between brain areas, and it does so on the backbone of layer-specific interareal anatomical projections. Feedforward projections originate predominantly in supragranular cortical layers and terminate in layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed gamma-band influences. Thus, gamma-band synchronization likely subserves feedforward signaling. By contrast, anatomical feedback projections originate predominantly in infragranular layers and terminate outside layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed alpha- and/or beta-band influences. Thus, alpha-beta band synchronization likely subserves feedback signaling. Furthermore, these rhythms explain part of the BOLD signal, with independent contributions of alpha-beta and gamma. These findings suggest that laminar fMRI can provide us with a potentially useful method to test some of the predictions derived from the study of neuronal synchronization. We review central findings regarding the role of layer-specific neuronal synchronization for brain function, and regarding the link between neuronal synchronization and the BOLD signal. We discuss the role that laminar fMRI could play by comparing it to invasive and non-invasive electrophysiological recordings. Compared to direct electrophysiological recordings, this method provides a metric of neuronal activity that is slow and indirect, but that is uniquely non-invasive and layer-specific with potentially whole brain coverage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth’ C.; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C.; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O’Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20–28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs. PMID:27148020

  19. Time-Contrastive Learning Based DNN Bottleneck Features for Text-Dependent Speaker Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a time-contrastive learning (TCL) based bottleneck (BN) feature extraction method for speech signals with an application to text-dependent (TD) speaker verification (SV). It is well-known that speech signals exhibit quasi-stationary behavior in and only in a short interval......, and the TCL method aims to exploit this temporal structure. More specifically, it trains deep neural networks (DNNs) to discriminate temporal events obtained by uniformly segmenting speech signals, in contrast to existing DNN based BN feature extraction methods that train DNNs using labeled data...... to discriminate speakers or pass-phrases or phones or a combination of them. In the context of speaker verification, speech data of fixed pass-phrases are used for TCL-BN training, while the pass-phrases used for TCL-BN training are excluded from being used for SV, so that the learned features can be considered...

  20. Hypoxia in Prostate Cancer: Correlation of BOLD-MRI With Pimonidazole Immunohistochemistry-Initial Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskin, Peter J.; Carnell, Dawn M.; Taylor, N. Jane; Smith, Rowena E.; Stirling, J. James; Daley, Frances M.; Saunders, Michele I.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Collins, David J.; D'Arcy, James A.; Padhani, Anwar P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to depict clinically significant prostate tumor hypoxia. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with prostate carcinoma undergoing radical prostatectomy were studied preoperatively, using gradient echo sequences without and with contrast medium enhancement, to map relative tissue oxygenation according to relaxivity rates and relative blood volume (rBV). Pimonidazole was administered preoperatively, and whole-mount sections of selected tumor-bearing slices were stained for pimonidazole fixation and tumor and nontumor localization. Histologic and imaging parameters were independently mapped onto patient prostate outlines. Using 5-mm grids, 861 nontumor grid locations were compared with 237 tumor grids (with >50% tumor per location) using contingency table analysis with respect to the ability of imaging to predict pimonidazole staining. Results: Twenty patients completed the imaging and histologic protocols. Pimonidazole staining was found in 33% of nontumor and in 70% of tumor grids. The sensitivity of the MR relaxivity parameter R 2 * in depicting tumor hypoxia was high (88%), improving with the addition of low rBV information (95%) without changing specificity (36% and 29%, respectively). High R 2 * increased the positive predictive value for hypoxia by 6% (70% to 76%); conversely, low R 2 * decreased the likelihood of hypoxia being present by 26% (70% to 44%) and by 41% (71% to 30%) when combined with rBV information. Conclusion: R 2 * maps from BOLD-MRI have high sensitivity but low specificity for defining intraprostatic tumor hypoxia. This together with the negative predictive value of 70% when combined with blood volume information makes BOLD-MRI a potential noninvasive technique for mapping prostatic tumor hypoxia

  1. Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping reveals nanocrystal orientation patterns in carbonate biominerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Pupa U.P.A., E-mail: pupa@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal orientation shown by Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIC-mapping of carbonate biominerals reveals their ultrastructure at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanisms of biominerals is discovered by PIC-mapping using PEEM. -- Abstract: Carbonate biominerals are one of the most interesting systems a physicist can study. They play a major role in the CO{sub 2} cycle, they master templation, self-assembly, nanofabrication, phase transitions, space filling, crystal nucleation and growth mechanisms. A new imaging modality was introduced in the last 5 years that enables direct observation of the orientation of carbonate single crystals, at the nano- and micro-scale. This is Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping, which is based on X-ray linear dichroism, and uses PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (PEEM). Here we present PIC-mapping results from biominerals, including the nacre and prismatic layers of mollusk shells, and sea urchin teeth. We describe various PIC-mapping approaches, and show that these lead to fundamental discoveries on the formation mechanisms of biominerals.

  2. Contrast media and glomerular filtration: dose dependence of clearance for three agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, S.E.K.; Krutzen, E.; Nilsson-Ehle, P.

    1988-01-01

    Determination of plasma clearance of contrast agents has been advocated as a means to assess glomerular filtration rate. To evaluate the feasibility of different agents for this purpose, we have compared, in healthy volunteers, the dose dependence of plasma clearance for three contrast media (iohexol, a nonionic agent, and iothalamate and metrizoate, which are ionic substances), with special emphasis on the lower dose range (2-20 mL corresponding to 0.9-12.9 g, depending on dose and agent). Iohexol and iothalamate were cleared at constant rates, irrespective of given dose, whereas metrizoate clearance increased significantly at lower doses. In general, the clearances or iothalamate and metrizoate were, respectively, moderately and markedly higher than that of iohexol. The clearance of different doses of metrizoate (2 mL versus a radiographic dose of 40 mL or more) was also compared with the clearance of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in two groups of patients with reduced renal function. When compared with [ 51 Cr]EDTA in patients with renal dysfunction, metrizoate was cleared significantly faster after a 2-mL dose, whereas clearances were identical when the metrizoate dose was 40 mL or more. These findings indicate that tubular secretion plays an active role in the elimination of metrizoate. The pharmacokinetic properties of iohexol, in combination with its low toxicity, make it a suitable agent for determination of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice

  3. Contrasting hypoxic effects on breast cancer stem cell hierarchy is dependent on ER-α status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Hannah; Rogerson, Lynsey; Gregson, Hannah J; Brennan, Keith R; Clarke, Robert B; Landberg, Göran

    2013-02-15

    Tumor hypoxia is often linked to decreased survival in patients with breast cancer and current therapeutic strategies aim to target the hypoxic response. One way in which this is done is by blocking hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Antiangiogenic therapies show some therapeutic potential with increased disease-free survival, but these initial promising results are short lived and followed by tumor progression. We hypothesized that this may be due to altered cancer stem cell (CSC) activity resulting from increased tumor hypoxia. We studied the effects of hypoxia on CSC activity, using in vitro mammosphere and holoclone assays as well as in vivo limiting dilution experiments, in 13 patient-derived samples and four cell lines. There was a HIF-1α-dependent CSC increase in ER-α-positive cancers following hypoxic exposure, which was blocked by inhibition of estrogen and Notch signaling. A contrasting decrease in CSC was seen in ER-α-negative cancers. We next developed a xenograft model of cell lines and patient-derived samples to assess the hypoxic CSC response. Varying sizes of xenografts were collected and analyzed for HIF1-α expression and CSC. The same ER-α-dependent contrasting hypoxic-CSC response was seen validating the initial observation. These data suggest that ER-α-positive and negative breast cancer subtypes respond differently to hypoxia and, as a consequence, antiangiogenic therapies will not be suitable for both subgroups.

  4. "Extreme Bold" in the Faculty Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Boldness, defense, and the necessity of talking back remain as central to life with disability in one's time as in Francis Bacon's age. "Therefore all deformed persons are extreme bold," Bacon wrote, "first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time, by a general habit." Perhaps no word carries…

  5. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region. PMID:29249950

  6. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region.

  7. Prospective MR image alignment between breath-holds: Application to renal BOLD MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalis, Inge M; Pilutti, David; Krafft, Axel J; Hennig, Jürgen; Bock, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To present an image registration method for renal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measurements that enables semiautomatic assessment of parenchymal and medullary R2* changes under a functional challenge. In a series of breath-hold acquisitions, three-dimensional data were acquired initially for prospective image registration of subsequent BOLD measurements. An algorithm for kidney alignment for BOLD renal imaging (KALIBRI) was implemented to detect the positions of the left and right kidney so that the kidneys were acquired in the subsequent BOLD measurement at consistent anatomical locations. Residual in-plane distortions were corrected retrospectively so that semiautomatic dynamic R2* measurements of the renal cortex and medulla become feasible. KALIBRI was tested in six healthy volunteers during a series of BOLD experiments, which included a 600- to 1000-mL water challenge. Prospective image registration and BOLD imaging of each kidney was achieved within a total measurement time of about 17 s, enabling its execution within a single breath-hold. KALIBRI improved the registration by up to 35% as found with mutual information measures. In four volunteers, a medullary R2* decrease of up to 40% was observed after water ingestion. KALIBRI improves the quality of two-dimensional time-resolved renal BOLD MRI by aligning local renal anatomy, which allows for consistent R2* measurements over many breath-holds. Magn Reson Med 77:1573-1582, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Renal Safety of Iodinated Contrast Media Depending on Their Osmolarity – Current Outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruk, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are commonly administered pharmaceutical agents. Most often they are used intravenously and intraarterially. Although iodinated contrast agents are relatively safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. The most important adverse effects of contrast media include hypersensitivity reactions, thyroid dysfunction, and contrast-induced nephropathy. Radiologists must be aware of the risk factors for reactions to contrast media. Nonionic iodinated contrast agents can be divided into monomeric, low-osmolar, and dimeric, iso-osmolar classes. The osmotic characteristics of contrast media have been a significant focus in many investigations of contrast-induced nephropathy

  9. Electron dose dependence of signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and resolution in transmission electron microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Z.; Rose, H.; Lehtinen, O.; Biskupek, J.; Kaiser, U.

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the highest resolution in aberration-corrected (AC) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, high electron doses are required which only a few samples can withstand. In this paper we perform dose-dependent AC-HRTEM image calculations, and study the dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and resolution on electron dose and sampling. We introduce dose-dependent contrast, which can be used to evaluate the visibility of objects under different dose conditions. Based on our calculations, we determine optimum samplings for high and low electron dose imaging conditions. - Highlights: • The definition of dose-dependent atom contrast is introduced. • The dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and specimen resolution on electron dose and sampling is explored. • The optimum sampling can be determined according to different dose conditions

  10. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Manka, R; Paetsch, I; Schnackenburg, B; Gebker, R; Fleck, E; Jahnke, C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years,) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was perfor...

  11. Acetazolamide-augmented dynamic BOLD (aczBOLD imaging for assessing cerebrovascular reactivity in chronic steno-occlusive disease of the anterior circulation: An initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR in chronic steno-occlusive disease using a novel approach that couples BOLD imaging with acetazolamide (ACZ vasoreactivity (aczBOLD, to evaluate dynamic effects of ACZ on BOLD and to establish the relationship between aczBOLD and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC perfusion MRI. Eighteen patients with unilateral chronic steno-occlusive disease of the anterior circulation underwent a 20-min aczBOLD imaging protocol, with ACZ infusion starting at 5 min of scan initiation. AczBOLD reactivity was calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis to generate CVR maps for subsequent quantitative analyses. Reduced CVR was observed in the diseased vs. the normal hemisphere both by qualitative and quantitative assessment (gray matter (GM: 4.13% ± 1.16% vs. 4.90% ± 0.98%, P = 0.002; white matter (WM: 2.83% ± 1.23% vs. 3.50% ± 0.94%, P = 0.005. In all cases BOLD signal began increasing immediately following ACZ infusion, approaching a plateau at ~8.5 min after infusion, with the tissue volume of reduced augmentation increasing progressively with time, peaking at 2.60 min (time range above 95% of the maximum value: 0–4.43 min for the GM and 1.80 min (time range above 95% of the maximum value: 1.40–3.53 min for the WM. In the diseased hemisphere, aczBOLD CVR significantly correlated with baseline DSC time-to-maximum of the residue function (Tmax (P = 0.008 for the WM and normalized cerebral blood flow (P = 0.003 for the GM, and P = 0.001 for the WM. AczBOLD provides a novel, safe, easily implementable approach to CVR measurement in the routine clinical environments. Further studies can establish quantitative thresholds from aczBOLD towards identification of patients at heightened risk of recurrent ischemia and cognitive decline.

  12. Dependence of the subharmonic signal from contrast agent microbubbles on ambient pressure: A theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, J

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the dependence of the subharmonic response in a signal scattered by contrast agent microbubbles on ambient pressure to provide quantitative estimations of local blood pressure. The problem is formulated by assuming a gas bubble encapsulated by a shell of finite thickness with dynamic behavior modeled by a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation. For ambient overpressure compatible with the clinical range, the acoustic pressure intervals where the subharmonic signal may be detected (above the threshold for the onset and below the limit value for the first chaotic transition) are determined. The analysis shows that as the overpressure is increased, all harmonic components are displaced to higher frequencies. This displacement is significant for the subharmonic of order 1/2 and explains the increase or decrease in the subharmonic amplitude with ambient pressure described in previous works. Thus, some questions related to the monotonic dependence of the subharmonic amplitude on ambient pressure are clarified. For different acoustic pressures, quantitative conditions for determining the intervals where the subharmonic amplitude is a monotonic or non-monotonic function of the ambient pressure are provided. Finally, the influence of the ambient pressure on the subharmonic resonance frequency is analyzed.

  13. Analysis of Neural-BOLD Coupling through Four Models of the Neural Metabolic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Tyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of the neuronal energetics to the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD response is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, we compared the fits of four plausible models of neurometabolic coupling dynamics to available data for simultaneous recordings of the local field potential (LFP and the local BOLD response recorded from monkey primary visual cortex over a wide range of stimulus durations. The four models of the metabolic demand driving the BOLD response were: direct coupling with the overall LFP; rectified coupling to the LFP; coupling with a slow adaptive component of the implied neural population response; and coupling with the non-adaptive intracellular input signal defined by the stimulus time course. Taking all stimulus durations into account, the results imply that the BOLD response is most closely coupled with metabolic demand derived from the intracellular input waveform, without significant influence from the adaptive transients and nonlinearities exhibited by the LFP waveform.

  14. Caffeine reduces resting-state BOLD functional connectivity in the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack-Gomer, Anna Leigh; Liau, Joy; Liu, Thomas T

    2009-05-15

    In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), correlations between spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal are used to assess functional connectivity between different brain regions. Changes in resting-state BOLD connectivity measures are typically interpreted as changes in coherent neural activity across spatially distinct brain regions. However, this interpretation can be complicated by the complex dependence of the BOLD signal on both neural and vascular factors. For example, prior studies have shown that vasoactive agents that alter baseline cerebral blood flow, such as caffeine and carbon dioxide, can significantly alter the amplitude and dynamics of the task-related BOLD response. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine (200 mg dose) on resting-state BOLD connectivity in the motor cortex across a sample of healthy young subjects (N=9). We found that caffeine significantly (pcaffeine. These results suggest that caffeine usage should be carefully considered in the design and interpretation of resting-state BOLD fMRI studies.

  15. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Re-examine tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses of BOLD fMRI. Implications in presurgical brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liya; Ali, Shazia; Fa, Tianning; Mao, Hui; Dandan, Chen; Olson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI is used for presurgical functional mapping of brain tumor patients. Abnormal tumor blood supply may affect hemodynamic responses and BOLD fMRI signals. Purpose: To perform a multivariate and quantitative investigation of the effect of brain tumors on the hemodynamic responses and its impact on BOLD MRI signal time course, data analysis in order to better understand tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses, and accurately mapping cortical regions in brain tumor patients. Material and Methods: BOLD fMRI data from 42 glioma patients who underwent presurgical mapping of the primary motor cortex (PMC) with a block designed finger tapping paradigm were analyzed, retrospectively. Cases were divided into high grade (n = 24) and low grade (n = 18) groups based on pathology. The tumor volume and distance to the activated PMCs were measured. BOLD signal time courses from selected regions of interest (ROIs) in the PMCs of tumor affected and contralateral unaffected hemispheres were obtained from each patient. Tumor-induced changes of BOLD signal intensity and time to peak (TTP) of BOLD signal time courses were analyzed statistically. Results: The BOLD signal intensity and TTP in the tumor-affected PMCs are altered when compared to that of the unaffected hemisphere. The average BOLD signal level is statistically significant lower in the affected PMCs. The average TTP in the affected PMCs is shorter in the high grade group, but longer in the low grade tumor group compared to the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Degrees of alterations in BOLD signal time courses are related to both the distance to activated foci and tumor volume with the stronger effect in tumor distance to activated PMC. Conclusion: Alterations in BOLD signal time courses are strongly related to the tumor grade, the tumor volume, and the distance to the activated foci. Such alterations may impair accurate mapping of tumor-affected functional

  17. A NO way to BOLD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Ho, Yi Ching Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular coupling links neuronal activity to vasodilation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator, and in neurovascular coupling NO production from NO synthases plays an important role. However, another pathway for NO production also exists, namely the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. On this ......Neurovascular coupling links neuronal activity to vasodilation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator, and in neurovascular coupling NO production from NO synthases plays an important role. However, another pathway for NO production also exists, namely the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway...... to stimuli. A faster and smaller BOLD response, with less variation across local cortex, is consistent with an enhanced hemodynamic coupling during elevated nitrate intake. These findings suggest that dietary patterns, via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may be a potential way to affect key properties....... On this basis, we hypothesized that dietary nitrate (NO3-) could influence the brain's hemodynamic response to neuronal stimulation. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants were given either sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (saline placebo) in a crossover study and were shown visual...

  18. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  19. Non-invasive multiparametric qBOLD approach for robust mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domsch, Sebastian; Mie, Moritz B; Wenz, Frederik; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) method has not become clinically established yet because long acquisition times are necessary to achieve an acceptable certainty of the parameter estimates. In this work, a non-invasive multiparametric (nimp) qBOLD approach based on a simple analytical model is proposed to facilitate robust oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times by using separate measurements. The protocol consisted of a gradient-echo sampled spin-echo sequence (GESSE), a T2-weighted Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and a T2(*)-weighted multi-slice multi-echo gradient echo (MMGE) sequence. The GESSE acquisition time was less than 5 minutes and the extra measurement time for CPMG/MMGE was below 2 minutes each. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach was validated in healthy subjects (N = 5) and one patient. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach facilitated more robust OEF mapping with significantly reduced inter- and intra-subject variability compared to the standard qBOLD method. Thereby, an average OEF in all subjects of 27±2% in white matter (WM) and 29±2% in gray matter (GM) using the nimp-qBOLD method was more stable compared to 41±10% (WM) and 46±10% (GM) with standard qBOLD. Moreover, the spatial variance in the image slice (i.e. standard deviation divided by mean) was on average reduced from 35% to 25%. In addition, the preliminary results of the patient are encouraging. The proposed nimp-qBOLD technique provides a promising tool for robust OEF mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times and could therefore provide an important contribution for analyzing tumors or monitoring the success of radio and chemo therapies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Non-invasive multiparametric qBOLD approach for robust mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domsch, Sebastian; Mie, Moritz B.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wenz, Frederik [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) method has not become clinically established yet because long acquisition times are necessary to achieve an acceptable certainty of the parameter estimates. In this work, a non-invasive multiparametric (nimp) qBOLD approach based on a simple analytical model is proposed to facilitate robust oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times by using separate measurements. Methods: The protocol consisted of a gradient-echo sampled spin-echo sequence (GESSE), a T{sub 2}-weighted Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and a T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted multi-slice multi-echo gradient echo (MMGE) sequence. The GESSE acquisition time was less than 5 minutes and the extra measurement time for CPMG / MMGE was below 2 minutes each. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach was validated in healthy subjects (N = 5) and one patient. Results: The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach facilitated more robust OEF mapping with significantly reduced inter- and intra-subject variability compared to the standard qBOLD method. Thereby, an average OEF in all subjects of 27 ± 2 % in white matter (WM) and 29 ± 2 % in gray matter (GM) using the nimp-qBOLD method was more stable compared to 41 ± 10 % (WM) and 46 ± 10 % (GM) with standard qBOLD. Moreover, the spatial variance in the image slice (i.e. standard deviation divided by mean) was on average reduced from 35 % to 25 %. In addition, the preliminary results of the patient are encouraging. Conclusion: The proposed nimp-qBOLD technique provides a promising tool for robust OEF mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times and could therefore provide an important contribution for analyzing tumors or monitoring the success of radio and chemo therapies. (orig.)

  1. Temperature Dependence of Apparent Respiratory Quotients and Oxygen Penetration Depth in Contrasting Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Sebastian; Gudasz, Cristian; Koehler, Birgit; Tranvik, Lars J.; Bastviken, David; Morales-Pineda, María.

    2017-11-01

    Lake sediments constitute an important compartment in the carbon cycle of lakes, by burying carbon over geological timescales and by production and emission of greenhouse gases. The degradation of organic carbon (OC) in lake sediments is linked to both temperature and oxygen (O2), but the interactive nature of this regulation has not been studied in lake sediments in a quantitative way. We present the first systematic investigation of the effects of temperature on the apparent respiratory quotient (RQ, i.e., the molar ratio between carbon dioxide (CO2) production and O2 consumption) in two contrasting lake sediments. Laboratory incubations of sediment cores of a humic lake and an eutrophic lake across a 1-21°C temperature gradient over 157 days revealed that both CO2 production and O2 consumption were positively, exponentially, and similarly dependent on temperature. The apparent RQ differed significantly between the lake sediments (0.63 ± 0.26 and 0.99 ± 0.28 in the humic and the eutrophic lake, respectively; mean ± SD) and was significantly and positively related to temperature. The O2 penetration depth into the sediment varied by a factor of 2 over the 1-21°C temperature range and was significantly, negatively, and similarly related to temperature in both lake sediments. Accordingly, increasing temperature may influence the overall extent of OC degradation in lake sediments by limiting O2 supply to aerobic microbial respiration to the topmost sediment layer, resulting in a concomitant shift to less effective anaerobic degradation pathways. This suggests that temperature may represent a key controlling factor of the OC burial efficiency in lake sediments.

  2. Estimating Age-Dependent Extinction: Contrasting Evidence from Fossils and Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Oskar; Andermann, Tobias; Quental, Tiago B; Antonelli, Alexandre; Silvestro, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    The estimation of diversification rates is one of the most vividly debated topics in modern systematics, with considerable controversy surrounding the power of phylogenetic and fossil-based approaches in estimating extinction. Van Valen's seminal work from 1973 proposed the "Law of constant extinction," which states that the probability of extinction of taxa is not dependent on their age. This assumption of age-independent extinction has prevailed for decades with its assessment based on survivorship curves, which, however, do not directly account for the incompleteness of the fossil record, and have rarely been applied at the species level. Here, we present a Bayesian framework to estimate extinction rates from the fossil record accounting for age-dependent extinction (ADE). Our approach, unlike previous implementations, explicitly models unobserved species and accounts for the effects of fossil preservation on the observed longevity of sampled lineages. We assess the performance and robustness of our method through extensive simulations and apply it to a fossil data set of terrestrial Carnivora spanning the past 40 myr. We find strong evidence of ADE, as we detect the extinction rate to be highest in young species and declining with increasing species age. For comparison, we apply a recently developed analogous ADE model to a dated phylogeny of extant Carnivora. Although the phylogeny-based analysis also infers ADE, it indicates that the extinction rate, instead, increases with increasing taxon age. The estimated mean species longevity also differs substantially, with the fossil-based analyses estimating 2.0 myr, in contrast to 9.8 myr derived from the phylogeny-based inference. Scrutinizing these discrepancies, we find that both fossil and phylogeny-based ADE models are prone to high error rates when speciation and extinction rates increase or decrease through time. However, analyses of simulated and empirical data show that fossil-based inferences are more

  3. Calibrating the BOLD signal during a motor task using an extended fusion model incorporating DOT, BOLD and ASL data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Huppert, Theodore J.; Boas, David A.; Gagnon, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal imaging improves the accuracy of the localization and the quantification of brain activation when measuring different manifestations of the hemodynamic response associated with cerebral activity. In this study, we incorporated cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL), Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) recordings to reconstruct changes in oxy- (ΔHbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (ΔHbR). Using the Grubb relation between relative changes in CBF and cerebral blood volume (CBV), we incorporated the ASL measurement as a prior to the total hemoglobin concentration change (ΔHbT). We applied this ASL fusion model to both synthetic data and experimental multimodal recordings during a 2-sec finger-tapping task. Our results show that the new approach is very powerful in estimating ΔHbO2 and ΔHbR with high spatial and quantitative accuracy. Moreover, our approach allows the computation of baseline total hemoglobin concentration (HbT0) as well as of the BOLD calibration factor M on a single subject basis. We obtained an average HbT0 of 71 μM, an average M value of 0.18 and an average increase of 13 % in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), all of which are in agreement with values previously reported in the literature. Our method yields an independent measurement of M, which provides an alternative measurement to validate the hypercapnic calibration of the BOLD signal. PMID:22546318

  4. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism:An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hames

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (BOLD fMRI assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD and 10 neurotypical (NT controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block versus the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2­VV2. We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

  5. Potential dependent superiority of gold nanoparticles in comparison to iodinated contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Price A.; Rahman, Wan Nordiana W. Abd.; Wong, Christopher J.; Ackerly, Trevor; Geso, Moshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the benefits in image contrast enhancement using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) compared to conventional iodinated contrast media. Materials and methods: Gold nanoparticles and iodinated contrast media were evaluated for contrast enhancement at various X-ray tube potentials in an imaging phantom. Iopromide and AuNP suspension were equalized according to molar concentration of radiopaque element (0.5077 Mol/L). Contrast-to-noise ratio is used to quantify contrast enhancement. Both projectional radiographic (40-80 kVp) and computed tomography (CT) (80-140kVp) imaging modalities were examined. Results and conclusions: Findings indicate 89% improvement in CNR at low energies near the mammographic range (40 kVp). However, as expected no significant difference in enhancement was observed at potentials commonly used for angiography (around 80 kVp) probably due to the k-edge influence for iodine. At the highest energies typically available in computed tomography, significant improvement in contrast enhancement using gold nanoparticles is obtained, 114% greater CNR than that produced by iodine at 140 kVp. Experimental findings for 70-120 kVp spectra correlate well with the theoretical calculations based on linear attenuation coefficients. Superior attenuation of gold nanoparticles at low and high kVp potentials support their further (pre)clinical evaluation.

  6. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    Concentration of MRI contrast agents (CA) is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. In quantitative perfusion studies, the change in the relaxation following a bolus passage is converted into concentrations assuming identical relaxivities for tissue and blood. Simulations...

  7. Evolution of boldness and life-history in response to selective harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Marty, Lise; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Whether intensive harvesting alters the behavioral repertoire of exploited fishes is currently unknown, but plausible. We extend a fish life-history model to account for boldness as a personality trait that affects foraging intensity, which affects energy intake and risk from predation and fishing...... gear. We systematically investigate life-history and behavioral trait evolution along the boldness–timidity axis in response to the full range of common selectivity and exploitation patterns in fisheries. In agreement with previous studies, we find that any type of harvesting selects for fast life...... histories and that merely elevated, yet unselective, fishing mortality favors boldness. We also find that timid-selective fishing (which can be expected in species targeted by active gear types) selects for increased boldness. By contrast, increased timidity is predicted when fishing targets bolder...

  8. Optimization of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depending on clinical indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromain, Clarisse; Canale, Sandra; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge; Fallenberg, Eva Maria

    2014-10-01

    The objective is to optimize low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) exposure parameters of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examinations in four different clinical applications for which different levels of average glandular dose (AGD) and ratios between LE and total doses are required. The optimization was performed on a Senographe DS with a SenoBright® upgrade. Simulations were performed to find the optima by maximizing the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on the recombined CESM image using different targeted doses and LE image quality. The linearity between iodine concentration and CNR as well as the minimal detectable iodine concentration was assessed. The image quality of the LE image was assessed on the CDMAM contrast-detail phantom. Experiments confirmed the optima found on simulation. The CNR was higher for each clinical indication than for SenoBright®, including the screening indication for which the total AGD was 22% lower. Minimal iodine concentrations detectable in the case of a 3-mm-diameter round tumor were 12.5% lower than those obtained for the same dose in the clinical routine. LE image quality satisfied EUREF acceptable limits for threshold contrast. This newly optimized set of acquisition parameters allows increased contrast detectability compared to parameters currently used without a significant loss in LE image quality.

  9. On the dependence of centre-to-limb contrast function of the photospheric faculae on their brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The photometric aspect of the facular model with horizontal inhomogeneities is considered. The modeling of such inhomogeneities can be represented by a relative shift along the sun radius of neighbouring in heliocentric angle Θ photospheric regions by the value of the optical depth Δτ. It is found that the calculated faculae contrast curve in continuum (λ ≅ 5000 A) depends sensitively on the size ratio of rising and sinking elements and on their relative shift in the optical depth. This causes the change of the peak in the contrast curve and in its intensity. The size of elements influences th contrast curve but slightly. The calculated contrast curve for Δτ=0,8 and for the size ratio of rising and sinking elements equal to 1 is in a good agreement with the observed contrast curve for strong faculae. The observed contrast curve for faint faculae gives a good fit to the calculated contrast curve for Δτ=0,4 and for the size ratio of rising and sinking structures equal to 1/5

  10. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij

    Concentration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CA) cannot be measured directly and is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. This requires knowledge of the relaxivity of the used CA. Quantitative perfusion studies involve measurement of CA concentration...... studies (3,4) as demonstrated in (5). It was previously found (6) that the perfusion measurements using dynamic susceptibility contrast inherently overestimate cerebral blood flow and volume. In view of the present result, this is attributed to the significant difference in the relaxivity of the CA...

  11. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. Volumetric BOLD fMRI simulation: from neurovascular coupling to multivoxel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2012-01-01

    The blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) modality has been numerically simulated by calculating single voxel signals. However, the observation on single voxel signals cannot provide information regarding the spatial distribution of the signals. Specifically, a single BOLD voxel signal simulation cannot answer the fundamental question: is the magnetic resonance (MR) image a replica of its underling magnetic susceptibility source? In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a multivoxel volumetric BOLD fMRI simulation model and a susceptibility expression formula for linear neurovascular coupling process, that allow us to examine the BOLD fMRI procedure from neurovascular coupling to MR image formation. Since MRI technology only senses the magnetism property, we represent a linear neurovascular-coupled BOLD state by a magnetic susceptibility expression formula, which accounts for the parameters of cortical vasculature, intravascular blood oxygenation level, and local neuroactivity. Upon the susceptibility expression of a BOLD state, we carry out volumetric BOLD fMRI simulation by calculating the fieldmap (established by susceptibility magnetization) and the complex multivoxel MR image (by intravoxel dephasing). Given the predefined susceptibility source and the calculated complex MR image, we compare the MR magnitude (phase, respectively) image with the predefined susceptibility source (the calculated fieldmap) by spatial correlation. The spatial correlation between the MR magnitude image and the magnetic susceptibility source is about 0.90 for the settings of T E = 30 ms, B 0 = 3 T, voxel size = 100 micron, vessel radius = 3 micron, and blood volume fraction = 2%. Using these parameters value, the spatial correlation between the MR phase image and the susceptibility-induced fieldmap is close to 1.00. Our simulation results show that the MR magnitude image is not an exact replica of the magnetic susceptibility

  13. Decreased BOLD responses in audiovisual processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, Esther; Tomaskovic, Sonja; Slabu, Lavinia; Renken, Remco; de Smit, Femke; Duifhuis, Hendrikus

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual processing was studied in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the McGurk effect. Perceptual responses and the brain activity patterns were measured as a function of audiovisual delay. In several cortical and subcortical brain areas, BOLD responses correlated negatively

  14. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manka, Robert; Paetsch, Ingo; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Jahnke, Cosima

    2010-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years,) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was performed in 3 short axis slices of the heart at rest and during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg/min) followed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In all 16 standard myocardial segments, T2* values were derived at rest and under adenosine stress. Quantitative coronary angiography served as the standard of reference and defined normal myocardial segments (i.e. all 16 segments in patients without any CAD), ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a coronary artery with ≥50% luminal narrowing) and non-ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a non-significantly stenosed coronary artery in patients with significant CAD). Coronary angiography demonstrated significant CAD in 23 patients. BOLD CMR at rest revealed significantly lower T2* values for ischemic segments (26.7 ± 11.6 ms) compared to normal (31.9 ± 11.9 ms; p BOLD CMR at 3Tesla proved feasible and differentiated between ischemic, non-ischemic, and normal myocardial segments in a clinical patient population. BOLD CMR during vasodilator stress identified patients with significant CAD.

  15. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  16. PARTICLE FILTERING WITH SEQUENTIAL PARAMETER LEARNING FOR NONLINEAR BOLD fMRI SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Wang, Michelle Yongmei

    Analyzing the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is typically based on recent ground-breaking time series analysis techniques. This work represents a significant improvement over existing approaches to system identification using nonlinear hemodynamic models. It is important for three reasons. First, instead of using linearized approximations of the dynamics, we present a nonlinear filtering based on the sequential Monte Carlo method to capture the inherent nonlinearities in the physiological system. Second, we simultaneously estimate the hidden physiological states and the system parameters through particle filtering with sequential parameter learning to fully take advantage of the dynamic information of the BOLD signals. Third, during the unknown static parameter learning, we employ the low-dimensional sufficient statistics for efficiency and avoiding potential degeneration of the parameters. The performance of the proposed method is validated using both the simulated data and real BOLD fMRI data.

  17. No apparent influence of psychometrically-defined schizotypy on orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien J. Mannion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation. Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation. We measured visual contrast detection thresholds and scores on the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE from a non-clinical sample (N = 100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we find an absence of a monotonic relationship between the relative magnitude of orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection and the relative score on any of the subscales of the O-LIFE. The apparent difference of this result with previous reports on those with schizophrenia suggests that orientation-dependent contextual modulation may be an informative condition in which schizophrenia and psychometrically-defined schizotypy are dissociated. However, further research is also required to clarify the strength of orientation-dependent contextual modulation in those with schizophrenia.

  18. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series : an application to Rolandic epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; Besseling, René M.H.; de Louw, Anton J.A.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Backes, Walter H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in

  19. Dependent vs. independent juvenile survival: contrasting drivers of variation and the buffering effect of parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybala, Kristen E; Gardali, Thomas; Eadie, John M

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile survival is often found to be more sensitive than adult survival to variation in environmental conditions, and variation in juvenile survival can have significant impacts on population growth rates and viability. Therefore, understanding the population-level effects of environmental changes requires understanding the effects on juvenile survival. We hypothesized that parental care will buffer the survival of dependent juveniles from variation in environmental conditions, while the survival of independent juveniles will respond more strongly to environmental variation and, in turn, drive the overall variation in annual juvenile survival. We tested this parental-care hypothesis using a 30-year mark-recapture data set to model the survival of juvenile Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) during the dependent and independent stages. We examined the effects of weather, density, and cohort mean fledge date and body mass on annual variation in survival during the first 12 weeks after fledging, as well as effects of individual fledge date and body mass on individual variation in survival. The primary driver of annual variation in juvenile survival was precipitation during the previous rainy season, consistent with an effect on food availability, which had a strong positive effect on the survival of independent juveniles, but no effect on dependent juveniles. We also found strong support for effects of body mass and fledge date on individual survival probability, including striking differences in the effect of fledge date by stage. Our results provided evidence that different mechanisms influence juvenile survival during each stage of fledgling development, and that parental care buffers the survival of dependent juveniles from variation in environmental conditions. Consequently, variation in juvenile survival was driven by independent juveniles, not dependent juveniles, and studies focused only on survival during the dependent stage may not be able to detect the

  20. Spatiotemporal alignment of in utero BOLD-MRI series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Esra Abaci; Luo, Jie; Gagoski, Borjan; Pascau, Javier; Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N; Grant, P Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Golland, Polina; Malpica, Norberto

    2017-08-01

    To present a method for spatiotemporal alignment of in-utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) time series acquired during maternal hyperoxia for enabling improved quantitative tracking of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes that characterize oxygen transport through the placenta to fetal organs. The proposed pipeline for spatiotemporal alignment of images acquired with a single-shot gradient echo echo-planar imaging includes 1) signal nonuniformity correction, 2) intravolume motion correction based on nonrigid registration, 3) correction of motion and nonrigid deformations across volumes, and 4) detection of the outlier volumes to be discarded from subsequent analysis. BOLD MRI time series collected from 10 pregnant women during 3T scans were analyzed using this pipeline. To assess pipeline performance, signal fluctuations between consecutive timepoints were examined. In addition, volume overlap and distance between manual region of interest (ROI) delineations in a subset of frames and the delineations obtained through propagation of the ROIs from the reference frame were used to quantify alignment accuracy. A previously demonstrated rigid registration approach was used for comparison. The proposed pipeline improved anatomical alignment of placenta and fetal organs over the state-of-the-art rigid motion correction methods. In particular, unexpected temporal signal fluctuations during the first normoxia period were significantly decreased (P quantitative studies of placental function by improving spatiotemporal alignment across placenta and fetal organs. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:403-412. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Distinction between Neural and Vascular BOLD Oscillations and Intertwined Heart Rate Oscillations at 0.1 Hz in the Resting State and during Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    Full Text Available In the resting state, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD oscillations with a frequency of about 0.1 Hz are conspicuous. Whether their origin is neural or vascular is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these BOLD oscillations interact with slow oscillations in heart rate (HR. To address these two questions, we estimated phase-locking (PL values between precentral gyrus (PCG and insula in 25 scanner-naïve individuals during rest and stimulus-paced finger movements in both hemispheres. PL was quantified in terms of time delay and duration in the frequency band 0.07 to 0.13 Hz. Results revealed both positive and negative time delays. Positive time delays characterize neural BOLD oscillations leading in the PCG, whereas negative time delays represent vascular BOLD oscillations leading in the insula. About 50% of the participants revealed positive time delays distinctive for neural BOLD oscillations, either with short or long unilateral or bilateral phase-locking episodes. An expected preponderance of neural BOLD oscillations was found in the left hemisphere during right-handed movement and unexpectedly in the right hemisphere during rest. Only neural BOLD oscillations were significantly associated with heart rate variability (HRV in the 0.1-Hz range in the first resting state. It is well known that participating in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies may be frightening and cause anxiety. In this respect it is important to note that the most significant hemispheric asymmetry (p<0.002 with a right-sided dominance of neural BOLD and a left-sided dominance of vascular BOLD oscillations was found in the first resting session in the scanner-naïve individuals. Whether the enhanced left-sided perfusion (dominance of vascular BOLD or the right-sided dominance of neural BOLD is related to the increased level of anxiety, attention or stress needs further research.

  2. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lifeng, E-mail: yu.lifeng@mayo.edu; Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  3. Socially bold personality in the real communication and Internet communication: the analysis of representations of people of the different age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogodina A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the results of the study, subject of which is the submis- sion of the respondents of the different age groups about the social and bold personality. Required property of the respondents was the presence in the Internet environment and participation in various social networks. They assessed social and bold personal- ity in such contexts of communication, as real communication and Internet communication. Analyses were undertaken to determine the structural and content features of emotional and semantic representations of the phenomenon of the social and bold personality, depending on the context of communication, but also the detection of age-sensitive representations of the young respondents (19—35 years, middle-aged respondents (36-55 years and older respondents (from 56 to 70 years. The concept of the “social and bold personality in real communion” is shown to have a high semantic relevance, strongly marked positive emotional coloration and a similar factor structure for respondents of all age groups. The concept of the “social and bold personality in online communication” with a high semantic significance in the perception of the young respondents moves into a zone of moderate and semantic importance in representations of the middle-aged and older respondents. In representations of the respondents of all age groups, the attractiveness of the "social and bold personality in Internet communication" is less than in comparison with the "social and bold personality in the real communication". The age-specific of the social representations about social and bold personality in the real and virtual communication has been analysed in detail.

  4. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taylor Webb

    Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  5. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  6. Development of visual cortical function in infant macaques: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days. Large rotating checkerboard stimuli induced BOLD activation in visual cortices at early ages. Additionally we used static and dynamic Glass pattern stimuli to probe BOLD responses in primary visual cortex and two extrastriate areas: V4 and MT-V5. The resulting activations were analyzed with standard GLM and multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA approaches. We analyzed three contrasts: Glass pattern present/absent, static/dynamic Glass pattern presentation, and structured/random Glass pattern form. For both GLM and MVPA approaches, robust coherent BOLD activation appeared relatively late in comparison to the maturation of known neuronal properties and the development of behavioral sensitivity to Glass patterns. Robust differential activity to Glass pattern present/absent and dynamic/static stimulus presentation appeared first in V1, followed by V4 and MT-V5 at older ages; there was no reliable distinction between the two extrastriate areas. A similar pattern of results was obtained with the two analysis methods, although MVPA analysis showed reliable differential responses emerging at later ages than GLM. Although BOLD responses to large visual stimuli are detectable, our results with more refined stimuli indicate that global BOLD activity changes as behavioral performance matures. This reflects an hierarchical development of

  7. DEPENDENCE OF THE SPECKLE-PATTERNS SIZE AND THEIR CONTRAST ON THE BIOPHYSICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Abramovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle fields are widely used in optical diagnostics of biotissues and evaluation of the functional state of bioobjects. The speckle field is formed by laser radiation scattered from the object under study. It bears information about the average dimensions of the scatterers, the degree of surface roughness makes it possible to judge the structural and biophysical characteristics of individual tissue cells (particles, on the one hand, and the integral optical characteristics of the entire biological tissue. The aim of the study was – the determination of connections between the biophysical and structural characteristics of the biotissue and the light fields inside the biotissues.The model developed of the medium gives a direct relationship between the optical and biophysical parameters of the biotissue. Calculations were carried out using known solutions of the radiation transfer equation, taking into account the multilayer structure of the tissue, multiple scattering in the medium, and multiple reflection of irradiation between the layers.With the increase wavelength, the size of speckles formed by the non-scattered component (direct light of laser radiation increases by a factor of 2 from 400 to 800 μm in the stratum corneum and 5 times from 0.6 to 3 μm for the epidermis and from 0.27 to 1.4 μm to the dermis. Typical values of sizes of speckles formed by the diffraction component of laser radiation for the stratum corneum and epidermis range from 0.02 to 0.15 μm. For the dermis typical spot sizes are up to 0.03 μm. The speckle-spot size of the diffusion component in the dermis can vary from ±10 % at 400 nm and up to ±23 % for 800 nm when the volume concentration of blood capillaries changes. Characteristic dependencies are obtained and biophysical factors associated with the volume concentration of blood and the degree of it’s oxygenation that affect the contrast of the speckle structure in the dermis are discussed.The of speckles

  8. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  9. Cerebral misery perfusion diagnosed using hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza Olympio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cerebral misery perfusion represents a failure of cerebral autoregulation. It is an important differential diagnosis in post-stroke patients presenting with collapses in the presence of haemodynamically significant cerebrovascular stenosis. This is particularly the case when cortical or internal watershed infarcts are present. When this condition occurs, further investigation should be done immediately. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian man presented with a stroke secondary to complete occlusion of his left internal carotid artery. He went on to suffer recurrent seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrated numerous new watershed-territory cerebral infarcts. No source of arterial thromboembolism was demonstrable. Hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure his cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The findings were suggestive of cerebral misery perfusion. Conclusions Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging allows the inference of cerebral misery perfusion. This procedure is cheaper and more readily available than positron emission tomography imaging, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. The most evaluated treatment for cerebral misery perfusion is extracranial-intracranial bypass. Although previous trials of this have been unfavourable, the results of new studies involving extracranial-intracranial bypass in high-risk patients identified during cerebral perfusion imaging are awaited. Cerebral misery perfusion is an important and under-recognized condition in which emerging imaging and treatment modalities present the possibility of practical and evidence-based management in the near future. Physicians should thus be aware of this disorder and of recent developments in diagnostic tests that allow its detection.

  10. Early anti-correlated BOLD signal changes of physiologic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G; Bianciardi, Marta; de Zwart, Jacco A; Murphy, Kevin; Duyn, Jeff H

    2014-02-15

    Negative BOLD signals that are synchronous with resting state fluctuations have been observed in large vessels in the cortical sulci and surrounding the ventricles. In this study, we investigated the origin of these negative BOLD signals by applying a Cued Deep Breathing (CDB) task to create transient hypocapnia and a resultant global fMRI signal decrease. We hypothesized that a global stimulus would amplify the effect in large vessels and that using a global negative (vasoconstrictive) stimulus would test whether these voxels exhibit either inherently negative or simply anti-correlated BOLD responses. Significantly anti-correlated, but positive, BOLD signal changes during respiratory challenges were identified in voxels primarily located near edges of brain spaces containing CSF. These positive BOLD responses occurred earlier than the negative CDB response across most of gray matter voxels. These findings confirm earlier suggestions that in some brain regions, local, fractional changes in CSF volume may overwhelm BOLD-related signal changes, leading to signal anti-correlation. We show that regions with CDB anti-correlated signals coincide with most, but not all, of the regions with negative BOLD signal changes observed during a visual and motor stimulus task. Thus, the addition of a physiological challenge to fMRI experiments can help identify which negative BOLD signals are passive physiological anti-correlations and which may have a putative neuronal origin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  12. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-01-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as “may all beings be happy,” to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  13. Searching for Conservation Laws in Brain Dynamics—BOLD Flux and Source Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U. Voss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD imaging is the most important noninvasive tool to map human brain function. It relies on local blood-flow changes controlled by neurovascular coupling effects, usually in response to some cognitive or perceptual task. In this contribution we ask if the spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD signal can be modeled by a conservation law. In analogy to the description of physical laws, which often can be derived from some underlying conservation law, identification of conservation laws in the brain could lead to new models for the functional organization of the brain. Our model is independent of the nature of the conservation law, but we discuss possible hints and motivations for conservation laws. For example, globally limited blood supply and local competition between brain regions for blood might restrict the large scale BOLD signal in certain ways that could be observable. One proposed selective pressure for the evolution of such conservation laws is the closed volume of the skull limiting the expansion of brain tissue by increases in blood volume. These ideas are demonstrated on a mental motor imagery fMRI experiment, in which functional brain activation was mapped in a group of volunteers imagining themselves swimming. In order to search for local conservation laws during this complex cognitive process, we derived maps of quantities resulting from spatial interaction of the BOLD amplitudes. Specifically, we mapped fluxes and sources of the BOLD signal, terms that would appear in a description by a continuity equation. Whereas we cannot present final answers with the particular analysis of this particular experiment, some results seem to be non-trivial. For example, we found that during task the group BOLD flux covered more widespread regions than identified by conventional BOLD mapping and was always increasing during task. It is our hope that these results motivate more work towards the search for conservation

  14. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebker Rolf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years, with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was performed in 3 short axis slices of the heart at rest and during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg/min followed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE imaging. In all 16 standard myocardial segments, T2* values were derived at rest and under adenosine stress. Quantitative coronary angiography served as the standard of reference and defined normal myocardial segments (i.e. all 16 segments in patients without any CAD, ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a coronary artery with ≥50% luminal narrowing and non-ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a non-significantly stenosed coronary artery in patients with significant CAD. Results Coronary angiography demonstrated significant CAD in 23 patients. BOLD CMR at rest revealed significantly lower T2* values for ischemic segments (26.7 ± 11.6 ms compared to normal (31.9 ± 11.9 ms; p Conclusions Rest and stress BOLD CMR at 3Tesla proved feasible and differentiated between ischemic, non-ischemic, and normal myocardial segments in a clinical patient population. BOLD CMR during vasodilator stress identified patients with significant CAD.

  15. Correlative BOLD MR imaging of stages of synovitis in a rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Andrea S.; Crawley, Adrian; Gahunia, Harpal; Rayner, Tammy; Tassos, Vivian; Zhong, Anguo; Moineddin, Rahim; Pritzker, Kenneth; Mendes, Maria; Jong, Roland; Salter, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the ability of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to assess blood oxygenation changes within the microvasculature, this technique holds potential for evaluating early perisynovial changes in inflammatory arthritis. To evaluate the feasibility of BOLD MRI to detect interval perisynovial changes in knees of rabbits with inflammatory arthritis. Rabbit knees were injected with albumin (n=9) or saline (n=6) intra-articularly, or were not injected (control knees, n=9). Except for two rabbits (albumin-injected, n=2 knees; saline-injected, n=2 knees) that unexpectedly died on days 7 and 21 of the experiment, respectively, all other animals were scanned with BOLD MRI on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after induction of arthritis. T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI was performed during alternate 30 s of normoxia/hyperoxia. BOLD MRI measurements were compared with clinical, laboratory and histological markers. Percentage of activated voxels was significantly greater in albumin-injected knees than in contralateral saline-injected knees (P=0.04). For albumin-injected knees (P < 0.05) and among different categories of knees (P=0.009), the percentage of activated BOLD voxels varied over time. A quadratic curve for on-and-off BOLD difference was delineated for albumin- and saline-injected knees over time (albumin-injected, P=0.047; saline-injected, P=0.009). A trend toward a significant difference in synovial histological scores between albumin-injected and saline-injected knees was noted only for acute scores (P=0.07). As a proof of concept, BOLD MRI can depict perisynovial changes during progression of experimental arthritis. (orig.)

  16. Correlative BOLD MR imaging of stages of synovitis in a rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andrea S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Gahunia, Harpal; Rayner, Tammy; Tassos, Vivian; Zhong, Anguo [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Family and Community Medicine, Department of Public Health, Toronto (Canada); Pritzker, Kenneth; Mendes, Maria; Jong, Roland [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Salter, Robert B. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Because of the ability of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to assess blood oxygenation changes within the microvasculature, this technique holds potential for evaluating early perisynovial changes in inflammatory arthritis. To evaluate the feasibility of BOLD MRI to detect interval perisynovial changes in knees of rabbits with inflammatory arthritis. Rabbit knees were injected with albumin (n=9) or saline (n=6) intra-articularly, or were not injected (control knees, n=9). Except for two rabbits (albumin-injected, n=2 knees; saline-injected, n=2 knees) that unexpectedly died on days 7 and 21 of the experiment, respectively, all other animals were scanned with BOLD MRI on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after induction of arthritis. T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI was performed during alternate 30 s of normoxia/hyperoxia. BOLD MRI measurements were compared with clinical, laboratory and histological markers. Percentage of activated voxels was significantly greater in albumin-injected knees than in contralateral saline-injected knees (P=0.04). For albumin-injected knees (P < 0.05) and among different categories of knees (P=0.009), the percentage of activated BOLD voxels varied over time. A quadratic curve for on-and-off BOLD difference was delineated for albumin- and saline-injected knees over time (albumin-injected, P=0.047; saline-injected, P=0.009). A trend toward a significant difference in synovial histological scores between albumin-injected and saline-injected knees was noted only for acute scores (P=0.07). As a proof of concept, BOLD MRI can depict perisynovial changes during progression of experimental arthritis. (orig.)

  17. Improving the spatial accuracy in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect: benefits from parallel imaging and a 32-channel head array coil at 1.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, C; Doenitz, C; Finkenzeller, T; Jung, E M; Rennert, J; Schlaier, J

    2009-01-01

    Geometric distortions and low spatial resolution are current limitations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate if application of parallel imaging or significant reduction of voxel size in combination with a new 32-channel head array coil can reduce those drawbacks at 1.5 T for a simple hand motor task. Therefore, maximum t-values (tmax) in different regions of activation, time-dependent signal-to-noise ratios (SNR(t)) as well as distortions within the precentral gyrus were evaluated. Comparing fMRI with and without parallel imaging in 17 healthy subjects revealed significantly reduced geometric distortions in anterior-posterior direction. Using parallel imaging, tmax only showed a mild reduction (7-11%) although SNR(t) was significantly diminished (25%). In 7 healthy subjects high-resolution (2 x 2 x 2 mm3) fMRI was compared with standard fMRI (3 x 3 x 3 mm3) in a 32-channel coil and with high-resolution fMRI in a 12-channel coil. The new coil yielded a clear improvement for tmax (21-32%) and SNR(t) (51%) in comparison with the 12-channel coil. Geometric distortions were smaller due to the smaller voxel size. Therefore, the reduction in tmax (8-16%) and SNR(t) (52%) in the high-resolution experiment seems to be tolerable with this coil. In conclusion, parallel imaging is an alternative to reduce geometric distortions in fMRI at 1.5 T. Using a 32-channel coil, reduction of the voxel size might be the preferable way to improve spatial accuracy.

  18. Implications of oxidative stress in the brain plasticity originated by fasting: a BOLD-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was assessing the intermittent fasting effect on brain plasticity and oxidative stress (OS) using blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) approach. Evidences of physiological and molecular phenomena involved in this process are discussed and compared to reported literature. Six fully healthy male non-smokers volunteered in this study. All volunteers were right handed, and have an equilibrated, consistent and healthy daily nutritional habit, and a healthy lifestyle. Participants were allowed consuming food during evening and night time while fasting with self-prohibiting food and liquids during 14 hours/day from sunrise to sunset. All participants underwent identical brain BOLD-fMRI protocol. The images were acquired in the Department of Radiology and Clinical Imaging of the University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco. The anatomical brain and BOLD-fMRIs were acquired using a 1.5-Tesla scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, United States). BOLD-fMRI image acquisition was done using single-shot gradient echo echo-planer imaging sequence. BOLD-fMRI paradigm consisted of the motor task where volunteers were asked to perform finger taping of the right hand. Two BOLD-fMRI scan sessions were performed, the first one between the 5th and 10th days preceding the start of fasting and the second between days 25th and 28th of the fasting month. All sessions were performed between 3:30 PM and 5:30 PM. Although individual maps were originated from different individual participants, they cover the same anatomic area in each case. Image processing and statistical analysis were conducted with Statistical Parameter Mapping version 8 (2008, Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London UK). The maximal BOLD signal changes were calculated for each subject in the motor area M1; Activation maps were calculated and overlaid on the anatomical images. Group analysis of the data was performed, and the average volume

  19. Role of 3T multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging for diagnosis and post therapy response evaluation of postoperative recurrent cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Engineer, Reena; Chopra, Supriya; Mahanshetty, Umesh; Juvekar, S.L.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Desekar, Naresh; Thakur, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    vaginal vault/local recurrence following primary surgery for cervical cancer. With institutional review board approval and written informed consent 30 women (median age: 45 years) from October 2009 to March 2010 with previous operated carcinoma cervix and suspected clinical vaginal vault/local recurrence were examined with 3.0T-MRI. MRI imaging included conventional and MPMRI sequences [dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE), diffusion weighted (DW), 1H-MR spectroscopy (1HMRS), blood oxygen level dependent hypoxia imaging (BOLD)]. Two radiologists, blinded to pathologic findings, independently assessed the pretherapy MRI findings and then correlated it with histopathology findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and their confidence intervals were calculated. The pre and post therapy conventional and MPMRI parameters were analyzed and correlated with response to therapy. Of the 30 patients, there were 24 recurrent tumors and 6 benign lesions. The accuracy of diagnosing recurrent vault lesions was highest at combined MPMRI and conventional MRI (100%) than at conventional-MRI (70%) or MPMRI (96.7%) alone. Significant correlation was seen between percentage tumor regression and pre-treatment parameters such as negative enhancement integral (NEI) (p = 0.02), the maximum slope (p = 0.04), mADC value (p = 0.001) and amount of hypoxic fraction on the pretherapy MRI (p = 0.01). Conventional-MR with MPMRI significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy for suspected vaginal vault/local recurrence. Post therapy serial MPMRI with hypoxia imaging follow-up objectively documents the response. MPMRI and BOLD hypoxia imaging provide information regarding tumor biology at the molecular, subcellular, cellular and tissue levels and this information may be used as an appropriate and reliable biologic target for radiation dose painting to optimize therapy in future

  20. Navigator-gated 3D blood oxygen level-dependent CMR at 3.0-T for detection of stress-induced myocardial ischemic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Cosima; Gebker, Rolf; Manka, Robert; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Fleck, Eckart; Paetsch, Ingo

    2010-04-01

    This study determined the value of navigator-gated 3-dimensional blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 3.0-T for the detection of stress-induced myocardial ischemic reactions. Although BOLD CMR has been introduced for characterization of myocardial oxygenation status, previously reported CMR approaches suffered from a low signal-to-noise ratio and motion-related artifacts with impaired image quality and a limited diagnostic value in initial patient studies. Fifty patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3.0-T followed by invasive X-ray angiography within 48 h. Three-dimensional BOLD images were acquired during free breathing with full coverage of the left ventricle in a short-axis orientation. The BOLD imaging was performed at rest and under adenosine stress, followed by stress and rest first-pass perfusion and delayed enhancement imaging. Quantitative coronary X-ray angiography (QCA) was used for coronary stenosis definition (diameter reduction > or =50%). The BOLD and first-pass perfusion images were semiquantitatively evaluated (for BOLD imaging, signal intensity differences between stress and rest [DeltaSI]; for perfusion imaging, myocardial perfusion reserve index [MPRI]). The image quality of BOLD CMR at rest and during adenosine stress was considered good to excellent in 90% and 84% of the patients, respectively. The DeltaSI measurements differed significantly between normal myocardium, myocardium supplied by a stenotic coronary artery, and infarcted myocardium (p exogenous contrast-enhancement studies. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. To be so bold: boldness is repeatable and related to within individual behavioural variability in North Island robins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruchuan; Pagani-Núñez, Emilio; Chevallier, Clément; Barnett, Craig R A

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural research traditionally focusses on the mean responses of a group of individuals rather than variation in behaviour around the mean or among individuals. However, examining the variation in behaviour among and within individuals may also yield important insights into the evolution and maintenance of behaviour. Repeatability is the most commonly used measure of variability among individuals in behavioural research. However, there are other forms of variation within populations that have received less attention. One such measure is intraindividual variation in behaviour (IIV), which is a short-term fluctuation of within-individual behaviour. Such variation in behaviour might be important during interactions because it could decrease the ability of conspecific and heterospecific individuals to predict the behaviour of the subject, thus increasing the cost of the interaction. In this experiment, we made repeated measures of the latency of North Island robins to attack a prey in a novel situation (a form of boldness) and examined (i) repeatability of boldness (the propensity to take a risk), (ii) IIV of boldness, and (iii) whether there was a significant relationship between these two traits (a behavioural syndrome). We found that boldness was highly repeatable, that there were high levels of IIV in boldness, and that there was a negative relationship between boldness and IIV in boldness. This suggests that despite high levels of repeatability for this behaviour, there were also still significant differences in IIV among different individuals within the population. Moreover, bolder individuals had significantly less IIV in their boldness, which suggests that they were forming routines (which reduces behavioural variability) compared to shyer individuals. Our results definitively demonstrate that IIV itself varies across individuals and is linked with key behavioural traits, and we argue for the importance of future studies aimed at understanding its causes

  2. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  3. Using BOLD imaging to measure renal oxygenation dynamics in rats injected with diuretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Taro; Honda, Saori; Okada, Sakie; Murase, Kenya

    2010-01-01

    We used blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) to measure renal oxygenation dynamics in rats injected with diuretics and evaluated diuretic effect on renal oxygenation. We performed BOLD MRI studies in 32 rats using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system for animal experiments. We intravenously injected rats with saline (n=7), furosemide (n=7), acetazolamide (n=6), or mannitol (n=6). For controls, 6 rats were not injected with drugs. We estimated the apparent transverse relaxation rate (R 2 *) from the apparent transverse relaxation time (T 2 *)-weighted images and measured the time course of R 2 * at 4-min intervals over approximately 30 min. Compared with preadministration values, the R 2 * value did not change significantly in either the cortex or medulla in the control and mannitol groups but decreased significantly in the saline group; the R 2 * value significantly decreased in the medulla but did not change significantly in the cortex in the furosemide group; and the R 2 * value significantly increased in the medulla and significantly decreased in the cortex in the acetazolamide group. Our study results suggest that BOLD MRI is useful for evaluating the dynamics of renal oxygenation in response to various diuretics in the renal cortex and in the medulla. (author)

  4. Modulation of cognitive control levels via manipulation of saccade trial-type probability assessed with event-related BOLD fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control supports flexible behavior adapted to meet current goals and can be modeled through investigation of saccade tasks with varying cognitive demands. Basic prosaccades (rapid glances toward a newly appearing stimulus) are supported by neural circuitry, including occipital and posterior parietal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields, and basal ganglia. These trials can be contrasted with complex antisaccades (glances toward the mirror image location of a stimulus), which are characterized by greater functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the aforementioned regions and recruitment of additional regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current study manipulated the cognitive demands of these saccade tasks by presenting three rapid event-related runs of mixed saccades with a varying probability of antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials (25, 50, or 75%). Behavioral results showed an effect of trial-type probability on reaction time, with slower responses in runs with a high antisaccade probability. Imaging results exhibited an effect of probability in bilateral pre- and postcentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Additionally, the interaction between saccade trial type and probability revealed a strong probability effect for prosaccade trials, showing a linear increase in activation parallel to antisaccade probability in bilateral temporal/occipital, posterior parietal, medial frontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, antisaccade trials showed elevated activation across all runs. Overall, this study demonstrated that improbable performance of a typically simple prosaccade task led to augmented BOLD signal to support changing cognitive control demands, resulting in activation levels similar to the more complex antisaccade task. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of the BOLD signal for EEG-informed fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta, Teresa; Leite, Marco; Carmichael, David W; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are important tools in cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Combined EEG–fMRI has been shown to help to characterise brain networks involved in epileptic activity, as well as in different sensory, motor and cognitive functions. A good understanding of the electrophysiological correlates of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal is necessary to interpret fMRI maps, particularly when obtained in combination with EEG. We review the current understanding of electrophysiological–haemodynamic correlates, during different types of brain activity. We start by describing the basic mechanisms underlying EEG and BOLD signals and proceed by reviewing EEG-informed fMRI studies using fMRI to map specific EEG phenomena over the entire brain (EEG–fMRI mapping), or exploring a range of EEG-derived quantities to determine which best explain colocalised BOLD fluctuations (local EEG–fMRI coupling). While reviewing studies of different forms of brain activity (epileptic and nonepileptic spontaneous activity; cognitive, sensory and motor functions), a significant attention is given to epilepsy because the investigation of its haemodynamic correlates is the most common application of EEG-informed fMRI. Our review is focused on EEG-informed fMRI, an asymmetric approach of data integration. We give special attention to the invasiveness of electrophysiological measurements and the simultaneity of multimodal acquisitions because these methodological aspects determine the nature of the conclusions that can be drawn from EEG-informed fMRI studies. We emphasise the advantages of, and need for, simultaneous intracranial EEG–fMRI studies in humans, which recently became available and hold great potential to improve our understanding of the electrophysiological correlates of BOLD fluctuations. PMID:25277370

  6. Interictal functional connectivity of human epileptic networks assessed by intracerebral EEG and BOLD signal fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Bettus

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI reflect spontaneous neuronal activity in pathological brain regions as well as in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. This is a crucial issue as coherent fluctuations of fMRI signals between remote brain areas are now widely used to define functional connectivity in physiology and in pathophysiology. We quantified functional connectivity using non-linear measures of cross-correlation between signals obtained from intracerebral EEG (iEEG and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI in 5 patients suffering from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Functional connectivity was quantified with both modalities in areas exhibiting different electrophysiological states (epileptic and non affected regions during the interictal period. Functional connectivity as measured from the iEEG signal was higher in regions affected by electrical epileptiform abnormalities relative to non-affected areas, whereas an opposite pattern was found for functional connectivity measured from the BOLD signal. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional connectivities of iEEG and BOLD signal when considering all pairs of signals (theta, alpha, beta and broadband and when considering pairs of signals in regions spared by epileptiform discharges (in broadband signal. This suggests differential effects of epileptic phenomena on electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals and/or an alteration of the neurovascular coupling secondary to pathological plasticity in TLE even in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. In addition, indices of directionality calculated from both modalities were consistent showing that the epileptogenic regions exert a significant influence onto the non epileptic areas during the interictal period. This study shows that functional

  7. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  8. BOLD Imaging in Awake Wild-Type and Mu-Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice Reveals On-Target Activation Maps in Response to Oxycodone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Moore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (µ opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO in response to oxycodone (OXY. Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2.5 mg of OXY. BOLD activation was detected in 72 regions out of 122, and was most prominent in areas of high µ opioid receptor density (thalamus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, caudate putamen, basal amygdala and hypothalamus, and focus on pain circuits indicated strong activation in major pain processing centers (central amygdala, solitary tract, parabrachial area, insular cortex, gigantocellularis area, ventral thalamus primary sensory cortex and prelimbic cortex. Importantly, the OXY-induced positive BOLD was eliminated in MuKO mice in most regions, with few exceptions (some cerebellar nuclei, CA3 of the hippocampus, medial amygdala and preoptic areas. This result indicates that most effects of OXY on positive BOLD are mediated by the µ opioid receptor (on-target effects. OXY also caused an increase in negative BOLD in WT mice in few regions (16 out of 122 and, unlike the positive BOLD response the negative BOLD was only partially eliminated in the MuKO mice (cerebellum, and in some case intensified (hippocampus. Negative BOLD analysis therefore shows activation and deactivation events in the absence of the µ receptor for some areas where receptor expression is normally extremely low or absent (off-target effects. Together, our approach permits establishing opioid-induced BOLD activation maps in awake mice. In addition, comparison of WT and MuKO mutant mice reveals both on-target and off-target activation events, and set an OXY

  9. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moselewski, Fabian; Ferencik, Maros; Achenbach, Stephan; Abbara, Suhny; Cury, Ricardo C.; Booth, Sarah L.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM]) at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 ± 68.7 HU versus 295 ± 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT

  10. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moselewski, Fabian [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Booth, Sarah L. [Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: uhoffman@partners.org

    2006-03-15

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM] at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 {+-} 68.7 HU versus 295 {+-} 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT.

  11. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI; Das Arbeitsgedaechtnis bei Gesunden und bei Schizophrenen: Untersuchungen mit BOLD-fMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, F.L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hohmann, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany); Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie (Germany); Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J. [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [German] Die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) nutzt den ''blood oxygen level dependent effect'' (BOLD-Effekt) zur nichtinvasiven Darstellung zerebraler Korrelate kognitiver Funktionen. Die Bedeutung dieses Verfahrens fuer das Verstaendnis physiologischer und pathologischer Prozesse wird anhand von Untersuchungen zum Arbeitsgedaechtnis bei Schizophrenen und gesunden Kontrollpersonen verdeutlicht. Das Arbeitsgedaechtnis dient weniger der Speicherung, sondern vielmehr der Verarbeitung von Informationen und ist deshalb in komplexe Prozesse wie Lernen und Problemloesen eingebunden. Im Rahmen schizophrener Psychosen kommt es zu einer deutlichen Einschraenkung dieser Funktionen. Erwartungsgemaess zeigen sich unter Durchfuehrung eines Arbeitsgedaechtnisparadigmas Unterschiede in der zerebralen Aktivitaet, die jedoch bei den Erkrankten unter Therapie prinzipiell reversibel sind. Von Interesse sind auch Trainingseffekte bei Gesunden, wobei eine verminderte Aktivierung nach Training auf eine ''Oekonomisierung'' schliessen laesst. (orig.)

  12. Metabolic Changes Underlying Bold Signal Variations after Administration of Zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rojas, Rafael; Machado, Calixto; Alvarez, Lazaro; Carballo, Maylen; Perez-Nellar, Jesus; Estevez, Mario; Pavon, Nancy; Chinchilla, Mauricio

    2010-12-01

    Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine drug belonging to the imidazopiridine class, which has selectivity for stimulating the effect of gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA] and is used for the therapy of insomnia. Nonetheless, several reports have been published over recent years about a paradoxical arousing effect of Zolpidem in patients with severe brain damage. We studied a PVS case using 1 H-MRS and BOLD signal, before and after Zolpidem administration. Significantly increased BOLD signal was localized in left frontal superior cortex, bilateral cingulated areas, left thalamus and right head of the caudate nucleus. A transient activation was observed in frontal cortex, comprising portions of anterior cingulate, medial, and orbito-frontal cortices. Additionally, significant pharmacological activation in sensory-motor cortex is observed 1 hour after Zolpidem intake. Significant linear correlations of BOLD signal changes were found with primary concentrations of NAA, Glx and Lac in the right frontal cortex. We discussed that when Zolpidem attaches to the modified GABA receptors of the neurodormant cells, dormancy is switched off, inducing brain activation. This might explain the significant correlations of BOLD signal changes and 1 H-MRS metabolites in our patient. We concluded that 1 H-MRS and BOLD signal assessment might contribute to study neurovascular coupling in PVS cases after Zolpidem administration. Although this is a report of a single case, considering our results we recommend to apply this methodology in series of PVS and MCS patients. (author)

  13. Comparison between subjects with long- and short-allele carriers in the BOLD signal within amygdala during emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    Emotional tasks may result in a strong blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala in 5- HTTLRP short-allele. Reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala connectivity in short-allele provides a potential mechanistic account for the observed increase in amygdala activity. In our study, fearful and threatening facial expressions were presented to two groups of 12 subjects with long- and short-allele carriers. The BOLD signals of the left amygdala of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the model parameters to elucidate the underlying hemodynamic mechanism. Our results showed a positive BOLD signal in the left amygdala for short-allele individuals, and a negative BOLD signal in the same region for long-allele individuals. This is due to the fact that short-allele is associated with lower availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and this leads to an increase of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the cACC-amygdala synapse.

  14. Associations of resting-state fMRI functional connectivity with flow-BOLD coupling and regional vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sungho; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Wang, Danny J J; Yan, Lirong; Chen, J Jean

    2015-04-01

    There has been tremendous interest in applying functional magnetic resonance imaging-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI) measurements to the study of brain function. However, a lack of understanding of the physiological mechanisms of rs-fcMRI limits their ability to interpret rs-fcMRI findings. In this work, the authors examine the regional associations between rs-fcMRI estimates and dynamic coupling between the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as resting macrovascular volume. Resting-state BOLD and CBF data were simultaneously acquired using a dual-echo pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) technique, whereas macrovascular volume fraction was estimated using time-of-flight MR angiography. Functional connectivity within well-known functional networks—including the default mode, frontoparietal, and primary sensory-motor networks—was calculated using a conventional seed-based correlation approach. They found the functional connectivity strength to be significantly correlated with the regional increase in CBF-BOLD coupling strength and inversely proportional to macrovascular volume fraction. These relationships were consistently observed within all functional networks considered. Their findings suggest that highly connected networks observed using rs-fcMRI are not likely to be mediated by common vascular drainage linking distal cortical areas. Instead, high BOLD functional connectivity is more likely to reflect tighter neurovascular connections, attributable to neuronal pathways.

  15. Somatosensory BOLD fMRI reveals close link between salient blood pressure changes and the murine neuromatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Henning Matthias; Todiras, Mihail; Hodge, Russ; Huelnhagen, Till; Millward, Jason Michael; Turner, Robert; Seeliger, Erdmann; Bader, Michael; Pohlmann, Andreas; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2018-05-15

    The neuromatrix, or "pain matrix", is a network of cortical brain areas which is activated by noxious as well as salient somatosensory stimulation. This has been studied in mice and humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Here we demonstrate that BOLD effects observed in the murine neuromatrix in response to salient somatosensory stimuli are prone to reflect mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) changes, rather than neural activity. We show that a standard electrostimulus typically used in murine somatosensory fMRI can induce substantial elevations in MABP. Equivalent drug-induced MABP changes - without somatosensory stimulation - evoked BOLD patterns in the neuromatrix strikingly similar to those evoked by electrostimulation. This constitutes a serious caveat for murine fMRI. The regional specificity of these BOLD patterns can be attributed to the co-localization of the neuromatrix with large draining veins. Based on these findings we propose a cardiovascular support mechanism whereby abrupt elevations in MABP provide additional energy supply to the neuromatrix and other essential brain areas in fight-or-flight situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  17. Accounting for the role of hematocrit in between-subject variations of MRI-derived baseline cerebral hemodynamic parameters and functional BOLD responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Peiying; Hua, Jun; Strouse, John J; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang; van Zijl, Peter C M; Qin, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Baseline hematocrit fraction (Hct) is a determinant for baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and between-subject variation of Hct thus causes variation in task-based BOLD fMRI signal changes. We first verified in healthy volunteers (n = 12) that Hct values can be derived reliably from venous blood T 1 values by comparison with the conventional lab test. Together with CBF measured using phase-contrast MRI, this noninvasive estimation of Hct, instead of using a population-averaged Hct value, enabled more individual determination of oxygen delivery (DO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ). The inverse correlation of CBF and Hct explained about 80% of between-subject variation of CBF in this relatively uniform cohort of subjects, as expected based on the regulation of DO 2 to maintain constant CMRO 2 . Furthermore, we compared the relationships of visual task-evoked BOLD response with Hct and CBF. We showed that Hct and CBF contributed 22%-33% of variance in BOLD signal and removing the positive correlation with Hct and negative correlation with CBF allowed normalization of BOLD signal with 16%-22% lower variability. The results of this study suggest that adjustment for Hct effects is useful for studies of MRI perfusion and BOLD fMRI. Hum Brain Mapp 39:344-353, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, F.L.; Hohmann, N.; Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M.

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [de

  19. High-contrast fluorescence imaging based on the polarization dependence of the fluorescence enhancement using an optical interference mirror slide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mitsuru; Akimoto, Takuo

    2015-01-01

    High-contrast fluorescence imaging using an optical interference mirror (OIM) slide that enhances the fluorescence from a fluorophore located on top of the OIM surface is reported. To enhance the fluorescence and reduce the background light of the OIM, transverse-electric-polarized excitation light was used as incident light, and the transverse-magnetic-polarized fluorescence signal was detected. As a result, an approximate 100-fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was achieved through a 13-fold enhancement of the fluorescence signal and an 8-fold reduction of the background light.

  20. Moment-to-Moment BOLD Signal Variability Reflects Regional Changes in Neural Flexibility across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Bolt, Taylor S; Ezie, C E Chiemeka; Uddin, Lucina Q; Heller, Aaron S

    2017-05-31

    Variability of neuronal responses is thought to underlie flexible and optimal brain function. Because previous work investigating BOLD signal variability has been conducted within task-based fMRI contexts on adults and older individuals, very little is currently known regarding regional changes in spontaneous BOLD signal variability in the human brain across the lifespan. The current study used resting-state fMRI data from a large sample of male and female human participants covering a wide age range (6-85 years) across two different fMRI acquisition parameters (TR = 0.645 and 1.4 s). Variability in brain regions including a key node of the salience network (anterior insula) increased linearly across the lifespan across datasets. In contrast, variability in most other large-scale networks decreased linearly over the lifespan. These results demonstrate unique lifespan trajectories of BOLD variability related to specific regions of the brain and add to a growing literature demonstrating the importance of identifying normative trajectories of functional brain maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although brain signal variability has traditionally been considered a source of unwanted noise, recent work demonstrates that variability in brain signals during task performance is related to brain maturation in old age as well as individual differences in behavioral performance. The current results demonstrate that intrinsic fluctuations in resting-state variability exhibit unique maturation trajectories in specific brain regions and systems, particularly those supporting salience detection. These results have implications for investigations of brain development and aging, as well as interpretations of brain function underlying behavioral changes across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375539-10$15.00/0.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  2. Contrasting effects of self-schema priming on lexical decisions and interpersonal stroop task performance: evidence for a cognitive/interactionist model of interpersonal dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F; Ng, H Mei; Gallagher, Heather A; Kloss, Deanna M; Regier, Natalie G

    2005-06-01

    Four experiments tested a key tenet of Bornstein's (1992, 1993) cognitive/interactionist (C/I) model of interpersonal dependency: that priming the helpless self-schema (HSS) alters processing of dependency-related information in dependent--but not nondependent--individuals. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of subliminal lexical priming and an emotional priming manipulation on lexical decision (LD) judgments for dependency-related words and control words. Experiments 3 and 4 assessed the effects of these same priming procedures on Interpersonal Stroop Task (IST) performance. As predicted, priming the HSS produced contrasting effects on different outcome measures, decreasing LD latencies, but increasing IST response times. Results are discussed in the context of the C/I model, and suggestions for future studies are offered.

  3. BOLD quantified renal pO2 is sensitive to pharmacological challenges in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jon; Zhang, Jeff L; Franklin, Tammy; Prasad, Pottumarthi

    2017-07-01

    Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI has been effectively used to monitor changes in renal oxygenation. However, R2* (or T2*) is not specific to blood oxygenation and is dependent on other factors. This study investigates the use of a statistical model that takes these factors into account and maps BOLD MRI measurements to blood pO2. Spin echo and gradient echo images were obtained in six Sprague-Dawley rats and R2 and R2* maps were computed. Measurements were made at baseline, post-nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), and post-furosemide administration. A simulation of each region was performed to map R2' (computed as R2*-R2) to blood pO2. At baseline, blood pO2 in the outer medulla was 30.5 ± 1.2 mmHg and 51.9 ± 5.2 mmHg in the cortex, in agreement with previous invasive studies. Blood pO2 was found to decrease within the outer medulla following L-NAME (P pO2 in the cortex increased following furosemide (P pO2 is sensitive to pharmacological challenges, and baseline pO2 is comparable to literature values. Reporting pO2 instead of R2* could lead to a greater clinical impact of renal BOLD MRI and facilitate the identification of hypoxic regions. Magn Reson Med 78:297-302, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Demonstration of non-Gaussian restricted diffusion in tumor cells using diffusion-time dependent diffusion weighted MR contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuva Roaldsdatter Hope

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion weighted imaging (DWI technique enables quantification of water mobility for probing microstructural properties of biological tissue, and has become an effective tool for collecting information about the underlying pathology of cancerous tissue. Measurements using multiple b-values have indicated a bi-exponential signal attenuation, ascribed to fast (high ADC and slow (low ADC diffusion components. In this empirical study, we investigate the properties of the diffusion time (∆ - dependent components of the diffusion-weighted (DW signal in a constant b-value experiment. A Xenograft GBM mouse was imaged using ∆ = 11 ms, 20 ms, 40 ms, 60 ms and b=500-4000 s/mm2 in intervals of 500s/mm2. Data was corrected for EPI distortions and the ∆-dependence on the DW signal was measured within three regions of interest (intermediate- and high-density tumor regions and normal appearing brain tissue regions (NAB. In this empirical study we verify the assumption that the slow decaying component of the DW-signal is non-Gaussian and dependent on ∆, consistent with restricted diffusion of the intracellular space. As the DW-signal as a function of ∆ is specific to restricted diffusion, manipulating ∆ at constant b-value (cb provides a complementary and direct approach for separating the restricted from the hindered diffusion component. Our results show that only tumor tissue signal of our data demonstrate ∆-dependence, based on a bi-exponential model with a restricted diffusion component, we successfully estimated the restricted ADC, signal volume fraction and cell size within each tumor ROI.

  5. Rotational dynamics account for pH-dependent relaxivities of PAMAM dendrimeric, Gd-based potential MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Sabrina; Sour, Angélique; Ruloff, Robert; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E

    2005-05-06

    The EPTPA5) chelate, which ensures fast water exchange in GdIII complexes, has been coupled to three different generations (5, 7, and 9) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers through benzylthiourea linkages (H5EPTPA = ethylenepropylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid). The proton relaxivities measured at pH 7.4 for the dendrimer complexes G5-(GdEPTPA)111, G7-(GdEPTPA)253 and G9-(GdEPTPA)1157 decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that, for the first time for dendrimers, slow water exchange does not limit relaxivity. At a given field and temperature, the relaxivity increases from G5 to G7, and then slightly decreases for G9 (r1 = 20.5, 28.3 and 27.9 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, at 37 degrees C, 30 MHz). The relaxivities show a strong and reversible pH dependency for all three dendrimer complexes. This originates from the pH-dependent rotational dynamics of the dendrimer skeleton, which was evidenced by a combined variable-temperature and multiple-field 17O NMR and 1H relaxivity study performed at pH 6.0 and 9.9 on G5-(GdEPTPA)111. The longitudinal 17O and 1H relaxation rates of the dendrimeric complex are strongly pH-dependent, whereas they are not for the [Gd(EPTPA)(H2O)]2- monomer chelate. The longitudinal 17O and 1H relaxation rates have been analysed by the Lipari-Szabo spectral density functions and correlation times have been calculated for the global motion of the entire macromolecule (tau(gO)) and the local motion of the GdIII chelates on the surface (tau(lO)), correlated by means of an order parameter S2. The dendrimer complex G5-(GdEPTPA)111 has a considerably higher tau(gO) under acidic than under basic conditions (tau(298)gO = 4040 ps and 2950 ps, respectively), while local motions are less influenced by pH (tau(298)lO = 150 and 125 ps). The order parameter, characterizing the rigidity of the macromolecule, is also higher at pH 6.0 than at pH 9.9 (S2 = 0.43 vs 0.36, respectively). The pH dependence of the global correlation time can be

  6. Dictionary-driven Ischemia Detection from Cardiac Phase-Resolved Myocardial BOLD MRI at Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marco; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac Phase-resolved Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent (CP–BOLD) MRI provides a unique opportunity to image an ongoing ischemia at rest. However, it requires post-processing to evaluate the extent of ischemia. To address this, here we propose an unsupervised ischemia detection (UID) method which relies on the inherent spatio-temporal correlation between oxygenation and wall motion to formalize a joint learning and detection problem based on dictionary decomposition. Considering input data of a single subject, it treats ischemia as an anomaly and iteratively learns dictionaries to represent only normal observations (corresponding to myocardial territories remote to ischemia). Anomaly detection is based on a modified version of One-class Support Vector Machines (OCSVM) to regulate directly the margins by incorporating the dictionary-based representation errors. A measure of ischemic extent (IE) is estimated, reflecting the relative portion of the myocardium affected by ischemia. For visualization purposes an ischemia likelihood map is created by estimating posterior probabilities from the OCSVM outputs, thus obtaining how likely the classification is correct. UID is evaluated on synthetic data and in a 2D CP–BOLD data set from a canine experimental model emulating acute coronary syndromes. Comparing early ischemic territories identified with UID against infarct territories (after several hours of ischemia), we find that IE, as measured by UID, is highly correlated (Pearson’s r = 0.84) w.r.t. infarct size. When advances in automated registration and segmentation of CP–BOLD images and full coverage 3D acquisitions become available, we hope that this method can enable pixel-level assessment of ischemia with this truly non-invasive imaging technique. PMID:26292338

  7. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series: An application to Rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Hofman, Paul A M; Besseling, René M H; de Louw, Anton J A; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2017-12-01

    To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated. Using a model time series consisting of multiple harmonics and nonstationary components, the wavelet entropy was compared with Shannon and spectral (Fourier-based) entropy. As an application, the wavelet entropy in 22 children with Rolandic epilepsy was compared to 22 age-matched healthy controls. The images were obtained by performing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 3T system, an 8-element receive-only head coil, and an echo planar imaging pulse sequence ( T2*-weighted). The wavelet entropy was also compared to spectral entropy, regional homogeneity, and Shannon entropy. Wavelet entropy was found to identify the nonstationary components of the model time series. In Rolandic epilepsy patients, a significantly elevated wavelet entropy was observed relative to controls for the whole cerebrum (P = 0.03). Spectral entropy (P = 0.41), regional homogeneity (P = 0.52), and Shannon entropy (P = 0.32) did not reveal significant differences. The wavelet entropy measure appeared more sensitive to detect abnormalities in cerebral fluctuations represented by nonstationary effects in the BOLD time series than more conventional measures. This effect was observed in the model time series as well as in Rolandic epilepsy. These observations suggest that the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy exhibit stronger nonstationary temporal signal fluctuations than controls. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1728-1737. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic

  8. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  9. Differential Effect of Contrast Polarity Reversals in Closed Squares and open L-Junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Schira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Scene segmentation depends on interaction between geometrical and photometric factors. It has been shown that reversals in contrast polarity at points of highest orientation discontinuity along closed contours significantly impair shape discrimination performance, while changes in contrast polarity at straight(er contour segments do not have such deleterious effects (Spehar 2002. Here we employ (semi high resolution fMRI (1.5x1.5x1.5mm to investigate the neuronal substrate underlying these perception effects. Stimuli consisted of simple elements a squares with contrast reversals along straight segments; b squares with contrast reversals in the corner (highest orientation discontinuity; c L-Junctions with contrast reversals along the straight ends; d L-Junctions with contrast reversals in the corner. Element with contrast polarity reversals are easy to distinguish though appear geometrically equivalent. For squares with contrast polarity reversals only along straight lines we find significantly lower BOLD modulation compared to any of the control conditions, which show similar responses to each other. In the light of previous psychophysical work (Spehar 2002, Elder and Zucker, 1993 we speculate that this effect is due to closure perception. We observe this across a wide range of areas on occipital cortex.

  10. Thermal- and pH-Dependent Size Variable Radical Nanoparticles and Its Water Proton Relaxivity for Metal-Free MRI Functional Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Kosuke; Murayama, Shuhei; Araki, Takeru; Aoki, Ichio; Karasawa, Satoru

    2016-09-16

    For development of the metal-free MRI contrast agents, we prepared the supra-molecular organic radical, TEMPO-UBD, carrying TEMPO radical, as well as the urea, alkyl group, and phenyl ring, which demonstrate self-assembly behaviors using noncovalent bonds in an aqueous solution. In addition, TEMPO-UBD has the tertiary amine and the oligoethylene glycol chains (OEGs) for the function of pH and thermal responsiveness. By dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy imaging, the resulting self-assembly was seen to form the spherical nanoparticles 10-150 nm in size. On heating, interestingly, the nanoparticles showed a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior having two-step variation. This double-LCST behavior is the first such example among the supra-molecules. To evaluate of the ability as MRI contrast agents, the values of proton ((1)H) longitudinal relaxivity (r1) were determined using MRI apparatus. In conditions below and above CAC at pH 7.0, the distinguishable r1 values were estimated to be 0.17 and 0.21 mM(-1) s(1), indicating the suppression of fast tumbling motion of TEMPO moiety in a nanoparticle. Furthermore, r1 values became larger in the order of pH 7.0 > 9.0 > 5.0. Those thermal and pH dependencies indicated the possibility of metal-fee MRI functional contrast agents in the future.

  11. Boldness and intermittent locomotion in the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander D.M. Wilson; Jean-Guy J. Godin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent locomotion, characterized by moves interspersed with pauses, is a common pattern of locomotion in animals, but its ecological and evolutionary significance relative to continuous locomotion remains poorly understood. Although many studies have examined individual differences in both intermittent locomotion and boldness separately, to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated the relationship between these 2 traits. Characterizing and understanding this relationship is impo...

  12. Olfactory responses to natal stream water in sockeye salmon by BOLD fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Bandoh

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that juvenile salmon imprint olfactory memory of natal stream odors during downstream migration, and adults recall this stream-specific odor information to discriminate their natal stream during upstream migration for spawning. The odor information processing of the natal stream in the salmon brain, however, has not been clarified. We applied blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the odor information processing of the natal stream in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon of lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka. The strong responses to the natal stream water were mainly observed in the lateral area of dorsal telencephalon (Dl, which are homologous to the medial pallium (hippocampus in terrestrial vertebrates. Although the concentration of L-serine (1 mM in the control water was 20,000-times higher than that of total amino acid in the natal stream water (47.5 nM, the BOLD signals resulting from the natal stream water were stronger than those by L-serine in the Dl. We concluded that sockeye salmon could process the odor information of the natal stream by integrating information in the Dl area of the telencephalon.

  13. Task-Related Modulations of BOLD Low-Frequency Fluctuations within the Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tommasin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN, are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task. We found that task execution impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to continuous task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response to a task.

  14. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Liu

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response (sNBR using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  15. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yadong; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Zongtan; Hu, Dewen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response (sNBR) using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR) counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  16. Task-Related Modulations of BOLD Low-Frequency Fluctuations within the Default Mode Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasin, Silvia; Mascali, Daniele; Gili, Tommaso; Assan, Ibrahim Eid; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Wise, Richard G.; Macaluso, Emiliano; Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task. We found that task execution impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to continuous task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response to a task. PMID:28845420

  17. Increased BOLD activation to predator stressor in subiculum and midbrain of amphetamine-sensitized maternal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S

    2011-03-25

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1mg/kg, i.p. ×3days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring BOLD changes during spatial attention in non-stimulated visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Heinemann

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD responses were measured in parts of primary visual cortex that represented unstimulated visual field regions at different distances from a stimulated central target location. The composition of the visual scene varied by the presence or absence of additional peripheral distracter stimuli. Bottom-up effects were assessed by comparing peripheral activity during central stimulation vs. no stimulation. Top-down effects were assessed by comparing active vs. passive conditions. In passive conditions subjects simply watched the central letter stimuli and in active conditions they had to report occurrence of pre-defined targets in a rapid serial letter stream. Onset of the central letter stream enhanced activity in V1 representations of the stimulated region. Within representations of the periphery activation decreased and finally turned into deactivation with increasing distance from the stimulated location. This pattern was most pronounced in the active conditions and during the presence of peripheral stimuli. Active search for a target did not lead to additional enhancement at areas representing the attentional focus but to a stronger deactivation in the vicinity. Suppressed neuronal activity was also found in the non distracter condition suggesting a top-down attention driven effect. Our observations suggest that BOLD signal decreases in primary visual cortex are modulated by bottom-up sensory-driven factors such as the presence of distracters in the visual field as well as by top-down attentional processes.

  19. Task-related modulations of BOLD low-frequency fluctuations within the default mode network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasin, Silvia; Mascali, Daniele; Gili, Tommaso; Eid Assan, Ibrahim; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Wise, Richard G.; Macaluso, Emiliano; Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33±6 years, 8F/12M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the steady-state execution of a sustained working memory n-back task. We found that the steady state execution of such a task impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to steady-state task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response of a task.

  20. Background MR gradient noise and non-auditory BOLD activations: a data-driven perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Homola, György A; Scheffler, Klaus; Beckmann, Christian F; Bartsch, Andreas J

    2009-07-28

    The effect of echoplanar imaging (EPI) acoustic background noise on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activations was investigated. Two EPI pulse sequences were compared: (i) conventional EPI with a pulsating sound component of typically 8-10 Hz, which is a potent physiological stimulus, and (ii) the more recently developed continuous-sound EPI, which is perceived as less distractive despite equivalent peak sound pressure levels. Sixteen healthy subjects performed an established demanding visual n-back working memory task. Using an exploratory data analysis technique (tensorial probabilistic independent component analysis; tensor-PICA), we studied the inter-session/within-subject response variability introduced by continuous-sound versus conventional EPI acoustic background noise in addition to temporal and spatial signal characteristics. The analysis revealed a task-related component associated with the established higher-level working memory and motor feedback response network, which exhibited a significant 19% increase in its average effect size for the continuous-sound as opposed to conventional EPI. Stimulus-related lower-level activations, such as primary visual areas, were not modified. EPI acoustic background noise influences much more than the auditory system per se. This analysis provides additional evidence for an enhancement of task-related, extra-auditory BOLD activations by continuous-sound EPI due to less distractive acoustic background gradient noise.

  1. Nonlinear Bayesian Estimation of BOLD Signal under Non-Gaussian Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fahim Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal has been a subject of study for over a decade in the neuroimaging community. Inspired from fluid dynamics, the hemodynamic model provides a plausible yet convincing interpretation of the BOLD signal by amalgamating effects of dynamic physiological changes in blood oxygenation, cerebral blood flow and volume. The nonautonomous, nonlinear set of differential equations of the hemodynamic model constitutes the process model while the weighted nonlinear sum of the physiological variables forms the measurement model. Plagued by various noise sources, the time series fMRI measurement data is mostly assumed to be affected by additive Gaussian noise. Though more feasible, the assumption may cause the designed filter to perform poorly if made to work under non-Gaussian environment. In this paper, we present a data assimilation scheme that assumes additive non-Gaussian noise, namely, the e-mixture noise, affecting the measurements. The proposed filter MAGSF and the celebrated EKF are put to test by performing joint optimal Bayesian filtering to estimate both the states and parameters governing the hemodynamic model under non-Gaussian environment. Analyses using both the synthetic and real data reveal superior performance of the MAGSF as compared to EKF.

  2. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  3. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation attenuates the BOLD signal response to noxious sensory input in specific brain regions: Insights into a possible mechanism for analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Christopher P; Kramer, Jeffery M; Hogan, Quinn H

    2017-02-15

    Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala. These regions differentially demonstrated either positive or negative correlation to the acute noxious stimulation paradigm, in agreement with previous rat fMRI studies. Therapeutic-level GFS significantly attenuated the global BOLD response to noxious stimulation in these regions. This BOLD signal attenuation persisted for 20minutes after the GFS was discontinued. Control experiments in sham-operated animals showed that the attenuation was not due to the effect of repetitive noxious stimulation. Additional control experiments also revealed minimal BOLD fMRI response to GFS at therapeutic intensity when presented in a standard block-design paradigm. High intensity GFS produced a BOLD signal map similar to acute noxious stimulation when presented in a block-design. These findings are the first to identify the specific brain region responses to neuromodulation at the DRG level and suggest possible mechanisms for GFS-induced treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  5. Audiovisual synchrony enhances BOLD responses in a brain network including multisensory STS while also enhancing target-detection performance for both modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Jennifer L; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The brain seeks to combine related inputs from different senses (e.g., hearing and vision), via multisensory integration. Temporal information can indicate whether stimuli in different senses are related or not. A recent human fMRI study (Noesselt et al. [2007]: J Neurosci 27:11431–11441) used auditory and visual trains of beeps and flashes with erratic timing, manipulating whether auditory and visual trains were synchronous or unrelated in temporal pattern. A region of superior temporal sulcus (STS) showed higher BOLD signal for the synchronous condition. But this could not be related to performance, and it remained unclear if the erratic, unpredictable nature of the stimulus trains was important. Here we compared synchronous audiovisual trains to asynchronous trains, while using a behavioral task requiring detection of higher-intensity target events in either modality. We further varied whether the stimulus trains had predictable temporal pattern or not. Synchrony (versus lag) between auditory and visual trains enhanced behavioral sensitivity (d') to intensity targets in either modality, regardless of predictable versus unpredictable patterning. The analogous contrast in fMRI revealed BOLD increases in several brain areas, including the left STS region reported by Noesselt et al. [2007: J Neurosci 27:11431–11441]. The synchrony effect on BOLD here correlated with the subject-by-subject impact on performance. Predictability of temporal pattern did not affect target detection performance or STS activity, but did lead to an interaction with audiovisual synchrony for BOLD in inferior parietal cortex. PMID:21953980

  6. Spatial attention related SEP amplitude modulations covary with BOLD signal in S1--a simultaneous EEG--fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Ruth; Ritter, Petra; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Preuschhof, Claudia; Curio, Gabriel; Sommer, Werner; Villringer, Arno

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies investigating the influence of spatial-selective attention on primary somatosensory processing have produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of tactile spatial-selective attention on spatiotemporal aspects of evoked neuronal activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). We employed simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 right-handed subjects during bilateral index finger Braille stimulation to investigate the relationship between attentional effects on somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) components and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. The 1st reliable EEG response following left tactile stimulation (P50) was significantly enhanced by spatial-selective attention, which has not been reported before. FMRI analysis revealed increased activity in contralateral S1. Remarkably, the effect of attention on the P50 component as well as long-latency SEP components starting at 190 ms for left stimuli correlated with attentional effects on the BOLD signal in contralateral S1. The implications are 2-fold: First, the correlation between early and long-latency SEP components and the BOLD effect suggest that spatial-selective attention enhances processing in S1 at 2 time points: During an early passage of the signal and during a later passage, probably via re-entrant feedback from higher cortical areas. Second, attentional modulations of the fast electrophysiological signals and the slow hemodynamic response are linearly related in S1.

  7. Visual cortex and auditory cortex activation in early binocularly blind macaques: A BOLD-fMRI study using auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Lingjie; Tang, Zuohua; Sun, Xinghuai; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Weijun; Qian, Wen; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin; Zhong, Yufeng; Xiao, Zebin

    2017-04-15

    Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings. Compared with group A, greater BOLD activity was observed in the bilateral visual cortices of group B, and this effect was particularly obvious in the right visual cortex. In addition, more activated volumes were found in the bilateral auditory cortices of group B than of group A, especially in the right auditory cortex. These findings were consistent with the fact that there were more c-Fos-positive cells in the bilateral visual and auditory cortices of group B compared with group A (p visual cortices of binocularly blind macaques can be reorganized to process auditory stimuli after visual deprivation, and this effect is more obvious in the right than the left visual cortex. These results indicate the establishment of cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of renal denervation on kidney oxygenation as determined by BOLD MRI in patients with hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, E.E.; Boer, A.; Blankestijn, P.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology, P.O. Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verloop, W.L.; Voskuil, M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Spiering, W.; Leiner, T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vonken, E.; Hoogduin, J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, M.L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a promising therapy for resistant hypertension. RDN is assumed to decrease sympathetic activity. Consequently, RDN can potentially increase renal oxygenation. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI) provides a non-invasive tool to determine renal oxygenation in humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RDN on renal oxygenation as determined by BOLD-MRI. Patients with resistant hypertension or the inability to follow a stable drug regimen due to unacceptable side effects were included. BOLD-MRI was performed before and 12 months after RDN. Twenty-seven patients were imaged on 3 T and 19 on 1.5 T clinical MRI systems. Fifty-four patients were included, 46 patients (23 men, mean age 57 years) completed the study. Mean 24-h BP changed from 163(±20)/98(±14) mmHg to 154(±22)/92(±13) mmHg (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). eGFR did not change after RDN [77(±18) vs. 79(±20) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; p = 0.13]. RDN did not affect renal oxygenation [1.5 T: cortical R2*: 12.5(±0.9) vs. 12.5(±0.9), p = 0.94; medullary R2*: 19.6(±1.7) vs. 19.3(1.4), p = 0.40; 3 T: cortical R2*: 18.1(±0.8) vs. 17.8(±1.2), p = 0.47; medullary R2*: 27.4(±1.9) vs. 26.7(±1.8), p = 0.19]. The current study shows that RDN does not lead to changes in renal oxygenation 1 year after RDN as determined by BOLD-MRI. (orig.)

  9. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  10. Resting State BOLD Variability in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Marker of Cognitive Decline or Cerebrovascular Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Scarapicchia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that may benefit from early diagnosis and intervention. Therefore, there is a need to identify early biomarkers of AD using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recently, novel approaches to the analysis of resting-state fMRI data have been developed that focus on the moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal. The objective of the current study was to investigate BOLD variability as a novel early biomarker of AD and its associated psychophysiological correlates.Method: Data were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI 2 database from 19 participants with AD and 19 similarly aged controls. For each participant, a map of BOLD signal variability (SDBOLD was computed as the standard deviation of the BOLD timeseries at each voxel. Group comparisons were performed to examine global differences in resting state SDBOLD in AD versus healthy controls. Correlations were then examined between participant SDBOLD maps and (1 ADNI-derived composite scores of memory and executive function and (2 neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascular status.Results: Between-group comparisons revealed significant (p < 0.05 increases in SDBOLD in patients with AD relative to healthy controls in right-lateralized frontal regions. Lower memory scores and higher WMH burden were associated with greater SDBOLD in the healthy control group (p < 0.1, but not individuals with AD.Conclusion: The current study provides proof of concept of a novel resting state fMRI analysis technique that is non-invasive, easily accessible, and clinically compatible. To further explore the potential of SDBOLD as a biomarker of AD, additional studies in larger, longitudinal samples are needed to better understand the changes in SDBOLD that characterize earlier stages of disease progression and their underlying psychophysiological

  11. Synthetic generation of myocardial blood-oxygen-level-dependent MRI time series via structural sparse decomposition modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Cristian; Morisi, Rita; Boschetto, Davide; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to identify approaches that generate appropriate synthetic data (computer generated) for cardiac phase-resolved blood-oxygen-level-dependent (CP-BOLD) MRI. CP-BOLD MRI is a new contrast agent- and stress-free approach for examining changes in myocardial oxygenation in response to coronary artery disease. However, since signal intensity changes are subtle, rapid visualization is not possible with the naked eye. Quantifying and visualizing the extent of disease relies on myocardial segmentation and registration to isolate the myocardium and establish temporal correspondences and ischemia detection algorithms to identify temporal differences in BOLD signal intensity patterns. If transmurality of the defect is of interest pixel-level analysis is necessary and thus a higher precision in registration is required. Such precision is currently not available affecting the design and performance of the ischemia detection algorithms. In this work, to enable algorithmic developments of ischemia detection irrespective to registration accuracy, we propose an approach that generates synthetic pixel-level myocardial time series. We do this by 1) modeling the temporal changes in BOLD signal intensity based on sparse multi-component dictionary learning, whereby segmentally derived myocardial time series are extracted from canine experimental data to learn the model; and 2) demonstrating the resemblance between real and synthetic time series for validation purposes. We envision that the proposed approach has the capacity to accelerate development of tools for ischemia detection while markedly reducing experimental costs so that cardiac BOLD MRI can be rapidly translated into the clinical arena for the noninvasive assessment of ischemic heart disease.

  12. Effects of Tasks on BOLD Signal Responses to Sentence Contrasts: Review and Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Gow, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of syntactic processing have been interpreted as identifying the neural locations of parsing and interpretive operations. However, current behavioral studies of sentence processing indicate that many operations occur simultaneously with parsing and interpretation. In this review, we point to issues that arise in…

  13. The BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity response to progressive hypercapnia in young and elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhogal, Alex A.; De Vis, Jill B.; Siero, Jeroen C.W.

    2016-01-01

    to broaden our interpretation of the BOLD-CVR response. Significant age-related differences were observed. Grey matter CVR at 7 mm Hg above resting PetCO2 was lower amongst elderly (0.19 ± 0.06%ΔBOLD/mm Hg) as compared to young subjects (0.26 ± 0.07%ΔBOLD/mm Hg). White matter CVR at 7 mm Hg above baseline...

  14. Spatial–temporal signature of resting-state BOLD signals in classic trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Wang,1 Congying Xu,1 Liping Zhai,1 Xudong Lu,1 Xiaoqiang Wu,1 Yahui Yi,2 Ziyun Liu,1 Qiaobing Guan,1 Xiaoling Zhang1 1Department of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 2Department of Radiology, the Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, China Abstract: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI signals are spatiotemporally organized. R-fMRI studies in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN have suggested alterations in functional connectivity. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the local oscillations and their frequency-specific changes in these patients. The objective of this study was to address this issue in patients with CTN. R-fMRI data from 17 patients with CTN and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs were analyzed using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. The ALFF was computed across different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz in patients with CTN compared to HCs. In the typical band, patients with CTN showed increases of ALFF in bilateral temporal, occipital, and left middle frontal regions and in the left middle cingulate gyrus, as well as decreases of ALFF in the right inferior temporal region and in regions (medial prefrontal regions of default mode network. These significant group differences were identified in different sub-bands, with greater brainstem findings in higher frequencies (slow-4 and extensive default mode network and right postparietal results in lower frequencies (slow-5. Furthermore, significant relationships were found between subjective pain ratings and both amplitudes of higher frequency (slow-4 blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in pain localization brain regions and lower frequencies (slow-5 in pain signaling/modulating brain regions in the patients, and decreased ALFF within the prefrontal regions was significantly

  15. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, A.A.; Anis, M.

    2001-01-01

    In pulses especially in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genetic variability has been exhausted due to natural selection and hence conventional breeding methods are not very fruitful. Mutation techniques are the best methods to enlarge the genetically conditioned variability of a species within a short time and have played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Investigations on the effects of ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens in induction of macro-mutations have received much attention owing to their utmost importance in plant breeding. The present study reports a bold seeded mutant in chickpea, the most dominating pulse crop on the Indian subcontinent. Fresh seeds of chickpea variety 'Pusa-212' were procured from IARI, New Delhi and treated with different doses/concentrations of gamma rays ( 60 Co source at NBRI, Lucknow) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), individually as well as in combination, to raise the M1 generation. Seeds of M 1 plants were sown to raise M2 plant progenies. A bold seeded mutant was isolated from 400 Gy gamma ray treatments. The mutant was confirmed as true bred, all the mutant seeds gave rise to morphologically similar plants in M 3 , which were quite distinct from the control. The bold seeded mutant showed 'gigas' characteristics and vigorous growth. The plant remained initially straight but later on attained a trailing habit due to heavy secondary branching. The leaves, petioles, flowers, pods and seeds were almost double that of the parent variety, in size. The flowering occurred 10 days later than the parent and maturity was also delayed accordingly. Observations were recorded on various quantitative traits. Plant height and number of primary branches showed a significant improvement over the parent. It is interesting to note that the number of pods and number of seeds per pod significantly decreased. However, the hundred seed weight (31.73±0.59g) in the mutant plants was more than double in the parent

  16. Transfer function between EEG and BOLD signals of epileptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have seen growing application in the evaluation of epilepsy, namely in the characterization of brain networks related to epileptic activity. In EEG-correlated fMRI studies, epileptic events are usually described as boxcar signals based on the timing information retrieved from the EEG, and subsequently convolved with a heamodynamic response function to model the associated BOLD changes. Although more flexible approaches may allow a higher degree of complexity for the haemodynamics, the issue of how to model these dynamics based on the EEG remains an open question. In this work, a new methodology for the integration of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in epilepsy is proposed, which incorporates a transfer function from the EEG to the BOLD signal. Independent component analysis (ICA of the EEG is performed, and a number of metrics expressing different models of the EEG-BOLD transfer function are extracted from the resulting time courses. These metrics are then used to predict the fMRI data and to identify brain areas associated with the EEG epileptic activity. The methodology was tested on both ictal and interictal EEG-fMRI recordings from one patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma. When compared to the conventional analysis approach, plausible, consistent and more significant activations were obtained. Importantly, frequency-weighted EEG metrics yielded superior results than those weighted solely on the EEG power, which comes in agreement with previous literature. Reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity should be addressed in an extended group of patients in order to further validate the proposed methodology and generalize the presented proof of concept.

  17. Crossing the implementation chasm: a proposal for bold action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Nancy M; Novak, Laurie L; Weiss, Jacob B; Gadd, Cynthia S; Unertl, Kim M

    2008-01-01

    As health care organizations dramatically increase investment in information technology (IT) and the scope of their IT projects, implementation failures become critical events. Implementation failures cause stress on clinical units, increase risk to patients, and result in massive costs that are often not recoverable. At an estimated 28% success rate, the current level of investment defies management logic. This paper asserts that there are "chasms" in IT implementations that represent risky stages in the process. Contributors to the chasms are classified into four categories: design, management, organization, and assessment. The American College of Medical Informatics symposium participants recommend bold action to better understand problems and challenges in implementation and to improve the ability of organizations to bridge these implementation chasms. The bold action includes the creation of a Team Science for Implementation strategy that allows for participation from multiple institutions to address the long standing and costly implementation issues. The outcomes of this endeavor will include a new focus on interdisciplinary research and an inter-organizational knowledge base of strategies and methods to optimize implementations and subsequent achievement of organizational objectives.

  18. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  19. A statistical approach for segregating cognitive task stages from multivariate fMRI BOLD time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine eDemanuele

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis can reveal new information from neuroimaging data to illuminate human cognition and its disturbances. Here, we develop a methodological approach, based on multivariate statistical/machine learning and time series analysis, to discern cognitive processing stages from fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD time series. We apply this method to data recorded from a group of healthy adults whilst performing a virtual reality version of the delayed win-shift radial arm maze task. This task has been frequently used to study working memory and decision making in rodents. Using linear classifiers and multivariate test statistics in conjunction with time series bootstraps, we show that different cognitive stages of the task, as defined by the experimenter, namely, the encoding/retrieval, choice, reward and delay stages, can be statistically discriminated from the BOLD time series in brain areas relevant for decision making and working memory. Discrimination of these task stages was significantly reduced during poor behavioral performance in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, but not in the primary visual cortex (V1. Experimenter-defined dissection of time series into class labels based on task structure was confirmed by an unsupervised, bottom-up approach based on Hidden Markov Models. Furthermore, we show that different groupings of recorded time points into cognitive event classes can be used to test hypotheses about the specific cognitive role of a given brain region during task execution. We found that whilst the DLPFC strongly differentiated between task stages associated with different memory loads, but not between different visual-spatial aspects, the reverse was true for V1. Our methodology illustrates how different aspects of cognitive information processing during one and the same task can be separated and attributed to specific brain regions based on information contained in multivariate patterns of voxel

  20. Computing moment to moment BOLD activation for real-time neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Oliver; Ghosh, Satrajit; Thompson, Todd W.; Yoo, Julie J.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating moment to moment changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation levels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has applications for learned regulation of regional activation, brain state monitoring, and brain-machine interfaces. In each of these contexts, accurate estimation of the BOLD signal in as little time as possible is desired. This is a challenging problem due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of fMRI data. Previous methods for real-time fMRI analysis have either sacrificed the ability to compute moment to moment activation changes by averaging several acquisitions into a single activation estimate or have sacrificed accuracy by failing to account for prominent sources of noise in the fMRI signal. Here we present a new method for computing the amount of activation present in a single fMRI acquisition that separates moment to moment changes in the fMRI signal intensity attributable to neural sources from those due to noise, resulting in a feedback signal more reflective of neural activation. This method computes an incremental general linear model fit to the fMRI timeseries, which is used to calculate the expected signal intensity at each new acquisition. The difference between the measured intensity and the expected intensity is scaled by the variance of the estimator in order to transform this residual difference into a statistic. Both synthetic and real data were used to validate this method and compare it to the only other published real-time fMRI method. PMID:20682350

  1. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  2. Negative BOLD in sensory cortices during verbal memory: a component in generating internal representations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azulay, Haim; Striem, Ella; Amedi, Amir

    2009-05-01

    People tend to close their eyes when trying to retrieve an event or a visual image from memory. However the brain mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that during visual mental imagery, auditory areas show a much more robust deactivation than during visual perception. Here we ask whether this is a special case of a more general phenomenon involving retrieval of intrinsic, internally stored information, which would result in crossmodal deactivations in other sensory cortices which are irrelevant to the task at hand. To test this hypothesis, a group of 9 sighted individuals were scanned while performing a memory retrieval task for highly abstract words (i.e., with low imaginability scores). We also scanned a group of 10 congenitally blind, which by definition do not have any visual imagery per se. In sighted subjects, both auditory and visual areas were robustly deactivated during memory retrieval, whereas in the blind the auditory cortex was deactivated while visual areas, shown previously to be relevant for this task, presented a positive BOLD signal. These results suggest that deactivation may be most prominent in task-irrelevant sensory cortices whenever there is a need for retrieval or manipulation of internally stored representations. Thus, there is a task-dependent balance of activation and deactivation that might allow maximization of resources and filtering out of non relevant information to enable allocation of attention to the required task. Furthermore, these results suggest that the balance between positive and negative BOLD might be crucial to our understanding of a large variety of intrinsic and extrinsic tasks including high-level cognitive functions, sensory processing and multisensory integration.

  3. Brain functional BOLD perturbation modelling for forward fMRI and inverse mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To computationally separate dynamic brain functional BOLD responses from static background in a brain functional activity for forward fMRI signal analysis and inverse mapping. Methods A brain functional activity is represented in terms of magnetic source by a perturbation model: χ = χ0 +δχ, with δχ for BOLD magnetic perturbations and χ0 for background. A brain fMRI experiment produces a timeseries of complex-valued images (T2* images), whereby we extract the BOLD phase signals (denoted by δP) by a complex division. By solving an inverse problem, we reconstruct the BOLD δχ dataset from the δP dataset, and the brain χ distribution from a (unwrapped) T2* phase image. Given a 4D dataset of task BOLD fMRI, we implement brain functional mapping by temporal correlation analysis. Results Through a high-field (7T) and high-resolution (0.5mm in plane) task fMRI experiment, we demonstrated in detail the BOLD perturbation model for fMRI phase signal separation (P + δP) and reconstructing intrinsic brain magnetic source (χ and δχ). We also provided to a low-field (3T) and low-resolution (2mm) task fMRI experiment in support of single-subject fMRI study. Our experiments show that the δχ-depicted functional map reveals bidirectional BOLD χ perturbations during the task performance. Conclusions The BOLD perturbation model allows us to separate fMRI phase signal (by complex division) and to perform inverse mapping for pure BOLD δχ reconstruction for intrinsic functional χ mapping. The full brain χ reconstruction (from unwrapped fMRI phase) provides a new brain tissue image that allows to scrutinize the brain tissue idiosyncrasy for the pure BOLD δχ response through an automatic function/structure co-localization. PMID:29351339

  4. Brain functional BOLD perturbation modelling for forward fMRI and inverse mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Robinson, Jennifer; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    To computationally separate dynamic brain functional BOLD responses from static background in a brain functional activity for forward fMRI signal analysis and inverse mapping. A brain functional activity is represented in terms of magnetic source by a perturbation model: χ = χ0 +δχ, with δχ for BOLD magnetic perturbations and χ0 for background. A brain fMRI experiment produces a timeseries of complex-valued images (T2* images), whereby we extract the BOLD phase signals (denoted by δP) by a complex division. By solving an inverse problem, we reconstruct the BOLD δχ dataset from the δP dataset, and the brain χ distribution from a (unwrapped) T2* phase image. Given a 4D dataset of task BOLD fMRI, we implement brain functional mapping by temporal correlation analysis. Through a high-field (7T) and high-resolution (0.5mm in plane) task fMRI experiment, we demonstrated in detail the BOLD perturbation model for fMRI phase signal separation (P + δP) and reconstructing intrinsic brain magnetic source (χ and δχ). We also provided to a low-field (3T) and low-resolution (2mm) task fMRI experiment in support of single-subject fMRI study. Our experiments show that the δχ-depicted functional map reveals bidirectional BOLD χ perturbations during the task performance. The BOLD perturbation model allows us to separate fMRI phase signal (by complex division) and to perform inverse mapping for pure BOLD δχ reconstruction for intrinsic functional χ mapping. The full brain χ reconstruction (from unwrapped fMRI phase) provides a new brain tissue image that allows to scrutinize the brain tissue idiosyncrasy for the pure BOLD δχ response through an automatic function/structure co-localization.

  5. Towards prognostic biomarkers from BOLD fluctuations to differentiate a first epileptic seizure from new-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lalit; Janssens, Rick; Vlooswijk, Mariëlle C G; Rouhl, Rob P W; de Louw, Anton; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Besseling, René M H; Hofman, Paul A M; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne H; Hilkman, Danny M; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy cannot be reliably made prior to a patient's second seizure in most cases. Therefore, adequate diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate subjects with a first seizure from those with a seizure preceding the onset of epilepsy. The objective was to explore spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in subjects with a first-ever seizure and patients with new-onset epilepsy (NOE), and to find characteristic biomarkers for seizure recurrence after the first seizure. We examined 17 first-seizure subjects, 19 patients with new-onset epilepsy (NOE), and 18 healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical investigation and received electroencephalography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The BOLD time series were analyzed in terms of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs). We found significantly stronger amplitudes (higher fALFFs) in patients with NOE relative to first-seizure subjects and healthy controls. The frequency range of 73-198 mHz (slow-3 subband) appeared most useful for discriminating patients with NOE from first-seizure subjects. The ReHo measure did not show any significant differences. The fALFF appears to be a noninvasive measure that characterizes spontaneous BOLD fluctuations and shows stronger amplitudes in the slow-3 subband of patients with NOE relative first-seizure subjects and healthy controls. A larger study population with follow-up is required to determine whether fALFF holds promise as a potential biomarker for identifying subjects at increased risk to develop epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  7. SU-D-207A-03: Potential Role of BOLD MRI in Discrimination of Aggressive Tumor Habitat in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J; Lopez, C; Tschudi, Y; Breto, A; Padgett, K; Pollack, A; Stoyanova, R [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine whether blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI signal measured in prostate cancer patients, in addition to quantitative diffusion and perfusion parameters from multiparametric (mp)MRI exams, can help discriminate aggressive and/or radioresistant lesions. Methods: Several ongoing clinical trials in our institution require mpMRI exam to determine eligibility (presence of identifiable tumor lesion on mpMRI) and prostate volumes for dose escalation. Upon consent, patients undergo fiducial markers placement and a T2*-weighted imaging at the time of CT sim to facilitate the fusion. In a retrospective analysis eleven clinical trial patients were identified who had undergone mpMRI on GE 3T magnet, followed by T2*-weighted imaging (time-period mean±SD = 48±20 days) using a consistent protocol (gradient echo, TR/TE=30/11.8ms, flip angle=12, matrix=256×256×75, voxel size=1.25×1.25×2.5mm). ROIs for prostate tumor lesions were automatically determined using ADC threshold ≤1200 µm2/s. Although the MR protocol was not intended for BOLD analysis, we utilized the T2*-weighted signal normalized to that in nearby muscle; likewise, T2-weighted lesion signal was normalized to muscle, following rigid registration of the T2 to T2* images. The ratio of these normalized signals, T2*/T2, is a measure of BOLD effect in the prostate tumors. Perfusion parameters (Ktrans, ve, kep) were also calculated. Results: T2*/T2 (mean±SE) was found to be substantially lower for Gleason score (GS) 8&9 (0.82±0.04) compared to GS 7 (1.08±0.07). A k-means cluster analysis of T2*/T2 versus kep = Ktrans/ve revealed two distinct clusters, one with higher T2*/T2 and lower kep, containing only GS 7 lesions, and another with lower T2*/T2 and higher kep, associated with tumor aggressiveness. This latter cluster contained all GS 8&9 lesions, as well as some GS 7. Conclusion: BOLD MRI, in addition to ADC and kep, may play a role (perhaps orthogonal to Gleason score) in

  8. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U Voss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  9. Hemodynamic modelling of BOLD fMRI - A machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Danjal Jakup

    2007-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis concerns the application of machine learning methods to hemodynamic models for BOLD fMRI data. Several such models have been proposed by different researchers, and they have in common a basis in physiological knowledge of the hemodynamic processes involved in the generation...... of the BOLD signal. The BOLD signal is modelled as a non-linear function of underlying, hidden (non-measurable) hemodynamic state variables. The focus of this thesis work has been to develop methods for learning the parameters of such models, both in their traditional formulation, and in a state space...... formulation. In the latter, noise enters at the level of the hidden states, as well as in the BOLD measurements themselves. A framework has been developed to allow approximate posterior distributions of model parameters to be learned from real fMRI data. This is accomplished with Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  10. Correlation between MEG and BOLD fMRI signals induced by visual flicker stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Renxin; Holroyd Tom; Duyn Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate how the MEG signal amplitude correlates with that of BOLD fMRI.To investigate the correlation between fMRI and macroscopic electrical activity, BOLD fMRI and MEG was performed on the same subjects (n =5). A visual flicker stimulus of varying temporal frequency was used to elicit neural responses in early visual areas. A strong similarity was observed in frequency tuning curves between both modalities.Although, averaged over subjects, the BOLD tuning curve was somewhat broader than MEG, both BOLD and MEG had maxima at a flicker frequency of 10 Hz. Also, we measured the first and second harmonic components as the stimuli frequency by MEG. In the low stimuli frequency (less than 6 Hz), the second harmonic has comparable amplitude with the first harmonic, which implies that neural frequency response is nonlinear and has more nonlinear components in low frequency than in high frequency.

  11. To Boldly Go: Practical Career Advice for Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P.

    1998-05-01

    Young scientists in nearly every field are finding the job market of the 1990's a confusing and frustrating place. Ph.D. supply is far larger than that needed to fill entry-level positions in "traditional" research careers. More new Ph.D. and Master's degree holders are considering a wider range of careers in and out of science, but feel ill-prepared and uninformed about their options. Some feel their Ph.D. training has led them to a dead-end. I present a thorough and practical overview to the process of career planning and job hunting in the 1990's, from the perspective of a young scientist. I cover specific steps that young scientists can take to broaden their horizons, strengthen their skills, and present their best face to potential employers. An important part of this is the realization that most young scientists possess a range of valuable "transferable skills" that are highly sought after by employers in and out of science. I will summarize the specifics of job hunting in the 90's, including informational interviewing, building your network, developing a compelling CV and resume, cover letters, interviewing, based on my book "To Boldly Go: A Practical Career Guide for Scientists". I will also identify other resources available for young scientists. Finally, I will highlight individual stories of Ph.D.-trained scientists who have found exciting and fulfilling careers outside the "traditional" world of academia.

  12. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoharan, V; Thangavelu, S [Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M{sub 1} generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M{sub 2} generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M{sub 2} plants being 1,730. All the M{sub 2} plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  13. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoharan, V.; Thangavelu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M 1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M 2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M 2 plants being 1,730. All the M 2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  14. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dialysis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, Sameh K.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  16. Contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decazes, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Guerbet firm, which holds 69% of the capital on the contrast media for medical imagery, could sale about 20% of this capital in order to accelerate its development in the United States, one of its next market with the Japan. (O.M.)

  17. Greater BOLD variability in older compared with younger adults during audiovisual speech perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Baum

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit decreased performance and increased trial-to-trial variability on a range of cognitive tasks, including speech perception. We used blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI to search for neural correlates of these behavioral phenomena. We compared brain responses to simple speech stimuli (audiovisual syllables in 24 healthy older adults (53 to 70 years old and 14 younger adults (23 to 39 years old using two independent analysis strategies: region-of-interest (ROI and voxel-wise whole-brain analysis. While mean response amplitudes were moderately greater in younger adults, older adults had much greater within-subject variability. The greatly increased variability in older adults was observed for both individual voxels in the whole-brain analysis and for ROIs in the left superior temporal sulcus, the left auditory cortex, and the left visual cortex. Increased variability in older adults could not be attributed to differences in head movements between the groups. Increased neural variability may be related to the performance declines and increased behavioral variability that occur with aging.

  18. BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Eric A; Pendse, Gautam; Becerra, Lino R; Borsook, David

    2012-04-25

    The discovery of cortical networks that participate in pain processing has led to the common generalization that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in these areas indicate the processing of pain. Physical stimuli have fundamental properties that elicit sensations distinguishable from pain, such as heat. We hypothesized that pain intensity coding may reflect the intensity coding of heat sensation during the presentation of thermal stimuli during fMRI. Six 3T fMRI heat scans were collected for 16 healthy subjects, corresponding to perceptual levels of "low innocuous heat," "moderate innocuous heat," "high innocuous heat," "low painful heat," "moderate painful heat," and "high painful heat" delivered by a contact thermode to the face. Subjects rated pain and heat intensity separately after each scan. A general linear model analysis detected different patterns of brain activation for the different phases of the biphasic response to heat. During high painful heat, the early phase was associated with significant anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Persistent responses were detected in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Only the late phase showed significant correlations with perceptual ratings. Significant heat intensity correlated activation was identified in contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, motor cortex, and superior temporal lobe. These areas were significantly more related to heat ratings than pain. These results indicate that heat intensity is encoded by the somatosensory cortices, and that pain evaluation may either arise from multimodal evaluative processes, or is a distributed process.

  19. Integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes and corticospinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Minglei; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yanhong; Xia, Xinshe; Xia, Hechun; Guo, Yulin; Huang, Xueying; He, Hong; Jia, Xiaoxiong; Xie, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of integrating the blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes (PMCs) and corticospinal tracts (CSTs). A total of 20 patients with high-grade gliomas adjacent to PMCs and CSTs between 2012 and 2014 were recruited. The bilateral PMCs and CSTs were located in the normal regions without any overlapping with target volume of the lesions. BOLD-fMRI, DTI and conventional MRI were performed on patients (Karnofsky performance score ≥ 70) before radical radiotherapy treatment. Four different imaging studies were conducted in each patient: a planning computed tomography (CT), an anatomical MRI, a DTI and a BOLD-fMRI. For each case, three treatment plans (3DCRT, IMRT and IMRT-PMC&CST) were developed by 3 different physicists using the Pinnacle planning system. Our study has shown that there was no significant difference between the 3DCRT and IMRT plans in terms of dose homogeneity, but IMRT displayed better planning target volume (PTV) dose conformity. In addition, we have found that the Dmax and Dmean to the ipsilateral and contralateral PMC and CST regions were considerably decreased in IMRT-PMC&CST group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning is feasible and beneficial. With the assistance of the above-described techniques, the bilateral PMCs and CSTs adjacent to the target volume could be clearly marked as OARs and spared during treatment

  20. Comparison of fMRI BOLD response patterns by electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior complex and medial thalamus of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the functional connectivity of the lateral and medial thalamocortical pain pathways by investigating the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation patterns in the forebrain elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior (VP and medial (MT thalamus. An MRI-compatible stimulation electrode was implanted in the VP or MT of α-chloralose-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation was applied to the VP or MT at various intensities (50 µA to 300 µA and frequencies (1 Hz to 12 Hz. BOLD responses were analyzed in the ipsilateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (iS1FL after VP stimulation and in the ipsilateral cingulate cortex (iCC after MT stimulation. When stimulating the VP, the strongest activation occurred at 3 Hz. The stimulation intensity threshold was 50 µA and the response rapidly peaked at 100 µA. When stimulating the MT, The optimal frequency for stimulation was 9 Hz or 12 Hz, the stimulation intensity threshold was 100 µA and we observed a graded increase in the BOLD response following the application of higher intensity stimuli. We also evaluated c-Fos expression following the application of a 200-µA stimulus. Ventroposterior thalamic stimulation elicited c-Fos-positivity in few cells in the iS1FL and caudate putamen (iCPu. Medial thalamic stimulation, however, produced numerous c-Fos-positive cells in the iCC and iCPu. The differential BOLD responses and c-Fos expressions elicited by VP and MT stimulation indicate differences in stimulus-response properties of the medial and lateral thalamic pain pathways.

  1. Functional dissociation of transient and sustained fMRI BOLD components in human auditory cortex revealed with a streaming paradigm based on interaural time differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadwinkel, Stefan; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    A number of physiological studies suggest that feature-selective adaptation is relevant to the pre-processing for auditory streaming, the perceptual separation of overlapping sound sources. Most of these studies are focused on spectral differences between streams, which are considered most important for streaming. However, spatial cues also support streaming, alone or in combination with spectral cues, but physiological studies of spatial cues for streaming remain scarce. Here, we investigate whether the tuning of selective adaptation for interaural time differences (ITD) coincides with the range where streaming perception is observed. FMRI activation that has been shown to adapt depending on the repetition rate was studied with a streaming paradigm where two tones were differently lateralized by ITD. Listeners were presented with five different ΔITD conditions (62.5, 125, 187.5, 343.75, or 687.5 μs) out of an active baseline with no ΔITD during fMRI. The results showed reduced adaptation for conditions with ΔITD ≥ 125 μs, reflected by enhanced sustained BOLD activity. The percentage of streaming perception for these stimuli increased from approximately 20% for ΔITD = 62.5 μs to > 60% for ΔITD = 125 μs. No further sustained BOLD enhancement was observed when the ΔITD was increased beyond ΔITD = 125 μs, whereas the streaming probability continued to increase up to 90% for ΔITD = 687.5 μs. Conversely, the transient BOLD response, at the transition from baseline to ΔITD blocks, increased most prominently as ΔITD was increased from 187.5 to 343.75 μs. These results demonstrate a clear dissociation of transient and sustained components of the BOLD activity in auditory cortex. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G.; Lisboa, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious ( [de

  3. BOLD/VENTURE-4, Reactor Analysis System with Sensitivity and Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The system of codes can be used to solve nuclear reactor core static neutronics and reactor history exposure problems. BOLD/VENTURE-4: First order perturbation and time-dependent sensitivity theories can be applied. Control rod positioning may be modeled explicitly and refueling treated with repositioning and recycle. Special capability is coded to model the continuously fueled core and to solve the importance and dominant harmonics problems. The modules of the code system are: VENTNEUT: VENTURE neutronics module; DRIVER and CONTRL: Control module; BURNER: Exposure calculation for reactor core analysis; FILEDTOR: File editor; INPROSER: Input processor; EXPOSURE: BURNER code module; REACRATE: Reaction rate calculation; CNTRODPO: Control rod positioning; FUELMANG: Fuel management positioning and accounting; PERTUBAT: Perturbation reactivity importance analyses; sensitivity analysis; DEPTHMOD: Static and time-dependent perturbation sensitivity analysis. The special processors are: DVENTR: Handles the input to the VENTURE module; DCMACR: Converts CITATION macroscopic cross sections to microscopic cross sections; DCRSPR: Produces input for the CROSPROS module; DUTLIN: Adds or replaces problem input data without exiting the program; DENMAN: Repositions fuel; DMISLY: Miscellaneous tasks. Standard interface files between modules are binary sequential files that follow a standardized format. VENTURE-PC: The microcomputer version is a subset of the mainframe version. The modules and special processors which are not part of VENTURE-PC are: REACRATE, CNTRODPO, PERTUBAT, FUELMANG, DEPTHMOD, DMISLY. 2 - method of solution: BOLD-VENTURE-4: The neutronics problems are solved by applying the multigroup diffusion theory representation of neutron transport applying an over-relaxation inner iteration, outer iteration scheme. Special modeling is used or source correction is done during iteration to solve importance and harmonics problems. No

  4. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hougaard

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetry of a wide range of functions is a hallmark of the human brain. The visual system has traditionally been thought of as symmetrically distributed in the brain, but a growing body of evidence has challenged this view. Some highly specific visual tasks have been shown to depend on hemispheric specialization. However, the possible lateralization of cerebral responses to a simple checkerboard visual stimulation has not been a focus of previous studies. To investigate this, we performed two sessions of blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume, handedness, age, gender, ocular dominance, interocular difference in visual acuity, as well as line-bisection performance. We found a general lateralization of cerebral activation towards the right hemisphere of early visual cortical areas and areas of higher-level visual processing, involved in visuospatial attention, especially in top-down (i.e., goal-oriented attentional processing. This right hemisphere lateralization was partly, but not completely, explained by an increased grey matter volume in the right hemisphere of the early visual areas. Difference in activation of the superior parietal lobule was correlated with subject age, suggesting a shift towards the left hemisphere with increasing age. Our findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance of these areas, which could lend support to the generally observed leftward visual attentional bias and to the left hemifield advantage for some visual perception tasks.

  5. MDCT angiography of the pulmonary arteries: intravascular contrast enhancement does not depend on iodine concentration when injecting equal amounts of iodine at standardized iodine delivery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, S.; Plumhans, C.; Behrendt, F.F.; Das, M.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Stanzel, S.; Seidensticker, P.; Knackstedt, C.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the impact of iodine concentration using two different contrast materials (CM) at standardized iodine delivery rate (IDR) and overall iodine load in 16-multidetector-row-CT-angiography (MDCTA) of the pulmonary arteries of 192 patients with known or suspected pulmonary embolism. One hundred three patients (group A) received 148 ml of a CM containing 300 mg iodine/ml (Ultravist 300 trademark, BayerScheringPharma) at a flow rate of 4.9 ml/s. Eighty-nine patients (group B) received 120 ml of a CM with a concentration of 370 mg iodine/ml (Ultravist370 trademark) at a flow rate of 4.0 ml/s, resulting in a standardized IDR (∝1.5 gI/s) and the same overall amount of iodine (44.4 g). Both CM injections were followed by a saline chaser. Mean density values were determined in the pulmonary trunk, the ascending and the descending aorta, respectively. Applying repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences between both MDCTA protocols were found (p=0.5790): the mean density in the pulmonary trunk was 355±116 Hounsfield Units (group A) and 358±115 (group B). The corresponding values for the ascending and descending aorta were 295±79 (group A) and 284±65 (group B) as well as 272±71 and 262±70. In conclusion, the use of standardized IDR and overall iodine load provides comparable intravascular CM density in pulmonary 16-MDCTA for delivering contrast materials with different iodine concentrations. (orig.)

  6. Time courses of MRI BOLD signals in prolonged visual stimulation. Comparison between colors and orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikura, Kenichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Kershaw, J.B.; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Seki, Chie; Kashikura, Akemi; Ardekani, B.A.; Kanno, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    We investigated: the BOLD signal response during 270 second photic stimulation using an EPI pulse sequence; the BOLD signal response for two different color checkerboards; and the BOLD signal response during six consecutive stimulation series. Ten healthy human subjects (age 25±5.5 years) were studied with a 1.5 T MRI system (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany). Black and white (BW) and red and white (RW) checkerboards alternating at 8 Hz were applied in turns for a total series of six. Stimulation timing was: 30 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 270 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off. Acquired data were analyzed according to color and/or order: color (without considering the order); color and order (1st BW vs. 1st RW, 2nd BW vs. 2nd RW, 3rd BW vs. 3rd RW); and order (without considering the color). A t-test (p<0.001) was used for obtaining the activated areas, and simple regression and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA were used for testing the statistical significance of the BOLD response. Results were: the BOLD signal responses during sustained photic stimulation maintained a constant level for the full duration and all series, suggesting stable levels of oxygen extraction and metabolism during cortical activation; the BOLD signal responses in two colors showed no significant difference in time response, suggesting that the neuronal populations perceiving black and red give a similar time response; and the effect of habituation or fatigue as observed by a signal decrease was not obtained, although the S.D. for each subject greatly increased with time and might be an indicator for evaluation fatigue or attention. (author)

  7. Right anterior cerebellum BOLD responses reflect age related changes in Simon task sequential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, D; Sapir, A; Close, A; Henik, A; d'Avossa, G

    2018-01-31

    Participants are slower to report a feature, such as color, when the target appears on the side opposite the instructed response, than when the target appears on the same side. This finding suggests that target location, even when task-irrelevant, interferes with response selection. This effect is magnified in older adults. Lengthening the inter-trial interval, however, suffices to normalize the congruency effect in older adults, by re-establishing young-like sequential effects (Aisenberg et al., 2014). We examined the neurological correlates of age related changes by comparing BOLD signals in young and old participants performing a visual version of the Simon task. Participants reported the color of a peripheral target, by a left or right-hand keypress. Generally, BOLD responses were greater following incongruent than congruent targets. Also, they were delayed and of smaller amplitude in old than young participants. BOLD responses in visual and motor regions were also affected by the congruency of the previous target, suggesting that sequential effects may reflect remapping of stimulus location onto the hand used to make a response. Crucially, young participants showed larger BOLD responses in right anterior cerebellum to incongruent targets, when the previous target was congruent, but smaller BOLD responses to incongruent targets when the previous target was incongruent. Old participants, however, showed larger BOLD responses to congruent than incongruent targets, irrespective of the previous target congruency. We conclude that aging may interfere with the trial by trial updating of the mapping between the task-irrelevant target location and response, which takes place during the inter-trial interval in the cerebellum and underlays sequential effects in a Simon task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultural contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  9. Research progress of BOLD-fMRI in minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhiming; Zhao Jiannong

    2013-01-01

    The minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the early stage of hepatic encephalopathy. It has few apparent clinical symptoms and specific manifestations, and is difficult to diagnose. In the recent years, BOLD-fMRI has been used to study hepatic encephalopathy gradually. Through detection of the brain neuron activities in different states, it can not only locate the abnormal activity of brain functional areas, but also can find the changes of brain functional connectivity. BOLD- fMRI combining with other MR technologies can explore the pathology and pathogenesis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy from micro to macro and from structure to function. (authors)

  10. Blood Flow and Brain Function: Investigations of neurovascular coupling using BOLD fMRI at 7 tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, J.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of ultra high field (7 tesla) MRI systems has opened the possibility to probe biological processes of the human body in great detail. Especially for studying brain function using BOLD fMRI there is a large benefit from the increased magnetic field strength. BOLD fMRI is the working horse

  11. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  12. Graph Theoretical Analysis of BOLD Functional Connectivity during Human Sleep without EEG Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lv

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks of human have been revealed to have small-world properties by both analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI time series.In our study, by using graph theoretical analysis, we attempted to investigate the changes of paralimbic-limbic cortex between wake and sleep states. Ten healthy young people were recruited to our experiment. Data from 2 subjects were excluded for the reason that they had not fallen asleep during the experiment. For each subject, blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD images were acquired to analyze brain network, and peripheral pulse signals were obtained continuously to identify if the subject was in sleep periods. Results of fMRI showed that brain networks exhibited stronger small-world characteristics during sleep state as compared to wake state, which was in consistent with previous studies using EEG synchronization. Moreover, we observed that compared with wake state, paralimbic-limbic cortex had less connectivity with neocortical system and centrencephalic structure in sleep.In conclusion, this is the first study, to our knowledge, has observed that small-world properties of brain functional networks altered when human sleeps without EEG synchronization. Moreover, we speculate that paralimbic-limbic cortex organization owns an efficient defense mechanism responsible for suppressing the external environment interference when humans sleep, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the paralimbic-limbic cortex may be functionally disconnected from brain regions which directly mediate their interactions with the external environment. Our findings also provide a reasonable explanation why stable sleep exhibits homeostasis which is far less susceptible to outside world.

  13. Mapping of the brain hemodynamic responses to sensorimotor stimulation in a rodent model: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Boussida

    Full Text Available Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions. Here, using a combination of low level anesthesia, long pulse duration of the electrical stimulation along with improved spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios, we provide a functional description of the main cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor rat brain. With this calibrated fMRI protocol, unilateral non-noxious sensorimotor electrical hindpaw stimulation resulted in robust positive activations in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and bilaterally in the sensorimotor thalamus nuclei, whereas negative activations were observed bilaterally in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen. These results demonstrate that, once the experimental setup allowing necessary spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios is reached, hemodynamic changes related to neuronal activity, as preserved by the combination of a soft anesthesia with a soft muscle relaxation, can be measured within the sensorimotor network. Moreover, the observed responses suggest that increasing pulse duration of the electrical stimulus adds a proprioceptive component to the sensory input that activates sensorimotor network in the brain, and that these activation patterns are similar to those induced by digits paw's movements. These findings may

  14. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron

    2012-01-01

    that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI......) at the ipsilateral finger during concomitant stimulation of the contralateral median nerve increased significantly, suggesting augmented functional inhibition. Since the CPT in the ipsilateral hallux did not significantly change in response to median nerve stimulation, it is more likely that the CPT......-increase for the finger is due to functional inhibition (Kastrup et al., 2008) than to changes in selective attention. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that stimulus-induced reductions in relative rCBF may underlie the negative BOLD signal, which in turn may reflect increments in functional inhibition....

  15. Differential movement patterns of juvenile Tengmalms owls (Aegolius funereus during the post-fledging dependence period in two years with contrasting prey abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP, especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29 and 2011 (n = 10 and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22 and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6. Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011 and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011. The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm's owls.

  16. Laminar microvascular transit time distribution in the mouse somatosensory cortex revealed by Dynamic Contrast Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Conrad W; Srinivasan, Vivek J

    2016-01-15

    The transit time distribution of blood through the cerebral microvasculature both constrains oxygen delivery and governs the kinetics of neuroimaging signals such as blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (BOLD fMRI). However, in spite of its importance, capillary transit time distribution has been challenging to quantify comprehensively and efficiently at the microscopic level. Here, we introduce a method, called Dynamic Contrast Optical Coherence Tomography (DyC-OCT), based on dynamic cross-sectional OCT imaging of an intravascular tracer as it passes through the field-of-view. Quantitative transit time metrics are derived from temporal analysis of the dynamic scattering signal, closely related to tracer concentration. Since DyC-OCT does not require calibration of the optical focus, quantitative accuracy is achieved even deep in highly scattering brain tissue where the focal spot degrades. After direct validation of DyC-OCT against dilution curves measured using a fluorescent plasma label in surface pial vessels, we used DyC-OCT to investigate the transit time distribution in microvasculature across the entire depth of the mouse somatosensory cortex. Laminar trends were identified, with earlier transit times and less heterogeneity in the middle cortical layers. The early transit times in the middle cortical layers may explain, at least in part, the early BOLD fMRI onset times observed in these layers. The layer-dependencies in heterogeneity may help explain how a single vascular supply manages to deliver oxygen to individual cortical layers with diverse metabolic needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a parallel zoomed EVI sequence for high temporal resolution analysis of the BOLD response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic impulse response to any short stimulus typically lasts around 20 seconds. Thus, the detection of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is usually performed using a 2D Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, with repetition times on the order of 1 or 2 seconds. This temporal resolution is generally enough for detection purposes. Nevertheless, when trying to accurately estimate the hemodynamic response functions (HRF), higher scanning rates represent a real advantage. Thus, in order to reach a temporal resolution around 200 ms, we developed a new acquisition method, based on Echo Volumar Imaging and 2D parallel acquisition (1). Echo Volumar Imaging (EVI) has been proposed in 1977 by Mansfield (2). EVI intrinsically possesses a lot of advantages for functional neuroimaging, as a 3 D single shot acquisition method. Nevertheless, to date, only a few applications have been reported (3, 4). Actually, very restricting hardware requirements make EVI difficult to perform in satisfactory experimental conditions, even today. The critical point in EVI is the echo train duration, which is longer than in EPI, due to 3D acquisition. Indeed, at equal field of view and spatial resolutions, EVI echo train duration must be approximately equal to EPI echo train duration multiplied by the number of slices acquired in EPI. Consequently, EVI is much more sensitive than EPI to geometric distortions, which are related to phase errors, and also to signal losses, which are due to long echo times (TE). Thus, a first improvement has been brought by 'zoomed' or 'localized' EVI (5), which allows to focus on a small volume of interest and thus limit echo train durations compared to full FOV acquisitions.To reduce echo train durations, we chose to apply parallel acquisition. Moreover, since EVI is a 3D acquisition method, we are able to perform parallel acquisition and SENSE reconstruction along the two phase directions (6). The R = 4 under-sampling consists in the

  18. Negative blood oxygen level dependent signals during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity.

  19. Using pulse oximetry to account for high and low frequency physiological artifacts in the BOLD signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstynen, Timothy D; Deshpande, Vibhas

    2011-04-15

    The BOLD signal not only reflects changes in local neural activity, but also exhibits variability from physiological processes like cardiac rhythms and breathing. We investigated how both of these physiological sources are reflected in the pulse oximetry (PO) signal, a direct measure of blood oxygenation, and how this information can be used to account for different types of noise in the BOLD response. Measures of heart rate, respiration and PO were simultaneously recorded while neurologically healthy participants performed an eye-movement task in a 3T MRI. PO exhibited power in frequencies that matched those found in the independently recorded cardiac and respiration signals. Using the phasic and aphasic properties of these signals as nuisance regressors, we found that the different frequency components of the PO signal could be used to identify different types of physiological artifacts in the BOLD response. A comparison of different physiological noise models found that a simple, down-sampled version of the PO signal improves the estimation of task-relevant statistics nearly as well as more established noise models that may run the risk of over-parameterization. These findings suggest that the PO signal captures multiple sources of physiological noise in the BOLD response and provides a simple and efficient way of modeling these noise sources in subsequent analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence accumulation detected in BOLD signal using slow perceptual decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, Paul M.; van Vugt, Marieke K.; Simen, Patrick; Nystrom, Leigh; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. NEW METHOD: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift

  1. Driving innovation through big open linked data (BOLD) : Exploring antecedents using interpretive structural modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Slade, Emma L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Weerakkody, Vishanth; Millard, Jeremy; Hidders, Jan; Snijders, D.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is vital to find new solutions to problems, increase quality, and improve profitability. Big open linked data (BOLD) is a fledgling and rapidly evolving field that creates new opportunities for innovation. However, none of the existing literature has yet considered the

  2. A comparison of measures of boldness and their relationships to survival in young fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R White

    Full Text Available Boldness is the propensity of an animal to engage in risky behavior. Many variations of novel-object or novel-environment tests have been used to quantify the boldness of animals, although the relationship between test outcomes has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, the relationship of outcomes to any ecological aspect of fitness is generally assumed, rather than measured directly. Our study is the first to compare how the outcomes of the same test of boldness differ among observers and how different tests of boldness relate to the survival of individuals in the field. Newly-metamorphosed lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, were placed onto replicate patches of natural habitat. Individual behavior was quantified using four tests (composed of a total of 12 different measures of behavior: latency to enter a novel environment, activity in a novel environment, and reactions to threatening and benign novel objects. After behavior was quantified, survival was monitored for two days during which time fish were exposed to natural predators. Variation among observers was low for most of the 12 measures, except distance moved and the threat test (reaction to probe thrust, which displayed unacceptable amounts of inter-observer variation. Overall, the results of the behavioral tests suggested that novel environment and novel object tests quantified similar behaviors, yet these behavioral measures were not interchangeable. Multiple measures of behavior within the context of novel environment or object tests were the most robust way to assess boldness and these measures have a complex relationship with survivorship of young fish in the field. Body size and distance ventured from shelter were the only variables that had a direct and positive relationship with survival.

  3. Properties of conventional contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetzel, W.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive overview is given of the properties of contrast media currently used in computed tomography (CT). The chemical structure of the compounds and the physicochemical properties derived therefrom are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of the physicochemical properties of contrast media for tolerance and the pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds in the body. An outline is given of the basic ideas governing rational use of contrast media in CT, which result from complex, time-dependent distribution of contrast media in different tissue spaces. (Auth.)

  4. Linear Discriminant Analysis achieves high classification accuracy for the BOLD fMRI response to naturalistic movie stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik eMandelkow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI. However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM and the general linear model (GLM is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA, have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbour (NN, Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB, and (regularised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie.Results show that LDA regularised by principal component analysis (PCA achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2s apart during a 300s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2s/300s. The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  5. When the Brain Takes 'BOLD' Steps: Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Can Further Enhance the Ability to Gradually Self-regulate Regional Brain Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Bettina; Kamp, Tabea; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Peters, Judith Caroline; Goebel, Rainer

    2018-05-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) are currently explored in the context of developing alternative (motor-independent) communication and control means for the severely disabled. In such BCI systems, the user encodes a particular intention (e.g., an answer to a question or an intended action) by evoking specific mental activity resulting in a distinct brain state that can be decoded from fMRI activation. One goal in this context is to increase the degrees of freedom in encoding different intentions, i.e., to allow the BCI user to choose from as many options as possible. Recently, the ability to voluntarily modulate spatial and/or temporal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-signal features has been explored implementing different mental tasks and/or different encoding time intervals, respectively. Our two-session fMRI feasibility study systematically investigated for the first time the possibility of using magnitudinal BOLD-signal features for intention encoding. Particularly, in our novel paradigm, participants (n=10) were asked to alternately self-regulate their regional brain-activation level to 30%, 60% or 90% of their maximal capacity by applying a selected activation strategy (i.e., performing a mental task, e.g., inner speech) and modulation strategies (e.g., using different speech rates) suggested by the experimenters. In a second step, we tested the hypothesis that the additional availability of feedback information on the current BOLD-signal level within a region of interest improves the gradual-self regulation performance. Therefore, participants were provided with neurofeedback in one of the two fMRI sessions. Our results show that the majority of the participants were able to gradually self-regulate regional brain activation to at least two different target levels even in the absence of neurofeedback. When provided with continuous feedback on their current BOLD-signal level, most

  6. Linear increases in BOLD response associated with increasing proportion of incongruent trials across time in a colour Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2010-05-01

    Selective attention is popularly assessed with colour Stroop tasks in which participants name the ink colour of colour words, whilst resisting interference from the natural tendency to read the words. Prior studies hinted that the key brain regions (dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) may vary their degree of involvement, dependent on attentional demand. This study aimed to determine whether a parametrically varied increase in attentional demand resulted in linearly increased activity in these regions, and/or whether additional regions would be recruited during high attentional demand. Twenty-eight healthy young adults underwent fMRI whilst naming the font colour of colour words. Linear increases in BOLD response were assessed with increasing percentage incongruent trials per block (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%). Whilst ACC activation increased linearly according to incongruity level, dlPFC activity appeared constant. Together with behavioural evidence of reduced Stroop interference, these data support a load-dependent conflict-related response in ACC, but not dlPFC.

  7. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    to be more accurately localized and quantified based on changes in venous blood oxygenation alone. The normalized BOLD signal induced by the motor task was consistent across different magnetic fields and pulse sequences, and corresponded well with cerebral blood flow measurements. Our data suggest...... size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...

  8. Bold Ideas for the 4th H in 4-H: Teen Identified Concerns and Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Brown; Bonnie Braun; JoAnne Leatherman

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes a literature review; teen-identified health concerns and issues; and teen bold ideas for actions. Findings from the National 4-H Council and Molina Healthcare Teens Take on Health initiative are provided and implications for 4-H programming tied to the new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness are addressed. The article is intended as background for Extension educators, volunteers and administrators as they review the 4-H Healthy Living Missi...

  9. Using CO5BOLD models to predict the effects of granulation on colours .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Castelli, F.; Gallagher, A. J.; Prakapavičius, D.; Kučinskas, A.; Cayrel, R.; Freytag, B.; Plez, B.; Homeier, D.

    In order to investigate the effects of granulation on fluxes and colours, we computed the emerging fluxes from the models in the CO5BOLD grid with metallicities [M/H]=0.0,-1.0,-2.0 and -3.0. These fluxes have been used to compute colours in different photometric systems. We explain here how our computations have been performed and provide some results.

  10. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  11. Task performance changes the amplitude and timing of the BOLD signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhrif Atae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational studies comparing imaging data of animals and humans have gained increasing scientific interests. With this upcoming translational approach, however, identifying harmonized statistical analysis as well as shared data acquisition protocols and/or combined statistical approaches is necessary. Following this idea, we applied Bayesian Adaptive Regression Splines (BARS, which have until now mainly been used to model neural responses of electrophysiological recordings from rodent data, on human hemodynamic responses as measured via fMRI. Forty-seven healthy subjects were investigated while performing the Attention Network Task in the MRI scanner. Fluctuations in the amplitude and timing of the BOLD response were determined and validated externally with brain activation using GLM and also ecologically with the influence of task performance (i.e. good vs. bad performers. In terms of brain activation, bad performers presented reduced activation bilaterally in the parietal lobules, right prefrontal cortex (PFC and striatum. This was accompanied by an enhanced left PFC recruitment. With regard to the amplitude of the BOLD-signal, bad performers showed enhanced values in the left PFC. In addition, in the regions of reduced activation such as the parietal and striatal regions, the temporal dynamics were higher in bad performers. Based on the relation between BOLD response and neural firing with the amplitude of the BOLD signal reflecting gamma power and timing dynamics beta power, we argue that in bad performers, an enhanced left PFC recruitment hints towards an enhanced functioning of gamma-band activity in a compensatory manner. This was accompanied by reduced parieto-striatal activity, associated with increased and potentially conflicting beta-band activity.

  12. The effect of sleep deprivation on BOLD activity elicited by a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Hughes, Matthew E; Croft, Rodney J; Howard, Mark E; Crewther, David; Kennedy, Gerard A; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Rob J; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Johnston, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Sleep loss, widespread in today's society and associated with a number of clinical conditions, has a detrimental effect on a variety of cognitive domains including attention. This study examined the sequelae of sleep deprivation upon BOLD fMRI activation during divided attention. Twelve healthy males completed two randomized sessions; one after 27 h of sleep deprivation and one after a normal night of sleep. During each session, BOLD fMRI was measured while subjects completed a cross-modal divided attention task (visual and auditory). After normal sleep, increased BOLD activation was observed bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobe during divided attention performance. Subjects reported feeling significantly more sleepy in the sleep deprivation session, and there was a trend towards poorer divided attention task performance. Sleep deprivation led to a down regulation of activation in the left superior frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting an attenuation of top-down control mechanisms on the attentional system. These findings have implications for understanding the neural correlates of divided attention and the neurofunctional changes that occur in individuals who are sleep deprived.

  13. Correlation of BOLD Signal with Linear and Nonlinear Patterns of EEG in Resting State EEG-Informed fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Portnova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent EEG and fMRI acquisitions in resting state showed a correlation between EEG power in various bands and spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. However, there is a lack of data on how changes in the complexity of brain dynamics derived from EEG reflect variations in the BOLD signal. The purpose of our study was to correlate both spectral patterns, as linear features of EEG rhythms, and nonlinear EEG dynamic complexity with neuronal activity obtained by fMRI. We examined the relationships between EEG patterns and brain activation obtained by simultaneous EEG-fMRI during the resting state condition in 25 healthy right-handed adult volunteers. Using EEG-derived regressors, we demonstrated a substantial correlation of BOLD signal changes with linear and nonlinear features of EEG. We found the most significant positive correlation of fMRI signal with delta spectral power. Beta and alpha spectral features had no reliable effect on BOLD fluctuation. However, dynamic changes of alpha peak frequency exhibited a significant association with BOLD signal increase in right-hemisphere areas. Additionally, EEG dynamic complexity as measured by the HFD of the 2–20 Hz EEG frequency range significantly correlated with the activation of cortical and subcortical limbic system areas. Our results indicate that both spectral features of EEG frequency bands and nonlinear dynamic properties of spontaneous EEG are strongly associated with fluctuations of the BOLD signal during the resting state condition.

  14. Effects of computed tomography contrast medium factors on contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi; Okuda, Itsuko

    2011-01-01

    The various nonionic iodinated contrast media used in contrast computed tomography (CT) studies differ in terms of their composition, characteristics, and iodine concentration (mgI/ml), as well as the volume injected (ml). Compared with ionic iodinated contrast media, nonionic iodinated contrast media are low-osmolar agents, with different agents having different osmotic pressures. Using a custom-made phantom incorporating a semipermeable membrane, the osmotic flow rate (hounsfield unit (HU)/s) could easily be measured based on the observed increase in CT numbers, and the relationship between the osmotic pressure and the osmotic flow rate could be obtained (r 2 =0.84). In addition, taking the effects of patient size into consideration, the levels of contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta (AA) and inferior vena cava (IVC) were compared among four types of CT contrast medium. The results showed differences in contrast enhancement in the IVC during the equilibrium phase depending on the type of contrast medium used. It was found that the factors responsible for the differences observed in enhancement in the IVC were the osmotic flow rate and the volume of the blood flow pathways in the circulatory system. It is therefore considered that the reproducibility of contrast enhancement is likely to be reduced in the examination of parenchymal organs, in which scanning must be performed during the equilibrium phase, even if the amount of iodine injected per unit body weight (mgI/kg) is maintained at a specified level. (author)

  15. Origins of intersubject variability of blood oxygenation level dependent and arterial spin labeling fMRI: implications for quantification of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2012-12-01

    Accurate localization of brain activity using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been challenged because of the large BOLD signal within distal veins. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques offer greater sensitivity to the microvasculature but possess low temporal resolution and limited brain coverage. In this study, we show that the physiological origins of BOLD and ASL depend on whether percent change or statistical significance is being considered. For BOLD and ASL fMRI data collected during a simple unilateral hand movement task, we found that in the area of the contralateral motor cortex the centre of gravity (CoG) of the intersubject coefficient of variation (CV) of BOLD fMRI was near the brain surface for percent change in signal, whereas the CoG of the intersubject CV for Z-score was in close proximity of sites of brain activity for both BOLD and ASL. These findings suggest that intersubject variability of BOLD percent change is vascular in origin, whereas the origin of inter-subject variability of Z-score is neuronal for both BOLD and ASL. For longer duration tasks (12 s or greater), however, there was a significant correlation between BOLD and ASL percent change, which was not evident for short duration tasks (6 s). These findings suggest that analyses directly comparing percent change in BOLD signal between pre-defined regions of interest using short duration stimuli, as for example in event-related designs, may be heavily weighted by large-vessel responses rather than neuronal responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of language blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyong; Li Min; Yao Chengjun; Geng Daoying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-based activation using electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and explore the value of language fMRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery. Methods: In 8 cases with brain tumors, BOLD-fMRI examinations were done before the operations. Under the state of awake anesthesia,the patients were aroused and ESM was conducted. Point-to-point comparison between the BOLD signal activations and the ESM was carried out under the surveillance of the neuro-navigation technology. In order to observe the sensibility and specificity of BOLD activations, the location of BOLD activations and the point of ESM was compared to calculate the stimulating positive points inside the regions of BOLD signals (real positive), outside BOLD regions (pseudo- negative), the stimulating negative points inside the regions of BOLD signals (pseudo-positive), and outside BOLD region (real negative). Two kinds of criteria for assessment were used. One was that the positive stimulating points were located in BOLD regions, and the other was that the positive stimulating points were located within 1 cm around the range of BOLD regions. Removal of the lesions were conducted with the tissue 1 cm around the language region preserved, and the cortex inside 0.5-1.0 cm distance from the positive points were retained. Results: Of the 8 cases, only 6 finished the tasks. Among them, 3 cases were with astrocytoma of grade 2, 2 were with astrocytoma of grade 3, and one with glioblastoma. The total number of stimulating points was 48, among which the positive points were 11. When the first criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 72.7% (8/11), and the specificity was 81.8% (30/37). When the second criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 82.0% (9/11), and the specificity was 75.6% (28/37). Follow-up after operation showed no aphasia occurred. Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in displaying the language

  17. Higher frequency network activity flow predicts lower frequency node activity in intrinsic low-frequency BOLD fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sahil; Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    The brain remains electrically and metabolically active during resting conditions. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coherent across distributed brain regions are known to exhibit features of this activity. However, these intrinsic oscillations may undergo dynamic changes in time scales of seconds to minutes during resting conditions. Here, using wavelet-transform based time-frequency analysis techniques, we investigated the dynamic nature of default-mode networks from intrinsic BOLD signals recorded from participants maintaining visual fixation during resting conditions. We focused on the default-mode network consisting of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left middle temporal cortex (LMTC) and left angular gyrus (LAG). The analysis of the spectral power and causal flow patterns revealed that the intrinsic LFO undergo significant dynamic changes over time. Dividing the frequency interval 0 to 0.25 Hz of LFO into four intervals slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), slow-3 (0.073-0.198 Hz) and slow-2 (0.198-0.25 Hz), we further observed significant positive linear relationships of slow-4 in-out flow of network activity with slow-5 node activity, and slow-3 in-out flow of network activity with slow-4 node activity. The network activity associated with respiratory related frequency (slow-2) was found to have no relationship with the node activity in any of the frequency intervals. We found that the net causal flow towards a node in slow-3 band was correlated with the number of fibers, obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, from the other nodes connecting to that node. These findings imply that so-called resting state is not 'entirely' at rest, the higher frequency network activity flow can predict the lower frequency node activity, and the network activity flow can reflect underlying structural

  18. A simple solution for model comparison in bold imaging: the special case of reward prediction error and reward outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, Burak; Rohe, Tim; Done, John; Seidler, Rachael D

    2013-01-01

    Conventional neuroimaging techniques provide information about condition-related changes of the BOLD (blood-oxygen-level dependent) signal, indicating only where and when the underlying cognitive processes occur. Recently, with the help of a new approach called "model-based" functional neuroimaging (fMRI), researchers are able to visualize changes in the internal variables of a time varying learning process, such as the reward prediction error or the predicted reward value of a conditional stimulus. However, despite being extremely beneficial to the imaging community in understanding the neural correlates of decision variables, a model-based approach to brain imaging data is also methodologically challenging due to the multicollinearity problem in statistical analysis. There are multiple sources of multicollinearity in functional neuroimaging including investigations of closely related variables and/or experimental designs that do not account for this. The source of multicollinearity discussed in this paper occurs due to correlation between different subjective variables that are calculated very close in time. Here, we review methodological approaches to analyzing such data by discussing the special case of separating the reward prediction error signal from reward outcomes.

  19. Study of asymmetry in motor areas related to handedness using the fMRI BOLD response Gaussian convolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Qing; Chen Huafu; Gong Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Brain asymmetry is a phenomenon well known for handedness, and has been studied in the motor cortex. However, few studies have quantitatively assessed the asymmetrical cortical activities for handedness in motor areas. In the present study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated asymmetry in the left and right primary motor cortices during sequential finger movements using the Gaussian convolution model approach based on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. Six right-handed and six left-handed subjects were recruited to perform three types of hand movement tasks. The results for the expected value of the Gaussian convolution model showed that it took the dominant hand a longer average interval of response delay regardless of the handedness and bi- or uni-manual performance. The results for the standard deviation of the Gaussian model suggested that in the mass neurons, these intervals of the dominant hand were much more variable than those of the non-dominant hand. When comparing bi-manual movement conditions with uni-manual movement conditions in the primary motor cortex (PMC), both the expected value and standard deviation in the Gaussian function were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) in the bi-manual conditions, showing that the movement of the non-dominant hand influenced that of the dominant hand.

  20. When BOLD is thicker than water: processing social information about kin and friends at different levels of the social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural processing of social information about kin and friends at different levels of closeness and social network level. Twenty-five female participants engaged in a cognitive social task involving different individuals in their social network while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to detect BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signals changes. Greater levels of activation occurred in several regions of the brain previously associated with social cognition when thinking about friends than when thinking about kin, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Linear parametric analyses across network layers further showed that, when it came to thinking about friends, activation increased in the vMPFC, lingual gyrus, and sensorimotor cortex as individuals thought about friends at closer layers of the network. These findings suggest that maintaining friendships may be more cognitively exacting than maintaining kin relationships. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Study of asymmetry in motor areas related to handedness using the fMRI BOLD response Gaussian convolution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Qing [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Applied Mathematics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chen Huafu [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Applied Mathematics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: Chenhf@uestc.edu.cn; Gong Qiyong [Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Brain asymmetry is a phenomenon well known for handedness, and has been studied in the motor cortex. However, few studies have quantitatively assessed the asymmetrical cortical activities for handedness in motor areas. In the present study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated asymmetry in the left and right primary motor cortices during sequential finger movements using the Gaussian convolution model approach based on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. Six right-handed and six left-handed subjects were recruited to perform three types of hand movement tasks. The results for the expected value of the Gaussian convolution model showed that it took the dominant hand a longer average interval of response delay regardless of the handedness and bi- or uni-manual performance. The results for the standard deviation of the Gaussian model suggested that in the mass neurons, these intervals of the dominant hand were much more variable than those of the non-dominant hand. When comparing bi-manual movement conditions with uni-manual movement conditions in the primary motor cortex (PMC), both the expected value and standard deviation in the Gaussian function were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) in the bi-manual conditions, showing that the movement of the non-dominant hand influenced that of the dominant hand.

  2. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?; MR-Mammographie bei 0,5 Tesla: Menstruationszyklusabhaengigkeit der Kontrastmittelanreicherung unter hormoneller Kontrazeption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Lisboa, B.W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious (< 80% initial signal increase after of contrast medium injection, no wash-out phenomenon) and sonography of the breast in these two cases was inconspicuous. Contrast medium enhancement of breast parenchyma in cycle days 7 - 14 (mean enhancement: 0.12 - 0.26, minutes 1 - 9 p.i.) was not significantly different (p = 0.2209; Wilcoxon signed rank test) from cycle days 21 - 2 (mean: 0.13 - 0.32). Conclusion: Menstrual cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast medium enhancement seems to be of minor relevance for premenopausal women with use of oral contraceptives. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: Untersuchung der Kontrastmittelaufnahme des Brustparenchyms in Abhaengigkeit vom Menstruationszyklus bei gesunden Probandinnen unter oraler Kontrazeption. Material und Methode: Bei 15 gesunden Probandinnen ohne Brusterkrankung in der Anamnese wurde eine MR-Mammographie zweimal waehrend eines Menstruationszyklus durchgefuehrt (Zyklustag: 7 - 14 und 21 - 2). Bei zwei weiteren Probandinnen erfolgte die MR-Mammographie nur in der zweiten Zyklushaelfte

  3. Development of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.

    1993-01-01

    Description of all contrast media (ionic and nonionic monomers, ionic and nonionic dimers) was presented. Chemotoxicity, osmolality and viscosity of some contrast agents were analyzed. The main adverse reactions to ionic and nonionic contrast media were described

  4. Cholinergic enhancement reduces functional connectivity and BOLD variability in visual extrastriate cortex during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bernardi, Giulio; Pietrini, Pietro; Furey, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cholinergic function improves performance on various cognitive tasks and alters neural responses in task specific brain regions. We have hypothesized that the changes in neural activity observed during increased cholinergic function reflect an increase in neural efficiency that leads to improved task performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by assessing neural efficiency based on cholinergically-mediated effects on regional brain connectivity and BOLD signal variability. Nine subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover fMRI study. Following an infusion of physostigmine (1 mg/h) or placebo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) was conducted as participants performed a selective attention task. During the task, two images comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Subjects were instructed periodically to shift their attention from one stimulus component to the other and to perform a matching task using hand held response buttons. A control condition included phase-scrambled images of superimposed faces and houses that were presented in the same temporal and spatial manner as the attention task; participants were instructed to perform a matching task. Cholinergic enhancement improved performance during the selective attention task, with no change during the control task. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the strength of connectivity between ventral visual processing areas and task-related occipital, parietal and prefrontal regions reduced significantly during cholinergic enhancement, exclusively during the selective attention task. Physostigmine administration also reduced BOLD signal temporal variability relative to placebo throughout temporal and occipital visual processing areas, again during the selective attention task only. Together with the observed behavioral improvement, the decreases in connectivity strength throughout task-relevant regions and BOLD variability within stimulus

  5. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis, Version III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a condensed documentation for VERSION III of the BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis. An experienced analyst should be able to use this system routinely for solving problems by referring to this document. Individual reports must be referenced for details. This report covers basic input instructions and describes recent extensions to the modules as well as to the interface data file specifications. Some application considerations are discussed and an elaborate sample problem is used as an instruction aid. Instructions for creating the system on IBM computers are also given

  7. Bold Ideas for the 4th H in 4-H: Teen Identified Concerns and Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a literature review; teen-identified health concerns and issues; and teen bold ideas for actions. Findings from the National 4-H Council and Molina Healthcare Teens Take on Health initiative are provided and implications for 4-H programming tied to the new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness are addressed. The article is intended as background for Extension educators, volunteers and administrators as they review the 4-H Healthy Living Mission Mandate, learn what mattered to teens and consider how to incorporate the findings into state and local 4-H youth development programming.

  8. BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis, Version III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a condensed documentation for VERSION III of the BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis. An experienced analyst should be able to use this system routinely for solving problems by referring to this document. Individual reports must be referenced for details. This report covers basic input instructions and describes recent extensions to the modules as well as to the interface data file specifications. Some application considerations are discussed and an elaborate sample problem is used as an instruction aid. Instructions for creating the system on IBM computers are also given.

  9. Methods of Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis for Evaluating Renal Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI has recently been utilized as a noninvasive tool for evaluating renal oxygenation. Several methods have been proposed for analyzing BOLD images. Regional ROI selection is the earliest and most widely used method for BOLD analysis. In the last 20 years, many investigators have used this method to evaluate cortical and medullary oxygenation in patients with ischemic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD, acute kidney injury and renal allograft rejection. However, clinical trials of BOLD MRI using regional ROI selection revealed that it was difficult to distinguish the renal cortico-medullary zones with this method, and that it was susceptible to observer variability. To overcome these deficiencies, several new methods were proposed for analyzing BOLD images, including the compartmental approach, fractional hypoxia method, concentric objects (CO method and twelve-layer concentric objects (TLCO method. The compartmental approach provides an algorithm to judge whether the pixel belongs to the cortex or medulla. Fractional kidney hypoxia, measured by using BOLD MRI, was negatively correlated with renal blood flow, tissue perfusion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The CO method divides the renal parenchyma into six or twelve layers of thickness in each coronal slice of BOLD images and provides a R2* radial profile curve. The slope of the R2* curve associated positively with eGFR in CKD patients. Indeed, each method invariably has advantages and disadvantages, and there is generally no consensus method so far. Undoubtedly, analytic approaches for BOLD MRI with better reproducibility would assist clinicians in monitoring the degree of kidney hypoxia and thus facilitating timely reversal of tissue hypoxia.

  10. A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical narcissism: understanding boldness in terms of well-known personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to examine a Big Five 'bright-side' analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder, i.e. narcissism. A total of 6957 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R, which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the domain and the facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), which has a measure of Narcissism called Bold as one of its dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets (NEO-PI-R) and sub-clinical narcissism. The Bold (Narcissism) scale from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Bold individuals are disagreeable extraverts with very low scores on facet Modesty but moderately high scores on Assertiveness, Competence and Achievement Striving. The study confirmed work using different population groups and different measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Changes in BOLD and ADC weighted imaging in acute hypoxia during sea-level and altitude adapted states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, Henrik B.W.; Born, Alfred P.

    2005-01-01

    possible structural changes as measured by diffusion weighted imaging. Eleven healthy sea-level residents were studied after 5 weeks of adaptation to high altitude conditions at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5260 m). The subjects were studied immediately after return to sea-level in hypoxic and normoxic conditions...... was slightly elevated in high altitude as compared to sea-level adaptation. It is concluded that hypoxia significantly diminishes the BOLD response, and the mechanisms underlying this finding are discussed. Furthermore, altitude adaptation may influence both the magnitude of the activation-related response......, and the examinations repeated 6 months later after re-adaptation to sea-level conditions. The BOLD response, measured at 1.5 T, was severely reduced during acute hypoxia both in the altitude and sea-level adapted states (50% reduction during an average S(a)O(2) of 75%). On average, the BOLD response magnitude was 23...

  12. Comparison of diffusion-weighted fMRI and BOLD fMRI responses in a verbal working memory task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Toshihiko; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Le Bihan, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) has been reported to have a different response pattern in the visual cortex than that of BOLD-fMRI. Especially, the DfMRI signal shows a constantly faster response at both onset and offset of the stimulus, suggesting that the DfMRI signal might be more directly linked to neuronal events than the hemodynamic response. However, because the DfMRI response also contains a residual sensitivity to BOLD this hypothesis has been challenged. Using a verbal working memory task we show that the DfMRI time-course features are preserved outside visual cortices, but also less liable to between-subject/between-regional variation than the BOLD response. The overall findings not only support the feasibility of DfMRI as an approach for functional brain imaging, but also strengthen the uniqueness of the DfMRI signal origin. (authors)

  13. Increased BOLD Signals Elicited by High Gamma Auditory Stimulation of the Left Auditory Cortex in Acute State Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Kuga, M.D.

    2016-10-01

    We acquired BOLD responses elicited by click trains of 20, 30, 40 and 80-Hz frequencies from 15 patients with acute episode schizophrenia (AESZ, 14 symptom-severity-matched patients with non-acute episode schizophrenia (NASZ, and 24 healthy controls (HC, assessed via a standard general linear-model-based analysis. The AESZ group showed significantly increased ASSR-BOLD signals to 80-Hz stimuli in the left auditory cortex compared with the HC and NASZ groups. In addition, enhanced 80-Hz ASSR-BOLD signals were associated with more severe auditory hallucination experiences in AESZ participants. The present results indicate that neural over activation occurs during 80-Hz auditory stimulation of the left auditory cortex in individuals with acute state schizophrenia. Given the possible association between abnormal gamma activity and increased glutamate levels, our data may reflect glutamate toxicity in the auditory cortex in the acute state of schizophrenia, which might lead to progressive changes in the left transverse temporal gyrus.

  14. Personality and the collective: bold homing pigeons occupy higher leadership ranks in flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takao; Mann, Richard P; Warren, Katherine N; Herbert, Tristian; Wilson, Tara; Biro, Dora

    2018-05-19

    While collective movement is ecologically widespread and conveys numerous benefits on individuals, it also poses a coordination problem: who controls the group's movements? The role that animal 'personalities' play in this question has recently become a focus of research interest. Although many animal groups have distributed leadership (i.e. multiple individuals influence collective decisions), studies linking personality and leadership have focused predominantly on the group's single most influential individual. In this study, we investigate the relationship between personality and the influence of multiple leaders on collective movement using homing pigeons, Columba livia , a species known to display complex multilevel leadership hierarchies during flock flights. Our results show that more exploratory (i.e. 'bold') birds are more likely to occupy higher ranks in the leadership hierarchy and thus have more influence on the direction of collective movement than less exploratory (i.e. 'shy') birds during both free flights around their lofts and homing flights from a distant site. Our data also show that bold pigeons fly faster than shy birds during solo flights. We discuss our results in light of theories about the evolution of personality, with specific reference to the adaptive value of heterogeneity in animal groups.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Intraindividual variability of boldness is repeatable across contexts in a wild lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Highcock

    Full Text Available Animals do not behave in exactly the same way when repeatedly tested in the same context or situation, even once systematic variation, such as habituation, has been controlled for. This unpredictability is called intraindividual variability (IIV and has been little studied in animals. Here we investigated how IIV in boldness (estimated by flight initiation distances changed across two seasons--the dry, non-breeding season and the wet, breeding season--in a wild population of the Namibian rock agama, Agama planiceps. We found significant differences in IIV both between individuals and seasons, and IIV was higher in the wet season, suggesting plasticity in IIV. Further, IIV was highly repeatable (r = 0.61 between seasons and we found strong negative correlations between consistent individual differences in flight initiation distances, i.e. their boldness, and individuals' IIVs. We suggest that to understand personality in animals, researchers should generate a personality 'profile' that includes not only the relative level of a trait (i.e. its personality, but also its plasticity and variability under natural conditions.

  16. Unemployment in chronic airflow obstruction around the world: results from the BOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønseth, Rune; Erdal, Marta; Tan, Wan C; Obaseki, Daniel O; Amaral, Andre F S; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Koul, Parvaiz A; Studnicka, Michael; Salvi, Sundeep; Burney, Peter; Buist, A Sonia; Vollmer, William M; Johannessen, Ane

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine associations between chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and unemployment across the world.Cross-sectional data from 26 sites in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study were used to analyse effects of CAO on unemployment. Odds ratios for unemployment in subjects aged 40-65 years were estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear model with study site as random effect. Site-by-site heterogeneity was assessed using individual participant data meta-analyses.Out of 18 710 participants, 11.3% had CAO. The ratio of unemployed subjects with CAO divided by subjects without CAO showed large site discrepancies, although these were no longer significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and education. The site-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for unemployment was 1.79 (1.41-2.27) for CAO cases, decreasing to 1.43 (1.14-1.79) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and forced vital capacity. Of other covariates that were associated with unemployment, age and education were important risk factors in high-income sites (4.02 (3.53-4.57) and 3.86 (2.80-5.30), respectively), while female sex was important in low- to middle-income sites (3.23 (2.66-3.91)).In the global BOLD study, CAO was associated with increased levels of unemployment, even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and lung function. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  17. MEG and fMRI fusion for nonlinear estimation of neural and BOLD signal changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M Plis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The combined analysis of MEG/EEG and functional MRI measurements can lead to improvement in the description of the dynamical and spatial properties of brain activity. In this paper we empirically demonstrate this improvement using simulated and recorded task related MEG and fMRI activity. Neural activity estimates were derived using a dynamic Bayesian network with continuous real valued parameters by means of a sequential Monte Carlo technique. In synthetic data, we show that MEG and fMRI fusion improves estimation of the indirectly observed neural activity and smooths tracking of the BOLD response. In recordings of task related neural activity the combination of MEG and fMRI produces a result with greater SNR, that confirms the expectation arising from the nature of the experiment. The highly nonlinear model of the BOLD response poses a difficult inference problem for neural activity estimation; computational requirements are also high due to the time and space complexity. We show that joint analysis of the data improves the system's behavior by stabilizing the differential equations system and by requiring fewer computational resources.

  18. Low prevalence of obstructive lung disease in a suburban population of Malaysia: A BOLD collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Li Cher; Rashid, Abdul; Sholehah, Siti; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Patel, Jaymini H; Burney, Peter

    2016-08-01

    As a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) collaboration, we studied the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated risk factors in a suburban population in Malaysia. Nonhospitalized men or women of age ≥ 40 years from a Penang district were recruited by stratified simple random sampling. Participants completed detailed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and exposure to COPD risk factors. Prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry conducted was standardized across all international BOLD sites in device and data quality control. Of the 1218 individuals recruited for the study, 663 (340 men and 323 women) had complete questionnaire data and acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry. The estimated population prevalence of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) ≥ stage I was 6.5% or 3.4% based on either fixed forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of population-based epidemiology data on COPD for Malaysia. Compared with other sites globally, our estimated population prevalence was relatively low. In addition to cigarette smoking, use of biomass fuel and exposure to dusty job represented significant risk to the development of COPD. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  20. Detecting Activation in fMRI Data: An Approach Based on Sparse Representation of BOLD Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Guillen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple yet effective approach for detecting activated voxels in fMRI data by exploiting the inherent sparsity property of the BOLD signal in temporal and spatial domains. In the time domain, the approach combines the General Linear Model (GLM with a Least Absolute Deviation (LAD based regression method regularized by the pseudonorm l0 to promote sparsity in the parameter vector of the model. In the spatial domain, detection of activated regions is based on thresholding the spatial map of estimated parameters associated with a particular stimulus. The threshold is calculated by exploiting the sparseness of the BOLD signal in the spatial domain assuming a Laplacian distribution model. The proposed approach is validated using synthetic and real fMRI data. For synthetic data, results show that the proposed approach is able to detect most activated voxels without any false activation. For real data, the method is evaluated through comparison with the SPM software. Results indicate that this approach can effectively find activated regions that are similar to those found by SPM, but using a much simpler approach. This study may lead to the development of robust spatial approaches to further simplifying the complexity of classical schemes.

  1. Ghrelin modulates the fMRI BOLD response of homeostatic and hedonic brain centers regulating energy balance in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Sárvári

    Full Text Available The orexigenic gut-brain peptide, ghrelin and its G-protein coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1A are pivotal regulators of hypothalamic feeding centers and reward processing neuronal circuits of the brain. These systems operate in a cooperative manner and receive a wide array of neuronal hormone/transmitter messages and metabolic signals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed in the current study to map BOLD responses to ghrelin in different brain regions with special reference on homeostatic and hedonic regulatory centers of energy balance. Experimental groups involved male, ovariectomized female and ovariectomized estradiol-replaced rats. Putative modulation of ghrelin signaling by endocannabinoids was also studied. Ghrelin-evoked effects were calculated as mean of the BOLD responses 30 minutes after administration. In the male rat, ghrelin evoked a slowly decreasing BOLD response in all studied regions of interest (ROI within the limbic system. This effect was antagonized by pretreatment with GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959. The comparison of ghrelin effects in the presence or absence of JMV2959 in individual ROIs revealed significant changes in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens of the telencephalon, and also within hypothalamic centers like the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the female rat, the ghrelin effects were almost identical to those observed in males. Ovariectomy and chronic estradiol replacement had no effect on the BOLD response. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid signaling by rimonabant significantly attenuated the response of the nucleus accumbens and septum. In summary, ghrelin can modulate hypothalamic and mesolimbic structures controlling energy balance in both sexes. The endocannabinoid signaling system contributes to the manifestation of ghrelin's BOLD effect in a region specific manner. In females, the

  2. Regional Reproducibility of BOLD Calibration Parameter M, OEF and Resting-State CMRO2 Measurements with QUO2 MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Lajoie

    Full Text Available The current generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond simple localization of task-related responses to allow the mapping of resting-state cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 in micromolar units and estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF. Prior to the adoption of such techniques in neuroscience research applications, knowledge about the precision and accuracy of absolute estimates of CMRO2 and OEF is crucial and remains unexplored to this day. In this study, we addressed the question of methodological precision by assessing the regional inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the BOLD calibration parameter M, OEF, O2 delivery and absolute CMRO2 estimates derived from a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique, the QUantitative O2 (QUO2 approach. We acquired simultaneous measurements of CBF and R2* at rest and during periods of hypercapnia (HC and hyperoxia (HO on two separate scan sessions within 24 hours using a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. Maps of M, OEF, oxygen delivery and CMRO2, were estimated from the measured end-tidal O2, CBF0, CBFHC/HO and R2*HC/HO. Variability was assessed by computing the between-subject coefficients of variation (bwCV and within-subject CV (wsCV in seven ROIs. All tests GM-averaged values of CBF0, M, OEF, O2 delivery and CMRO2 were: 49.5 ± 6.4 mL/100 g/min, 4.69 ± 0.91%, 0.37 ± 0.06, 377 ± 51 μmol/100 g/min and 143 ± 34 μmol/100 g/min respectively. The variability of parameter estimates was found to be the lowest when averaged throughout all GM, with general trends toward higher CVs when averaged over smaller regions. Among the MRI measurements, the most reproducible across scans was R2*0 (wsCVGM = 0.33% along with CBF0 (wsCVGM = 3.88% and R2*HC (wsCVGM = 6.7%. CBFHC and R2*HO were found to have a higher intra-subject variability (wsCVGM = 22.4% and wsCVGM = 16% respectively, which is likely due to propagation of random measurement errors, especially for CBFHC due to the

  3. "To Boldly Go" versus "Last, Best Hope" : The Future of Human Civilization as Depicted in American Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Glasø, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "'To Boldly Go" versus "Last, Best Hope'" examines a total of four American television series from the Star Trek and Babylon 5 franchises, and the portrayal of human civilization in the future. The thesis traces how Star Trek set out "to boldly go" and how Babylon 5 was the "last, best hope" in depicting a coherent, futuristic vision for humanity. The initial chapter focuses on the background of the series and also the ways they differed from one another, while chapter 2 is devoted to the por...

  4. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

  5. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  6. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S.; Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Wiklund, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity β2-containing nicotinic receptors (β2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the β2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, β2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via α7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on β2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  7. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me...

  8. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  9. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  10. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major): body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C.; Van Oers, K.

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  11. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major) : body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C; van Oers, K

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  12. Perforations during contrast enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.; Grabbe, E.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg

    1983-01-01

    During contrast enema, perforation into the retroperitoneal space can be differentiated from perforation into the peritoneum and perforation into the intestinal wall associated with formation of barium granulomas or submucosal spreading of the contrast medium. Other special forms are perforation with contrast medium embolism of diverticula; of the processus vermiformis; penetration of contrast medium into fistulous systems and from the operated areas. Risk factors are: balloon catheter, intestinal tubes with a hard tip, preternatural anus, excessive enema pressure, contrast medium additions, preceding manipulations, intestinal diseases, advanced age and delegation of manipulations to assistants and unskilled staff. Children are particularly at risk. (orig.) [de

  13. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  14. The impact of susceptibility gradients on cartesian and spiral EPI for BOLD fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangill, Ryan; Wallentin, Mikkel; Østergaard, Leif

    2006-01-01

    , with special emphasis on spiral EPI (spiral) and cartesian EPI (EPI) and their performance under influence of induced field gradients (SFGs) and stochastic noise. A numerical method for calculating synthetic MR images is developed and used to simulate BOLD fMRI experiments using EPI and spirals. The data...... is then examined for activation using a pixel-wise t test. Nine subjects are scanned with both techniques while performing a motor task. SPM99 is used for analysing the experimental data. The simulated spirals provide generally higher t scores at low SFGs but lose more strength than EPI at higher SFGs, where EPI...... activation is offset from the true position. In the primary motor area spirals provide significantly higher t scores (P SFG areas spirals provide stronger activation than...

  15. Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift φ directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient ∇ φ , or the Laplacian ∇ 2 φ. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1,000-10,000 in the energy

  16. Spatial-temporal-spectral EEG patterns of BOLD functional network connectivity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoš, Martin; Mareček, Radek; Slavíček, Tomáš; Mikl, Michal; Rektor, Ivan; Jan, Jiří

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during electroencephalogram (EEG) data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity. Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by parallel factor analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity. The simultaneously acquired BOLD fMRI data were decomposed by independent component analysis. Dynamic functional connectivity was computed on the component’s time series using a sliding window correlation, and between-network connectivity states were then defined based on the values of the correlation coefficients. ANOVA tests were performed to assess the relationships between the dynamics of between-network connectivity states and the fluctuations of EEG spectral patterns. Main results. We found three patterns related to the dynamics of between-network connectivity states. The first pattern has dominant peaks in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands and is related to the dynamics between the auditory, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. The second pattern, with dominant peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the visual and default mode network. The third pattern, also with peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the auditory and frontal network. Significance. Our previous findings revealed a relationship between EEG spectral pattern fluctuations and the hemodynamics of large-scale brain networks. In this study, we suggest that the relationship also exists at the level of functional connectivity dynamics among large-scale brain networks when no standard spatial and spectral

  17. Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Sullivan, Sean D; Shi, Xu; Nerenz, David R; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Kessler, Larry; James, Kathryn; Friedly, Janna L; Bresnahan, Brian W; Bauer, Zoya; Avins, Andrew L; Deyo, Richard A

    2014-04-23

    Back pain represents a substantial burden globally, ranking first in a recent assessment among causes of years lived with disability. Though back pain is widely studied among working age adults, there are gaps with respect to basic descriptive epidemiology among seniors, especially in the United States. Our goal was to describe how pain, function and health-related quality of life vary by demographic and geographic factors among seniors presenting to primary care providers with new episodes of care for back pain. We examined baseline data from the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry, the largest inception cohort to date of seniors presenting to a primary care provider for back pain. The sample included 5,239 patients ≥ 65 years old with a new primary care visit for back pain at three integrated health systems (Northern California Kaiser-Permanente, Henry Ford Health System [Detroit], and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates [Boston]). We examined differences in patient characteristics across healthcare sites and associations of patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with baseline patient-reported measures of pain, function, and health-related quality of life. Patients differed across sites in demographic and other characteristics. The Detroit site had more African-American patients (50%) compared with the other sites (7-8%). The Boston site had more college graduates (68%) compared with Detroit (20%). Female sex, lower educational status, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse functional disability as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Except for age, these factors were also associated with worse pain. Baseline pain and functional impairment varied substantially with a number of factors in the BOLD cohort. Healthcare site was an important factor. After controlling for healthcare site, lower education, female sex, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse

  18. Interneuronal systems of the cervical spinal cord assessed with BOLD imaging at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, C.P.; Schoth, F.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Krings, T.; Pettersson, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if functional activity with spinal cord somatosensory stimulation can be visualized using BOLD fMRI. We investigated nine healthy volunteers using a somatosensory stimulus generator. The stimuli were applied in three different runs at the first, third, and fifth finger tip of the right hand, respectively, corresponding to dermatomes c6, c7, and c8. The stimuli gave an increase of BOLD signal (activation) in three different locations of the spinal cord and brain stem. First, activations could be seen in the spinal segment corresponding to the stimulated dermatome in seven out of nine volunteers for c6 stimulation, two out of eight for c7, and three out of eight for c8. These activations were located close to the posterior margin of the spinal cord, presumably reflecting synaptic transmission to dorsal horn interneurons. Second, activation in the medulla oblongata was evident in four subjects, most likely corresponding to the location of the nucleus cuneatus. The third location of activation, which was the strongest and most reliable observed was inside the spinal cord in the c3 and c4 segments. Activation at these spinal levels was almost invariably observed independently of the dermatome stimulated (9/9 for c6, 8/8 for c7, and 7/8 for c8 stimulation). These activations may pertain to an interneuronal system at this spinal level. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies on cervical spinal interneuronal pathways in animals and humans. (orig.)

  19. Boldness towards novelty and translocation success in captive-raised, orphaned Tasmanian devils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, David L; Cawthen, Lisa; Jones, Susan M; Pukk, Chrissy; Jones, Menna E

    2014-01-01

    Translocation of endangered animals is common, but success is often variable and/or poor. Despite its intuitive appeal, little is known with regards to how individual differences amongst translocated animals influence their post-release survival, growth, and reproduction. We measured consistent pre-release responses to novelty in a familiar environment (boldness; repeatability=0.55) and cortisol response in a group of captive-reared Tasmanian devils, currently listed as "Endangered" by the IUCN. The devils were then released at either a hard- or soft-release site within their mothers' population of origin, and individual growth, movement, reproduction (females only), and survival across 2-8 months post-release was measured. Sex, release method, cohort, behavior, and cortisol response did not affect post-release growth, nor did these factors influence the home range size of orphan devils. Final linear distances moved from the release site were impacted heavily by the release cohort, but translocated devils' movement overall was not different from that in the same-age wild devils. All orphan females of reproductive age were subsequently captured with offspring. Overall survival rates in translocated devils were moderate (∼42%), and were not affected by devil sex, release method, cohort, release weight, or pre-release cortisol response. Devils that survived during the study period were, however, 3.5 times more bold than those that did not (effect size r=0.76). Our results suggest that conservation managers may need to provide developmental conditions in captivity that promote a wide range of behaviors across individuals slated for wild release. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg

    2006-02-15

    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  1. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Dietz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping....... Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline...... was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70–89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during...

  2. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  3. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  4. Influence of radiographic contrast media on phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, F.; Georgsen, J.; Grunnet, N.; Aalborg Sygehus

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of radiographic contrast media (CM) on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML), the ability of these cells to ingest latex particles after in vitro exposure to five different radiographic contrast media was investigated. All CM inhibited the phagocytic properties of PML. The inhibition was dose dependent. The inhibitory effect was partly due to hyperosmolality but CM specific inhibition was also evident. (orig.)

  5. Co-localization between the BOLD response and epileptiform discharges recorded by simultaneous intracranial EEG-fMRI at 3 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Aghakhani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: iEEG-fMRI is a feasible and low-risk method for assessment of hemodynamic changes of very focal IEDs that may not be recorded by scalp EEG. A high concordance rate between the location of the BOLD response and IEDs was seen for mesial temporal (6/7 IEDs. Significant BOLD activation was also seen in areas distant from the active electrode and these sites exhibited maximal BOLD activation in the majority of cases. This implies that iEEG-fMRI may further describe the areas involved in the generation of IEDs beyond the vicinity of the electrode(s.

  6. Differential Localization of Pain-Related and Pain-Unrelated Neural Responses for Acupuncture at BL60 Using BOLD fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to differentiate between pain-related and pain-unrelated neural responses of acupuncture at BL60 to investigate the specific effects of acupuncture. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were evaluated. fMRI was performed with sham or verum acupuncture stimulation at the left BL60 before and after local anesthesia. To investigate the relative BOLD signal effect for each session, a one-sample t-test was performed for individual contrast maps, and a paired t-test to investigate the differences between the pre- and post-anesthetic signal effects. Regarding verum acupuncture, areas that were more activated before local anesthesia included the superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, culmen, and cerebellar tonsil. The postcentral gyrus was more deactivated before local anesthesia. After local anesthesia, the middle occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and declive were deactivated. Pre-anesthetic verum acupuncture at BL60 activated areas of vision and pain transmission. Post-anesthetic verum acupuncture deactivated brain areas of visual function, which is considered to be a pain-unrelated acupuncture response. It indicates that specific effects of acupoint BL60 are to control vision sense as used in the clinical setting.

  7. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua; Dietz, Martin; Møller, Arne; Jensen, Martin S; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wiech, Katja; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70-89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during religious prayer in a large parietofrontal network relative to the secular condition. Naloxone had no significant effect on ratings or neural activity. Our results thus indicate that, under these conditions, pain modulation by prayer is not opioid-dependent. Further studies should employ an optimized design to explore whether reduced engagement of the frontoparietal system could indicate that prayer may attenuate pain through a reduction in processing of pain stimulus saliency and prefrontal control rather than through known descending pain inhibitory systems.

  8. Contrast analysis : A tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.

    2018-01-01

    Contrast analysis is a relatively simple but effective statistical method for testing theoretical predictions about differences between group means against the empirical data. Despite its advantages, contrast analysis is hardly used to date, perhaps because it is not implemented in a convenient

  9. Contrast Enhanced US in the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ki Whang

    2012-01-01

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound, which was introduced in 1996, has been widely used in Europe and Eastern Asia. Ultrasound contrast agent can be classified as first generation and second generation, depending on the gas within the microbubble. With the first generation contrast agent, the high MI technique was used, and only intermittent scanning was possible due to destruction of the microbubble during scanning. Use of the second generation contrast agent with the low MI technique makes continuous scanning possible. Contrast enhanced US can be used in detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. It is also helpful for monitoring of radiofrequency ablation and for targeting of US guided biopsy. Currently, because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the response of the tumor to treatment, new criteria are needed for treatment evaluation after administration of anti-angiogenic agents. Contrast enhanced US could provide quantitative markers for evaluation of the response to treatment via use of dynamic contrast enhanced US. Due to cost-effectiveness, contrast enhanced US is not yet widely used in Korea; however, considering recent issues regarding contrast agent related adverse reaction, such as contrast induced nephropathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and radiation exposure, contrast enhanced US might be more widely used in Korea, as an alternative imaging modality in the future.

  10. The Not-So-Global Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Jacob; Keilholz, Shella

    2018-04-01

    Global signal regression is a controversial processing step for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, partly because the source of the global blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal remains unclear. On the one hand, nuisance factors such as motion can readily introduce coherent BOLD changes across the whole brain. On the other hand, the global signal has been linked to neural activity and vigilance levels, suggesting that it contains important neurophysiological information and should not be discarded. Any widespread pattern of coordinated activity is likely to contribute appreciably to the global signal. Such patterns may include large-scale quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns, known also to be tied to performance on vigilance tasks. This uncertainty surrounding the separability of the global BOLD signal from concurrent neurological processes motivated an examination of the global BOLD signal's spatial distribution. The results clarify that although the global signal collects information from all tissue classes, a diverse subset of the BOLD signal's independent components contribute the most to the global signal. Further, the timing of each network's contribution to the global signal is not consistent across volunteers, confirming the independence of a constituent process that comprises the global signal.

  11. Complexity of low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations covaries with local connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Nielsen, Jared A; Ferguson, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Very low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations have emerged as a valuable tool for describing brain anatomy, neuropathology, and development. Such fluctuations exhibit power law frequency dynamics, with largest amplitude at lowest frequencies. The biophysical mechanisms generating such fluctuations are poorly understood. Using publicly available data from 1,019 subjects of age 7-30, we show that BOLD fluctuations exhibit temporal complexity that is linearly related to local connectivity (regional homogeneity), consistently and significantly covarying across subjects and across gray matter regions. This relationship persisted independently of covariance with gray matter density or standard deviation of BOLD signal. During late neurodevelopment, BOLD fluctuations were unchanged with age in association cortex while becoming more random throughout the rest of the brain. These data suggest that local interconnectivity may play a key role in establishing the complexity of low-frequency BOLD fluctuations underlying functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity. Stable low-frequency power dynamics may emerge through segmentation and integration of connectivity during development of distributed large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Contrast configuration influences grouping in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; Clifford, Colin W G; Wenderoth, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether the same principles that influence grouping in static displays also influence grouping in apparent motion. Using the Ternus display, we found that the proportion of group motion reports was influenced by changes in contrast configuration. Subjects made judgments of completion of these same configurations in a static display. Generally, contrast configurations that induced a high proportion of group motion responses were judged as more 'complete' in static displays. Using a stereo display, we then tested whether stereo information and T-junction information were critical for this increase in group motion. Perceived grouping was consistently higher for same contrast polarity configurations than for opposite contrast polarity configurations, regardless of the presence of stereo information or explicit T-junctions. Thus, while grouping in static and moving displays showed a similar dependence on contrast configuration, motion grouping showed little dependence on stereo or T-junction information.

  13. Towards a mechanistic understanding of vulnerability to hook-and-line fishing: Boldness as the basic target of angling-induced selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    by juvenile growth rate, while morphological traits were only weakly related to angling vulnerability. In addition, we found juvenile growth rate to be moderately correlated with boldness. Hence, direct selection on boldness will also induce indirect selection on juvenile growth and vice versa, but given......In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp (Cyprinus carpio) within a narrow size range to investigate...... the mechanistic basis of behavioral selection caused by angling. We focused on one key personality trait (i.e., boldness), measured in groups within ponds, two morphological traits (body shape and head shape), and one life-history trait (juvenile growth capacity) and studied mean standardized selection gradients...

  14. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  16. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes. PMID:28489864

  17. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three‐spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, A.; Boogert, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food‐deprived three‐spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace‐of‐life theory predicting that life‐history strategies are linked to boldness. PMID:26940195

  18. Measurement of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF): An optimized BOLD signal model for use with hypercapnic and hyperoxic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Alberto; Murphy, Kevin; Stone, Alan J; Germuska, Michael A; Griffeth, Valerie E M; Blockley, Nicholas P; Buxton, Richard B; Wise, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    Several techniques have been proposed to estimate relative changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) by exploiting combined BOLD fMRI and cerebral blood flow data in conjunction with hypercapnic or hyperoxic respiratory challenges. More recently, methods based on respiratory challenges that include both hypercapnia and hyperoxia have been developed to assess absolute CMRO2, an important parameter for understanding brain energetics. In this paper, we empirically optimize a previously presented "original calibration model" relating BOLD and blood flow signals specifically for the estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and absolute CMRO2. To do so, we have created a set of synthetic BOLD signals using a detailed BOLD signal model to reproduce experiments incorporating hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges at 3T. A wide range of physiological conditions was simulated by varying input parameter values (baseline cerebral blood volume (CBV0), baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF0), baseline oxygen extraction fraction (OEF0) and hematocrit (Hct)). From the optimization of the calibration model for estimation of OEF and practical considerations of hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges, a new "simplified calibration model" is established which reduces the complexity of the original calibration model by substituting the standard parameters α and β with a single parameter θ. The optimal value of θ is determined (θ=0.06) across a range of experimental respiratory challenges. The simplified calibration model gives estimates of OEF0 and absolute CMRO2 closer to the true values used to simulate the experimental data compared to those estimated using the original model incorporating literature values of α and β. Finally, an error propagation analysis demonstrates the susceptibility of the original and simplified calibration models to measurement errors and potential violations in the underlying assumptions of isometabolism

  19. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christina R; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes.

  20. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosmans, H.; Marchal, G.

    1996-01-01

    Despite many optimizations, the current limitations of plain MR angiography include: Saturation that impairs the visualization of veins and arteries with slow flow and spin-dephasing signal voids in locations with turbulent flow. Recently, the use of contrast agents has been proposed to cope with these remaining problems. Because of induced shortening of the T1 of the blood, saturation in the blood vessels is overcome. As a result, arteries and veins are visualized with the same signal intensity, which makes the technique less flow-dependent. In combination with short T1-weighted acquisitions, today CE MRA can be obtained while the patient is holding his breath. This last approach is most promising for abdominal applications since the respiratory motion can be frozen. As these acquisitions also use very short echo times, spin dephasing can be reduced. In conclusion, the use of contrast agents has greatly increased the clinical usefulness of MR angiography. (orig.) [de

  1. Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent MRI Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Cerebrovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeeing, Diederik P J; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Petersen, Esben T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) results of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI studies performed in patients with cerebrovascular disease (steno-occlusive vascular disease or stroke) were systematically reviewed. SUMMARY: Thirty-one articles...... found a significant lower ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemispheres of patients compared to controls. KEY MESSAGES: This review brings support for a reduced BOLD and ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemisphere of patients with cerebrovascular disease. We suggest that future studies will be performed in a uniform...... way so reference values can be established and could be used to guide treatment decisions in patients with cerebrovascular disease....

  2. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  3. Mamografia Espectral de Contraste

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Inês Santiago; Pereira, Inês; Pacheco, Hugo Pisco; Moutinho, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    A mamografia de contraste é uma aplicação recente possível com a mamografia digital directa, que utiliza contraste iodado endovenoso tendo como princípio a neovascularização induzida no cancro da mama, permitindo obter informação morfológica e funcional. Na mamografia espectral de contraste realiza-se uma aquisição simultânea com alta e baixa energia para cada incidência após administração de contraste iodado endovenoso. É depois feita uma imagem recombinada em que são realçadas as áreas que ...

  4. The association between chronic airflow obstruction and poverty in 12 sites of the multinational BOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, John; Minelli, Cosetta; Mortimer, Kevin; Obaseki, Daniel O; Al Ghobain, Mohammed; Cherkaski, Hamid; Denguezli, Myriam; Gunesekera, Kirthi; Hafizi, Hasan; Koul, Parvaiz A; Loh, Li C; Nejjari, Chakib; Patel, Jaymini; Sooronbayev, Talant; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-06-01

    Poverty is strongly associated with mortality from COPD, but little is known of its relation to airflow obstruction.In a cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥40 years from 12 sites (N=9255), participating in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study, poverty was evaluated using a wealth score (0-10) based on household assets. Obstruction, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) (%) after administration of 200 μg salbutamol, and prevalence of FEV 1 /FVCwealth scores ranged from 4 in Blantyre (Malawi) and Kashmir (India) to 10 in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), and the prevalence of obstruction, from 16% in Kashmir to 3% in Riyadh and Penang (Malaysia). Following adjustments for age and sex, FEV 1 /FVC increased by 0.36% (absolute change) (95%CI: 0.22, 0.49; pwealth score. Adjustments for other confounders reduced this effect to 0.23% (0.11, 0.34), but even this value remained highly significant (pwealth scores explained 38% of the variation in mean FEV 1 /FVC between sites (r 2 =0.385, p=0.031).Airflow obstruction is consistently associated with poverty at individual and community levels across several countries. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Effect of CGRP and sumatriptan on the BOLD response in visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammed Sohail; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates brain activity, we investigated the effect of intravenous CGRP on brain activity in response to a visual stimulus. In addition, we examined if possible alteration in brain activity was reversed by the anti-migraine drug......% of the participants reported headache after CGRP. We found no changes in brain activity after CGRP (P = 0.12) or after placebo (P = 0.41). Sumatriptan did not affect brain activity after CGRP (P = 0.71) or after placebo (P = 0.98). Systemic CGRP or sumatriptan has no direct effects on the BOLD activity in visual...... sumatriptan. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive CGRP infusion (1.5 µg/min for 20 min) or placebo. In vivo activity in the visual cortex was recorded before, during and after infusion and after 6 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan by functional magnetic resonance imaging (3 T). 77...

  6. Internal representations for face detection: an application of noise-based image classification to BOLD responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Adrian; Vettel, Jean M; Tarr, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    What basic visual structures underlie human face detection and how can we extract such structures directly from the amplitude of neural responses elicited by face processing? Here, we address these issues by investigating an extension of noise-based image classification to BOLD responses recorded in high-level visual areas. First, we assess the applicability of this classification method to such data and, second, we explore its results in connection with the neural processing of faces. To this end, we construct luminance templates from white noise fields based on the response of face-selective areas in the human ventral cortex. Using behaviorally and neurally-derived classification images, our results reveal a family of simple but robust image structures subserving face representation and detection. Thus, we confirm the role played by classical face selective regions in face detection and we help clarify the representational basis of this perceptual function. From a theory standpoint, our findings support the idea of simple but highly diagnostic neurally-coded features for face detection. At the same time, from a methodological perspective, our work demonstrates the ability of noise-based image classification in conjunction with fMRI to help uncover the structure of high-level perceptual representations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Exploiting magnetic resonance angiography imaging improves model estimation of BOLD signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghui Hu

    Full Text Available The change of BOLD signal relies heavily upon the resting blood volume fraction ([Formula: see text] associated with regional vasculature. However, existing hemodynamic data assimilation studies pretermit such concern. They simply assign the value in a physiologically plausible range to get over ill-conditioning of the assimilation problem and fail to explore actual [Formula: see text]. Such performance might lead to unreliable model estimation. In this work, we present the first exploration of the influence of [Formula: see text] on fMRI data assimilation, where actual [Formula: see text] within a given cortical area was calibrated by an MR angiography experiment and then was augmented into the assimilation scheme. We have investigated the impact of [Formula: see text] on single-region data assimilation and multi-region data assimilation (dynamic cause modeling, DCM in a classical flashing checkerboard experiment. Results show that the employment of an assumed [Formula: see text] in fMRI data assimilation is only suitable for fMRI signal reconstruction and activation detection grounded on this signal, and not suitable for estimation of unobserved states and effective connectivity study. We thereby argue that introducing physically realistic [Formula: see text] in the assimilation process may provide more reliable estimation of physiological information, which contributes to a better understanding of the underlying hemodynamic processes. Such an effort is valuable and should be well appreciated.

  8. BOLD data representing activation and connectivity for rare no-go versus frequent go cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harma Meffert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuitry underlying response control is often studied using go/no-go tasks, in which participants are required to respond as fast as possible to go cues and withhold from responding to no-go stimuli. In the current task, response control was studied using a fully counterbalanced design in which blocks with a low frequency of no-go cues (75% go, 25% no-go were alternated with blocks with a low frequency of go cues (25% go, 75% no-go; see also “Segregating attention from response control when performing a motor inhibition task: Segregating attention from response control” [1]. We applied a whole brain corrected, paired t-test to the data assessing for regions differentially activated by low frequency no-go cues relative to high frequency go cues. In addition, we conducted a generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis on the data using a right inferior frontal gyrus seed region. This region was identified through the BOLD response t-test and was chosen because right inferior gyrus is highly implicated in response inhibition.

  9. Functional evaluation of transplanted kidneys in normal function and acute rejection using BOLD MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wenbo; Xu Jingjing; Wang Qindong; Xu Ying; Zhang Minming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a large number of subjects using BOLD MRI to provide more information about oxygen metabolism in the normal function of transplanted kidneys and to distinguish acute graft rejection from normal function kidneys. This study included 122 subjects (20 volunteers, 72 patients with normal functioning transplants, and 21 patients with acute rejection), and 9 patients had normal function grafts received examination while grafts dysfunction occurred within 6 months during the follow-up. The R2* (1/s) values in the cortex and medulla as well as the R2* ratio of the medulla to cortex (R2* ratio of M/C) were recorded. The R2* values of the medulla were higher than those of the cortex in the normal function group and the volunteers which have a steep R2* ratio of M/C. All the R2* values in the acute rejection group were lower than those in the normal function grafts group (P 1.1) is an important reason for keeping clinical normal function.

  10. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  11. Investigation of the biochemical state of paramagnetic ions in vivo using the magnetic field dependence of 1/T1 of tissue protons (NMRD profile): applications to contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.H.; Brown, R.D. III; Spiller, M.; Wolf, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of protons are obtained in homogenous aqueous solutions of the paramagnetic ions, Mn 2+ and Gd 3+ and their chelate and macromolecular complexes in vitro, giving information regarding the biochemical state of these ions. Similarly NMRD profiles of protons of excised rabbit tissues containing Mn 2+ and Gd 3+ complexes are obtained. These NMRD profiles are shown to be very useful for determining the fate of potentially useful paramagnetic NMR imaging contrast agents in vivo. (U.K.)

  12. EEG-informed fMRI analysis during a hand grip task: estimating the relationship between EEG rhythms and the BOLD signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSclocco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an increasing interest has arisen in investigating the relationship between the electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements of brain activity, such as EEG and (BOLD fMRI. In particular, changes in BOLD have been shown to be associated with changes in the spectral profile of neural activity, rather than with absolute power. Concurrently, recent findings showed that different EEG rhythms are independently related to changes in the BOLD signal: therefore, it would be important to distinguish between the contributions of the different EEG rhythms to BOLD fluctuations when modeling the relationship between the two signals. Here we propose a method to perform EEG-informed fMRI analysis, in which the EEG regressors take into account both the changes in the spectral profile and the rhythms distinction. We applied it to EEG-fMRI data during a hand grip task in healthy subjects, and compared the results with those obtained by two existing models found in literature. Our results showed that the proposed method better captures the correlations between BOLD signal and EEG rhythms modulations, identifying task-related, well localized activated volumes. Furthermore, we showed that including among the regressors also EEG rhythms not primarily involved in the task enhances the performance of the analysis, even when only correlations with BOLD signal and specific EEG rhythms are explored.

  13. Investigation of Pockels Cells Crystal Contrast Ratio Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Sinkevičius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The BBO Pockel’s cell has been investigated. The investigation results of optimal operating area on the surface of the crystal dependent of intrinsic contrast ratio (ICR and voltage contrast ratio (VCR for Pockel’s cell are presented. The block diagram of Pockel’s cells contrast measurement stand and measurement methodology are introduced and discussed. The graphs of intrinsic contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface, contrast ratio with voltage dependency and voltage contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface with half-wave voltage are presented.

  14. P300 amplitude variation is related to ventral striatum BOLD response during gain and loss anticipation: an EEG and fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Sladky, Ronald; Hahn, Andreas; Paul, Katharina; Grahl, Arvina; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Hummer, Allan; Kranz, Georg S; Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Lamm, Claus

    2014-08-01

    The anticipation of favourable or unfavourable events is a key component in our daily life. However, the temporal dynamics of anticipation processes in relation to brain activation are still not fully understood. A modified version of the monetary incentive delay task was administered during separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) sessions in the same 25 participants to assess anticipatory processes with a multi-modal neuroimaging set-up. During fMRI, gain and loss anticipation were both associated with heightened activation in ventral striatum and reward-related areas. EEG revealed most pronounced P300 amplitudes for gain anticipation, whereas CNV amplitudes distinguished neutral from gain and loss anticipation. Importantly, P300, but not CNV amplitudes, were correlated to neural activation in the ventral striatum for both gain and loss anticipation. Larger P300 amplitudes indicated higher ventral striatum blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response. Early stimulus evaluation processes indexed by EEG seem to be positively related to higher activation levels in the ventral striatum, indexed by fMRI, which are usually associated with reward processing. The current results, however, point towards a more general motivational mechanism processing salient stimuli during anticipation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Blood oxygenation level dependent signal and neuronal adaptation to optogenetic and sensory stimulation in somatosensory cortex in awake animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Daniil P; Li, Limin; Miller, Michael J; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2016-11-01

    The adaptation of neuronal responses to stimulation, in which a peak transient response is followed by a sustained plateau, has been well-studied. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal has also been shown to exhibit adaptation on a longer time scale. However, some regions such as the visual and auditory cortices exhibit significant BOLD adaptation, whereas other such as the whisker barrel cortex may not adapt. In the sensory cortex a combination of thalamic inputs and intracortical activity drives hemodynamic changes, although the relative contributions of these components are not entirely understood. The aim of this study is to assess the role of thalamic inputs vs. intracortical processing in shaping BOLD adaptation during stimulation in the somatosensory cortex. Using simultaneous fMRI and electrophysiology in awake rabbits, we measured BOLD, local field potentials (LFPs), single- and multi-unit activity in the cortex during whisker and optogenetic stimulation. This design allowed us to compare BOLD and haemodynamic responses during activation of the normal thalamocortical sensory pathway (i.e., both inputs and intracortical activity) vs. the direct optical activation of intracortical circuitry alone. Our findings show that whereas LFP and multi-unit (MUA) responses adapted, neither optogenetic nor sensory stimulation produced significant BOLD adaptation. We observed for both paradigms a variety of excitatory and inhibitory single unit responses. We conclude that sensory feed-forward thalamic inputs are not primarily responsible for shaping BOLD adaptation to stimuli; but the single-unit results point to a role in this behaviour for specific excitatory and inhibitory neuronal sub-populations, which may not correlate with aggregate neuronal activity. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  17. A second-order orientation-contrast stimulus for population-receptive-field-based retinotopic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Funda; Carvalho, Joana; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2018-01-01

    Visual field or retinotopic mapping is one of the most frequently used paradigms in fMRI. It uses activity evoked by position-varying high luminance contrast visual patterns presented throughout the visual field for determining the spatial organization of cortical visual areas. While the advantage of using high luminance contrast is that it tends to drive a wide range of neural populations - thus resulting in high signal-to-noise BOLD responses - this may also be a limitation, especially for approaches that attempt to squeeze more information out of the BOLD response, such as population receptive field (pRF) mapping. In that case, more selective stimulation of a subset of neurons - despite reduced signals - could result in better characterization of pRF properties. Here, we used a second-order stimulus based on local differences in orientation texture - to which we refer as orientation contrast - to perform retinotopic mapping. Participants in our experiment viewed arrays of Gabor patches composed of a foreground (a bar) and a background. These could only be distinguished on the basis of a difference in patch orientation. In our analyses, we compare the pRF properties obtained using this new orientation contrast-based retinotopy (OCR) to those obtained using classic luminance contrast-based retinotopy (LCR). Specifically, in higher order cortical visual areas such as LO, our novel approach resulted in non-trivial reductions in estimated population receptive field size of around 30%. A set of control experiments confirms that the most plausible cause for this reduction is that OCR mainly drives neurons sensitive to orientation contrast. We discuss how OCR - by limiting receptive field scatter and reducing BOLD displacement - may result in more accurate pRF localization as well. Estimation of neuronal properties is crucial for interpreting cortical function. Therefore, we conclude that using our approach, it is possible to selectively target particular neuronal

  18. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. © 2013.

  19. The Role of Oxytocin in Parenting and as Augmentative Pharmacotherapy: Critical Issues and Bold Conjectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, M H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J

    2016-08-01

    Despite the sometimes heated debate about the validity of human oxytocin studies, experimental oxytocin research with intranasal administration is a growing field with promising preliminary findings. The effects of intranasally administered oxytocin compared to placebo on brain neural activity have been supported in animal studies and in human studies of neural resting state. In several studies, oxytocin sniffs have been shown to lead to down-regulation of amygdala activation in response to infant attachment vocalisations. Meta-analytic evidence shows that oxytocin enhances the salience of (emotional) stimuli, lowers stress and arousal, and elevates empathic concern and tender care, in particular for offspring and in-group members. Less firm evidence points at the amnestic effects of oxytocin. We also note that the average effect sizes of oxytocin experiments are small to modest, and that most studies include a small number of subjects and thus are seriously underpowered, which implies a high risk for publication bias and nonreplicability. Nevertheless, we argue that the power of within-subjects experiments with oxytocin has been underestimated. Much more work is needed, however, to create a firm knowledge base of the neural and behavioural effects of oxytocin. Human oxytocin research is still taking place in the context of discovery, in which bold conjectures are being generated. In the context of justification, these conjectures should subsequently be subjected to stringent attempts at refutations before we jump to theoretical or clinical conclusions. For this context of justification, we propose a multisite multiple replications project on the social stimuli salience enhancing effect of oxytocin. Clinical application of oxytocin is premature. Meta-analytically, the use of oxytocin in clinical groups tends to show only effectiveness in changing symptomatology in individuals with autism spectrum disorders but, even then, it is not yet a validated therapy and its

  20. Airflow Obstruction and Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking or Heating: BOLD Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Patel, Jaymini; Kato, Bernet S; Obaseki, Daniel O; Lawin, Hervé; Tan, Wan C; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Harrabi, Imed; Studnicka, Michael; Wouters, Emiel F M; Loh, Li-Cher; Bateman, Eric D; Mortimer, Kevin; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-09-12

    Evidence supporting the association of COPD or airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels is conflicting and inconsistent. To assess the association of airflow obstruction with self-reported use of solid fuels for cooking or heating. We analysed 18,554 adults from the BOLD study, who had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on use of solid fuels. The association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating was assessed by sex, within each site, using regression analysis. Estimates were stratified by national income and meta-analysed. We carried out similar analyses for spirometric restriction, chronic cough and chronic phlegm. We found no association between airflow obstruction and use of solid fuels for cooking or heating (ORmen=1.20, 95%CI 0.94-1.53; ORwomen=0.88, 95%CI 0.67-1.15). This was true for low/middle and high income sites. Among never smokers there was also no evidence of an association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels (ORmen=1.00, 95%CI 0.57-1.76; ORwomen=1.00, 95%CI 0.76-1.32). Overall, we found no association of spirometric restriction, chronic cough or chronic phlegm with the use of solid fuels. However, we found that chronic phlegm was more likely to be reported among female never smokers and those who had been exposed for ≥20 years. Airflow obstruction assessed from post-bronchodilator spirometry was not associated with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.

  1. Contrast media: future aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H.J.; Platzek, J.; Schirmer, H.; Pietsch, H.; Carretero, J.; Harto, J.; Medina, J.; Riefke, B.; Martin, J.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the dramatic development in CT, there was no major breakthrough in the iodinated contrast media development. New agents based on hybrid between MRI and CT compounds may be a new innovative alternative. This new approach may also open new indications such as radiotherapy. (orig.)

  2. Roentgen contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborski, C.

    1989-01-01

    The patent deals with a roentgen contrast medium containing a perfluorinebrominealkylether of the formula C m F 2m+1 OC n F 2n Br dispersed in water, preferentially in the presence of a non-ionic dispersing agent such as a fluorinated amidoaminoxide. 2 tabs

  3. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback of the mediodorsal and anterior thalamus enhances correlation between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Wong, Chung Ki; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-02-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG allows volitional modulation of BOLD activity of target brain regions and investigation of related electrophysiological activity. We applied this approach to study correlations between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm. Healthy volunteers in the experimental group (EG, n = 15) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the target region consisting of the mediodorsal (MD) and anterior (AN) thalamic nuclei using rtfMRI-nf during retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. Healthy subjects in the control group (CG, n = 14) were provided with a sham feedback. The EG participants were able to significantly increase BOLD activities of the MD and AN. Functional connectivity between the MD and the inferior precuneus was significantly enhanced during the rtfMRI-nf task. Average individual changes in the occipital alpha EEG power significantly correlated with the average MD BOLD activity levels for the EG. Temporal correlations between the occipital alpha EEG power and BOLD activities of the MD and AN were significantly enhanced, during the rtfMRI-nf task, for the EG compared to the CG. Temporal correlations with the alpha power were also significantly enhanced for the posterior nodes of the default mode network, including the precuneus/posterior cingulate, and for the dorsal striatum. Our findings suggest that the temporal correlation between the MD BOLD activity and posterior alpha EEG power is modulated by the interaction between the MD and the inferior precuneus, reflected in their functional connectivity. Our results demonstrate the potential of the rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous EEG for noninvasive neuromodulation studies of human brain function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  5. Mamografia com contraste

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Rita; Silva, Carina; Reis, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    O estudo pretendeu apresentar as indicações clínicas, vantagens e princípios da mamografia com contraste, identificar as evoluyções tecnológicas para a mamografia com contraste e caracterizar as práticas e os desafios dos técnicos de radiologia do Hospital de Santarém (único no país a utilizar esta técnica). O cancro da mama é uma das principais causas de morte nas mulheres, em todo o mundo, mas principalmente nos Estados Unidos da América, Canadá, Europa Ocidental e Austrália. Em Portugal, e...

  6. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  7. Interleaved quantitative BOLD: Combining extravascular R2' - and intravascular R2-measurements for estimation of deoxygenated blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Englund, Erin K; Wehrli, Felix W

    2018-03-23

    Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD), a non-invasive MRI method for assessment of hemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain in the baseline state, provides spatial maps of deoxygenated blood volume fraction (DBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbO 2 ) by means of an analytical model for the temporal evolution of free-induction-decay signals in the extravascular compartment. However, mutual coupling between DBV and HbO 2 in the signal model results in considerable estimation uncertainty precluding achievement of a unique set of solutions. To address this problem, we developed an interleaved qBOLD method (iqBOLD) that combines extravascular R 2 ' and intravascular R 2 mapping techniques so as to obtain prior knowledge for the two unknown parameters. To achieve these goals, asymmetric spin echo and velocity-selective spin-labeling (VSSL) modules were interleaved in a single pulse sequence. Prior to VSSL, arterial blood and CSF signals were suppressed to produce reliable estimates for cerebral venous blood volume fraction (CBV v ) as well as venous blood R 2 (to yield HbO 2 ). Parameter maps derived from the VSSL module were employed to initialize DBV and HbO 2 in the qBOLD processing. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments at 3 T were performed to evaluate the performance of iqBOLD in comparison to the parent qBOLD method. Data obtained in eight healthy subjects yielded plausible values averaging 60.1 ± 3.3% for HbO 2 and 3.1 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.4% for DBV in gray and white matter, respectively. Furthermore, the results show that prior estimates of CBV v and HbO 2 from the VSSL component enhance the solution stability in the qBOLD processing, and thus suggest the feasibility of iqBOLD as a promising alternative to the conventional technique for quantifying neurometabolic parameters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, J W; Manica, A; Boogert, N J

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food-deprived three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace-of-life theory predicting that life-history strategies are linked to boldness. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  10. Boldness predicts an individual's position along an exploration-exploitation foraging trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Samantha C; Pinaud, David; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2017-09-01

    -off itself. These results demonstrate a clear trade-off between information gathering and exploitation of prey patches, and reveals for the first time that boldness may drive these differences. This provides a mechanism through which widely reported links between personality and foraging may emerge. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  11. Contrast Invariant SNR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Pierre; Escande, Paul; Dong, Yiqiu

    We design an image quality measure independent of local contrast changes, which constitute simple models of illumination changes. Given two images, the algorithm provides the image closest to the first one with the component tree of the second. This problem can be cast as a specific convex progra...... algorithms based on interior point methods. The algorithm has potential applications in change detection, color image processing or image fusion. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.math.univ-toulouse.fr/_weiss/PageCodes.html....

  12. Effects of glyceryl trinitrate and calcitonin-gene-related peptide on BOLD signal and arterial diameter –methodological studies by fMRI and MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammed Sohail; Ashina, Messoud

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades MRI has proved to be very useful in the field of drug development and discovery. Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) explores the interaction between brain physiology, neuronal activity and drugs[1]. The BOLD-signal is an indirect method to investigate brain activity by way...... of measuring task-related hemodynamic changes. Pharmacological substances that induce hemodynamic changes can therefore potentially alter the BOLD-signal that in turn falsely can be interpreted as changes in neuronal activity. It is therefore important to characterize possible effects of a pharmacological...... substance on the BOLD-response per see before that substance can be used in an fMRI experiment. Furthermore MR-angiography is useful in determining the vascular site-of-action of vasoactive substances....

  13. Contrast characteristics of barium preparations and the timing of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 光一; 中桐, 義忠; 東, 義晴; 杉田, 勝彦; 小橋, 高郎; 大倉, 保彦; 丹谷, 延義; 三上, 泰隆; 平木, 祥夫

    1995-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the contrast characteristics of barium suspension and timing of exposure. We poured several kinds of barium preparations on the phantom manufactured by ourselves, and took X-ray pictures continuously by a DSA system. We analyzed each of the characteris-tics of the contrast. The time which was reguired for the contrast to reach the peak (Contrast Peak Time ; CPT) was unrelated with the kind of barium preparations used. It depended on the viscosity of the con...

  14. The effect of Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales on the aggression and boldness of Myrmica scabrinodis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Báthori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of ectosymbiotic Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota fungi and their hosts are rather understudied. Rickia wasmannii Cavara is a common ant-associated Laboulbeniales species that has been reported in 17 countries of Europe, and frequently infects Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, a common ant species host, in high density. These make M. scabrinodis and R. wasmannii appropriate model organisms for studies on fungal host-ectosymbiont interactions. Aggressiveness and boldness of infected and uninfected M. scabrinodis workers from northern and eastern Hungary were studied in two laboratory-established behavioural experiments. Infected workers were significantly less aggressive and less bold (i.e. less likely to leave nest shelters than the uninfected ones. These results suggest that R. wasmannii has considerable effects on the behaviour of M. scabrinodis. Our study brings an evidence that infection of ants with Laboulbeniales might negatively affect the workers’ behaviour. In special, the competitive abilities might be affected most by these fungi, since remaining inside and behaving submissively is not effective behaviour in the case of significant competition for resources among colonies.

  15. Boldness in a deep sea hermit crab to simulated tactile predator attacks is unaffected by ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won; Barry, James P.

    2016-09-01

    Despite rapidly growing interest in the effects of ocean acidification on marine animals, the ability of deep-sea animals to acclimate or adapt to reduced pH conditions has received little attention. Deep-sea species are generally thought to be less tolerant of environmental variation than shallow-living species because they inhabit relatively stable conditions for nearly all environmental parameters. To explore whether deep-sea hermit crabs ( Pagurus tanneri) can acclimate to ocean acidification over several weeks, we compared behavioral "boldness," measured as time taken to re-emerge from shells after a simulated predatory attack by a toy octopus, under ambient (pH ˜7.6) and expected future (pH ˜7.1) conditions. The boldness measure for crab behavioral responses did not differ between different pH treatments, suggesting that future deep-sea acidification would not influence anti-predatory behavior. However, we did not examine the effects of olfactory cues released by predators that may affect hermit crab behavior and could be influenced by changes in the ocean carbonate system driven by increasing CO2 levels.

  16. Basic characteristics of simultaneous color contrast revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the local mechanism of simultaneous color contrast is the same as the mechanism responsible for the crispening effect and the gamut expansion effect. A theoretically important corollary of this hypothesis is that the basic characteristics of simultaneous contrast are at odds with traditional laws. First, this hypothesis implies that the direction of the simultaneous contrast effect in color space is given by the vector from surround to target and not--as traditionally assumed--by the hue complementary to that of the surround. Second, it implies that the size of the simultaneous contrast effect depends on the difference between the target and surround colors in a way that challenges Kirschmann's fourth law. The widespread belief in the traditional laws, we argue, is due to the confounding influence of temporal adaptation.

  17. Instrumentation for contrast echocardiography: technology and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sanjiv

    2002-11-18

    Contrast echocardiography is the only clinical imaging technique in which the imaging modality (ultrasound) can cause a change in the contrast agent (microbubbles). The change in the contrast agent can range from small oscillations of the microbubbles at a low mechanical index to their disruption at a high mechanical index. The specific mechanical index required to produce these various effects may be different for each contrast agent, depending on the bubble dimension as well as shell and gas characteristics. These alterations in bubbles result in changes in ultrasound backscatter that are specific for the bubbles themselves, rather than for tissue, and are therefore exploited for imaging their presence in tissue. These signal-processing techniques have resulted in an increased signal-to-noise ratio from bubbles vis-à-vis the tissue and have made online assessment of myocardial perfusion possible.

  18. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  19. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...... phasors attain predetermined values for predetermined spatial frequencies, and the phasor value of the specific resolution element of the spatial phase mask corresponds to a distinct intensity level of the image of the resolution element in the intensity pattern, and a spatial phase filter for phase...... shifting of a part of the electromagntic radiation, in combination with an imaging system for generation of the intensity pattern by interference in the image plane of the imaging system between the part of the electromagnetic raidation that has been phase shifted by the phase filter and the remaining part...

  20. Paramagnetic contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Paramagnetic contrast materials have certainly demonstrated clinical utility in a variety of organ systems for improved detection of various neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and physiologic abnormalities. Although the more commonly employed extracellular agents, such as Gd-DTPA, have been quite safe and useful, particularly in the CNS, it is almost certain that other substances will achieve more success in various other organs, such as iron oxides in the reticuloendothelial system and persisting extracellular agents in the cardiovascular system. Finally, as MRI technology continues to evolve, producing such exciting new sequences as gradient-echo fast scans, the roles of currently existing and newly discovered paramagnetic pharmaceuticals must be continuously reevaluated both to obtain maximum clinical benefit and to guide the search for newer agents that may further optimize the diagnostic efficacy of MRI

  1. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  2. Orientation-specific contextual modulation of the fMRI BOLD response to luminance and chromatic gratings in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J Scott; Seymour, Kiley J; Schira, Mark M; Spehar, Branka; Clifford, Colin W G

    2009-05-01

    The responses of orientation-selective neurons in primate visual cortex can be profoundly affected by the presence and orientation of stimuli falling outside the classical receptive field. Our perception of the orientation of a line or grating also depends upon the context in which it is presented. For example, the perceived orientation of a grating embedded in a surround tends to be repelled from the predominant orientation of the surround. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the basis of orientation-specific surround effects in five functionally-defined regions of visual cortex: V1, V2, V3, V3A/LO1 and hV4. Test stimuli were luminance-modulated and isoluminant gratings that produced responses similar in magnitude. Less BOLD activation was evident in response to gratings with parallel versus orthogonal surrounds across all the regions of visual cortex investigated. When an isoluminant test grating was surrounded by a luminance-modulated inducer, the degree of orientation-specific contextual modulation was no larger for extrastriate areas than for V1, suggesting that the observed effects might originate entirely in V1. However, more orientation-specific modulation was evident in extrastriate cortex when both test and inducer were luminance-modulated gratings than when the test was isoluminant; this difference was significant in area V3. We suggest that the pattern of results in extrastriate cortex may reflect a refinement of the orientation-selectivity of surround suppression specific to the colour of the surround or, alternatively, processes underlying the segmentation of test and inducer by spatial phase or orientation when no colour cue is available.

  3. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob L. Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., >20 mm of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were >20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64% the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  4. Functional interactions of HIV-infection and methamphetamine dependence during motor programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Sarah L; Jacobson, Mark W; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ogasawara, Miki; Woods, Steven P; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Jernigan, Terry L

    2012-04-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection and both have been linked to alterations of brain structure and function. In a previous study, we showed that the brain volume loss characteristic of HIV infection contrasts with METH-related volume increases in striatum and parietal cortex, suggesting distinct neurobiological responses to HIV and METH (Jernigan et al., 2005). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to reveal functional interactions between the effects of HIV and METH. In the present study, 50 participants were studied in four groups: an HIV+ group, a recently METH-dependent group, a dually affected group, and a group of unaffected community comparison subjects. An fMRI paradigm consisting of motor sequencing tasks of varying levels of complexity was administered to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes. Within all groups, activity increased significantly with increasing task complexity in large clusters within sensorimotor and parietal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cingulate. The task complexity effect was regressed on HIV status, METH status, and the HIV×METH interaction term in a simultaneous multiple regression. HIV was associated with less complexity-related activation in striatum, whereas METH was associated with less complexity-related activation in parietal regions. Significant interaction effects were observed in both cortical and subcortical regions; and, contrary to expectations, the complexity-related activation was less aberrant in dually affected than in single risk participants, in spite of comparable levels of neurocognitive impairment among the clinical groups. Thus, HIV and METH dependence, perhaps through their effects on dopaminergic systems, may have opposing functional effects on neural circuits involved in motor programming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Changhuei; McGuckin, Laura E. L.; Simon, John D.; Choma, Michael A.; Applegate, Brian E.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new molecular contrast optical coherence tomography (MCOCT) implementation that profiles the contrast agent distribution in a sample by measuring the agent's spectral differential absorption. The method, spectra triangulation MCOCT, can effectively suppress contributions from spectrally dependent scatterings from the sample without a priori knowledge of the scattering properties. We demonstrate molecular imaging with this new MCOCT modality by mapping the distribution of indocyani...

  6. Visibility of minute objects with low contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    Minimum perceptible contrast was obtained with a penetrameter made of aluminum plates, in which 40 very small holes were perforated. An object can be seen when its contrast exceeds the minimum perceptible contrast. Visual threshold contrast ratio offers minimum perceptible diameter (MPD) which is theoretically obtained from an image contrast corresponding to the technique applied. The MPDs were obtained prior to experiment as a function of system speed, beam quality, exposure range and magnification, which resulted in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The visibility of small dot-like objects depends on the granularity as its threshold is governed by the surrounding grainy noise. However it was revealed that MTF was as important as granularity. Dot and lineshaped objects were simulated with small glass beads and nylon fibrils, respectively, in order to make ROC analysis on the different radiographic techniques with a CGR Senograph 500T mammographic unit. The 1.5X magnification technique showed the largest advantage on phantom work basis, but clinical evaluation showed the different weight of the affecting physical factors. The results of ROC analysis were extended to entropy analysis. The visibility in actual mammography depends upon the acutance of images as Xeroradiography proved. (Kako, I.)

  7. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Lowen, Steven B; Trksak, George H; Maclean, Robert R; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-08-15

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABA(A) receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 min after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem's modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABA(A) receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebrovascular blood oxygenation level dependent pulsatility at baseline and following acute exercise among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyers, Athena E; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Metcalfe, Arron Ws; Robertson, Andrew D; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents. We evaluate the influence of repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) using simulated and multi-echo empirical data, respectively. There were tissue-specific and voxel-wise BOLD pulsatility decreases 20 min following exercise cessation. BOLD pulsatility detection was comparable over a range of TR and TE values when scan volumes were kept constant; however, short TRs (≤500 ms) and TEs (∼14 ms) acquisitions would yield the most efficient detection. Results suggest cardiac-related BOLD pulsatility may represent a robust and easily adopted method of mapping cerebrovascular pulsatility with voxel-wise resolution.

  9. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 minutes after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20 mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem’s modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABAA receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. PMID:21640782

  10. Blood oxygen-level dependent functional assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity: Feasibility for intraoperative 3 Tesla MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; van Niftrik, Christiaan Hendrik Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Valavanis, Antonios; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of functional blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI to evaluate intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at 3 Tesla field strength. Ten consecutive neurosurgical subjects scheduled for a clinical intraoperative MRI examination were enrolled in this study. In addition to the clinical protocol a BOLD sequence was implemented with three cycles of 44 s apnea to calculate CVR values on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the brain. The CVR range was then color-coded and superimposed on an anatomical volume to create high spatial resolution CVR maps. Ten subjects (mean age 34.8 ± 13.4; 2 females) uneventfully underwent the intraoperative BOLD protocol, with no complications occurring. Whole-brain CVR for all subjects was (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.42, whereas CVR was markedly higher for tumor subjects as compared to vascular subjects, 0.81 ± 0.44 versus 0.33 ± 0.10, respectively. Furthermore, color-coded functional maps could be robustly interpreted for a whole-brain assessment of CVR. We demonstrate that intraoperative BOLD MRI is feasible in creating functional maps to assess cerebrovascular reactivity throughout the brain in subjects undergoing a neurosurgical procedure. Magn Reson Med 77:806-813, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Stroboscopic effect : Contrast threshold function and dependence on illumination level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perz, M.; Sekulovski, D.; Vogels, I.; Heynderickx, I.

    2018-01-01

    The stroboscopic visibility measure (SVM) is a method used to quantify the stroboscopic effect visibility in general illumination application. SVM has been defined previously based on a limited number of frequencies and participants. To validate and extend SVM, five perception experiments are

  12. Study of Pressure Dependence of Signals From Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam, D

    2001-01-01

    ...) of decline as a function of time, of the amplitudes of the first and second harmonics and that of the sub-harmonic, may be a suitable parameter for estimation of the hydrostatic pressure changes. The difference between the amplitude of the first harmonic and that of the sub-harmonic stays almost constant throughout specific time window, thus demonstrating a good and stable correlation with the hydrostatic pressure.

  13. BOLD fMRI of C-Fiber Mediated Nociceptive Processing in Mouse Brain in Response to Thermal Stimulation of the Forepaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C Bosshard

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in rodents enables non-invasive studies of brain function in response to peripheral input or at rest. In this study we describe a thermal stimulation paradigm using infrared laser diodes to apply noxious heat to the forepaw of mice in order to study nociceptive processing. Stimulation at 45 and 46°C led to robust BOLD signal changes in various brain structures including the somatosensory cortices and the thalamus. The BOLD signal amplitude scaled with the temperature applied but not with the area irradiated by the laser beam. To demonstrate the specificity of the paradigm for assessing nociceptive signaling we administered the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 to the forepaws, which due to its positive charge cannot readily cross biological membranes. However, upon activation of TRPV1 channels following the administration of capsaicin the BOLD signal was largely abolished, indicative of a selective block of the C-fiber nociceptors due to QX-314 having entered the cells via the now open TRPV1 channels. This demonstrates that the cerebral BOLD response to thermal noxious paw stimulation is specifically mediated by C-fibers.

  14. Patterns of cortical oscillations organize neural activity into whole-brain functional networks evident in the fMRI BOLD signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Whitman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings from electrophysiology and multimodal neuroimaging have elucidated the relationship between patterns of cortical oscillations evident in EEG / MEG and the functional brain networks evident in the BOLD signal. Much of the existing literature emphasized how high-frequency cortical oscillations are thought to coordinate neural activity locally, while low-frequency oscillations play a role in coordinating activity between more distant brain regions. However, the assignment of different frequencies to different spatial scales is an oversimplification. A more informative approach is to explore the arrangements by which these low- and high-frequency oscillations work in concert, coordinating neural activity into whole-brain functional networks. When relating such networks to the BOLD signal, we must consider how the patterns of cortical oscillations change at the same speed as cognitive states, which often last less than a second. Consequently, the slower BOLD signal may often reflect the summed neural activity of several transient network configurations. This temporal mismatch can be circumvented if we use spatial maps to assess correspondence between oscillatory networks and BOLD networks.

  15. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  16. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  17. The Value of Contrast Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C. Treiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is much evidence-based research proving the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography, but there are still questions and concerns about its specific uses. This study tested the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography in defining the left ventricular endocardial border. Methods: From 30 patients, a total of 60 echocardiograms –– 30 with and 30 without use of contrast –– were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded cardiologists with advanced training in echocardiography. No single cardiologist reviewed contrast and noncontrast images of the same patient. Each set of 30 echocardiograms was then studied for wall-motion scoring. Visualization of left ventricular wall segments and a global visualization confidence level of interpretation were recorded. Results: Of all wall segments (N = 510, 91% were visualized in echocardiograms with use of contrast, whereas 75% of the walls were visualized in echocardiograms without contrast (P < 0.001. Of 30 examinations, 17 contrast echocardiograms were read with high confidence compared to 6 without contrast use (P = 0.004. The number of walls visualized with contrast was increased in 18 patients (60%, whereas noncontrast echocardiograms yielded more visualized walls in 6 patients (20%, P = 0.002. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that contrast is valuable to echocardiographic imaging. Its use should be supported throughout echocardiography clinics and encouraged in certain patients for whom resting and stress echocardiography results without contrast often prove uninterpretable.

  18. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed

  19. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...

  20. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess...

  1. Nalmefene Reduces Reward Anticipation in Alcohol Dependence: An Experimental Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelch, Darren R; Mick, Inge; McGonigle, John; Ramos, Anna C; Flechais, Remy S A; Bolstridge, Mark; Rabiner, Eugenii; Wall, Matthew B; Newbould, Rexford D; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; van den Berg, Franz; Boyce, Malcolm; Østergaard Nilausen, Dorrit; Breuning Sluth, Lasse; Meulien, Didier; von der Goltz, Christoph; Nutt, David; Lingford-Hughes, Anne

    2017-06-01

    Nalmefene is a µ and δ opioid receptor antagonist, κ opioid receptor partial agonist that has recently been approved in Europe for treating alcohol dependence. It offers a treatment approach for alcohol-dependent individuals with "high-risk drinking levels" to reduce their alcohol consumption. However, the neurobiological mechanism underpinning its effects on alcohol consumption remains to be determined. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design we aimed to determine the effect of a single dose of nalmefene on striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change during anticipation of monetary reward using the monetary incentive delay task following alcohol challenge. Twenty-two currently heavy-drinking, non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent males were recruited. The effect of single dose nalmefene (18 mg) on changes in a priori defined striatal region of interest BOLD signal change during reward anticipation compared with placebo was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Both conditions were performed under intravenous alcohol administration (6% vol/vol infusion to achieve a target level of 80 mg/dL). Datasets from 18 participants were available and showed that in the presence of the alcohol infusion, nalmefene significantly reduced the BOLD response in the striatal region of interest compared with placebo. Nalmefene did not alter brain perfusion. Nalmefene blunts BOLD response in the mesolimbic system during anticipation of monetary reward and an alcohol infusion. This is consistent with nalmefene's actions on opioid receptors, which modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, and provides a neurobiological basis for its efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Larger Neural Responses Produce BOLD Signals That Begin Earlier in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eThompson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI analyses commonly rely on the assumption that the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs are independent of the amplitude of the neural signals that give rise to them. The validity of this assumption is particularly important for techniques that use fMRI to resolve sub-second timing distinctions between responses, in order to make inferences about the ordering of neural processes. Whether or not the detailed shape of the HRF is independent of neural response amplitude remains an open question, however. We performed experiments in which we measured responses in primary visual cortex (V1 to large, contrast-reversing checkerboards at a range of contrast levels, which should produce varying amounts of neural activity. Ten subjects (ages 22-52 were studied in each of two experiments using 3 Tesla scanners. We used rapid, 250 msec, temporal sampling (repetition time, or TR and both short and long inter-stimulus interval (ISI stimulus presentations. We tested for a systematic relationship between the onset of the HRF and its amplitude across conditions, and found a strong negative correlation between the two measures when stimuli were separated in time (long- and medium-ISI experiments, but not the short-ISI experiment. Thus, stimuli that produce larger neural responses, as indexed by HRF amplitude, also produced HRFs with shorter onsets. The relationship between amplitude and latency was strongest in voxels with lowest mean-normalized variance (i.e., parenchymal voxels. The onset differences observed in the longer-ISI experiments are likely attributable to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling, since they are substantially larger than reported differences in the onset of action potentials in V1 as a function of response amplitude.

  3. Metabolic changes assessed by MRS accurately reflect brain function during drug-induced epilepsy in mice in contrast to fMRI-based hemodynamic readouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuwen, Aline; Schroeter, Aileen; Grandjean, Joanes; Rudin, Markus

    2015-10-15

    Functional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables the non-invasive assessment of neural activity by measuring signals arising from endogenous metabolites in a time resolved manner. Proof-of-principle of this approach has been demonstrated in humans and rats; yet functional 1H-MRS has not been applied in mice so far, although it would be of considerable interest given the many genetically engineered models of neurological disorders established in this species only. Mouse 1H-MRS is challenging as the high demands on spatial resolution typically result in long data acquisition times not commensurable with functional studies. Here, we propose an approach based on spectroscopic imaging in combination with the acquisition of the free induction decay to maximize signal intensity. Highly resolved metabolite maps have been recorded from mouse brain with 12 min temporal resolution. This enabled monitoring of metabolic changes following the administration of bicuculline, a GABA-A receptor antagonist. Changes in levels of metabolites involved in energy metabolism (lactate and phosphocreatine) and neurotransmitters (glutamate) were investigated in a region-dependent manner and shown to scale with the bicuculline dose. GABAergic inhibition induced spectral changes characteristic for increased neurotransmitter turnover and oxidative stress. In contrast to metabolic readouts, BOLD and CBV fMRI responses did not scale with the bicuculline dose indicative of the failure of neurovascular coupling. Nevertheless fMRI measurements supported the notion of increased oxidative stress revealed by functional MRS. Hence, the combined analysis of metabolic and hemodynamic changes in response to stimulation provides complementary insight into processes associated with neural activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. WHO Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project: innovating to improve quality of care around the time of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Olufemi T; Souza, João Paulo; Bohren, Meghan A; Tunçalp, Özge; Vogel, Joshua P; Fawole, Bukola; Mugerwa, Kidza; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    As most pregnancy-related deaths and morbidities are clustered around the time of childbirth, quality of care during this period is critical to the survival of pregnant women and their babies. Despite the wide acceptance of partograph as the central tool to optimize labour outcomes for over 40 years, its use has not successfully improved outcomes in many settings for several reasons. There are also increasing questions about the validity and applicability of its central feature - "the alert line" - to all women regardless of their labour characteristics. Apart from the known deficiencies in labour care, attempts to improve quality of care in low resource settings have also failed to address and integrate women's birth experience into quality improvement processes. It was against this background that the World Health Organization (WHO) embarked on the Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project to improve the quality of intrapartum care in low- and middle-income countries. The main goal of the BOLD project is to reduce intrapartum-related stillbirths, maternal and newborn mortalities and morbidities by addressing the critical barriers to the process of good quality intrapartum care and enhancing the connection between health systems and communities. The project seeks to achieve this goal by (1) developing an evidence-based, easy to use, labour monitoring-to-action decision-support tool (currently termed Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action - SELMA); and (2) by developing innovative service prototypes/tools, co-designed with users of health services (women, their families and communities) and health providers, to promote access to respectful, dignified and emotionally supportive care for pregnant women and their companions at the time of birth ("Passport to Safer Birth"). This two-pronged approach is expected to positively impact on important domains of quality of care relating to both provision and experience of care. In this paper, we briefly

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS BOLD in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project for 1955-08-25 (NODC Accession 5500036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS BOLD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  6. The new numbers contrast sensitivity chart for contrast sensitivity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharkbhum Khambhiphant

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: These charts show reasonable agreement and can be used interchangeably with the MARS. It is helpful for Thai people who can only read numbers in doing the test. We can use them in routinely contrast sensitivity measurement.

  7. Role of 3T multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging for diagnosis and post therapy response evaluation of postoperative recurrent cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Conventional-MR with MPMRI significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy for suspected vaginal vault/local recurrence. Post therapy serial MPMRI with hypoxia imaging follow-up objectively documents the response. MPMRI and BOLD hypoxia imaging provide information regarding tumor biology at the molecular, subcellular, cellular and tissue levels and this information may be used as an appropriate and reliable biologic target for radiation dose painting to optimize therapy in future.

  8. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA. Technique and contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Yousef W.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic field strength of the MRI system, receiver coil configuration, use of parallel imaging, contrast bolus timing technique, and k-space filling strategies. Furthermore, it is possible to optimize peripheral CE-MRA using venous compression techniques, hybrid scan protocols, time-resolved imaging, and steady-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Using optimized technique and a stable MRI contrast agent, peripheral CE-MRA is a safe procedure with diagnostic accuracy close to that of conventional catheter X

  9. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging for detecting pathological patterns in patients with lupus nephritis: a preliminary study using gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huilan; Jia, Junya; Li, Dong; Wei, Li; Shang, Wenya; Zheng, Zhenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Objective Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) is a noninvasive technique useful in patients with renal disease. The current study was performed to determine whether BOLD MRI can contribute to the diagnosis of renal pathological patterns. Methods BOLD MRI was used to obtain functional magnetic resonance parameter R2* values. Gray-level co-occurrence matrixes (GLCMs) were generated for gray-scale maps. Several GLCM parameters were calculated and used to construct algorithmic models for renal pathological patterns. Results Histopathology and BOLD MRI were used to examine 12 patients. Two GLCM parameters, including correlation and energy, revealed differences among four groups of renal pathological patterns. Four Fisher's linear discriminant formulas were constructed using two variables, including the correlation at 45° and correlation at 90°. A cross-validation test showed that the formulas correctly predicted 28 of 36 samples, and the rate of correct prediction was 77.8%. Conclusions Differences in the texture characteristics of BOLD MRI in patients with lupus nephritis may be detected by GLCM analysis. Discriminant formulas constructed using GLCM parameters may facilitate prediction of renal pathological patterns.

  10. Adriamycin nephrosis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Golman, K.; Hemmingsen, L.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1990-01-01

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 9 days after intravenous injection of either diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 27 Wistar rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin 42 days before. Another 9 rats exposed to neither Adriamycin nor contrast media served as controls. None of the contrast media caused further increased albuminuria of significance, whereas both induced significantly increased excretion of all 5 tubular components. The excretion of NAG and sodium was significantly higher following diatrizoate than following iohexol. From 24 h post injection there was no significantly greater excretion of any of the components after either diatrizoate or iohexol than after saline among the rats given Adriamycin. At the end of day 9 after contrast medium injection neither serum sodium, potassium, glucose, urea, creatinine, nor albumin revealed any contrast media related changes. Kidney histology showed quantitatively larger lesions in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and contrast media than in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and saline. There were no differences between the two contrast media groups. It is thus concluded, that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media cause temporary tubular dysfunction but no further glomerular dysfunction in rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin. The histologic findings indicate that both media may worsen non-reversible renal lesions. (orig.)

  11. Neural Correlates of Facial Mimicry: Simultaneous Measurements of EMG and BOLD Responses during Perception of Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals. Subjects reacted spontaneously to happy facial expressions with increased EMG activity in ZM and OO muscles and decreased CS activity, which was interpreted as FM. Facial muscle responses correlated with BOLD activity in regions associated with motor simulation of facial expressions [i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, a classical Mirror Neuron System (MNS)]. Further, we also found correlations for regions associated with emotional processing (i.e., insula, part of the extended MNS). It is concluded that FM involves both motor and emotional brain structures, especially during perception of natural emotional expressions. PMID:29467691

  12. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...

  13. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic......-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged...... intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal...

  14. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry of a wide range of functions is a hallmark of the human brain. The visual system has traditionally been thought of as symmetrically distributed in the brain, but a growing body of evidence has challenged this view. Some highly specific visual tasks have been shown to depend......MRI) in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume, handedness...... was correlated with subject age, suggesting a shift towards the left hemisphere with increasing age. Our findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance of these areas, which could lend support to the generally observed leftward visual attentional bias and to the left hemifield advantage for some visual...

  15. Pretreatment Differences in BOLD Response to Emotional Faces Correlate with Antidepressant Response to Scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Szczepanik, Joanna; Khanna, Ashish; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-03-28

    Faster acting antidepressants and biomarkers that predict treatment response are needed to facilitate the development of more effective treatments for patients with major depressive disorders. Here, we evaluate implicitly and explicitly processed emotional faces using neuroimaging to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response to the antimuscarinic, scopolamine. Healthy participants (n=15) and unmedicated-depressed major depressive disorder patients (n=16) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover infusion study using scopolamine (4 μg/kg). Before and following scopolamine, blood oxygen-level dependent signal was measured using functional MRI during a selective attention task. Two stimuli comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Participants attended to one stimulus component and performed a matching task. Face emotion was modulated (happy/sad) creating implicit (attend-houses) and explicit (attend-faces) emotion processing conditions. The pretreatment difference in blood oxygen-level dependent response to happy and sad faces under implicit and explicit conditions (emotion processing biases) within a-priori regions of interest was correlated with subsequent treatment response in major depressive disorder. Correlations were observed exclusively during implicit emotion processing in the regions of interest, which included the subgenual anterior cingulate (Pemotional faces prior to treatment reflect the potential to respond to scopolamine. These findings replicate earlier results, highlighting the potential for pretreatment neural activity in the middle occipital cortices and subgenual anterior cingulate to inform us about the potential to respond clinically to scopolamine. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Inefficient preparatory fMRI-BOLD network activations predict working memory dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBaenninger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally coherent networks (TCNs assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia.Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 & load 5 in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN, dorsal attention network (dAN, left and right working memory networks (WMNs – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta.In healthy controls, there was a load dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal-midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task.Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback targeting pre-states could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain.

  17. Early Changes in Alpha Band Power and DMN BOLD Activity in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Simultaneous Resting State EEG-fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Brueggen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI–resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG studies in healthy adults showed robust positive associations of signal power in the alpha band with BOLD signal in the thalamus, and more heterogeneous associations in cortical default mode network (DMN regions. Negative associations were found in occipital regions. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, rsfMRI studies revealed a disruption of the DMN, while rsEEG studies consistently reported a reduced power within the alpha band. The present study is the first to employ simultaneous rsfMRI-rsEEG in an AD sample, investigating the association of alpha band power and BOLD signal, compared to healthy controls (HC. We hypothesized to find reduced positive associations in DMN regions and reduced negative associations in occipital regions in the AD group. Simultaneous resting state fMRI–EEG was recorded in 14 patients with mild AD and 14 HC, matched for age and gender. Power within the EEG alpha band (8–12 Hz, 8–10 Hz, and 10–12 Hz was computed from occipital electrodes and served as regressor in voxel-wise linear regression analyses, to assess the association with the BOLD signal. Compared to HC, the AD group showed significantly decreased positive associations between BOLD signal and occipital alpha band power in clusters in the superior, middle and inferior frontal cortex, inferior temporal lobe and thalamus (p < 0.01, uncorr., cluster size ≥ 50 voxels. This group effect was more pronounced in the upper alpha sub-band, compared to the lower alpha sub-band. Notably, we observed a high inter-individual heterogeneity. Negative associations were only reduced in the lower alpha range in the hippocampus, putamen and cerebellum. The present study gives first insights into the relationship of resting-state EEG and fMRI characteristics in an AD sample. The results suggest that positive associations between alpha band power and BOLD

  18. Contrast Media: Are There Differences in Nephrotoxicity among Contrast Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are usually classified based upon their osmolality—high, low, and isosmolar. Iodinated contrast agents are also nephrotoxic in some but not all patients resulting in loss of glomerular filtration rate. Over the past 30 years, nephrotoxicity has been linked to osmolality although the precise mechanism underlying such a link has been elusive. Improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity and prospective randomized clinical trials have attempted to further explore the relationship between osmolality and nephrotoxicity. In this review, the basis for our current understanding that there are little if any differences in nephrotoxic potential between low and isosmolar contrast media will be detailed using data from clinical studies. PMID:24587997

  19. The Possible Role of CO2 in Producing A Post-Stimulus CBF and BOLD Undershoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Devor, Anna; Akin, Ata; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehending the underlying mechanisms of neurovascular coupling is important for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases related to uncoupling. Moreover, it elucidates the casual relation between the neural signaling and the hemodynamic responses measured with various imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There are mainly two hypotheses concerning this mechanism: a metabolic hypothesis and a neurogenic hypothesis. We have modified recent models of neurovascular coupling adding the effects of both NO (nitric oxide) kinetics, which is a well-known neurogenic vasodilator, and CO2 kinetics as a metabolic vasodilator. We have also added the Hodgkin–Huxley equations relating the membrane potentials to sodium influx through the membrane. Our results show that the dominant factor in the hemodynamic response is NO, however CO2 is important in producing a brief post-stimulus undershoot in the blood flow response that in turn modifies the fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent post-stimulus undershoot. Our results suggest that increased cerebral blood flow during stimulation causes CO2 washout which then results in a post-stimulus hypocapnia induced vasoconstrictive effect. PMID:20027233

  20. Limits of 2D-TCA in detecting BOLD responses to epileptic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatamian, Yasha Borna; Fahoum, Firas; Gotman, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional temporal clustering analysis (2D-TCA) is a relatively new functional MRI (fMRI) based technique that breaks blood oxygen level dependent activity into separate components based on timing and has shown potential for localizing epileptic activity independently of electroencephalography (EEG). 2D-TCA has only been applied to detect epileptic activity in a few studies and its limits in detecting activity of various forms (i.e. activation size, amplitude, and frequency) have not been investigated. This study evaluated 2D-TCA's ability to detect various forms of both simulated epileptic activity and EEG-fMRI activity detected in patients. When applied to simulated data, 2D-TCA consistently detected activity in 6min runs containing 5 spikes/run, 10 spikes/run, and one 5s long event with hemodynamic response function amplitudes of at least 1.5%, 1.25%, and 1% above baseline respectively. When applied to patient data, while detection of interictal spikes was inconsistent, 2D-TCA consistently produced results similar to those obtained by EEG-fMRI when at least 2 prolonged interictal events (a few seconds each) occurred during the run. However, even for such cases it was determined that 2D-TCA can only be used to validate localization by other means or to create hypotheses as to where activity may occur, as it also detects changes not caused by epileptic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The BOLD-fMRI study of behavior inhibition in chronic heroin addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fei; Yuan Yi; Liu Yinshe; Zhao Jun; Weng Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity and the response inhibition deficits of the chronic heroin users using event-related functional MRI (stop-signal task). Methods: Seventeen individuals with heroin dependence and 17 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI scan while executing stop -signal task after anatomical scanning in 3.0 T scanner. The AFNI package was used for fMRI data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Results: The behavioral data showed that the stop signal reaction rime (SSRT) of heroin users was significantly longer than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in activation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area between two groups. Comparing to the control group, heroin users had weaker activation in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, but stronger activation in bilateral striatum and amygdala while behavioral inhibition needed. Conclusion: The results suggest that heroin users have significant changes within impulsivity and inhibitory network, where the right prefrontal cortex is considered as main region for inhibition, while the anterior cingulated cortex is associated with error monitoring, and the amygdale controls impulsivity and emotion. (authors)

  2. Dynamic range in BOLD modulation: lifespan aging trajectories and association with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Boylan, Maria A; Rieck, Jenny R; Foster, Chris M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of dynamic range of modulation to cognitive difficulty has been proposed as a salient predictor of cognitive aging. Here, we examine in 171 adults (aged 20-94 years) the effects of age on dynamic modulation of blood oxygenation-level dependent activation to difficulty in parametrically increasing working memory (WM) load (0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-back conditions). First, we examined parametric increases and decreases in activation to increasing WM load (positive modulation effect and negative modulation effect). Second, we examined the effect of age on modulation to difficulty (WM load) to identify regions that differed with age as difficulty increased (age-related positive and negative modulation effects). Weakened modulation to difficulty with age was found in both the positive modulation (middle frontal, superior/inferior parietal) and negative modulation effect (deactivated) regions (insula, cingulate, medial superior frontal, fusiform, and parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, and lateral occipital cortex). Age-related alterations to positive modulation emerged later in the lifespan than negative modulation. Furthermore, these effects were significantly coupled in that greater upmodulation was associated with lesser downmodulation. Importantly, greater fronto-parietal upmodulation to difficulty and greater downmodulation of deactivated regions were associated with better task accuracy and upmodulation with better WM span measured outside the scanner. These findings suggest that greater dynamic range of modulation of activation to cognitive challenge is in service of current task performance, as well as generalizing to cognitive ability beyond the scanner task, lending support to its utility as a marker of successful cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How to misuse echo contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missios Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary intracardiac tumours are rare, there are however several entities that can mimic tumours. Contrast echocardiography has been suggested to aid the differentiation of various suspected masses. We present a case where transthoracic echocardiography completely misdiagnosed a left atrial mass, partly due to use of echo contrast. Case presentation An 80 year-old woman was referred for transthoracic echocardiography because of one-month duration of worsening of dyspnoea. Transthoracic echocardiography displayed a large echodense mass in the left atrium. Intravenous injection of contrast (SonoVue, Bracco Inc., It indicated contrast-enhancement of the structure, suggesting tumour. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed, however, a completely normal finding in the left atrium. Subsequent gastroscopy examination showed a hiatal hernia. Conclusion It is noteworthy that the transthoracic echocardiographic exam completely misdiagnosed what seemed like a left atrial mass, which in part was an effect of the use of echo contrast. This example highlights that liberal use of transoesophageal echocardiography is often warranted if optimal display of cardiac structures is desired.

  5. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  6. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  7. Contrast enhancement CT by iopamidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Masaki; Makita, Nobue; Yanai, Kyoko

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the contrast enhancement effect and safety of iopamidol (IOP) in CT examination, IOP was compared with angiographin (AG). In the liver and abdominal aorta, peak CT values were obtained earlier and were higher in the group with AG than in the group with IOP. However, CT values in the group with IOP decreased a little more slowly than those in the group with AG. There was no significant difference in the effect on contrast enhancement between the groups. Intravenous injection of IOP caused lower degree of burning sensation than that of AG, and some of the patients with IOP did not feel burning sensation at all. Changes in clinical laboratory values were slight before and after intravenous injection of IOP. These results suggest that IOP is satisfactory in terms of safety and effect on contrast enhancement in CT examination. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Contrast-guided image interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhe; Ma, Kai-Kuang

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a contrast-guided image interpolation method is proposed that incorporates contrast information into the image interpolation process. Given the image under interpolation, four binary contrast-guided decision maps (CDMs) are generated and used to guide the interpolation filtering through two sequential stages: 1) the 45(°) and 135(°) CDMs for interpolating the diagonal pixels and 2) the 0(°) and 90(°) CDMs for interpolating the row and column pixels. After applying edge detection to the input image, the generation of a CDM lies in evaluating those nearby non-edge pixels of each detected edge for re-classifying them possibly as edge pixels. This decision is realized by solving two generalized diffusion equations over the computed directional variation (DV) fields using a derived numerical approach to diffuse or spread the contrast boundaries or edges, respectively. The amount of diffusion or spreading is proportional to the amount of local contrast measured at each detected edge. The diffused DV fields are then thresholded for yielding the binary CDMs, respectively. Therefore, the decision bands with variable widths will be created on each CDM. The two CDMs generated in each stage will be exploited as the guidance maps to conduct the interpolation process: for each declared edge pixel on the CDM, a 1-D directional filtering will be applied to estimate its associated to-be-interpolated pixel along the direction as indicated by the respective CDM; otherwise, a 2-D directionless or isotropic filtering will be used instead to estimate the associated missing pixels for each declared non-edge pixel. Extensive simulation results have clearly shown that the proposed contrast-guided image interpolation is superior to other state-of-the-art edge-guided image interpolation methods. In addition, the computational complexity is relatively low when compared with existing methods; hence, it is fairly attractive for real-time image applications.

  9. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicite des produits de contraste iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyrier, A. (Hopital Avicenne, 93 - Bobigny (France))

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 [mu]mol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author).

  10. Quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography for contrast medium kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Speller, R.

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography, based on a dual-energy approach, aims to extract quantitative and temporal information of the tumour enhancement after administration of iodinated vascular contrast media. Simulations using analytical expressions and optimization of critical parameters essential for the development of quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography are presented. The procedure has been experimentally evaluated using a tissue-equivalent phantom and an amorphous silicon active matrix flat panel imager. The x-ray beams were produced by a tungsten target tube and spectrally shaped using readily available materials. Measurement of iodine projected thickness in mg cm-2 has been performed. The effect of beam hardening does not introduce nonlinearities in the measurement of iodine projected thickness for values of thicknesses found in clinical investigations. However, scattered radiation introduces significant deviations from slope equal to unity when compared with the actual iodine projected thickness. Scatter correction before the analysis of the dual-energy images provides accurate iodine projected thickness measurements. At 10% of the exposure used in clinical mammography, signal-to-noise ratios in excess of 5 were achieved for iodine projected thicknesses less than 3 mg cm-2 within a 4 cm thick phantom. For the extraction of temporal information, a limited number of low-dose images were used with the phantom incorporating a flow of iodinated contrast medium. The results suggest that spatial and temporal information of iodinated contrast media can be used to indirectly measure the tumour microvessel density and determine its uptake and washout from breast tumours. The proposed method can significantly improve tumour detection in dense breasts. Its application to perform in situ x-ray biopsy and assessment of the oncolytic effect of anticancer agents is foreseeable.

  11. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D. [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liba, Orly [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zerda, Adam de la [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects.

  12. Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubble Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.; Vos, Henk; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Paradossi, Gaio; Pellegretti, Paolo; Trucco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are traditionally used in ultrasound-assisted organ perfusion imaging. Recently the use of coated microbubbles has been proposed for molecular imaging applications where the bubbles are covered with a layer of targeting ligands to bind specifically to their target cells.

  13. Color contrasting in radioscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, V.P.; Pavlov, S.V.; Nazarenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Transformation principles for achromatic radioscopy control systems to color ones have been considered. Described is the developed ''Gamma 1'' roentgen-TV facility with color contrasting, which is based on the principle of analog conversion of brightness signal to a hue. By means of color channels amplifiers realized are the special amplitude characteristics, permitting in comparison with the common method of analogous transformation to obtain the greater number of hues within the identical range of brightnesses of image under investigation due to introducing purple colors. The investigation of amplitude resolution capability of color contrasting device has shown, that in the case of color contrasting of image the amplitude resolution is 1.7-1.8 time higher than in the case of achromatic one. Defectoscopic sensitivity during the testing of 5-20 mm thick steel products in the process of experimental-production tests turned out to be 1.1-1.3 time higher when using color contrasting of radioscopic image. Realization simplicity, high resolution, noise stability and wide functional possibilities of the facility show the prospects for its using during the quality control of welded joints in products of power engineering

  14. Streak artifacts on Kidney CT: Ionic vs nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Ok; Kim, Won Hong; Jung, Myung Suk; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hur, Gham

    1993-01-01

    The authors reviewed findings of enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to know the difference between a higher dose of conventional ionic contrast media(iothalamate meglumine) and a lower dose of a new, nonionic contrast material(ioversol). One hundred adult patients were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 50 patients. Iothalamate meglumine and ioversol were intravenously administered in each group. The radio of the male to female in the former was 28:22, and the latter 29:21. We examine the degree of renal streak artifact and measure the Hounsfield number of urine in renal collecting system. There were significant differences of the degree of the streak artifact depending upon the osmolality of contrast media used and that was related with urine CT number(P value<0.005). We authors conclude that nonionic low osmolar contrast media is prone to cause streak artifacts and distortions of renal image than conventional ionic high osmolar contrast media

  15. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  16. Variational contrast enhancement guided by global and local contrast measurements for single-image defogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Bi, Du-Yan; He, Lin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The visibility of images captured in foggy conditions is impaired severely by a decrease in the contrasts of objects and veiling with a characteristic gray hue, which may limit the performance of visual applications out of doors. Contrast enhancement together with color restoration is a challenging mission for conventional fog-removal methods, as the degrading effect of fog is largely dependent on scene depth information. Nowadays, people change their minds by establishing a variational framework for contrast enhancement based on a physically based analytical model, unexpectedly resulting in color distortion, dark-patch distortion, or fuzzy features of local regions. Unlike previous work, our method treats an atmospheric veil as a scattering disturbance and formulates a foggy image as an energy functional minimization to estimate direct attenuation, originating from the work of image denoising. In addition to a global contrast measurement based on a total variation norm, an additional local measurement is designed in that optimal problem for the purpose of digging out more local details as well as suppressing dark-patch distortion. Moreover, we estimate the airlight precisely by maximization with a geometric constraint and a natural image prior in order to protect the faithfulness of the scene color. With the estimated direct attenuation and airlight, the fog-free image can be restored. Finally, our method is tested on several benchmark and realistic images evaluated by two assessment approaches. The experimental results imply that our proposed method works well compared with the state-of-the-art defogging methods.

  17. Ionic versus nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylak, C.J.; Gafni, A.

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy and effectiveness of the nonionic contrast media have been established. Widespread usage has been hampered because of the approximate tenfold increase in cost compared with the ionic media. An economic evaluation considering costs and consequences of both interventions (ionic vs nonionic contrast media) was performed; it is a cost effectiveness (CEA) and a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for the Canadian experience. The results of the CEA demonstrate a value per life-year saved within an acceptable range when compared with value for quality-adjusted life years for programs such as treatment of severe (diastolic≥ 105 mm Hg) and mild (diastolic 95-104 mm Hg) hypertension in men aged 40. The CBA showed a net cost to society when benefits were measured as future treatment costs saved plus productivity gained. However, if people are willing to pay a small amount for the comfort of the new intervention, this will result in a break-even situation

  18. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  19. Effects of theophyline on contrast

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Fatahiyan; B. Baqerii; A. Mohseni; A. Makhlouq

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CN) is one of the most common causes of iatrogenic acute renal failure. In fact CN is the third leading cause of new ARF in hospitalized patients. Radiocontrast-associated ARF is a significant problem in patients with cardiovascular disease. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease also predispose these patients to an increased risk of renal failure. Various strategies have been suggested for preventing CN. Since adenosine may play a ro...

  20. Recent advances in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, J.F.M.; Goyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) provides a means of visualizing vascular structures noninvasively and is increasingly replacing conventional X-ray angiography in routine use. Contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA), in which gadolinium contrast agents are used to shorten the T1 relaxation, offers increased resolution and higher signal-to-noise ratio compared with earlier flow-dependent [time-of-flight (TOF) or phase-contrast (PC)] techniques. Currently available contrast agents differ in their ability to lower T1 values, and hence the choice of contrast agent is an important consideration in the successful use of CE-MRA. Gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) is the first of a new class of intravascular contrast agents. This agent is extensively (approximately 85%) and reversibly bound to human serum albumin and is retained within the vasculature thus allowing steady-state imaging to be perform-ed. An additional benefit is that gado0fosveset offers higher relaxivity compared with other contrast agents, thus giving a lower blood T1 values which also makes it ideal for first-pass imaging. Clinical trials have consistently shown that gadofosveset enhanced MRA is more sensitive, specific and accurate than time-of-flight MRA, gives fewer uninterpretable scans and affords greater diagnostic confidence. Intravascular contrast agents such as gadofosveset, therefore, offer the potential for improved vascular imaging. (orig.)

  1. Contrast detail phantom for SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, M.L. de; Arashiro, J G; Giannone, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camuyrano, M; Nohara, G [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Exactas

    1996-06-01

    A new low variable contrast phantom for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was constructed, tested and compared with other existing phantoms. It contains simulated cylindrical lesions of four different diameters (D{sub i}), embedded in a cylindrical scattering medium and a uniform section to evaluate tomographic uniformity. The concentration of tracer in the simulated lesions and the scattering medium (background) can be varied to simulate hot and cold lesions. Different applications of the phantom were tested, including determination of the minimum object contrast (OCm) necessary to detect lesions as a function of lesion size, lesion type (hot or cold) and acquisition and processing protocols by visual inspection. This parameter allows categorization of instruments comparing an `image quality index` (IQI). Preliminary comparison with the Britten contrast processing method showed that the detectable OCm was of the same order of magnitude, but the presented device seems more suitable for training and intercomparison purposes. The constructed phantom, of simple design, has proved to be useful for acquisition and processing condition evaluation, OCm estimation and external quality control. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs.

  2. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  3. Electrofluidic systems for contrast management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Keith J.; Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Tiffany, Jason E.; Brown, Christopher Y.; Maisano, Adam J.; Hagedon, Matthew A.; Heikenfeld, Jason C.

    2012-06-01

    Operating in dynamic lighting conditions and in greatly varying backgrounds is challenging. Current paints and state-ofthe- art passive adaptive coatings (e.g. photochromics) are not suitable for multi- environment situations. A semi-active, low power, skin is needed that can adapt its reflective properties based on the background environment to minimize contrast through the development and incorporation of suitable pigment materials. Electrofluidic skins are a reflective display technology for electronic ink and paper applications. The technology is similar to that in E Ink but makes use of MEMS based microfluidic structures, instead of simple black and white ink microcapsules dispersed in clear oil. Electrofluidic skin's low power operation and fast switching speeds (~20 ms) are an improvement over current state-ofthe- art contrast management technologies. We report on a microfluidic display which utilizes diffuse pigment dispersion inks to change the contrast of the underlying substrate from 5.8% to 100%. Voltage is applied and an electromechanical pressure is used to pull a pigment dispersion based ink from a hydrophobic coated reservoir into a hydrophobic coated surface channel. When no voltage is applied, the Young-Laplace pressure pushes the pigment dispersion ink back down into the reservoir. This allows the pixel to switch from the on and off state by balancing the two pressures. Taking a systems engineering approach from the beginning of development has enabled the technology to be integrated into larger systems.

  4. Chemists boldly go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francl, Michelle; Donnay, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Michael Donnay and Michelle Francl want chemists to share the stories behind the work they do, and not be afraid to identify the heroines and heroes -- and their epic adventures -- that paved the way.

  5. Neither Broad nor Bold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Children raised in families with higher incomes score higher on math and reading tests. But is parental income the "cause" of a child's success? Or is the connection between income and achievement largely a symptom of something else: genetic heritage, parental skill, or a supportive educational setting? The Broader, Bolder Approach to Education, a…

  6. Consistent inter-individual differences in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Boldness-Shyness, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gunhold-de Oliveira, Tina; Tadić, Zoran; Massen, Jorg J M; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The study of animal personality, defined as consistent inter-individual differences in correlated behavioral traits stable throughout time and/or contexts, has recently become one of the fastest growing areas in animal biology, with study species ranging from insects to non-human primates. The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non-social personality components: Boldness-Shyness in Foraging, Boldness-Shyness in Predation, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance. We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration-Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group-level similarity in personality (i.e., "group personality") in common marmosets, a species living in highly cohesive social groups. Am. J. Primatol. 78:961-973, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Continuous EEG-fMRI in Pre-Surgical Evaluation of a Patient with Symptomatic Seizures: Bold Activation Linked to Interictal Epileptic Discharges Caused by Cavernoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avesani, M; Formaggio, E; Milanese, F; Baraldo, A; Gasparini, A; Cerini, R; Bongiovanni, L G; Pozzi Mucelli, R; Fiaschi, A; Manganotti, P

    2008-04-07

    We used continuous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) to identify the linkage between the "epileptogenic" and the "irritative" area in a patient with symptomatic epilepsy (cavernoma, previously diagnosed and surgically treated), i.e. a patient with a well known "epileptogenic area", and to increase the possibility of a non invasive pre-surgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsies. A compatible MRI system was used (EEG with 29 scalp electrodes and two electrodes for ECG and EMG) and signals were recorded with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. After the recording session and MRI artifact removal, EEG data were analyzed offline and used as paradigms in fMRI study. Activation (EEG sequences with interictal slow-spiked-wave activity) and rest (sequences of normal EEG) conditions were compared to identify the potential resulting focal increase in BOLD signal and to consider if this is spatially linked to the interictal focus used as a paradigm and to the lesion. We noted an increase in the BOLD signal in the left neocortical temporal region, laterally and posteriorly to the poro-encephalic cavity (residual of cavernoma previously removed), that is around the "epileptogenic area". In our study "epileptogenic" and "irritative" areas were connected with each other. Combined EEG-fMRI may become routine in clinical practice for a better identification of an irritative and lesional focus in patients with symptomatic drug-resistant epilepsy.

  8. Contrast media in gall bladder diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.; Frommhold, W.

    1982-01-01

    The justification of conventional X-ray diagnostic of bile ducts is repeatedly questioned by newer examination techniques like sonography and ERC. The indication for oral cholesgraphy is derived from its high-specifity of its statements for gall bladder diagnostic, that is as high as with sonography and does not depend on the experience of the investigator. The importance of the the void exposure is undoubted with correspondence of medicamentary litholysis for calcite identification. Furthermore, Choleocystic kineticals like Ceruletid let recognize better hyper plastic choleocysts like adenomyomatoses. The intravenous choleocyst-cholangiography posesses a clearly limited indication scheme even after introduction of sonography and ERC. The infusion method yields a better compatibility of the contrast medium with a simultaneous increased representation quality of the bile duct, that can be increased by a consequent application of the layer exposure technique. (orig.) [de

  9. Assessment of cerebral blood flow reserve using blood oxygen level-dependent echo planar imaging after acetazolamide administration in patients post-STA-MCA anastomosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenke, Kiichiro; Kusunoki, Katsusuke; Saito, Masahiro; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shinsuke; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Sakaki, Saburo; Nagasawa, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Recently, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) echo planar imaging (EPI) has been used to estimate blood flow changes. Theoretically, a relative decrement of deoxyhemoglobin in cerebral blood supply induces a MR signal change after neuronal stimulation. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate CBF reserve capacity by the BOLD EPI in patients who had undergone STA-MCA anastomosis surgery. Then, we compared with the signal intensity changes obtained by this procedure with the CBF changes by Xe-SPECT after acetazolamide administration. Six patients, post-STA-MCA anastomosis surgery, were studied. Pre-operatively, MR signal intensity and CBF, by Xe-SPECT, were increased in the intact side after acetazolamide administration in all patients, and MR signal intensities were decreased in low flow regions after acetazolamide administration in all four patients in whom so-called steal phenomenon was demonstrated by Xe-SPECT study. Post-operatively, poor response was shown after acetazolamide administration with both Xe-SPECT and BOLD EPI in the two patients who had unsuccessful anastomoses. In the successfully anastomosed patients, improved vascular reactivity was demonstrated on BOLD EPI after acetazolamide administration in 3 of 4 patients in whom an improvement of vascular reactivity was demonstrated on Xe-SPECT. In one patient, MRI studies were considered to have technical artifacts, because the MR signal intensity did not increase, even in the intact side after acetazolamide administration. In conclusion, BOLD EPI after acetazolamide administration is an useful procedure for the pre- and post-operative of vascular reserve in patients with ischemic stroke. (author)

  10. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  11. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  12. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiographic contrast media, function and future reassessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovak, M.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the use of radiographic contrast media in cholecysto- and cholangiography, central nervous system imaging, urography and angiography. Other aspects briefly discussed are the use of large i.v. doses of contrast media for CT contrast enhancement and the design theory for improved water soluble contrast media. (U.K.)

  14. Ultrasound contrast agents: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-12-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MIdeveloped for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage). An important situation where demonstrating tissue devitalisation is important is in interstitial ablation of focal liver lesions: using microbubble contrast agents at the end of a procedure allows immediate evaluation of the

  15. Clinical applications of contrast echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Leon Galindo

    2005-01-01

    The echocardiography is the technique more used for the diagnosis and pursuit of the cardiovascular illnesses; therefore, their diagnostic precision has acquired a vital importance in the handling of the patients with cardiovascular pathologies. However, with relative frequency, the diagnostic capacity of the echocardiography exam is diminished by limitations of the acoustic window, mainly in-patient with obesity, lung illnesses and alterations of the thoracic wall. This can be obviated with the use of the intra-esophagus echocardiography, although this it is a procedure semi-invasive and not very practical of carrying out in all the patients with problems of acoustic window. In this article the clinical applications are revised more common of the contrast echocardiography

  16. Ultrasound contrast agents: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MI < 0.3) so that the microbubbles are not destroyed and scanning can continue in real time. The clinical roles of contrast enhanced ultrasound scanning are expanding rapidly. They are established in echocardiography to improve endocardial border detection and are being developed for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating

  17. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G.T.; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). - Highlights: • First DPC-based atomic resolution images of potential and charge density are obtained. • This is enabled by integration and differentiation of 2D DPC signals, respectively. • Integrated DPC (iDPC) based on 4 quadrant imaging is compared to iCOM imaging. • Noise analysis and comparison with standard STEM imaging modes is provided. • iDPC allows direct imaging of light (C, N, O …) and heavy (Ga, Au …) atoms together.

  18. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazić, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.lazic@fei.com; Bosch, Eric G.T.; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-15

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). - Highlights: • First DPC-based atomic resolution images of potential and charge density are obtained. • This is enabled by integration and differentiation of 2D DPC signals, respectively. • Integrated DPC (iDPC) based on 4 quadrant imaging is compared to iCOM imaging. • Noise analysis and comparison with standard STEM imaging modes is provided. • iDPC allows direct imaging of light (C, N, O …) and heavy (Ga, Au …) atoms together.

  19. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  20. STM contrast inversion of the Fe(1 1 0) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mándi, Gábor [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Palotás, Krisztián, E-mail: palotas@phy.bme.hu [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-06-01

    We extend the orbital-dependent electron tunneling model implemented within the three-dimensional (3D) Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) atom-superposition approach to simulate spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) above magnetic surfaces. The tunneling model is based on the electronic structure data of the magnetic tip and surface obtained from first principles. Applying our method, we analyze the orbital contributions to the tunneling current, and study the nature of atomic contrast reversals occurring on constant-current SP-STM images above the Fe(1 1 0) surface. We find an interplay of orbital-dependent tunneling and spin-polarization effects responsible for the contrast inversion, and we discuss its dependence on the bias voltage, on the tip-sample distance, and on the tip orbital composition.

  1. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  2. Evaluation of contrast in duplicated radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunthy, K.H.; Weinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation evaluated changes in the contrast of duplicated radiographs made at different ultraviolet light exposures. Increasing ultraviolet light exposure had different effects on the duplicates of originals of different background densities. When correctly exposed, a duplicate radiograph enhanced contrast. When originals had the same contrast but different background densities, their duplicates did not have the same contrast. It was not possible to duplicate accurately all the different contrasts measured on an original. It was possible, however, to produce duplicates with all contrasts greater than those of the original

  3. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  4. Brute force absorption contrast microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham R.; Mills, David

    2014-09-01

    In laboratory X-ray microtomography (XMT) systems, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is typically determined by the X-ray exposure due to the low flux associated with microfocus X-ray tubes. As the exposure time is increased, the SNR improves up to a point where other sources of variability dominate, such as differences in the sensitivities of adjacent X-ray detector elements. Linear time-delay integration (TDI) readout averages out detector sensitivities on the critical horizontal direction and equiangular TDI also averages out the X-ray field. This allows the SNR to be increased further with increasing exposure. This has been used in dentistry to great effect, allowing subtle variations in dentine mineralisation to be visualised in 3 dimensions. It has also been used to detect ink in ancient parchments that are too damaged to physically unroll. If sufficient contrast between the ink and parchment exists, it is possible to virtually unroll the tomographic image of the scroll in order that the text can be read. Following on from this work, a feasibility test was carried out to determine if it might be possible to recover images from decaying film reels. A successful attempt was made to re-create a short film sequence from a rolled length of 16mm film using XMT. However, the "brute force" method of scaling this up to allow an entire film reel to be imaged presents a significant challenge.

  5. Integral equations with contrasting kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Burton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study integral equations of the form $x(t=a(t-\\int^t_0 C(t,sx(sds$ with sharply contrasting kernels typified by $C^*(t,s=\\ln (e+(t-s$ and $D^*(t,s=[1+(t-s]^{-1}$. The kernel assigns a weight to $x(s$ and these kernels have exactly opposite effects of weighting. Each type is well represented in the literature. Our first project is to show that for $a\\in L^2[0,\\infty$, then solutions are largely indistinguishable regardless of which kernel is used. This is a surprise and it leads us to study the essential differences. In fact, those differences become large as the magnitude of $a(t$ increases. The form of the kernel alone projects necessary conditions concerning the magnitude of $a(t$ which could result in bounded solutions. Thus, the next project is to determine how close we can come to proving that the necessary conditions are also sufficient. The third project is to show that solutions will be bounded for given conditions on $C$ regardless of whether $a$ is chosen large or small; this is important in real-world problems since we would like to have $a(t$ as the sum of a bounded, but badly behaved function, and a large well behaved function.

  6. A method for the investigation of cholegraphic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1982-01-01

    Isolated perfused rat livers were used for investigating possible interactions between two simultaneously injected contrast media, and which technique, using parenteral application of cholegraphic media, is optimal. The results show that excretion of a parenteral contrast medium is reduced by giving an oral contrast medium at the same time. Simultaneous administration of two different contrast media therefore does not result in improved diagnostic information. The effect depends on the dose, and a sufficiently long interval should be observed between giving an oral and a parenteral contrast medium. A comparison of excretion values following injection of a bolus and prolonged infusion shows higher biliary contrast concentration and increased excretion after a single injection. Comparing only the period after the infusion, no difference was found between these two methods of administration. The single injection offers pharmacokinetic advantages, but an infusion is better tolerated and has fewer side effects. A rapid infusion of 10 to 15 minutes is therefore recommended as the optimal means of administration. (orig.) [de

  7. Eye contrast polarity is critical for face recognition by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-07-01

    Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Music reduces pain and increases resting state fMRI BOLD signal amplitude in the left angular gyrus in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Jiang, Zhiguo; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the lAnG showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rdlPFC), the left caudate (lCau), and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex (r......Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22) who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise) for 5 min without...... external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus (lAnG) after listening to music, which in turn...

  9. Correcting for Blood Arrival Time in Global Mean Regression Enhances Functional Connectivity Analysis of Resting State fMRI-BOLD Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Sinem B; Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M; Lindsey, Kimberly P; deB Frederick, Blaise

    2016-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity analysis is a widely used method for mapping intrinsic functional organization of the brain. Global signal regression (GSR) is commonly employed for removing systemic global variance from resting state BOLD-fMRI data; however, recent studies have demonstrated that GSR may introduce spurious negative correlations within and between functional networks, calling into question the meaning of anticorrelations reported between some networks. In the present study, we propose that global signal from resting state fMRI is composed primarily of systemic low frequency oscillations (sLFOs) that propagate with cerebral blood circulation throughout the brain. We introduce a novel systemic noise removal strategy for resting state fMRI data, "dynamic global signal regression" (dGSR), which applies a voxel-specific optimal time delay to the global signal prior to regression from voxel-wise time series. We test our hypothesis on two functional systems that are suggested to be intrinsically organized into anticorrelated networks: the default mode network (DMN) and task positive network (TPN). We evaluate the efficacy of dGSR and compare its performance with the conventional "static" global regression (sGSR) method in terms of (i) explaining systemic variance in the data and (ii) enhancing specificity and sensitivity of functional connectivity measures. dGSR increases the amount of BOLD signal variance being modeled and removed relative to sGSR while reducing spurious negative correlations introduced in reference regions by sGSR, and attenuating inflated positive connectivity measures. We conclude that incorporating time delay information for sLFOs into global noise removal strategies is of crucial importance for optimal noise removal from resting state functional connectivity maps.

  10. [Caffeine dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. The potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Although in recent studies, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence. It is valuable for psychiatrists and primary care physicians to recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical syndrome, since some people are distressed by their caffeine use and feel they can not control or stop their problematic use.

  11. Contrast enhanced CT of spinal cord angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takahiko; Ebitani, Tsutomu; Honma, Takao; Sofue, Muroto; Nakamura, Shigeru

    1982-01-01

    Contrast enhanced CT on 6 patients with spinal cord angioma showed enhancement in 2 of them. The conditions to produce contrast enhancement were the window width of 100 - 200, and the window level of 0 - 50. In spinal cord angioma, contrast enhanced CT is presently only an adjunct to angiography and myelography. Nevertheless, contrast enhanced CT is useful in the screening test for spinal cord angioma, in the patients who are nonindicated to angiography, and in the postoperative follow-up. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  13. Contrast media are helpful in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media very often can decisively improve the image contrasts, and thus contribute to making the differential diagnosis more specific. This survey of a symposium on the current status of CT refers particularly to the lectures that discussed the use of contrast media for neuroradiology, and the risks involved. (orig.) [de

  14. Renal streaky artifact during contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT: Comparison of high versus low osmolality contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Kim, Jong Chul; Lee, Chung Keun; Shin, Kyoung Suk

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of low osmolality contrast agent(LOCA) has allowed safer, more comfortable contrast-enhanced CT examination, but there has been significant increase in image degradation when evaluating the kidneys due to streaky artifact. The authors reviewed findings of contrast- enhanced abdominal and pelvic computed tomography(CT) to know the difference of renal streaky artifact between a high osmolality contrast agent (HOCA) and LOCA. This study included two hundred contrast-enhanced CT in 200 patients, 100 performed with HOCA(meglumine ioglicate, 150 ml) and 100 performed with LOCA (iopromide,150 ml). The severity of renal streaky artifact was compared between HOCA and LOCA groups. Of the scans performed with HOCA, 40 had no artifact, 52 had grade I artifact, 6 had grade II artifact, and 2 had grade III artifact. Of the scans preformed with LOCA, 23 had no artifact, 44 had grade I artifact, 29 had grade II artifact, and 4 had grade III artifact. There was significant difference in the degree of the streaky artifact depending upon the osmolality of the contrast media used(by χ 2 -test, P=.0001). The results of this study revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of artifacts and distortions of renal image with LOCA when compared with HOCA

  15. Effect of intensifying screens to subject contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon; Kang, Hong Seok; Yoon, Chul Ho

    1990-01-01

    It is an experimental report about object contrast according to the Kinds of screen and obtained results as follows ; 1. In the same object radiography, use acquired the difference of the object contrast between LT-II(CaWO 4 system) and G4(Gd system) screens. 2. object contrast more decreased in Gd system screen than CaWO 4 and object contrast controlled by X-ray tube voltage. 3. The difference of object contrast seen clearly in 80 kVp

  16. Administration of biliary contrast media in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.-H.; Treugut, H.

    1981-01-01

    Biliary contrast media have 2 main uses in computed tomography (CT) of the liver and bile ducts: 1. Labelling of extrahepatic bile ducts in order to aid in the identification of the common bile ducts and the papilla of Vater, particularly in cases of complex, mostly postoperative situs. 2. Differentiation between normal and abnormal liver tissue in cases of focal nodular hyperplasia with proliferation of tumorous bile ducts. The applicability of biliary contrast media is rather limited as far as the improvement of spatial resolution by an increase of contrast is concerned, because the attainable enhancement today remains small. The possibility of interpretation of the liver function is likewise insufficient, because the standard deviation of the time-dependent enhancement is too great in the normal collective in order to register deviations reliably. In cases of liver cirrhosis, a rise of density of at least 40-60 Hounsfield Units (HU) would be desirable. (Auth.)

  17. Evaluation of potential gastrointestinal contrast agents for echoplanar MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, P.; Schmitt, F.; Ladebeck, R.; Graessner, J.; Schaffer, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate approved aqueous gastrointestinal contrast agents for use in abdominal EPI. Conventional and echoplanar MR imaging experiments were performed with 1.0 Tesla whole body systems. Phantom measurements of Gastrografin, barium sulfate suspension, oral gadopentetate dimeglumine, water, and saline were performed. Signal intensity (SI) of aqueous oral barium sulfate and iodine based CT contrast agents was lower on conventional spin-echo (SE), Flash, and Turbo-Flush images than on EP images. The contrast agents exhibited higher SI on T2-weighted SE PE images and TI-time dependence on inversion recovery EP-images. The barium sulfate suspension was administered in volunteers to obtain information about bowel lumen enhancement and susceptibility artifacts. Oral administration of the aqueous barium sulfate suspension increased bowel lumen signal and reduced susceptibility artifacts. (orig.)

  18. High contrast sensitivity for visually guided flight control in bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Kelber, Almut; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Many insects rely on vision to find food, to return to their nest and to carefully control their flight between these two locations. The amount of information available to support these tasks is, in part, dictated by the spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of their visual systems. Here, we investigate the absolute limits of these visual properties for visually guided position and speed control in Bombus terrestris. Our results indicate that the limit of spatial vision in the translational motion detection system of B. terrestris lies at 0.21 cycles deg -1 with a peak contrast sensitivity of at least 33. In the perspective of earlier findings, these results indicate that bumblebees have higher contrast sensitivity in the motion detection system underlying position control than in their object discrimination system. This suggests that bumblebees, and most likely also other insects, have different visual thresholds depending on the behavioral context.

  19. MRI and CT contrast media extravasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmatzadeh Behzadi, Ashkan; Farooq, Zerwa; Newhouse, Jeffery H.; Prince, Martin R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: This systematic review combines data from multiple papers on contrast media extravasation to identify factors contributing to increased extravasation risk. Methods: Data were extracted from 17 papers reporting 2191 extravasations in 1,104,872 patients (0.2%) undergoing computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Extravasation rates were 0.045% for gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) and nearly 6-fold higher, 0.26% for iodinated contrast agents. Factors associated with increased contrast media extravasations included: older age, female gender, using an existing intravenous (IV) instead of placing a new IV in radiology, in-patient status, use of automated power injection, high injection rates, catheter location, and failing to warm up the more viscous contrast media to body temperature. Conclusion: Contrast media extravasation is infrequent but nearly 6 times less frequent with GBCA for MRI compared with iodinated contrast used in CT. PMID:29489663

  20. Simultaneous contrast: evidence from licking microstructure and cross-solution comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dominic M; Lydall, Emma S; Hayward, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    The microstructure of rats' licking responses was analyzed to investigate both "classic" simultaneous contrast (e.g., Flaherty & Largen, 1975) and a novel discrete-trial contrast procedure where access to an 8% test solution of sucrose was preceded by a sample of either 2%, 8%, or 32% sucrose (Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Consumption of a given concentration of sucrose was higher when consumed alongside a low rather than high concentration comparison solution (positive contrast) and consumption of a given concentration of sucrose was lower when consumed alongside a high rather than a low concentration comparison solution (negative contrast). Furthermore, positive contrast increased the size of lick clusters while negative contrast decreased the size of lick clusters. Lick cluster size has a positive monotonic relationship with the concentration of palatable solutions and so positive and negative contrasts produced changes in lick cluster size that were analogous to raising or lowering the concentration of the test solution respectively. Experiment 3 utilized the discrete-trial procedure and compared contrast between two solutions of the same type (sucrose-sucrose or maltodextrin-maltodextrin) or contrast across solutions (sucrose-maltodextrin or maltodextrin-sucrose). Contrast effects on consumption were present, but reduced in size, in the cross-solution conditions. Moreover, lick cluster sizes were not affected at all by cross-solution contrasts as they were by same-solution contrasts. These results are consistent with the idea that simultaneous contrast effects depend, at least partially, on sensory mechanisms.

  1. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  2. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  3. Staging Hemodynamic Failure With Blood Oxygen-Level-Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cerebrovascular Reactivity: A Comparison Versus Gold Standard (15O-)H2O-Positron Emission Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; van Niftrik, Christiaan; Warnock, Geoffrey; Wegener, Susanne; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Esposito, Giuseppe; Valavanis, Antonios; Buck, Alfred; Luft, Andreas; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca

    2018-03-01

    Increased stroke risk correlates with hemodynamic failure, which can be assessed with ( 15 O-)H 2 O positron emission tomography (PET) cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. This gold standard technique, however, is not established for routine clinical imaging. Standardized blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging+CO 2 is a noninvasive and potentially widely applicable tool to assess whole-brain quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). We examined the agreement between the 2 imaging modalities and hypothesized that quantitative CVR can be a surrogate imaging marker to assess hemodynamic failure. Nineteen data sets of subjects with chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease (age, 60±11 years; 4 women) and unilaterally impaired perfusion reserve on Diamox-challenged ( 15 O-)H 2 O PET were studied and compared with a standardized BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging+CO 2 examination within 6 weeks (8±19 days). Agreement between quantitative CBF- and CVR-based perfusion reserve was assessed. Hemodynamic failure was staged according to PET findings: stage 0: normal CBF, normal perfusion reserve; stage I: normal CBF, decreased perfusion reserve; and stage II: decreased CBF, decreased perfusion reserve. The BOLD CVR data set of the same subjects was then matched to the corresponding stage of hemodynamic failure. PET-based stage I versus stage II could also be clearly separated with BOLD CVR measurements (CVR for stage I 0.11 versus CVR for stage II -0.03; P the affected hemisphere and middle cerebral artery territory ( P the affected hemisphere and middle cerebral artery territory and for identifying hemodynamic failure stage II. BOLD CVR may, therefore, be considered for prospective studies assessing stroke risk in patients with chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease, in particular because it can potentially be implemented in routine clinical imaging. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  5. Asymptotic expansions for high-contrast elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high-order expansion for elliptic equations in high-contrast media. The background conductivity is taken to be one and we assume the medium contains high (or low) conductivity inclusions. We derive an asymptotic expansion with respect to the contrast and provide a procedure to compute the terms in the expansion. The computation of the expansion does not depend on the contrast which is important for simulations. The latter allows avoiding increased mesh resolution around high conductivity features. This work is partly motivated by our earlier work in [Domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media, Multiscale Model Simul. 8 (2010) 1461-1483] where we design efficient numerical procedures for solving high-contrast problems. These multiscale approaches require local solutions and our proposed high-order expansion can be used to approximate these local solutions inexpensively. In the case of a large-number of inclusions, the proposed analysis can help to design localization techniques for computing the terms in the expansion. In the paper, we present a rigorous analysis of the proposed high-order expansion and estimate the remainder of it. We consider both high-and low-conductivity inclusions. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  6. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  7. Visible Contrast Energy Metrics for Detection and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert; Watson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Contrast energy was proposed by Watson, Robson, & Barlow as a useful metric for representing luminance contrast target stimuli because it represents the detectability of the stimulus in photon noise for an ideal observer. Like the eye, the ear is a complex transducer system, but relatively simple sound level meters are used to characterize sounds. These meters provide a range of frequency sensitivity functions and integration times depending on the intended use. We propose here the use of a range of contrast energy measures with different spatial frequency contrast sensitivity weightings, eccentricity sensitivity weightings, and temporal integration times. When detection threshold are plotting using such measures, the results show what the eye sees best when these variables are taken into account in a standard way. The suggested weighting functions revise the Standard Spatial Observer for luminance contrast detection and extend it into the near periphery. Under the assumption that the detection is limited only by internal noise, discrimination performance can be predicted by metrics based on the visible energy of the difference images

  8. Asymptotic expansions for high-contrast elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a high-order expansion for elliptic equations in high-contrast media. The background conductivity is taken to be one and we assume the medium contains high (or low) conductivity inclusions. We derive an asymptotic expansion with respect to the contrast and provide a procedure to compute the terms in the expansion. The computation of the expansion does not depend on the contrast which is important for simulations. The latter allows avoiding increased mesh resolution around high conductivity features. This work is partly motivated by our earlier work in [Domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media, Multiscale Model Simul. 8 (2010) 1461-1483] where we design efficient numerical procedures for solving high-contrast problems. These multiscale approaches require local solutions and our proposed high-order expansion can be used to approximate these local solutions inexpensively. In the case of a large-number of inclusions, the proposed analysis can help to design localization techniques for computing the terms in the expansion. In the paper, we present a rigorous analysis of the proposed high-order expansion and estimate the remainder of it. We consider both high-and low-conductivity inclusions. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  9. Blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging for detecting pathological patterns in lupus nephritis patients: a preliminary study using a decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huilan; Jia, Junya; Li, Dong; Wei, Li; Shang, Wenya; Zheng, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-09

    Precise renal histopathological diagnosis will guide therapy strategy in patients with lupus nephritis. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applicable noninvasive technique in renal disease. This current study was performed to explore whether BOLD MRI could contribute to diagnose renal pathological pattern. Adult patients with lupus nephritis renal pathological diagnosis were recruited for this study. Renal biopsy tissues were assessed based on the lupus nephritis ISN/RPS 2003 classification. The Blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) was used to obtain functional magnetic resonance parameter, R2* values. Several functions of R2* values were calculated and used to construct algorithmic models for renal pathological patterns. In addition, the algorithmic models were compared as to their diagnostic capability. Both Histopathology and BOLD MRI were used to examine a total of twelve patients. Renal pathological patterns included five classes III (including 3 as class III + V) and seven classes IV (including 4 as class IV + V). Three algorithmic models, including decision tree, line discriminant, and logistic regression, were constructed to distinguish the renal pathological pattern of class III and class IV. The sensitivity of the decision tree model was better than that of the line discriminant model (71.87% vs 59.48%, P decision tree model was equivalent to that of the line discriminant model (63.87% vs 63.73%, P = 0.939) and higher than that of the logistic regression model (63.87% vs 38.0%, P decision tree model was greater than that of the line discriminant model (0.765 vs 0.629, P Decision tree models constructed using functions of R2* values may facilitate the prediction of renal pathological patterns.

  10. Contrast media induced acute renal failure in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambausek, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dehydration, preexisting renal insufficiency, multiple myeloma and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are known risk factors for a radiocontrast medium induced acute renal failure. In 90% of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and proteinuria, a further detoriation of renal function can be expected after i.v. administration of radiocontrast medium. Recent concepts on the genesis of acute renal failure after radiocontrast medium in multiple myeloma emphasize the role of tubular blocade (tubular precipitation of myeloma protein with contrast medium). In insulin-dependent diabetic patients we found altered carbohydrate composition of urinary Tamm Horsfall Protein (THP), with increased glucose and diminished N-acetyl-neuraminicacid content. This was paralleled by a difference in an in-vitro system of coprecipitation where THP of diabetes triggered more pronounced calcium dependent coprecipitation of contrast medium and albumin. These in-vitro findings might be important for the explanation of the genesis of radiocontrast medium-induced acute renal failure in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (orig.) [de

  11. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S. (ed.) [Copenhagen Univ. Hospital, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2

    2006-07-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of the contrast media used in radiology departments. Since then, the committee has questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines, and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia on urogenital radiology. This book represents the end result of this hard work. It contains all of the agreed guidelines, updated when necessary, and thereby comprehensively covers the many different safety issues relating to the diverse contrast media: barium contrast media, iodinated contrast media, MR contrast media (both gadolinium-based extracellular and organ-specific) and ultrasound contrast media. The prevention and treatment of both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions as well as the renal adverse reactions are covered in detail. The inclusion of all the ESUR guidelines within one book will offer an invaluable, unique and unparalleled resource. (orig.)

  12. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of the contrast media used in radiology departments. Since then, the committee has questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines, and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia on urogenital radiology. This book represents the end result of this hard work. It contains all of the agreed guidelines, updated when necessary, and thereby comprehensively covers the many different safety issues relating to the diverse contrast media: barium contrast media, iodinated contrast media, MR contrast media (both gadolinium-based extracellular and organ-specific) and ultrasound contrast media. The prevention and treatment of both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions as well as the renal adverse reactions are covered in detail. The inclusion of all the ESUR guidelines within one book will offer an invaluable, unique and unparalleled resource. (orig.)

  13. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  14. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  15. Contrast settling in cerebral aneurysm angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijie; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Guterman, Lee R; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Meng Hui

    2005-01-01

    During angiography, blood flow is visualized with a radiopaque contrast agent, which is denser than blood. In complex vasculature, such as cerebral saccular aneurysms, the density difference may produce an appreciable gravity effect, where the contrast material separates from blood and settles along the gravity direction. Although contrast settling has been occasionally reported before, the fluid mechanics behind it have not been explored. Furthermore, the severity of contrast settling in cerebral aneurysms varies significantly from case to case. Therefore, a better understanding of the physical principles behind this phenomenon is needed to evaluate contrast settling in clinical angiography. In this study, flow in two identical groups of sidewall aneurysm models with varying parent-vessel curvature was examined by angiography. Intravascular stents were deployed into one group of the models. To detect contrast settling, we used lateral view angiography. Time-intensity curves were analysed from the angiographic data, and a computational fluid dynamic analysis was conducted. Results showed that contrast settling was strongly related to the local flow dynamics. We used the Froude number, a ratio of flow inertia to gravity force, to characterize the significance of gravity force. An aneurysm with a larger vessel curvature experienced higher flow, which resulted in a larger Froude number and, thus, less gravitational settling. Addition of a stent reduced the aneurysmal flow, thereby increasing the contrast settling. We found that contrast settling resulted in an elevated washout tail in the time-intensity curve. However, this signature is not unique to contrast settling. To determine whether contrast settling is present, a lateral view should be obtained in addition to the anteroposterior (AP) view routinely used clinically so as to rule out contrast settling and hence to enable a valid time-intensity curve analysis of blood flow in the aneurysm

  16. Exchange-Mediated Contrast in CEST and Spin-Lock Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Jared Guthrie; Li, Ke; Xie, Jingping; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Gore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Magnetic resonance images of biological media based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) show contrast that depends on chemical exchange between water and other protons. In addition, spin-lattice relaxation rates in the rotating frame (R1ρ) are also affected by exchange, especially at high fields, and can be exploited to provide novel, exchange-dependent contrast. Here, we evaluate and compare the factors that modulate the exchange contrast for these methods using simulations and experiments on simple, biologically relevant samples. METHODS Simulations and experimental measurements at 9.4T of rotating frame relaxation rate dispersion and CEST contrast were performed on solutions of macromolecules containing amide and hydroxyl exchanging protons. RESULTS The simulations and experimental measurements confirm that both CEST and R1ρ measurements depend on similar exchange parameters, but they manifest themselves differently in their effects on contrast. CEST contrast may be larger in the slow and intermediate exchange regimes for protons with large resonant frequency offsets (e.g. > 2ppm). Spin-locking techniques can produce larger contrast enhancement when resonant frequency offsets are small (exchange is in the intermediate to fast regime. The image contrasts scale differently with field strength, exchange rate and concentration. CONCLUSION CEST and R1ρ measurements provide different and somewhat complementary information about exchange in tissues. Whereas CEST can depict exchange of protons with specific chemical shifts, appropriate R1ρ dependent acquisitions can be employed to selectively portray protons of specific exchange rates. PMID:24239335

  17. Contrast media effect on interleukin-2 levels in human plasma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolov, Yu.K.; Borsukova, N.M.; Shimanovskij, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    As shown in the study of bilignost, iodamide and triombrast action on interleukin-2 (IL-2) level in human plasma in vitro, these contrast media (2.5x10 -2 -2.5x10 -4 M) elevate IL-2 content in blood plasma of sensitive to contrast media subjects in dose-dependent manner

  18. Exchange-mediated contrast in CEST and spin-lock imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Jared Guthrie; Li, Ke; Xie, Jingping; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images of biological media based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) show contrast that depends on chemical exchange between water and other protons. In addition, spin-lattice relaxation rates in the rotating frame (R1ρ) are also affected by exchange, especially at high fields, and can be exploited to provide novel, exchange-dependent contrast. Here, we evaluate and compare the factors that modulate the exchange contrast for these methods using simulations and experiments on simple, biologically relevant samples. Simulations and experimental measurements at 9.4 T of rotating frame relaxation rate dispersion and CEST contrast were performed on solutions of macromolecules containing amide and hydroxyl exchanging protons. The simulations and experimental measurements confirm that both CEST and R1ρ measurements depend on similar exchange parameters, but they manifest themselves differently in their effects on contrast. CEST contrast may be larger in the slow and intermediate exchange regimes for protons with large resonant frequency offsets (e.g. >2 ppm). Spin-locking techniques can produce larger contrast enhancement when resonant frequency offsets are small (exchange is in the intermediate-to-fast regime. The image contrasts scale differently with field strength, exchange rate and concentration. CEST and R1ρ measurements provide different and somewhat complementary information about exchange in tissues. Whereas CEST can depict exchange of protons with specific chemical shifts, appropriate R1ρ-dependent acquisitions can be employed to selectively portray protons of specific exchange rates. © 2013.

  19. Abdominal and pelvic CT: is positive enteric contrast still necessary? Results of a retrospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, S.; Hoeink, A.J.; Wessling, J.; Schuelke, C.; Heindel, W.; Buerke, B. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Heinzow, H. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Muenster (Germany); Koch, R. [University Muenster, Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT depending on the type of enteric contrast agent. Multislice CTs of 2,008 patients with different types of oral preparation (positive with barium, n = 576; neutral with water, n = 716; and no enteric contrast, n = 716) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists including delineation of intestinal segments and influence on diagnosis and diagnostic reliability exerted by the enteric contrast, using a three-point scale. Furthermore, diagnostic reliability of the delineation of selected enteric pathologies was noted. CT data were assigned into groups: oncology, inflammation, vascular, pathology, trauma and gastrointestinal pathology. Delineation of the bowel was clearly practicable across all segments irrespective of the type of enteric contrast, though a slight impairment was observed without enteric contrast. Although delineation of intestinal pathologies was mostly classified ''clearly delimitable'' more difficulties occurred without oral contrast (neutral/positive/no contrast, 0.8 %/3.8 %/6.5 %). Compared to examinations without enteric contrast, there was a significant improvement in diagnosis that was even increased regarding the reader's diagnostic reliability. Positive opacification impaired detection of mucosal enhancement or intestinal bleeding. Water can replace positive enteric contrast agents in abdominal CTs. However, selected clinical questions require individual enteric contrast preparations. Pathology detection is noticeably impaired without any enteric contrast. circle Neutral oral contrast ensures an equivalent delineation of the bowel. (orig.)

  20. Contrast media on abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalpe, I.O.; Oestensen, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in 55 patients before and after intravenous injection of 60 ml of a non-ionic (iohexol) or an ionic (metrizoate) contrast medium. The adverse effects were recorded and a series of measurements of attenuation values before and after the contrast medium injection was performed in the aorta and in hepatic and renal parenchyma. Only minor adverse effects were seen with both contrast media, but iohexol was clearly better tolerated than metrizoate. No difference in the enhancement properties was found between the two contrast media. (orig.)

  1. An Improved Image Contrast Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast is an important factor affecting the image quality. In order to overcome the problems of local band-limited contrast, a novel image contrast assessment method based on the property of HVS is proposed. Firstly, the image by low-pass filter is performed fast wavelet decomposition. Secondly, all levels of band-pass filtered image and its corresponding low-pass filtered image are obtained by processing wavelet coefficients. Thirdly, local band-limited contrast is calculated, and the local band-limited contrast entropy is calculated according to the definition of entropy, Finally, the contrast entropy of image is obtained by averaging the local band-limited contrast entropy weighed using CSF coefficient. The experiment results show that the best contrast image can be accurately identified in the sequence images obtained by adjusting the exposure time and stretching gray respectively, the assessment results accord with human visual characteristics and make up the lack of local band-limited contrast.

  2. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Bang, Nanna

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents were originally introduced to enhance the Doppler signals when detecting vessels with low velocity flow or when imaging conditions were sub-optimal. Contrast agents showed additional properties, it was discovered that a parenchymal enhancement phase in the liver followed the enhancement of the blood pool. Contrast agents have made ultrasound scanning more accurate in detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions and the sensitivity is now comparable with CT and MRI scanning. Further, analysis of the transit time of contrast agent through the liver seems to give information on possible hepatic involvement, not only from focal lesions but also from diffuse benign parenchymal disease. The first ultrasound contrast agents were easily destroyed by the energy from the sound waves but newer agents have proved to last for longer time and hereby enable real-time scanning and make contrast enhancement suitable for interventional procedures such as biopsies and tissue ablation. Also, in monitoring the effect of tumour treatment contrast agents have been useful. A brief overview is given on some possible applications and on different techniques using ultrasound contrast agents in liver imaging. At present, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent that allows real-time scanning with low mechanical index is to be preferred

  3. Distinct BOLD fMRI Responses of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Sensation Reveal Pain-Related Brain Activation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Ali Asad

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of the adult population suffer from chronic pain that is not adequately treated by current therapies, highlighting a great need for improved treatment options. To develop effective analgesics, experimental human and animal models of pain are critical. Topically/intra-dermally applied capsaicin induces hyperalgesia and allodynia to thermal and tactile stimuli that mimics chronic pain and is a useful translation from preclinical research to clinical investigation. Many behavioral and self-report studies of pain have exploited the use of the capsaicin pain model, but objective biomarker correlates of the capsaicin augmented nociceptive response in nonhuman primates remains to be explored.Here we establish an aversive capsaicin-induced fMRI model using non-noxious heat stimuli in Cynomolgus monkeys (n = 8. BOLD fMRI data were collected during thermal challenge (ON:20 s/42°C; OFF:40 s/35°C, 4-cycle at baseline and 30 min post-capsaicin (0.1 mg, topical, forearm application. Tail withdrawal behavioral studies were also conducted in the same animals using 42°C or 48°C water bath pre- and post- capsaicin application (0.1 mg, subcutaneous, tail.Group comparisons between pre- and post-capsaicin application revealed significant BOLD signal increases in brain regions associated with the 'pain matrix', including somatosensory, frontal, and cingulate cortices, as well as the cerebellum (paired t-test, p<0.02, n = 8, while no significant change was found after the vehicle application. The tail withdrawal behavioral study demonstrated a significant main effect of temperature and a trend towards capsaicin induced reduction of latency at both temperatures.These findings provide insights into the specific brain regions involved with aversive, 'pain-like', responses in a nonhuman primate model. Future studies may employ both behavioral and fMRI measures as translational biomarkers to gain deeper understanding of pain processing and evaluate

  4. Polymeric nanoparticles as OCT contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rawashdeh, Wa' el [RWTH Aachen University, Experimental Molecular Imaging (Germany); Kray, Stefan [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Semiconductor Electronics (Germany); Pich, Andrij; Pargen, Sascha; Balaceanu, Andreea [RWTH Aachen University, Interactive Material Research (DWI) (Germany); Lenz, Markus; Spoeler, Felix [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Semiconductor Electronics (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian, E-mail: fkiessling@ukaachen.de; Lederle, Wiltrud [RWTH Aachen University, Experimental Molecular Imaging (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the optical properties of two nano-sized polymer colloids in optical coherence tomography (OCT) were compared in vitro with respect to their potential use as contrast agents. We used two types of particles: compact hydrophobic spherical polystyrene (PS) particles and soft water-swollen nanogel (NG) particles both with grafted hydrophilic shell, both prepared at two different sizes (PS at 300 and 150 nm, NG at 300 and 200 nm). The OCT backscattering signals of the particles in a vessel-mimicking highly scattering agar/TiO{sub 2} phantom were compared on either number of particles or weight percent. Larger particles and higher concentrations produced higher OCT contrast. At each concentration tested, a markedly higher contrast was achieved by PS particles than NG particles. PS particles generated a markedly higher OCT contrast than the phantom at concentrations of at least 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} or 0.1 % for PS 300 nm and at least 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} particles/mL or 0.4 % for PS 150 nm. The contrast generated by NG 300 nm was above the phantom contrast at concentrations of at least 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} particles/mL or 1 %, whereas NG 200 nm only at 4 %. At any given weight percent, the differences in OCT contrast between differently sized particles were much less evident than in the comparison based on particle number. PS 300 nm generated also a good contrast ex vivo on chicken muscle tissue. These results strongly suggest that PS spheres have strong potential as intravascular OCT contrast agent, while NG particles need further contrast enhancer for being used as OCT contrast agent.

  5. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  6. CHANGE DETECTION VIA SELECTIVE GUIDED CONTRASTING FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC. The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC, mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All

  7. Comparative evaluation of positive contrast and double contrast gastrography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dileepkumar, K.M.; Rajankutty, K.; Sarada, Amma T.; Devanand, C.B.; Vijayan, N.

    2012-01-01

    A contrast radiography of stomach with oral barium sulphate suspension 25% (5 mL/kg b.wt positive contrast) and double contrast with oral barium sulphate 25% (3 mL/kg b.wt) followed by air (2 to 10 mL/kg b.wt, negative contrast) was done on six dogs to study the affections of stomach. Contrast radiography using barium sulphate alone was found satisfactory to identify most of the lesions of the stomach. Double contrast radiography using barium sulphate and air, required sedation to control the animals for proper administration. For the diagnosis of mucosal lesions, double contrast radiography was better than barium sulphate alone. Key words: Barium, Contrast radiography, Dog, Double contrast, Stomach