WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependency structure matrix

  1. USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE MATRIX IN OPTIMAZING FINANCIAL AUDIT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adriana Florina

    2013-07-01

    Our research suggests that DSM can provide useful information in detecting risk areas in significant classes of transactions identified in a risk based audit and we recommend using DSM matrix in the planning phase of the audit in order to avoid redundancies in the audit execution phase. This is important considering that the European Commission recommends in the Green Paper for Audit to improve the quality of audits following the setbacks to the profession caused by the financial crisis.

  2. Development of a Genetic Algorithm to Automate Clustering of a Dependency Structure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.; Korte, John J.; Bilardo, Vincent J.

    2006-01-01

    Much technology assessment and organization design data exists in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Tools are needed to put this data into a form that can be used by design managers to make design decisions. One need is to cluster data that is highly coupled. Tools such as the Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be of great benefit. However, no tool currently combines the DSM and a GA to solve the clustering problem. This paper describes a new software tool that interfaces a GA written as an Excel macro with a DSM in spreadsheet format. The results of several test cases are included to demonstrate how well this new tool works.

  3. Time-dependent failure criteria for lifetime prediction of polymer matrix composite structures

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, RM

    2010-01-01

    The use of fibre-reinforced polymers in civil construction applications originated structures with a high specific stiffness and strength. Although these structures usually present a high mechanical performance, their strength and stiffness may decay significantly over time. This is mainly due to the viscoelastic nature of the matrix, damage accumulation and propagation within the matrix and fibre breaking. One serious consequence, as a result of static fatigue (creep failure), is a premature...

  4. Investigation of tautomeric structures of thionin by satellite holes: matrix dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Chiang, Chien-Chih; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Personov, Roman I.; Chang, Ta-Chau

    1999-03-01

    We have applied the satellite hole spectroscopy to study the tautomeric structures of thionin dye in glycerol:water glass. Slightly different frequencies (˜15 cm -1) are observed for several satellite holes of thionin upon tuning the burning wavelength, implying that two conformational structures exist. However, only one set of satellite holes occurring in the spectrum of thionin doped in polyvinyl butyral film allows us to investigate the tautomeric structures of thionin in different matrices. Our results suggest that the appearance of two tautomeric structures of thionin in glycerol:water glass is due to the proton exchange between different sites of thionin and the matrix through intermolecular hydrogen bond.

  5. MT1-MMP-dependent remodeling of cardiac extracellular matrix structure and function following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Gerald C; Rowe, R Grant; Day, Sharlene M; Sabeh, Farideh; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Cooke, Kenneth R; Weiss, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    The myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM), an interwoven meshwork of proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that is dominated by polymeric fibrils of type I collagen, serves as the mechanical scaffold on which myocytes are arrayed for coordinated and synergistic force transduction. Following ischemic injury, cardiac ECM remodeling is initiated via localized proteolysis, the bulk of which has been assigned to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members. Nevertheless, the key effector(s) of myocardial type I collagenolysis both in vitro and in vivo have remained unidentified. In this study, using cardiac explants from mice deficient in each of the major type I collagenolytic MMPs, including MMP-13, MMP-8, MMP-2, MMP-9, or MT1-MMP, we identify the membrane-anchored MMP, MT1-MMP, as the dominant collagenase that is operative within myocardial tissues in vitro. Extending these observations to an in vivo setting, mice heterozygous for an MT1-MMP-null allele display a distinct survival advantage and retain myocardial function relative to wild-type littermates in an experimental model of myocardial infarction, effects associated with preservation of the myocardial type I collagen network as a consequence of the decreased collagenolytic potential of cardiac fibroblasts. This study identifies MT1-MMP as a key MMP responsible for effecting postinfarction cardiac ECM remodeling and cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  7. Tissue phenotype depends on reciprocal interactions between the extracellular matrix and the structural organization of the nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelie' vre, S.A.; Weaver, V.M.; Nickerson, J.A.; Larabell, C.A.; Bhaumik, A.; Petersen, O.W.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-08-14

    What determines the nuclear organization within a cell and whether this organization itself can impose cellular function within a tissue remains unknown. To explore the relationship between nuclear organization and tissue architecture and function, we used a model of human mammary epithelial cell acinar morphogenesis. When cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (rBM), HMT-3522 cells form polarized and growth-arrested tissue-like acini with a central lumen and deposit an endogenous BM. We show that rBM-induced morphogenesis is accompanied by relocalization of the nuclear matrix proteins NuMA, splicing factor SRm160, and cell cycle regulator Rb. These proteins had distinct distribution patterns specific for proliferation, growth arrest, and acini formation, whereas the distribution of the nuclear lamina protein, lamin B, remained unchanged. NuMA relocalized to foci, which coalesced into larger assemblies as morphogenesis progressed. Perturbation of histone acetylation in the acini by trichostatin A treatment altered chromatin structure, disrupted NuMA foci, and induced cell proliferation. Moreover, treatment of transiently permeabilized acini with a NuMA antibody led to the disruption of NuMA foci, alteration of histone acetylation, activation of metalloproteases, and breakdown of the endogenous BM. These results experimentally demonstrate a dynamic interaction between the extracellular matrix, nuclear organization, and tissue phenotype. They further show that rather than passively ref lecting changes in gene expression, nuclear organization itself can modulate the cellular and tissue phenotype.

  8. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  9. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  10. Annealing-dependent structural and magnetic properties of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in a silica matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolic, Dobrica; Panjan, Matjaz; Blake, Graeme R.; Tadic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    We show that annealing at high temperatures has a significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of NiO/SiO2 nanostructures synthesized by a sol-gel combustion method. Samples underwent heat treatments at 500 degrees C, 800 degrees C, 950 degrees C and 1100 degrees C. As compared to th

  11. Myocardial structure and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeli, C; Pietri, P; Felekos, I; Rautopoulos, L; Toutouzas, K; Tsiamis, E; Stefanadis, C

    2012-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes which enhance proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The pathophysiologic and prognostic role of MMPs has been demonstrated in numerous studies. The present review covers a wide a range of topics with regards to MMPs structural and functional properties, as well as their role in myocardial remodeling in several cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the clinical and therapeutic implications from their assessment are highlighted.

  12. Quantitative regulation of bone-mimetic, oriented collagen/apatite matrix structure depends on the degree of osteoblast alignment on oriented collagen substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugaki, Aira; Isobe, Yoshihiro; Saku, Taro; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Bone tissue has a specific anisotropic morphology derived from collagen fiber alignment and the related apatite crystal orientation as a bone quality index. However, the precise mechanism of cellular regulation of the crystallographic orientation of apatite has not been clarified. In this study, anisotropic construction of cell-produced mineralized matrix in vitro was established by initiating organized cellular alignment and subsequent oriented bone-like matrix (collagen/apatite) production. The oriented collagen substrates with three anisotropic levels were prepared by a hydrodynamic method. Primary osteoblasts were cultured on the fabricated substrates until mineralized matrix formation is confirmed. Osteoblast alignment was successfully regulated by the level of substrate collagen orientation, with preferential alignment along the direction of the collagen fibers. Notably, both fibrous orientation of newly synthesized collagen matrix and c-axis of produced apatite crystals showed preferential orientation along the cell direction. Because the degree of anisotropy of the deposited apatite crystals showed dependency on the directional distribution of osteoblasts cultured on the oriented collagen substrates, the cell orientation determines the crystallographic anisotropy of produced apatite crystals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy, even the alignment of apatite crystals, is controllable by varying the degree of osteoblast alignment via regulating the level of substrate orientation.

  13. Silver Matrix Composites - Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase compositions of composite materials determine their performance as well as physical and mechanical properties. Depending on the type of applied matrix and the kind, amount and morphology of the matrix reinforcement, it is possible to shape the material properties so that they meet specific operational requirements. In the paper, results of investigations on silver alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles are presented. The investigations enabled evaluation of hardness, tribological and mechanical properties as well as the structure of produced materials. The matrix of composite material was an alloy of silver and aluminium, magnesium and silicon. As the reinforcing phase, 20-60 μm ceramic particles (SiC, SiO2, Al2O3 and Cs were applied. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the composites was 10%. The composites were produced using the liquid phase (casting technology, followed by plastic work (the KOBO method. The mechanical and tribological properties were analysed for plastic work-subjected composites. The mechanical properties were assessed based on a static tensile and hardness tests. The tribological properties were investigated under dry sliding conditions. The analysis of results led to determination of effects of the composite production technology on their performance. Moreover, a relationship between the type of reinforcing phase and the mechanical and tribological properties was established.

  14. Nuclear matrix - structure, function and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasąg, Piotr; Lenartowski, Robert

    2016-12-20

    The nuclear matrix (NM), or nuclear skeleton, is the non-chromatin, ribonucleoproteinaceous framework that is resistant to high ionic strength buffers, nonionic detergents, and nucleolytic enzymes. The NM fulfills a structural role in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin. Moreover, the NM participates in several cellular processes, such as DNA replication/repair, gene expression, RNA transport, cell signaling and differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Short nucleotide sequences called scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) anchor the chromatin loops to the NM proteins (NMP). The NMP composition is dynamic and depends on the cell type and differentiation stage or metabolic activity. Alterations in the NMP composition affect anchoring of the S/MARs and thus alter gene expression. This review aims to systematize information about the skeletal structure of the nucleus, with particular emphasis on the organization of the NM and its role in selected cellular processes. We also discuss several diseases that are caused by aberrant NM structure or dysfunction of individual NM elements.

  15. Development and application of a density dependent matrix ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranging along the Atlantic coast from US Florida to the Maritime Provinces of Canada, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an important and well-studied model organism for understanding the effects of pollutants and other stressors in estuarine and marine ecosystems. Matrix population models are useful tools for ecological risk assessment because they integrate effects across the life cycle, provide a linkage between endpoints observed in the individual and ecological risk to the population as a whole, and project outcomes for many generations in the future. We developed a density dependent matrix population model for Atlantic killifish by modifying a model developed for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) that has proved to be extremely useful, e.g. to incorporate data from laboratory studies and project effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We developed a size-structured model (as opposed to one that is based upon developmental stages or age class structure) so that we could readily incorporate output from a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, currently under development. Due to a lack of sufficient data to accurately define killifish responses to density dependence, we tested a number of scenarios realistic for other fish species in order to demonstrate the outcome of including this ecologically important factor. We applied the model using published data for killifish exposed to dioxin-like compounds, and compared our results to those using

  16. Gauge and Scheme Dependence of Mixing Matrix Renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2002-01-01

    We revisit the issue of mixing matrix renormalization in theories that include Dirac or Majorana fermions. We show how a gauge-variant on-shell renormalized mixing matrix can be related to a manifestly gauge-independent one within a generalized ${\\bar {\\rm MS}}$ scheme of renormalization. This scheme-dependent relation is a consequence of the fact that in any scheme of renormalization, the gauge-dependent part of the mixing-matrix counterterm is ultra-violet safe and has a pure dispersive for...

  17. Strain Rate Dependent Modeling of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to model the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation model has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  18. Gauge and Scheme Dependence of Mixing Matrix Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2002-01-01

    We revisit the issue of mixing matrix renormalization in theories that include Dirac or Majorana fermions. We show how a gauge-variant on-shell renormalized mixing matrix can be related to a manifestly gauge-independent one within a generalized ${\\bar {\\rm MS}}$ scheme of renormalization. This scheme-dependent relation is a consequence of the fact that in any scheme of renormalization, the gauge-dependent part of the mixing-matrix counterterm is ultra-violet safe and has a pure dispersive form. Employing the unitarity properties of the theory, we can successfully utilize the afore-mentioned scheme-dependent relation to preserve basic global or local symmetries of the bare Lagrangian through the entire process of renormalization. As an immediate application of our study, we derive the gauge-independent renormalization-group equations of mixing matrices in a minimal extension of the Standard Model with isosinglet neutrinos.

  19. Eigenstates of the time-dependent density-matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, M. [Kyorin University School of Medicine, 181-8611, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2004-02-01

    An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, known as the time-dependent density-matrix theory (TDDM), is solved as a time-independent eigenvalue problem for low-lying 2{sup +} states in {sup 24}O to understand the foundation of the rather successful time-dependent approach. It is found that the calculated strength distribution of the 2{sup +} states has physically reasonable behavior and that the strength function is practically positive definite though the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian matrix obtained from TDDM does not guarantee it. A relation to an Extended RPA theory with hermiticity is also investigated. It is found that the density-matrix formalism is a good approximation to the Hermitian Extended RPA theory. (orig.)

  20. Solution of the Lyapunov matrix equation for a system with a time-dependent stiffness matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2004-01-01

    The stability of the linearized model of a rotor system with non-symmetric strain and axial loads is investigated. Since we are using a fixed reference system, the differential equations have the advantage to be free of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. A disadvantage is nevertheless the occurrenc...... of time-dependent periodic terms in the stiffness matrix. However, by solving the Lyapunov matrix equation we can formulate several stability conditions for the rotor system. Hereby the positive definiteness of a certain averaged stiffness matrix plays a crucial role....

  1. Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is being undertaken to develop rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composite materials. In previous work in this program, strain-rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations used to analyze polymers have been implemented into a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics method. In the current work, modifications to the micromechanics model have been implemented to improve the calculation of the effective inelastic strain. Additionally, modifications to the polymer constitutive model are discussed in which pressure dependence is incorporated into the equations in order to improve the calculation of constituent and composite shear stresses. The Hashin failure criterion is implemented into the analysis method to allow for the calculation of ply level failure stresses. The deformation response and failure stresses for two representative uniaxial polymer matrix composites, IM7/977-2 and AS4-PEEK, are predicted for varying strain rates and fiber orientations. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  2. Predicting structure in nonsymmetric sparse matrix factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.R. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)); Ng, E.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Many computations on sparse matrices have a phase that predicts the nonzero structure of the output, followed by a phase that actually performs the numerical computation. We study structure prediction for computations that involve nonsymmetric row and column permutations and nonsymmetric or non-square matrices. Our tools are bipartite graphs, matchings, and alternating paths. Our main new result concerns LU factorization with partial pivoting. We show that if a square matrix A has the strong Hall property (i.e., is fully indecomposable) then an upper bound due to George and Ng on the nonzero structure of L + U is as tight as possible. To show this, we prove a crucial result about alternating paths in strong Hall graphs. The alternating-paths theorem seems to be of independent interest: it can also be used to prove related results about structure prediction for QR factorization that are due to Coleman, Edenbrandt, Gilbert, Hare, Johnson, Olesky, Pothen, and van den Driessche.

  3. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  4. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K; Keum, Jong K; Boeman, Raymond G

    2016-12-06

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  5. Altered permeability barrier structure in cholesteatoma matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars; Rasmussen, Gurli

    2002-01-01

    The stratum corneum of the cholesteatoma epithelium comprises the greater part of the cholesteatoma matrix. The permeability barrier that militates against diffusion and penetration of infectious and toxic agents into and through the epithelium is situated here. The multiple long sheets of lamellar...... lipid structures filling the intercellular spaces mainly control the barrier function. The barrier in cholesteatoma epithelium is several times thicker than in unaffected skin but presents distinctive features of a defective barrier as seen in other scaling skin diseases. The intercellular spaces appear...

  6. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapek, S. [Institut fuer Informatik tu Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  7. Tiny graviton matrix theory on time-dependent background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.cn; Liu Xiao [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: liuxiaoerty@pku.edu.cn

    2009-04-11

    In this article we construct a tiny graviton matrix model for type IIB string theory on a plane-wave background with null dilaton. For the linear null dilaton case, we analyze its vacuum and the excitation spectrum around the vacuum, and discuss the time-dependent fuzzy three-sphere solutions and their evolution. It turns out that at very late time the non-Abelian fuzzy degrees of freedom disappear, which indicates the appearance of perturbative strings.

  8. Computing the structural influence matrix for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Giulia; Cuba Samaniego, Christian; Franco, Elisa; Blanchini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying structural influences of external inputs on steady-state outputs in a biological network model. We speak of a structural influence if, upon a perturbation due to a constant input, the ensuing variation of the steady-state output value has the same sign as the input (positive influence), the opposite sign (negative influence), or is zero (perfect adaptation), for any feasible choice of the model parameters. All these signs and zeros can constitute a structural influence matrix, whose (i, j) entry indicates the sign of steady-state influence of the jth system variable on the ith variable (the output caused by an external persistent input applied to the jth variable). Each entry is structurally determinate if the sign does not depend on the choice of the parameters, but is indeterminate otherwise. In principle, determining the influence matrix requires exhaustive testing of the system steady-state behaviour in the widest range of parameter values. Here we show that, in a broad class of biological networks, the influence matrix can be evaluated with an algorithm that tests the system steady-state behaviour only at a finite number of points. This algorithm also allows us to assess the structural effect of any perturbation, such as variations of relevant parameters. Our method is applied to nontrivial models of biochemical reaction networks and population dynamics drawn from the literature, providing a parameter-free insight into the system dynamics.

  9. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.X. Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix computations, parallelization based on solely exploiting the existing parallelism in an algorithm does not always give satisfactory results. For example, the conventional Gaussian elimination algorithm for the solution of a tri-diagonal system is inherently sequential, so algorithms specially for parallel computation has to be designed. After briefly reviewing different parallelization approaches, a powerful graph formalism for designing parallel algorithms is introduced. This formalism will be discussed using a tri-diagonal system as an example. Its application to general matrix computations is also discussed. Its power in designing parallel algorithms beyond the ability of data dependence analysis is shown by means of a new algorithm called ACER (Alternating Cyclic Elimination and Reduction algorithm.

  10. Distance matrix-based approach to protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L; Wu, Zhijun; Song, Guang; Yang, Lei; Kolinski, Andrzej; Pokarowski, Piotr

    2009-03-01

    Much structural information is encoded in the internal distances; a distance matrix-based approach can be used to predict protein structure and dynamics, and for structural refinement. Our approach is based on the square distance matrix D = [r(ij)(2)] containing all square distances between residues in proteins. This distance matrix contains more information than the contact matrix C, that has elements of either 0 or 1 depending on whether the distance r (ij) is greater or less than a cutoff value r (cutoff). We have performed spectral decomposition of the distance matrices D = sigma lambda(k)V(k)V(kT), in terms of eigenvalues lambda kappa and the corresponding eigenvectors v kappa and found that it contains at most five nonzero terms. A dominant eigenvector is proportional to r (2)--the square distance of points from the center of mass, with the next three being the principal components of the system of points. By predicting r (2) from the sequence we can approximate a distance matrix of a protein with an expected RMSD value of about 7.3 A, and by combining it with the prediction of the first principal component we can improve this approximation to 4.0 A. We can also explain the role of hydrophobic interactions for the protein structure, because r is highly correlated with the hydrophobic profile of the sequence. Moreover, r is highly correlated with several sequence profiles which are useful in protein structure prediction, such as contact number, the residue-wise contact order (RWCO) or mean square fluctuations (i.e. crystallographic temperature factors). We have also shown that the next three components are related to spatial directionality of the secondary structure elements, and they may be also predicted from the sequence, improving overall structure prediction. We have also shown that the large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the

  11. Implementation of a Matrix Organizational Structure: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, David M.

    The implementation of a matrix structure as an alternative to the traditional collegial/bureaucratic form at a college of education in a medium-size state university is described. Matrix organizational structures are differentiated from hierarchical bureaucratic structures by dividing the organization's tasks into functional units across which an…

  12. RGD-Dependent Epithelial Cell-Matrix Interactions in the Human Intestinal Crypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick D. Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM and integrin receptors trigger structural and functional bonds between the cell microenvironment and the cytoskeleton. Such connections are essential for adhesion structure integrity and are key players in regulating transduction of specific intracellular signals, which in turn regulate the organization of the cell microenvironment and, consequently, cell function. The RGD peptide-dependent integrins represent a key subgroup of ECM receptors involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis. Here we review recent findings on RGD-dependent ECM-integrin interactions and their roles in human intestinal epithelial crypt cells.

  13. Estudio de la Incertidumbre en la Programación de Actividades usando la Matriz de Estructura Dependiente Study of the Uncertainty of Task Programming using the Dependency Structure Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira D Gálvez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre el efecto de la incertidumbre en la programación de actividades de proyectos usando la matriz de estructura dependiente (DSM y la teoría gris. Se aplica la teoría gris para representar la incertidumbre en la estimación del tiempo de duración de proyectos, desarrollando las ecuaciones necesarias para determinar el tiempo convencional gris, el tiempo normal gris y el tiempo normal gris con superposición natural. Con base en el estudio se concluye que la aplicación de la teoría de gris a la DSM permite: i considerar la incertidumbre en la programación del proyecto; ii identificar las etapas más críticas; iii analizar el efecto de la incertidumbre de cada etapa en la duración total del proyecto; y iv comparar diferentes estrategias de programación.A study about the effect of uncertainty on the planning of project activities using the dependency structure matrix (DSM and grey theory. The grey theory is applied to represent the uncertainty in estimating project extension. As a result, the equations to determine the grey conventional time, the grey normal time and the grey normal time with natural overlap were developed. Based on the case studies it is concluded that the application of the grey theory to the DSM allows: considering the uncertainty in project planning; ii identifying the most critical stages; iii analyzing the effect of the uncertainty of each stage in the total project duration; and iv comparing different programming strategies.

  14. Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Smith, Lloyd V.; Shutthanandan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMC’s). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick’s Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60]s, was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.

  15. An Uncertainty Structure Matrix for Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2008-01-01

    Software that is used for aerospace flight control and to display information to pilots and crew is expected to be correct and credible at all times. This type of software is typically developed under strict management processes, which are intended to reduce defects in the software product. However, modeling and simulation (M&S) software may exhibit varying degrees of correctness and credibility, depending on a large and complex set of factors. These factors include its intended use, the known physics and numerical approximations within the M&S, and the referent data set against which the M&S correctness is compared. The correctness and credibility of an M&S effort is closely correlated to the uncertainty management (UM) practices that are applied to the M&S effort. This paper describes an uncertainty structure matrix for M&S, which provides a set of objective descriptions for the possible states of UM practices within a given M&S effort. The columns in the uncertainty structure matrix contain UM elements or practices that are common across most M&S efforts, and the rows describe the potential levels of achievement in each of the elements. A practitioner can quickly look at the matrix to determine where an M&S effort falls based on a common set of UM practices that are described in absolute terms that can be applied to virtually any M&S effort. The matrix can also be used to plan those steps and resources that would be needed to improve the UM practices for a given M&S effort.

  16. Covariance, correlation matrix, and the multiscale community structure of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Fang, Bin-Xing

    2010-07-01

    Empirical studies show that real world networks often exhibit multiple scales of topological descriptions. However, it is still an open problem how to identify the intrinsic multiple scales of networks. In this paper, we consider detecting the multiscale community structure of network from the perspective of dimension reduction. According to this perspective, a covariance matrix of network is defined to uncover the multiscale community structure through the translation and rotation transformations. It is proved that the covariance matrix is the unbiased version of the well-known modularity matrix. We then point out that the translation and rotation transformations fail to deal with the heterogeneous network, which is very common in nature and society. To address this problem, a correlation matrix is proposed through introducing the rescaling transformation into the covariance matrix. Extensive tests on real world and artificial networks demonstrate that the correlation matrix significantly outperforms the covariance matrix, identically the modularity matrix, as regards identifying the multiscale community structure of network. This work provides a novel perspective to the identification of community structure and thus various dimension reduction methods might be used for the identification of community structure. Through introducing the correlation matrix, we further conclude that the rescaling transformation is crucial to identify the multiscale community structure of network, as well as the translation and rotation transformations.

  17. MATRIX ALGEBRA ALGORITHM OF STRUCTURE RANDOM RESPONSE NUMERICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new algorithm of structure random response numerical characteristics, named as matrix algebra algorithm of structure analysis is presented.Using the algorithm, structure random response numerical characteristics can easily be got by directly solving linear matrix equations rather than structure motion differential equations.Moreover, in order to solve the corresponding linear matrix equations, the numerical integration fast algorithm is presented.Then according to the results, dynamic design and life-span estimation can be done.Besides, the new algorithm can solve non-proportion damp structure response.

  18. Decay of autoionizing states in time-dependent density functional and reduced density matrix functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.

  19. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  20. Advances in biomimetic regeneration of elastic matrix structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Bashur, Chris A; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2012-10-01

    Elastin is a vital component of the extracellular matrix, providing soft connective tissues with the property of elastic recoil following deformation and regulating the cellular response via biomechanical transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. The limited ability of most adult cells to synthesize elastin precursors and assemble them into mature crosslinked structures has hindered the development of functional tissue-engineered constructs that exhibit the structure and biomechanics of normal native elastic tissues in the body. In diseased tissues, the chronic overexpression of proteolytic enzymes can cause significant matrix degradation, to further limit the accumulation and quality (e.g., fiber formation) of newly deposited elastic matrix. This review provides an overview of the role and importance of elastin and elastic matrix in soft tissues, the challenges to elastic matrix generation in vitro and to regenerative elastic matrix repair in vivo, current biomolecular strategies to enhance elastin deposition and matrix assembly, and the need to concurrently inhibit proteolytic matrix disruption for improving the quantity and quality of elastogenesis. The review further presents biomaterial-based options using scaffolds and nanocarriers for spatio-temporal control over the presentation and release of these biomolecules, to enable biomimetic assembly of clinically relevant native elastic matrix-like superstructures. Finally, this review provides an overview of recent advances and prospects for the application of these strategies to regenerating tissue-type specific elastic matrix structures and superstructures.

  1. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Anthony J; Meng, Geng; Winkler, Dennis C; McGinnes, Lori W; Plevka, Pavel; Steven, Alasdair C; Morrison, Trudy G; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-08-28

    Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.

  2. High performance SMC matrix for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salard, T.; Lortie, F.; Gérard, J. F.; Peyre, C.

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical properties of a common SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) matrix constituted of a vinylester resin and a Low-Profile Additive (LPA) were compared to those of vinylester modified with core-shell rubber (CSR) particles. Valuable properties are brought by CSR, especially high impact strength, high fracture toughness with little loss in stiffness, in spite of the presence of CSR agglomerates in blends.

  3. The structure of the "amorphous" matrix of keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Murat; Wang, Xinwei; Zhu, Bowen; Liu, Jing; Harland, Duane; Popescu, Crisan

    2017-05-01

    Various keratin fibers, particularly human hairs, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, solid-state (1)H NMR and Transient Electro-Thermal Technique, TET. The results converge to suggest that the matrix of keratin fiber cortex, far from being amorphous, has a well-defined nano-scale grainy structure, the size of these grains being around 2-4nm. The size of the grains appears to strongly depend on the chemical treatment of the fiber, on the temperature and on the relative humidity of the environment, as well as on the physiological factors at the level of fiber production in follicle. By suggesting an organization at the nano-scale of the protein chains in these grains, likely to be Keratin Associated Proteins, the results challenge the view of matrix as a homogeneous glassy material. Moreover, they indicate the potential of further investigating the purpose of this structure that appears to reflect not only chemical treatments of keratins but also biological processes at the level of the follicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracellular matrix structure and nano-mechanics determine megakaryocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Alessandro; Gruppi, Cristian; Pallotta, Isabella; Spedden, Elise; Tenni, Ruggero; Raspanti, Mario; Kaplan, David; Tira, Maria Enrica; Staii, Cristian; Balduini, Alessandra

    2011-10-20

    Cell interactions with matrices via specific receptors control many functions, with chemistry, physics, and membrane elasticity as fundamental elements of the processes involved. Little is known about how biochemical and biophysical processes integrate to generate force and, ultimately, to regulate hemopoiesis into the bone marrow-matrix environment. To address this hypothesis, in this work we focus on the regulation of MK development by type I collagen. By atomic force microscopy analysis, we demonstrate that the tensile strength of fibrils in type I collagen structure is a fundamental requirement to regulate cytoskeleton contractility of human MKs through the activation of integrin-α2β1-dependent Rho-ROCK pathway and MLC-2 phosphorylation. Most importantly, this mechanism seemed to mediate MK migration, fibronectin assembly, and platelet formation. On the contrary, a decrease in mechanical tension caused by N-acetylation of lysine side chains in type I collagen completely reverted these processes by preventing fibrillogenesis.

  5. Matrix factorization method for the Hamiltonian structure of integrable systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ghosh; B Talukdar; S Chakraborti

    2003-07-01

    We demonstrate that the process of matrix factorization provides a systematic mathematical method to investigate the Hamiltonian structure of non-linear evolution equations characterized by hereditary operators with Nijenhuis property.

  6. From Tall to Matrix: Redefining Organizational Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson McPhail, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines traditional organizational structures of community colleges and how traditional hierarchical structures influence delivery of programs and services. The point is to reveal ways in which community colleges can change organizational structures to more effectively implement key reform and student success efforts through a…

  7. From Tall to Matrix: Redefining Organizational Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson McPhail, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines traditional organizational structures of community colleges and how traditional hierarchical structures influence delivery of programs and services. The point is to reveal ways in which community colleges can change organizational structures to more effectively implement key reform and student success efforts through a…

  8. Time and Temperature Dependence of CdS Nanoparticles Grown in a Polystyrene Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Antolini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent CdS nanocrystals embedded in a polystyrene matrix were successfully prepared. The in situ growth of CdS QDs was realized by thermal treatment of Cd bis(thiolate/polymer foil at different times and temperatures (240°C and 300°C of annealing, in order to evaluate their influence on the quantum dots growth process. As a general trend, the increasing of time and temperature of annealing induces a rise of the CdS nanocrystals size into the polymeric matrix. The size distribution, morphology, and structure of the CdS nanoparticles were analysed with HRTEM and XRD experiments. UV-Vis and PL data are strongly size-dependent and were used to investigate the particles' growth process, too. The CdS nanoparticles behavior in solution indicated a general trend of QDs to aggregation. This predisposition was clearly displayed by DLS measurements.

  9. Truncation scheme of time-dependent density-matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, Mitsuru [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Schuck, Peter [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique et de Modelisation des Milieux Condenses et Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-04-15

    A truncation scheme of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for reduced density matrices, where a three-body density matrix is approximated by the antisymmetrized products of two-body density matrices, is proposed. This truncation scheme is tested for three model Hamiltonians. It is shown that the obtained results are in good agreement with the exact solutions. (orig.)

  10. The nuclear matrix: a structural milieu for genomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezney, R; Mortillaro, M J; Ma, H; Wei, X; Samarabandu, J

    1995-01-01

    While significant progress has been made in elucidating molecular properties of specific genes and their regulation, our understanding of how the whole genome is coordinated has lagged behind. To understand how the genome functions as a coordinated whole, we must understand how the nucleus is put together and functions as a whole. An important step in that direction occurred with the isolation and characterization of the nuclear matrix. Aside from the plethora of functional properties associated with these isolated nuclear structures, they have enabled the first direct examination and molecular cloning of specific nuclear matrix proteins. The isolated nuclear matrix can be used for providing an in vitro model for understanding nuclear matrix organization in whole cells. Recent development of high-resolution and three-dimensional approaches for visualizing domains of genomic organization and function in situ has provided corroborative evidence for the nuclear matrix as the site of organization for replication, transcription, and post-transcriptional processing. As more is learned about these in situ functional sites, appropriate experiments could be designed to test molecular mechanisms with the in vitro nuclear matrix systems. This is illustrated in this chapter by the studies of nuclear matrix-associated DNA replication which have evolved from biochemical studies of in vitro nuclear matrix systems toward three-dimensional computer image analysis of replication sites for individual genes.

  11. Space-Time Structures from IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Tada, T

    1998-01-01

    We derive a long distance effective action for space-time coordinates from a IIB matrix model. It provides us an effective tool to study the structures of space-time. We prove the finiteness of the theory for finite $N$ to all orders of the perturbation theory. Space-time is shown to be inseparable and its dimensionality is dynamically determined. The IIB matrix model contains a mechanism to ensure the vanishing cosmological constant which does not rely on the manifest supersymmetry. We discuss possible mechanisms to obtain realistic dimensionality and gauge groups from the IIB matrix model.

  12. Wave Function Structure in Two-Body Random Matrix Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L; Kaplan, Lev; Papenbrock, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We study the structure of eigenstates in two-body interaction random matrix ensembles and find significant deviations from random matrix theory expectations. The deviations are most prominent in the tails of the spectral density and indicate localization of the eigenstates in Fock space. Using ideas related to scar theory we derive an analytical formula that relates fluctuations in wave function intensities to fluctuations of the two-body interaction matrix elements. Numerical results for many-body fermion systems agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Protein structure estimation from NMR data by matrix completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhicheng; Li, Yang; Lei, Qiang; Zhao, Qing

    2017-02-06

    Knowledge of protein structures is very important to understand their corresponding physical and chemical properties. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the main methods to measure protein structure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage approach to calculate the structure of a protein from a highly incomplete distance matrix, where most data are obtained from NMR. We first randomly "guess" a small part of unobservable distances by utilizing the triangle inequality, which is crucial for the second stage. Then we use matrix completion to calculate the protein structure from the obtained incomplete distance matrix. We apply the accelerated proximal gradient algorithm to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Furthermore, the recovery error of our method is analyzed, and its efficiency is demonstrated by several practical examples.

  14. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  15. Fast sparse matrix-vector multiplication by exploiting variable block structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuduc, R W; Moon, H

    2005-07-07

    We improve the performance of sparse matrix-vector multiply (SpMV) on modern cache-based superscalar machines when the matrix structure consists of multiple, irregularly aligned rectangular blocks. Matrices from finite element modeling applications often have this kind of structure. Our technique splits the matrix, A, into a sum, A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + ... + A{sub s}, where each term is stored in a new data structure, unaligned block compressed sparse row (UBCSR) format . The classical alternative approach of storing A in a block compressed sparse row (BCSR) format yields limited performance gains because it imposes a particular alignment of the matrix non-zero structure, leading to extra work from explicitly padded zeros. Combining splitting and UBCSR reduces this extra work while retaining the generally lower memory bandwidth requirements and register-level tiling opportunities of BCSR. Using application test matrices, we show empirically that speedups can be as high as 2.1x over not blocking at all, and as high as 1.8x over the standard BCSR implementation used in prior work. When performance does not improve, split UBCSR can still significantly reduce matrix storage. Through extensive experiments, we further show that the empirically optimal number of splittings s and the block size for each matrix term A{sub i} will in practice depend on the matrix and hardware platform. Our data lay a foundation for future development of fully automated methods for tuning these parameters.

  16. Matrix Organizational Structure and Its Effects Upon Education Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, James R.

    Applying matrix organizational structure to the organization of special education services is the focus of this paper. Beginning with a list of ways in which educational organizations differ from business or military organizations, the author warns that educators must be cautious when transferring organizational structures from other disciplines…

  17. Surface morphology of polyethylene glycol films produced by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE): Dependence on substrate temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, K.; Czuba, P.; Toftmann, B.;

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the surface morphology on the substrate temperature during film deposition was investigated for polyethylene glycol (PEG) films by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The surface structure was studied with a combined technique of optical imaging and AFM measurements...

  18. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F

    2015-04-30

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  19. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola A. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2 is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S. These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  20. Tensor Models: extending the matrix models structures and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    In this text we review a few structural properties of matrix models that should at least partly generalize to random tensor models. We review some aspects of the loop equations for matrix models and their algebraic counterpart for tensor models. Despite the generic title of this review, we, in particular, invoke the Topological Recursion. We explain its appearance in matrix models. Then we state that a family of tensor models provides a natural example which satisfies a version of the most general form of the topological recursion, named the blobbed topological recursion. We discuss the difficulties of extending the technical solutions existing for matrix models to tensor models. Some proofs are not published yet but will be given in a coming paper, the rest of the results are well known in the literature.

  1. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix and Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Walton, Owen J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic-based, discrete-event progressive damage simulations of ceramic-matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures have been enabled through the development of a unique multiscale modeling tool. This effort involves coupling three independently developed software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/ Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating unit cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC. Abaqus is used at the global scale to model the overall composite structure. An Abaqus user-defined material (UMAT) interface, referred to here as "FEAMAC/CARES," was developed that enables MAC/GMC and CARES/Life to operate seamlessly with the Abaqus FEA code. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events, which incrementally progress and lead to ultimate structural failure. This report describes the FEAMAC/CARES methodology and discusses examples that illustrate the performance of the tool. A comprehensive example problem, simulating the progressive damage of laminated ceramic matrix composites under various off-axis loading conditions and including a double notched tensile specimen geometry, is described in a separate report.

  2. Matrix Management Structures in Higher Education. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1394.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Rob

    The matrix structure as an alternative to the departmental structure for colleges and universities is discussed, and the matrix system at Middlesex Polytechnic in England is used as illustration. The major impact of the introduction of a matrix structure is its effect on teaching activities within the institution. The matrix structure formally…

  3. The structure of cell-matrix adhesions: the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanein, Dorit; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2012-02-01

    Adhesions between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are mechanosensitive multi-protein assemblies that transmit force across the cell membrane and regulate biochemical signals in response to the chemical and mechanical environment. These combined functions in force transduction, signaling and mechanosensing contribute to cellular phenotypes that span development, homeostasis and disease. These adhesions form, mature and disassemble in response to actin organization and physical forces that originate from endogenous myosin activity or external forces by the extracellular matrix. Despite advances in our understanding of the protein composition, interactions and regulation, our understanding of matrix adhesion structure and organization, how forces affect this organization, and how these changes dictate specific signaling events is limited. Insights across multiple structural levels are acutely needed to elucidate adhesion structure and ultimately the molecular basis of signaling and mechanotransduction. Here we describe the challenges and recent advances and prospects for unraveling the structure of cell-matrix adhesions and their response to force. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Silicon Photodetectors Matrix Coordinate Bipolar Functionally Integrated Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Murashev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for solving the detection and coordinate the detection of radiation in the optical range of 0.3-1.1 microns, based on the use of so-called bipolar functionally integrated structures (BI-FIS in pixels photodetector arrays is discussed. Variants of new technical solutions based on photo-detectors matrix pixel BI-FIS structures are shown. Their effectiveness and scope are evaluated.

  5. Probing Models of Neutrino Masses via the Flavor Structure of the Mass Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We discuss what kinds of combinations of Yukawa interactions can generate the Majorana neutrino mass matrix. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the neutrino mass matrix because it does not depend on details of the models except for Yukawa interactions while determination of the overall scale of the mass matrix requires to specify also the scalar potential and masses of new particles. Thus, models to generate Majorana neutrino mass matrix can be efficiently classified according to the combination of Yukawa interactions. We first investigate the case where Yukawa interactions with only leptons are utilized. Next, we consider the case with Yukawa interactions between leptons and gauge singlet fermions, which have the odd parity under the unbroken Z_2 symmetry. We show that combinations of Yukawa interactions for these cases can be classified into only three groups. Our classification would be useful for the efficient discrimination of models via experimental tests for not each model but just three groups ...

  6. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions and Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport: Development of efficient particle-tracking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Harihar [University of Colorado, Boulder; Brutz, Michael [University of Colorado, Boulder; Klein, Dylan R [University of Colorado, Boulder; Mallikamas, Wasin [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2014-09-18

    Matrix Diffusion and Adsorption within a rock matrix are important mechanisms for retarding transport of radionuclides in fractured rock. Due to computational limitations and difficulties in characterizing complex subsurface systems, diffusive exchange between a fracture network and surrounding rock matrix is often modeled using simplified conceptual representations. There is significant uncertainty in “effective” parameters used in these models, such as the “effective matrix diffusivity”. Often, these parameters are estimated by fitting sparse breakthrough data, and estimated values fall outside meaningful ranges, because simplified interpretive models do not consider complex three-dimensional flow. There is limited understanding of the relationship between the effective parameters and rock mass characteristics including network structure and matrix properties. There is also evidence for an apparent scale-dependence in “effective matrix diffusion” coefficients. These observations raise questions on whether fracture-matrix interaction parameters estimated from small-scale tracer tests can be used for predicting radionuclide fate and transport at the scale of DOE field sites. High-resolution three-dimensional Discrete-Fracture-Network-Matrix (DFNM) models based on well-defined local scale transport equations can help to address some of these questions. Due to tremendous advances in computational technology over the last 10 years, DFNM modeling in relatively large domains is now feasible. The overarching objective of our research is to use DFNM modeling to improve fundamental understanding of how effective parameters in conceptual models are related to fracture network structure and matrix properties. An advanced three-dimensional DFNM model is being developed, which combines upscaled particle-tracking algorithms for fracture-matrix interaction and a parallel fracture-network flow simulator. The particle-tracking algorithms allow complexity in flow fields

  7. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  8. Structured matrix based methods for approximate polynomial GCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Defining and computing a greatest common divisor of two polynomials with inexact coefficients is a classical problem in symbolic-numeric computation. The first part of this book reviews the main results that have been proposed so far in the literature. As usual with polynomial computations, the polynomial GCD problem can be expressed in matrix form: the second part of the book focuses on this point of view and analyses the structure of the relevant matrices, such as Toeplitz, Toepliz-block and displacement structures. New algorithms for the computation of approximate polynomial GCD are presented, along with extensive numerical tests. The use of matrix structure allows, in particular, to lower the asymptotic computational cost from cubic to quadratic order with respect to polynomial degree. .

  9. Structure of metal matrix composites with an addition of tuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Łach

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary results of tests of metal matrix composites structure which was modified by an addition of powderedvolcanic tuff. Distribution and shape of ceramic particles as well as the quality of the bonding along the tuff- metal matrix interface werestudied. Depth of tuff element diffusion in the matrix as well as diffusion in tuff particles were checked. Micro-hardness and porosity of the composites were also tested. The tuff from Filipowice near the town of Krzeszowice was used for the tests. Powder metallurgy wasapplied to obtain the composites and the matrix materials were copper and 316L steel powders. The tuff was introduced in 2, 5 and 10 %by weight. To remove water from the channels of aluminosilicates, the tuff was baked at 850 oC for 4 hours and then cooled together withthe oven. The tests revealed good quality of the bonding of the tuff particles and the matrix and their even distribution. The addition of tuff improved the hardness of the composites and reduced their porosity which has great significance because of possible applications of this kind of materials in general and copper composites in particular. This gives grounds for further studies on volcanic tuff use in metal composites

  10. Progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach account for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structural collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach. Parameters and guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of monolithic metallic materials are outlined and lessons learned in undertaking the development of new approaches, in general, are summarized.

  11. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions And Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-06-30

    Matrix diffusion and adsorption within a rock matrix are widely regarded as important mechanisms for retarding the transport of radionuclides and other solutes in fractured rock (e.g., Neretnieks, 1980; Tang et al., 1981; Maloszewski and Zuber, 1985; Novakowski and Lapcevic, 1994; Jardine et al., 1999; Zhou and Xie, 2003; Reimus et al., 2003a,b). When remediation options are being evaluated for old sources of contamination, where a large fraction of contaminants reside within the rock matrix, slow diffusion out of the matrix greatly increases the difficulty and timeframe of remediation. Estimating the rates of solute exchange between fractures and the adjacent rock matrix is a critical factor in quantifying immobilization and/or remobilization of DOE-relevant contaminants within the subsurface. In principle, the most rigorous approach to modeling solute transport with fracture-matrix interaction would be based on local-scale coupled advection-diffusion/dispersion equations for the rock matrix and in discrete fractures that comprise the fracture network (Discrete Fracture Network and Matrix approach, hereinafter referred to as DFNM approach), fully resolving aperture variability in fractures and matrix property heterogeneity. However, such approaches are computationally demanding, and thus, many predictive models rely upon simplified models. These models typically idealize fracture rock masses as a single fracture or system of parallel fractures interacting with slabs of porous matrix or as a mobile-immobile or multi-rate mass transfer system. These idealizations provide tractable approaches for interpreting tracer tests and predicting contaminant mobility, but rely upon a fitted effective matrix diffusivity or mass-transfer coefficients. However, because these fitted parameters are based upon simplified conceptual models, their effectiveness at predicting long-term transport processes remains uncertain. Evidence of scale dependence of effective matrix diffusion

  12. Bringing about matrix sparsity in linear-scaling electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2011-05-01

    The performance of linear-scaling electronic structure calculations depends critically on matrix sparsity. This article gives an overview of different strategies for removal of small matrix elements, with emphasis on schemes that allow for rigorous control of errors. In particular, a novel scheme is proposed that has significantly smaller computational overhead compared with the Euclidean norm-based truncation scheme of Rubensson et al. (J Comput Chem 2009, 30, 974) while still achieving the desired asymptotic behavior required for linear scaling. Small matrix elements are removed while ensuring that the Euclidean norm of the error matrix stays below a desired value, so that the resulting error in the occupied subspace can be controlled. The efficiency of the new scheme is investigated in benchmark calculations for water clusters including up to 6523 water molecules. Furthermore, the foundation of matrix sparsity is investigated. This includes a study of the decay of matrix element magnitude with distance between basis function centers for different molecular systems and different methods. The studied methods include Hartree–Fock and density functional theory using both pure and hybrid functionals. The relation between band gap and decay properties of the density matrix is also discussed.

  13. Spin dependent proton structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D.; Garcia Canal, C.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sassot, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 1 1428 Bs.As. (Argentina)

    1996-02-01

    We address the issue of gluon contributions to the polarized deep inelastic asymmetries. Particularly, of their effects in the scale dependence induced by the usual leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations and those arising from fixed order {alpha}{sub {ital s}} and {alpha}{sup 2}{sub {ital s}} evolution approximations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. STUDYING THE SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF ACCESSION NUMBER USING CETD MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Dutta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper, we have tried to analyze about the Secondary Structure of nucleotide sequences of rice. The data have been collected from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information using Nucleotide as data base. All the programs were developed using R programming language using “sequinr” package. Here, we have used CETD matrix method to study the prediction. The conclusions are drawn accordingly.

  15. Current Generation in Double-Matrix Structure: A Theoretical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Lukiyanets; Dariya Matulka; Ivan Grygorchak

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of kinetic characteristics in a supramolecular system, in particular, in a double‐matrix structure observed at change of the guest content in a matrix‐host are investigated. Results obtained within the framework of a time‐independent one‐dimensional Schrödinger equation with three barrier potential qualitatively explain experimental data. They indicate the importance of size quantization of a system, correlation between energy and geometric characteristics of both guest and hos...

  16. Effects of mistuning and matrix structure on the topology of frequency response curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Dare

    1989-01-01

    The stability of a frequency response curve under mild perturbations of the system's matrix is investigated. Using recent developments in the theory of singularities of differentiable maps, it is shown that the stability of a response curve depends on the structure of the system's matrix. In particular, the frequency response curves of a cylic system are shown to be unstable. Consequently, slight parameter variations engendered by mistuning will induce a significant difference in the topology of the forced response curves, if the mistuning transformation crosses the bifurcation set.

  17. Integral equation analysis of complex (MMIC-structures with optimized system matrix decomposition and novel quadrature techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vaupel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using integral equation methods for the analysis of complex (MMIC structures, the computation and storage effort for the solution of the linear systems of equations with their fully populated matrices still forms the main bottleneck. In the last years, remarkable improvements could be achieved by means of diakoptic methods and related preconditiners. In this contribution, we present a method based on the optimized decomposition of the system matrix depending on the circuit topology. The system matrix is splitted in a densely populated matrix and a mainly blockdiagonal matrix with overlapping submatrices. The latter matrix is used for the generation of high performance preconditioners within Krylov subspace methods using sparsified matrix storage methods, adaptive Cholesky decompositions and optimized forward/backward substitutions. Furthermore, we present an integration technique using a complete analytical treatment for the strongly oscillating parts of the spectral domain integrands allowing the analysis of very large structures as compared to the wavelength.

  18. Structure of a financial cross-correlation matrix under attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Pyungsoo; Kang, Yoonjong; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Inho; Park, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kyungsik

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the structure of a perturbed stock market in terms of correlation matrices. For the purpose of perturbing a stock market, two distinct methods are used, namely local and global perturbation. The former involves replacing a correlation coefficient of the cross-correlation matrix with one calculated from two Gaussian-distributed time series while the latter reconstructs the cross-correlation matrix just after replacing the original return series with Gaussian-distributed time series. Concerning the local case, it is a technical study only and there is no attempt to model reality. The term ‘global’ means the overall effect of the replacement on other untouched returns. Through statistical analyses such as random matrix theory (RMT), network theory, and the correlation coefficient distributions, we show that the global structure of a stock market is vulnerable to perturbation. However, apart from in the analysis of inverse participation ratios (IPRs), the vulnerability becomes dull under a small-scale perturbation. This means that these analysis tools are inappropriate for monitoring the whole stock market due to the low sensitivity of a stock market to a small-scale perturbation. In contrast, when going down to the structure of business sectors, we confirm that correlation-based business sectors are regrouped in terms of IPRs. This result gives a clue about monitoring the effect of hidden intentions, which are revealed via portfolios taken mostly by large investors.

  19. Structure and function of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Allison R; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in muscle fiber force transmission, maintenance, and repair. In both injured and diseased states, ECM adapts dramatically, a property that has clinical manifestations and alters muscle function. Here we review the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of skeletal muscle ECM; describe the cells that contribute to the maintenance of the ECM; and, finally, overview changes that occur with pathology. New scanning electron micrographs of ECM structure are also presented with hypotheses about ECM structure–function relationships. Detailed structure–function relationships of the ECM have yet to be defined and, as a result, we propose areas for future study.

  20. Structural completeness in propositional logics of dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we prove that three of the main propositional logics of dependence (including propositional dependence logic and inquisitive logic), none of which is structural, are structurally complete with respect to a class of substitutions under which the logics are closed. We obtain an analogous

  1. Time-dependent renormalized Redfield theory II for off-diagonal transition in reduced density matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    In our previous letter (Kimura, 2016), we constructed time-dependent renormalized Redfield theory (TRRT) only for diagonal transition in a reduced density matrix. In this letter, we formulate the general expression for off-diagonal transition in the reduced density matrix. We discuss the applicability of TRRT by numerically comparing the dependencies on the energy gap of the exciton relaxation rate by using the TRRT and the modified Redfield theory (MRT). In particular, we roughly show that TRRT improves MRT for the detailed balance about the excitation energy transfer reaction.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL MATRIX APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna

    2012-07-01

    The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance. Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

  3. Adiabatic approximation of time-dependent density matrix functional response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna; Giesbertz, Klaas; Gritsenko, Oleg; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2007-12-07

    Time-dependent density matrix functional theory can be formulated in terms of coupled-perturbed response equations, in which a coupling matrix K(omega) features, analogous to the well-known time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) case. An adiabatic approximation is needed to solve these equations, but the adiabatic approximation is much more critical since there is not a good "zero order" as in TDDFT, in which the virtual-occupied Kohn-Sham orbital energy differences serve this purpose. We discuss a simple approximation proposed earlier which uses only results from static calculations, called the static approximation (SA), and show that it is deficient, since it leads to zero response of the natural orbital occupation numbers. This leads to wrong behavior in the omega-->0 limit. An improved adiabatic approximation (AA) is formulated. The two-electron system affords a derivation of exact coupled-perturbed equations for the density matrix response, permitting analytical comparison of the adiabatic approximation with the exact equations. For the two-electron system also, the exact density matrix functional (2-matrix in terms of 1-matrix) is known, enabling testing of the static and adiabatic approximations unobscured by approximations in the functional. The two-electron HeH(+) molecule shows that at the equilibrium distance, SA consistently underestimates the frequency-dependent polarizability alpha(omega), the adiabatic TDDFT overestimates alpha(omega), while AA improves upon SA and, indeed, AA produces the correct alpha(0). For stretched HeH(+), adiabatic density matrix functional theory corrects the too low first excitation energy and overpolarization of adiabatic TDDFT methods and exhibits excellent agreement with high-quality CCSD ("exact") results over a large omega range.

  4. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of matrix gla protein influences the risk of calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. The ability of MGP to inhibit calcification requires the activity of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme, which mediates MGP carboxylation. We investigated how MGP carboxylation influences the risk of calciphylaxis in adult patients ...

  5. Reanalysis of nuclear spin matrix elements for dark matter spin-dependent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, M.

    2013-04-01

    We show how to include in the existing calculations for nuclei other than Xe129 and Xe131 the corrections to the isovector coupling arising in chiral effective field theory recently found in Menendez et al. [Phys. Rev. D 86, 103511 (2012)PRVDAQ1550-7998]. The dominant, momentum-independent, two-body current effect can be taken into account by formally redefining the static spin matrix elements ⟨Sp,n⟩. By further using the normalized form factor at q≠0 built with the one-body level structure functions, we show that the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus cross section and the upper limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross sections coincide with the ones derived by using the exact functions at the two-body level. We explicitly show it in the case of XENON100 limits on the WIMP-neutron cross section, and we recalculate the limits on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section set by COUPP. We also give practical formulas to obtain ⟨Sp,n⟩ given the structure functions in the various formalisms and notations existing in the literature. We argue that the standard treatment of the spin-dependent cross section in terms of three independent isospin functions, S00(q), S11(q), and S01(q), is redundant in the sense that the interference function S01(q) is the double product |S01(q)|=2S00(q)S11(q) even when including the new effective field theory corrections.

  6. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed. More than 70 papers have been published on extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels created from source tissue in almost every organ system. The present manuscript represents a review of ECM hydrogels and attempts to identify structure-function relationships that influence the tissue remodeling outcomes and gaps in the understanding thereof. There is a Phase 1 clinical trial now in progress for an ECM hydrogel. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Porous matrix structures for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, R. W.; Narsavage, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    A number of advancements have been realized by a continuing research program to develop higher chemically stable porous matrix structures with high bubble pressure (crossover resistance) for use as separators in potassium hydroxide electrolyte fuel cells. More uniform, higher-bubble-pressure asbestos matrices were produced by reconstituting Johns-Manville asbestos paper; Fybex potassium titanate which was found compatible with 42% KOH at 250 F for up to 3000 hr; good agreement was found between bubble pressures predicted by an analytical study and those measured with filtered structures; Teflon-bonded Fybex matrices with bubble pressures greater than 30 psi were obtained by filtering a water slurry of the mixture directly onto fuel cell electrodes; and PBI fibers have satisfactory compatibility with 42% KOH at 250 F.

  8. High-strain composites and dual-matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda Jimenez, Ignacio

    Most space applications require deployable structures due to the limiting size of current launch vehicles. Specifically, payloads in nanosatellites such as CubeSats require very high compaction ratios due to the very limited space available in this typo of platform. Strain-energy-storing deployable structures can be suitable for these applications, but the curvature to which these structures can be folded is limited to the elastic range. Thanks to fiber microbuckling, high-strain composite materials can be folded into much higher curvatures without showing significant damage, which makes them suitable for very high compaction deployable structure applications. However, in applications that require carrying loads in compression, fiber microbuckling also dominates the strength of the material. A good understanding of the strength in compression of high-strain composites is then needed to determine how suitable they are for this type of application. The goal of this thesis is to investigate, experimentally and numerically, the microbuckling in compression of high-strain composites. Particularly, the behavior in compression of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced silicone rods (CFRS) is studied. Experimental testing of the compression failure of CFRS rods showed a higher strength in compression than the strength estimated by analytical models, which is unusual in standard polymer composites. This effect, first discovered in the present research, was attributed to the variation in random carbon fiber angles respect to the nominal direction. This is an important effect, as it implies that microbuckling strength might be increased by controlling the fiber angles. With a higher microbuckling strength, high-strain materials could carry loads in compression without reaching microbuckling and therefore be suitable for several space applications. A finite element model was developed to predict the homogenized stiffness of the CFRS, and the homogenization results were used in

  9. Reduced Density Matrix Functional Theory (RDMFT) and Linear Response Time-Dependent RDMFT (TD-RDMFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna; Giesbertz, Klaas J H

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT) and linear response time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TD-RDMFT) are reviewed. In particular, we present various approaches to develop approximate density matrix functionals which have been employed in RDMFT. We discuss the properties and performance of most available density matrix functionals. Progress in the development of functionals has been paralleled by formulation of novel RDMFT-based methods for predicting properties of molecular systems and solids. We give an overview of these methods. The time-dependent extension, TD-RDMFT, is a relatively new theory still awaiting practical and generally useful functionals which would work within the adiabatic approximation. In this chapter we concentrate on the formulation of TD-RDMFT response equations and various adiabatic approximations. None of the adiabatic approximations is fully satisfactory, so we also discuss a phase-dependent extension to TD-RDMFT employing the concept of phase-including-natural-spinorbitals (PINOs). We focus on applications of the linear response formulations to two-electron systems, for which the (almost) exact functional is known.

  10. Cedrol Enhances Extracellular Matrix Production in Dermal Fibroblasts in a MAPK-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mu Hyun; Park, Sun Gyoo; Hwang, Yul-Lye; Lee, Min-Ho; Jeong, Nam-Ji; Roh, Seok-Seon; Lee, Young; Kim, Chang Deok

    2012-01-01

    Background The extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by dermal fibroblasts supports skin structure, and degradation and/or reduced production of ECM are the main causes of wrinkle formation. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredient that enhances ECM production in dermal fibroblasts. Methods Polarity-based fractionation was used to isolate the active ingredient from natural extracts, and the effects of cedrol (isolated from Pterocarpus indicusirginia) on ECM production in cultured human dermal fibroblasts was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot analysis. Results Cedrol accelerated fibroblast growth in a dose-dependent manner and increased the production of type 1 collagen and elastin. Phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt was markedly increased by cedrol, indicating that enhanced ECM production is linked to activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Conclusion These results indicate that cedrol stimulates ECM production, with possible applications to the maintenance of skin texture. PMID:22363150

  11. Structural Studies of Matrix Metalloproteinase by X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaneto, Elena; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Ogata, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes whose endopeptidase activity is dependent on the presence of specific metal ions. MT1-MMP (or MMP-14), which has been implicated in tumor progression and cellular invasion, contains a membrane-spanning region located C-terminal to a hemopexin-like domain and an N-terminal catalytic domain. We recombinantly expressed the catalytic domain of human MT1-MMP in E. coli and purified it from inclusion bodies using a refolding protocol that yielded significant quantities of active protein. Crystals of MT1-MMP were obtained using the vapour diffusion method. Here, we describe the protocols used for crystallization and the data analysis together with the resulting diffraction pattern.

  12. Thermal-Interaction Matrix For Resistive Test Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Dhiman, Jaipal K.; Zamani, Nasser

    1990-01-01

    Linear mathematical model predicts increase in temperature in each segment of 15-segment resistive structure used to test electromigration. Assumption of linearity based on fact: equations that govern flow of heat are linear and coefficients in equations (heat conductivities and capacities) depend only weakly on temperature and considered constant over limited range of temperature.

  13. Extracellular matrix, mechanotransduction and structural hierarchies in heart tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kevin K; Ingber, Donald E

    2007-08-29

    The spatial and temporal scales of cardiac organogenesis and pathogenesis make engineering of artificial heart tissue a daunting challenge. The temporal scales range from nanosecond conformational changes responsible for ion channel opening to fibrillation which occurs over seconds and can lead to death. Spatial scales range from nanometre pore sizes in membrane channels and gap junctions to the metre length scale of the whole cardiovascular system in a living patient. Synchrony over these scales requires a hierarchy of control mechanisms that are governed by a single common principle: integration of structure and function. To ensure that the function of ion channels and contraction of muscle cells lead to changes in heart chamber volume, an elegant choreography of metabolic, electrical and mechanical events are executed by protein networks composed of extracellular matrix, transmembrane integrin receptors and cytoskeleton which are functionally connected across all size scales. These structural control networks are mechanoresponsive, and they process mechanical and chemical signals in a massively parallel fashion, while also serving as a bidirectional circuit for information flow. This review explores how these hierarchical structural networks regulate the form and function of living cells and tissues, as well as how microfabrication techniques can be used to probe this structural control mechanism that maintains metabolic supply, electrical activation and mechanical pumping of heart muscle. Through this process, we delineate various design principles that may be useful for engineering artificial heart tissue in the future.

  14. Excitation energies from range-separated time-dependent density and density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2012-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the adiabatic formulation exhibits known failures when applied to predicting excitation energies. One of them is the lack of the doubly excited configurations. On the other hand, the time-dependent theory based on a one-electron reduced density matrix functional (time-dependent density matrix functional theory, TD-DMFT) has proven accurate in determining single and double excitations of H(2) molecule if the exact functional is employed in the adiabatic approximation. We propose a new approach for computing excited state energies that relies on functionals of electron density and one-electron reduced density matrix, where the latter is applied in the long-range region of electron-electron interactions. A similar approach has been recently successfully employed in predicting ground state potential energy curves of diatomic molecules even in the dissociation limit, where static correlation effects are dominating. In the paper, a time-dependent functional theory based on the range-separation of electronic interaction operator is rigorously formulated. To turn the approach into a practical scheme the adiabatic approximation is proposed for the short- and long-range components of the coupling matrix present in the linear response equations. In the end, the problem of finding excitation energies is turned into an eigenproblem for a symmetric matrix. Assignment of obtained excitations is discussed and it is shown how to identify double excitations from the analysis of approximate transition density matrix elements. The proposed method used with the short-range local density approximation (srLDA) and the long-range Buijse-Baerends density matrix functional (lrBB) is applied to H(2) molecule (at equilibrium geometry and in the dissociation limit) and to Be atom. The method accounts for double excitations in the investigated systems but, unfortunately, the accuracy of some of them is poor. The quality of the other

  15. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Legeza, Ö; Poves, A; Dukelsky, J

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous $400$ KeV discrepancy in the ground state energy of $^{56}$Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the $pf+g9/2$ shell model space for the ground $0^+$ and first $2^+$ states of $^{64}$Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of the two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  16. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  17. Structure of nuclear transition matrix elements for neutrinoless double- decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Rath

    2010-08-01

    The structure of nuclear transition matrix elements (NTMEs) required for the study of neutrinoless double- decay within light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism is disassembled in the PHFB model. The NTMEs are calculated using a set of HFB intrinsic wave functions, the reliability of which has been previously established by obtaining an overall agreement between the theoretically calculated spectroscopic properties and the available experimental data. Presently, we study the role of short-range correlations, radial evolution of NTMEs and deformation effects due to quadrupolar correlations. In addition, limits on effective light neutrino mass $\\langle m_{} \\rangle$ are extracted from the observed limits on half-lives $T_{1/2}^{0}$ of neutrinoless double- decay.

  18. A comparison of likelihood ratio tests and Rao's score test for three separable covariance matrix structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Katarzyna; Klein, Daniel; Roy, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    The problem of testing the separability of a covariance matrix against an unstructured variance-covariance matrix is studied in the context of multivariate repeated measures data using Rao's score test (RST). The RST statistic is developed with the first component of the separable structure as a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) correlation matrix or an unstructured (UN) covariance matrix under the assumption of multivariate normality. It is shown that the distribution of the RST statistic under the null hypothesis of any separability does not depend on the true values of the mean or the unstructured components of the separable structure. A significant advantage of the RST is that it can be performed for small samples, even smaller than the dimension of the data, where the likelihood ratio test (LRT) cannot be used, and it outperforms the standard LRT in a number of contexts. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to study the comparative behavior of the null distribution of the RST statistic, as well as that of the LRT statistic, in terms of sample size considerations, and for the estimation of the empirical percentiles. Our findings are compared with existing results where the first component of the separable structure is a compound symmetry (CS) correlation matrix. It is also shown by simulations that the empirical null distribution of the RST statistic converges faster than the empirical null distribution of the LRT statistic to the limiting χ(2) distribution. The tests are implemented on a real dataset from medical studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine W M Ong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB, are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease.

  20. EFFECTS OF MATRIX MOLECULAR WEIGHT ON STRUCTURE AND REINFORCEMENT OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/MICA COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Yu-fang Xiang; Ke Wang; Qin Zhang; Rong-ni Du; Qiang Fu

    2011-01-01

    Three types of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different molecular weights (high, medium and Iow) were adopted to evaluate the influence of matrix molecular weight on the structure-property relation of injection-molded HDPE/mica composites through a combination of SEM, 2d-WAXS, DSC, DMA and tensile testing. Various structural factors including orientation, filler dispersion, interfacial interaction between HDPE and mica, etc., which can impact the macroscopic mechanics, were compared in detail among the three HDPE/mica composites. The transcrystallization of HDPE on the mica surface was observed and it exhibited strong matrix molecular weight dependence. Obvious transcrystalline structure was found in the composite with Iow molecular weight HDPE, whereas it was hard to be detected in the composites with increased HDPE molecular weight. The best reinforcement effect in the composite with low molecular weight HDPE can be understood as mainly due to substantially improved interracial adhesion between matrix and mica filler, which arises from the transerystallization mechanism.

  1. Fibronectin matrix polymerization regulates smooth muscle cell phenotype through a Rac1 dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells are maintained in a differentiated state in the vessel wall, but can be modulated to a synthetic phenotype following injury. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is thought to play an important role in the pathology of vascular occlusive diseases. Phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells exhibit increased proliferative and migratory properties that accompany the downregulation of smooth muscle cell marker proteins. Extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, can regulate the smooth muscle phenotype when used as adhesive substrates. However, cells produce and organize a 3-dimensional fibrillar extracellular matrix, which can affect cell behavior in distinct ways from the protomeric 2-dimensional matrix proteins that are used as adhesive substrates. We previously showed that the deposition/polymerization of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix can regulate the deposition and organization of other extracellular matrix molecules in vitro. Further, our published data show that the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor results in increased expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation proteins and inhibits vascular remodeling in vivo. In this manuscript, we used an in vitro cell culture system to determine the mechanism by which fibronectin polymerization affects smooth muscle phenotypic modulation. Our data show that fibronectin polymerization decreases the mRNA levels of multiple smooth muscle differentiation genes, and downregulates the levels of smooth muscle α-actin and calponin proteins by a Rac1-dependent mechanism. The expression of smooth muscle genes is transcriptionally regulated by fibronectin polymerization, as evidenced by the increased activity of luciferase reporter constructs in the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor. Fibronectin polymerization also promotes smooth muscle cell growth, and decreases the levels of actin stress fibers. These data define a Rac1

  2. Nanocomposites with thermosetting matrix: structure formation at the interphase boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Composites with thermosetting matrix are often characterized by elevated values of operational properties – flexural and compressive strength, resistance to aggressive environments, etc. At the same time the cost of most thermosets (particularly – epoxy resins is quite high. Because of this the area of application of polymer composites in construction is limited. One of such application is the creation of multifunctional coatings. The high cost of resin dictates the need to improve the operational properties to ensure economic efficiency. So far, the known way to improve the operational properties is to produce nanoscale interfacial layer between fine filler and matrix in block. This way proved to be effective, but mechanism of the improvement is still uncertain. There areat least two different theories – so-called «adhesion theory» and «theory of deformable layer». The investigation is complicated by the variety of oligomers, hardeners (crosslinking agents and precursors of nanomodifiers. It is becoming more common lately to use adducts of aliphatic amines and epoxy oligomers as hardeners. As precursors of nanomodifiers the organosilicon compounds with siloxane bond in the main chain can be successfully used. In this paper we present results of investigation of a model system comprised of oligomer, crosslinking agent and precursor. The analysis of structure is carried out by means of Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that at gelation point modifier has no significant effect on the chemical composition of the curing products; nevertheless, the admixture of modifier reduces the regularity of the emerging three-dimensional spatial net of thermoset. After completion of curing process the irregular spatial grid is still present. This indicates that in composites admixture of organosilicon precursors may lead to the formation of transition layer with reduced modulus of elasticity. Such layer, in turn, causes stress

  3. Analytic structure of the S-matrix for singular quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camblong, Horacio E. [Department of Physics, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94117-1080 (United States); Epele, Luis N.; Fanchiotti, Huner; García Canal, Carlos A. [Laboratorio de Física Teórica, Departamento de Física, IFLP, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67–1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The analytic structure of the S-matrix of singular quantum mechanics is examined within a multichannel framework, with primary focus on its dependence with respect to a parameter (Ω) that determines the boundary conditions. Specifically, a characterization is given in terms of salient mathematical and physical properties governing its behavior. These properties involve unitarity and associated current-conserving Wronskian relations, time-reversal invariance, and Blaschke factorization. The approach leads to an interpretation of effective nonunitary solutions in singular quantum mechanics and their determination from the unitary family.

  4. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  5. Meniscus matrix morphological composition: age-dependent evaluation in a swine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Polito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Menisci are fibro-cartilaginous structures interposed between femoral condyle and tibial plateau, which have multiple functions in the stifle joint: act as shock absorbers, bear loaders and allow joint stability, congruity and lubrication (Sweigart et al., 2004; Proffen et al., 2012. It is well known that meniscal injuries lead to osteoarthritis and for these reasons, menisci are considered important target of investigation. Their important role in the knee wellness is only equalled by their deficiency in proper self-repairing. Nowadays, the gold standard technique is not just to remove the damaged meniscus, but to rebuild it or to replace it. For these reasons, studies are necessary to increase the knowledge about these small but essential structures (Streuli, 1999; Deponti et al., 2013. Composition and morphology are basic fundamental information for the development of engineered meniscal substitutes (Di Giancamillo et al., 2014. The analysis of the morphological, structural and biochemical changes, which occur during growth of the normal menisci, represent the goal of the present study. For this purpose, menisci from adult (7-month old, young (1-month old, and neonates (stillbirths pigs were collected. Cellularity and glycosamiglycans (GAGs deposition were evaluated by ELISA, while Collagen-1 and Collagen-2 were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Cellularity (P<0.01, all comparisons and Collagen-1 (P<0.05, neonatal-young vs adult decreased from neonatal to adult stage while GAGs (P<0.01 neonatal vs young-adult and Collagen-2 (P<0.01 neonatal-young vs adult showed the opposite trend. Immunohistochemistry revealed similar changes occurring during animal growth thus revealing that cellular phenotype, cellularity and protein expression, as well as fibers aggregation in the matrix, are dissimilar in the three ages analysed categories. These changes reflect the progressive menisci maturation and hyper-specialisation. We

  6. Structural characterization of membrane-bound human immunodeficiency virus-1 Gag matrix with neutron reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Rebecca; Barros, Marilia; Scott, Kerry M.; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Heinrich, Frank; Lösche, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The structural characterization of peripheral membrane proteins represents a tremendous challenge in structural biology due to their transient interaction with the membrane and the potential multitude of protein conformations during this interaction. Neutron reflectometry is uniquely suited to address this problem because of its ability to structurally characterize biological model systems nondestructively and under biomimetic conditions that retain full protein functionality. Being sensitive to only the membrane-bound fraction of a water-soluble peripheral protein, neutron reflectometry obtains a low-resolution average structure of the protein-membrane complex that is further refined using integrative modeling strategies. Here, the authors review the current technological state of biological neutron reflectometry exemplified by a detailed report on the structure determination of the myristoylated human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Gag matrix associated with phosphoserine-containing model membranes. The authors found that the HIV-1 Gag matrix is able to adopt different configurations at the membrane in a pH-dependent manner and that the myristate group orients the protein in a way that is conducive to PIP2-binding. PMID:28511544

  7. Dependence of the specific surface area of the nuclear fuel with the matrix oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Quinones, J.; Iglesias, E.; Rodriguez, N. [CIEMAT. Avda. Complutense 22, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the changes in the specific surface area measured using BET techniques. The objective is to obtain a relation between this parameter and the change in the matrix stoichiometry (i.e., oxidation increase). None of the actual models used for extrapolating the behaviour of the spent fuel matrix under repository conditions have included this dependence yet. In this work the specific surface area of different uranium oxide were measured using N{sub 2}(g) and Kr(g). The starting material was UO{sub 2+x}(s) with a size powder distribution lower than 20 {mu}m. The results included in this paper shown a strong dependence on specific surface area with the matrix stoichiometry, i.e., and increase of more than one order of magnitude (SUO{sub 2} = 6 m{sup 2}*g{sup -1} and SU{sub 3}O{sub 8} = 16.07 m{sup 2}*g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the particle size distribution measured as a function of the thermal treatment done shows changes on the powder size related to the changes observed in the uranium oxide stoichiometry. (authors)

  8. CNT-based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials for NASA applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical properties...

  9. Determination of the angular dependence of the detector matrix Matrix X-evolution of IBA; Determinacion de la dependencia angular del detector matricicial Matrix-X-evolution de IBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, J. C.; Luis, F. J.; Sanchez, G.; Herrados, M.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work consists in determining the correction for the angular dependence of the detector-Evolution Matrix x matrix (IBA, Germany), when used in the multi cube dummy (IBA, Germany), verification of treatment VMAT IMRT, using the software OP'IMRT (IBA, Germany).

  10. Environmental effects on the structure of the G-matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Corlett W; Brodie, Edmund D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic correlations between traits determine the multivariate response to selection in the short term, and thereby play a causal role in evolutionary change. Although individual studies have documented environmentally induced changes in genetic correlations, the nature and extent of environmental effects on multivariate genetic architecture across species and environments remain largely uncharacterized. We reviewed the literature for estimates of the genetic variance-covariance (G) matrix in multiple environments, and compared differences in G between environments to the divergence in G between conspecific populations (measured in a common garden). We found that the predicted evolutionary trajectory differed as strongly between environments as it did between populations. Between-environment differences in the underlying structure of G (total genetic variance and the relative magnitude and orientation of genetic correlations) were equal to or greater than between-population differences. Neither environmental novelty, nor the difference in mean phenotype predicted these differences in G. Our results suggest that environmental effects on multivariate genetic architecture may be comparable to the divergence that accumulates over dozens or hundreds of generations between populations. We outline avenues of future research to address the limitations of existing data and characterize the extent to which lability in genetic correlations shapes evolution in changing environments.

  11. SENSITIVITY TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE RESEARCH OF TV-CAMERAS BASED ON SILICON MATRIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Starchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research is dedicated to the analysis of sensitivity change patterns of the cameras based on silicon CMOS-matrixes in various ambient temperatures. This information is necessary for the correct camera application for photometric measurements in-situ. The paper deals with studies of sensitivity variations of two digital cameras with different silicon CMOS matrixes in visible and near IR regions of the spectrum at temperature change. Method. Due to practical restrictions the temperature changes were recorded in separate spectral intervals important for practical use of the cameras. The experiments were carried out with the use of a climatic chamber, providing change and keeping the temperature range from minus 40 to plus 50 °C at a pitch of 10 о С. Two cameras were chosen for research: VAC-135-IP with OmniVision OV9121 matrix and VAC-248-IP with OnSemiconductor VITA2000 matrix. The two tested devices were placed in a climatic chamber at the same time and illuminated by one radiation source with a color temperature about 3000 K in order to eliminate a number of methodological errors. Main Results. The temperature dependence of the signals was shown to be linear and the matrixes sensitivities were determined. The results obtained are consistent with theoretical views, in general. The coefficients of thermal sensitivity were computed by these dependencies. It is shown that the greatest affect of temperature on the sensitivity occurs in the area (0.7–1.1 mkm. Temperature coefficients of sensitivity increase with the downward radiation wavelength increase. The experiments carried out have shown that it is necessary to take into account the changes in temperature sensitivity of silicon matrixes in the red and near in IR regions of the spectrum. The effect reveals itself in a clearly negative way in cameras with an amplitude resolution of 10-12 bits used for aerospace and space spectrozonal photography. Practical Relevance

  12. The multiplex dependency structure of financial markets

    CERN Document Server

    Musmeci, Nicoló; Aste, Tomaso; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    We propose here a multiplex network approach to investigate simultaneously different types of dependency in complex data sets. In particular, we consider multiplex networks made of four layers corresponding respectively to linear, non-linear, tail, and partial correlations among a set of financial time series. We construct the sparse graph on each layer using a standard network filtering procedure, and we then analyse the structural properties of the obtained multiplex networks. The study of the time evolution of the multiplex constructed from financial data uncovers important changes in intrinsically multiplex properties of the network, and such changes are associated with periods of financial stress. We observe that some features are unique to the multiplex structure and would not be visible otherwise by the separate analysis of the single-layer networks corresponding to each dependency measure.

  13. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species: quantification, structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, António; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to characterize biofilms produced by three NCAC species, namely C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The biofilm forming ability of clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata recovered from different sources, was evaluated by crystal violet staining. The structure and morphological characteristics of the biofilms were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the biofilm matrix composition analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content. All NCAC species were able to form biofilms although these were less extensive for C. glabrata compared with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. It was evident that C. parapsilosis biofilm production was highly strain dependent, a feature not evident with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences for biofilms with respect to cell morphology and spatial arrangement. Candida parapsilosis biofilm matrices had large amounts of carbohydrate with less protein. Conversely, matrices extracted from C. tropicalis biofilms had low amounts of carbohydrate and protein. Interestingly, C. glabrata biofilm matrix was high in both protein and carbohydrate content. The present work demonstrates that biofilm forming ability, structure and matrix composition are highly species dependent with additional strain variability occurring with C. parapsilosis.

  14. HIV-1 matrix dependent membrane targeting is regulated by Gag mRNA trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jin

    Full Text Available Retroviral Gag polyproteins are necessary and sufficient for virus budding. Productive HIV-1 Gag assembly takes place at the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which thousands of Gag molecules are targeted to the plasma membrane. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assay, we recently reported that the cellular sites and efficiency of HIV-1 Gag assembly depend on the precise pathway of Gag mRNA export from the nucleus, known to be mediated by Rev. Here we describe an assembly deficiency in human cells for HIV Gag whose expression depends on hepatitis B virus (HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element (PRE mediated-mRNA nuclear export. PRE-dependent HIV Gag expressed well in human cells, but assembled with slower kinetics, accumulated intracellularly, and failed to associate with a lipid raft compartment where the wild-type Rev-dependent HIV-1 Gag efficiently assembles. Surprisingly, assembly and budding of PRE-dependent HIV Gag in human cells could be rescued in trans by co-expression of Rev-dependent Gag that provides correct membrane targeting signals, or in cis by replacing HIV matrix (MA with other membrane targeting domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficient membrane targeting of PRE-dependent HIV-1 Gag and suggest that HIV MA function is regulated by the trafficking pathway of the encoding mRNA.

  15. Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh; Mather, Patrick; Rodriguez, Erika

    2013-01-01

    additional weight savings. More robust structures capable of withstanding micrometeoroid and space debris impacts will be possible with the enhanced mechanical properties imparted by the aligned CNTs incorporated into the fiber composite structure, as well as the potential for improved electrical and thermal properties. The materials fabrication approach developed in the present effort is a platform for customer applications where additional reinforcement is required or would be beneficial, especially in FRC structures and component parts. Depending upon the specific customer application, the NRM could be tailored to the specific matrix resin and desired property enhancement.

  16. A cellular Potts model for the MMP-dependent and -independent cancer cell migration in matrix microtracks of different dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, Marco; Preziosi, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is fundamental in a wide variety of physiological and pathological phenomena, among other in cancer invasion and development. In particular, the migratory/invasive capability of single metastatic cells is fundamental in determining the malignancy of a solid tumor. Specific cell migration phenotypes result for instance from the reciprocal interplay between the biophysical and biochemical properties of both the malignant cells themselves and of the surrounding environment. In particular, the extracellular matrices (ECMs) forming connective tissues can provide both loosely organized zones and densely packed barriers, which may impact cell invasion mode and efficiency. The critical processes involved in cell movement within confined spaces are (i) the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and (ii) the deformation of the entire cell body, and in particular of the nucleus. We here present an extended cellular Potts model (CPM) to simulate a bio-engineered matrix system, which tests the active motile behavior of a single cancer cell into narrow channels of different widths. As distinct features of our approach, the cell is modeled as a compartmentalized discrete element, differentiated in the nucleus and in the cytosolic region, while a directional shape-dependent movement is explicitly driven by the evolution of its polarity vector. As outcomes, we find that, in a large track, the tumor cell is not able to maintain a directional movement. On the contrary, a structure of subcellular width behaves as a contact guidance sustaining cell persistent locomotion. In particular, a MMP-deprived cell is able to repolarize and follow the micropattern geometry, while a full MMP activity leads to a secondary track expansion by degrading the matrix structure. Finally, we confirm that cell movement within a subnuclear structure can be achieved either by pericellular proteolysis or by a significant deformation of cell nucleus.

  17. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-01-13

    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles - which are common in natural environments - wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments.

  18. Structure Analysis of Network Traffic Matrix Based on Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ke; Yin, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    The network traffic matrix is a kind of flow-level Internet traffic data and is widely applied to network operation and management. It is a crucial problem to analyze the composition and structure of traffic matrix; some mathematical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to handle that problem. In this paper, we first argue that PCA performs poorly for analyzing traffic matrixes polluted by large volume anomalies, then propose a new composition model of the network traffic matrix. According to our model, structure analysis can be formally defined as decomposing a traffic matrix into low-rank, sparse, and noise sub-matrixes, which is equal to the Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) problem defined in [13]. Based on the Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit (Relaxed PCP) method and the Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) algorithm, an iterative algorithm for decomposing a traffic matrix is presented, and our experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and flexibility. At last, f...

  19. Metal Ion-dependent Heavy Chain Transfer Activity of TSG-6 Mediates Assembly of the Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, David C; Birchenough, Holly L; Ali, Tariq; Rugg, Marilyn S; Waltho, Jon P; Ievoli, Elena; Jowitt, Thomas A; Enghild, Jan J; Richter, Ralf P; Salustri, Antonietta; Milner, Caroline M; Day, Anthony J

    2015-11-27

    The matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) has a critical role in the expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC), a process that is necessary for ovulation and fertilization in most mammals. Hyaluronan is organized into a cross-linked network by the cooperative action of three proteins, inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), pentraxin-3, and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), driving the expansion of the COC and providing the cumulus matrix with its required viscoelastic properties. Although it is known that matrix stabilization involves the TSG-6-mediated transfer of IαI heavy chains (HCs) onto hyaluronan (to form covalent HC·HA complexes that are cross-linked by pentraxin-3) and that this occurs via the formation of covalent HC·TSG-6 intermediates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have determined the tertiary structure of the CUB module from human TSG-6, identifying a calcium ion-binding site and chelating glutamic acid residue that mediate the formation of HC·TSG-6. This occurs via an initial metal ion-dependent, non-covalent, interaction between TSG-6 and HCs that also requires the presence of an HC-associated magnesium ion. In addition, we have found that the well characterized hyaluronan-binding site in the TSG-6 Link module is not used for recognition during transfer of HCs onto HA. Analysis of TSG-6 mutants (with impaired transferase and/or hyaluronan-binding functions) revealed that although the TSG-6-mediated formation of HC·HA complexes is essential for the expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, the hyaluronan-binding function of TSG-6 does not play a major role in the stabilization of the murine cumulus matrix.

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF POLYNOMIAL MATRIX USING BLOCK COEFFICIENT MATRIX REPRESENTATION AUTO-REGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODEL FOR ACTIVELY CONTROLLED STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunxiang; ZHOU Dai

    2004-01-01

    The polynomial matrix using the block coefficient matrix representation auto-regressive moving average (referred to as the PM-ARMA) model is constructed in this paper for actively controlled multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures with time-delay through equivalently transforming the preliminary state space realization into the new state space realization. The PM-ARMA model is a more general formulation with respect to the polynomial using the coefficient representation auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model due to its capability to cope with actively controlled structures with any given structural degrees of freedom and any chosen number of sensors and actuators. (The sensors and actuators are required to maintain the identical number.) under any dimensional stationary stochastic excitation.

  1. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M.; McDonnell, Lisa P.; Nourse, Jamison L.; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2015-02-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation.

  2. PD plus error-dependent integral nonlinear controllers for robot manipulators with an uncertain Jacobian matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C Q; Xie, L F; Liu, Y L

    2012-11-01

    In framework of traditional PID controllers, there are only three parameters available to tune, as a result, performance of the resulting system is always limited. As for Cartesian regulation of robot manipulators with uncertain Jacobian matrix, a scheme of PID controllers with error-dependent integral action is proposed. Compare with traditional PID controllers, the error-dependent integration is employed in the proposed PID controller, in which more parameters are available to be tuned. It provides additional flexibility for controller characteristics and tuning as well, and hence makes better transient performance. In addition, asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system is guaranteed. All signals in the system are bounded when exogenous disturbances and measurement noises are bounded. Numerical example demonstrates the superior transient performance of the proposed controller over the traditional one via Cartesian space set-point manipulation of two-link robotic manipulator.

  3. Accurate high-harmonic spectra from time-dependent two-particle reduced density matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Fabian; Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The accurate description of the non-linear response of many-electron systems to strong-laser fields remains a major challenge. Methods that bypass the unfavorable exponential scaling with particle number are required to address larger systems. In this paper we present a fully three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent two-particle reduced density matrix (TD-2RDM) method for many-electron atoms. We benchmark this approach by a comparison with multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) results for the harmonic spectra of beryllium and neon. We show that the TD-2RDM is very well-suited to describe the non-linear atomic response and to reveal the influence of electron-correlation effects.

  4. Osteoblasts extracellular matrix induces vessel like structures through glycosylated collagen I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, D. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Valli, M.; Viglio, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Istituto Nazionale per la ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Ledda, B.; Volta, C. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Manduca, P., E-mail: man-via@unige.it [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2010-03-10

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis affecting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. Vessels-like network formation in vitro is a reliable test to study the inductive effects of ECM on angiogenesis. Here we utilized matrix deposed by osteoblasts as substrate where the molecular and structural complexity of the endogenous ECM is preserved, to test if it induces vessel-like network formation by endothelial cells in vitro. ECM is more similar to the physiological substrate in vivo than other substrates previously utilized for these studies in vitro. Osteogenic ECM, prepared in vitro from mature osteoblasts at the phase of maximal deposition and glycosylation of collagen I, induces EAhy926, HUVEC, and HDMEC endothelial cells to form vessels-like structures and promotes the activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); the functionality of the p-38/MAPK signaling pathway is required. Osteogenic ECM also induces a transient increase of CXCL12 and a decrease of the receptor CXCR4. The induction of vessel-like networks is dependent from proper glycosylation of collagens and does not occur on osteogenic ECMs if deglycosylated by -galactosidase or on less glycosylated ECMs derived from preosteoblasts and normal fibroblasts, while is sustained on ECM from osteogenesis imperfecta fibroblasts only when their mutation is associated with over-glycosylation of collagen type I. These data support that post-translational glycosylation has a role in the induction in endothelial cells in vitro of molecules conductive to self-organization in vessels-like structures.

  5. Multidisciplinary Product Decomposition and Analysis Based on Design Structure Matrix Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Design structure matrix (DSM) modeling in complex system design supports to define physical and logical configuration of subsystems, components, and their relationships. This modeling includes product decomposition, identification of interfaces, and structure analysis to increase the architectural...

  6. Dependency-based algorithms for vector processing of sparse matrix forward/backward substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, G.T.; Chahine, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Granelli, G.P.; Montagna, M. [Univ. di Pavia (Italy)

    1996-02-01

    In this paper two algorithms for forward/backward substitutions and their implementation on vector computers are considered. A dependency-based substitution algorithm (DBSA) is proposed and compared with the well known W-matrix method. According to DBSA, the non-zero entries of the factor matrices are rearranged in groups of elements (slices) leading to independent operations. In the implementation of the W-matrix method, the non-zero elements of the inverse factors are grouped in sets (pseudocolumns) to overcome the problem of dependency between addition operations. Test cases, performed on a CRAY X-MP2/216 and a CRAY Y-MP8/464 vector computer, are taken from real life power system problems and consist in the solution of linear systems with up to 12,000 equations. The maximum speed-ups achieved (with respect to a code based on standard sparsity programming) are near to 7 for complex arithmetic and to 11 for real arithmetic.

  7. Nonlinearity and Strain-Rate Dependence in the Deformation Response of Polymer Matrix Composites Modeled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    There has been no accurate procedure for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials, but such an analytical capability will be required in designing reliable lightweight engine-containment systems. The majority of the models in use assume a linear elastic material response that does not vary with strain rate. However, for containment systems, polymer matrix composites incorporating ductile polymers are likely to be used. For such a material, the deformation response is likely to be nonlinear and to vary with strain rate. An analytical model has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that incorporates both of these features. A set of constitutive equations that was originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals (Ramaswamy-Stouffer equations) was modified to simulate the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation of polymers. Specifically, the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the inelastic response, which can be significant in polymers, were accounted for by a modification of the definition of the effective stress. The constitutive equations were then incorporated into a composite micromechanics model based on the mechanics of materials theory. This theory predicts the deformation response of a composite material from the properties and behavior of the individual constituents. In this manner, the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation response of a polymer matrix composite can be predicted.

  8. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Wittig-Blaich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases.

  9. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie M; Kacprzyk, Lukasz A; Eismann, Thorsten; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Kruse, Petra; Winkler, Eva; Strauss, Wolfgang S L; Hibst, Raimund; Steiner, Rudolf; Schrader, Mark; Mertens, Daniel; Sültmann, Holger; Wittig, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox)-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases. PMID:21750652

  10. A suppository-base-matrix tablet for time-dependent colon-specific delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Zou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research has focused on the main design features and release performances of time-dependent colon-specific (TDCS delivery tablets, which relies on the relative constancy that is observed in the small intestinal transit time of dosage forms. But inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)can affect the transit time, and usually results in watery stool. Compared to the TDCS and wax-matrix TDCS tablet, a promising time-dependent colon-specific delivery system was investigated. In our study, a suppository-base-matrix coated tablet was evaluated. Water soluble suppository-base helps the expansion of tablet, facilitates uniform film dissolution and achives high osmotic pressure. Combining the expansion of carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na and the moisture absorption of NaCl, the coated TDCS tablet obtained a burst and targeted drug delivery system. A very good correlation between in vitro drug release and in vivo outcome was observed. This TDCS coated tablet provides a promising strategy to control drug release to the desired lower gastrointestinal region.

  11. Strain Rate Dependency of Bronze Metal Matrix Composite Mechanical Properties as a Function of Casting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lloyd; Joyce, Peter; Radice, Joshua; Gregorian, Dro; Gobble, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of tungsten carbide (WC)-filled bronze castings fabricated by centrifugal and sedimentation-casting techniques are examined, in this study. Both casting techniques are an attempt to produce a functionally graded material with high wear resistance at a chosen surface. Potential applications of such materials include shaft bushings, electrical contact surfaces, and brake rotors. Knowledge of strain rate-dependent mechanical properties is recommended for predicting component response due to dynamic loading or impact events. A brief overview of the casting techniques for the materials considered in this study is followed by an explanation of the test matrix and testing techniques. Hardness testing, density measurement, and determination of the volume fraction of WC particles are performed throughout the castings using both image analysis and optical microscopy. The effects of particle filling on mechanical properties are first evaluated through a microhardness survey of the castings. The volume fraction of WC particles is validated using a thorough density survey and a rule-of-mixtures model. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) testing of various volume fraction specimens is conducted to determine strain dependence of mechanical properties and to compare the process-property relationships between the two casting techniques. The baseline performances of C95400 bronze are provided for comparison. The results show that the addition of WC particles improves microhardness significantly for the centrifugally cast specimens, and, to a lesser extent, in the sedimentation-cast specimens, largely because the WC particles are more concentrated as a result of the centrifugal-casting process. Both metal matrix composites (MMCs) demonstrate strain rate dependency, with sedimentation casting having a greater, but variable, effects on material response. This difference is attributed to legacy effects from the casting process, namely

  12. Decellularized matrix from tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells promotes neovascularization with galectin-1 dependent endothelial interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of a blood supply is fundamental for extensive tumor growth. We recently described vascular heterogeneity in tumours derived from cell clones of a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC strain (hMSC-TERT20 immortalized by retroviral vector mediated human telomerase (hTERT gene expression. Histological analysis showed that cells of the most vascularized tumorigenic clone, -BD11 had a pericyte-like alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA+ and CD146+ positive phenotype. Upon serum withdrawal in culture, -BD11 cells formed cord-like structures mimicking capillary morphogenesis. In contrast, cells of the poorly tumorigenic clone, -BC8 did not stain for ASMA, tumours were less vascularized and serum withdrawal in culture led to cell death. By exploring the heterogeneity in hMSC-TERT20 clones we aimed to understand molecular mechanisms by which mesenchymal stem cells may promote neovascularization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative qRT-PCR analysis revealed similar mRNA levels for genes encoding the angiogenic cytokines VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 in both clones. However, clone-BD11 produced a denser extracellular matrix that supported stable ex vivo capillary morphogenesis of human endothelial cells and promoted in vivo neovascularization. Proteomic characterization of the -BD11 decellularized matrix identified 50 extracellular angiogenic proteins, including galectin-1. siRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression abrogated the ex vivo interaction between decellularized -BD11 matrix and endothelial cells. More stable shRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression did not prevent -BD11 tumorigenesis, but greatly reduced endothelial migration into -BD11 cell xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: Decellularized hMSC matrix had significant angiogenic potential with at least 50 angiogenic cell surface and extracellular proteins, implicated in attracting endothelial cells, their adhesion and activation to form tubular structures. hMSC -BD11 surface galectin-1

  13. Extracellular matrix structure governs invasion resistance in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Drescher, Knut; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-08-01

    Many bacteria are highly adapted for life in communities, or biofilms. A defining feature of biofilms is the production of extracellular matrix that binds cells together. The biofilm matrix provides numerous fitness benefits, including protection from environmental stresses and enhanced nutrient availability. Here we investigate defense against biofilm invasion using the model bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We demonstrate that immotile cells, including those identical to the biofilm resident strain, are completely excluded from entry into resident biofilms. Motile cells can colonize and grow on the biofilm exterior, but are readily removed by shear forces. Protection from invasion into the biofilm interior is mediated by the secreted protein RbmA, which binds mother-daughter cell pairs to each other and to polysaccharide components of the matrix. RbmA, and the invasion protection it confers, strongly localize to the cell lineages that produce it.

  14. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  15. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järrendahl, K.; Landin, J.; Arwin, H.

    2010-06-01

    The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée) is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  16. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob H Havgaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become clear that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA play important roles in cells, and emerging studies indicate that there might be a large number of unknown ncRNAs in mammalian genomes. There exist computational methods that can be used to search for ncRNAs by comparing sequences from different genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained. Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool for searching for new ncRNAs. The software package is available for download at http://foldalign.ku.dk.

  17. Azelnidipine inhibits Msx2-dependent osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Iso, Tatsuya; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active and regulated process that is similar to bone formation. While calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been shown to improve outcomes in atherosclerotic vascular disease, it remains unknown whether CCBs have an effect on the process of vascular calcification. Here we investigated whether CCBs inhibit osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by Msx2, a key factor of vascular calcification. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were transduced with adenovirus expressing MSX2 and were treated with 3 distinct CCBs. Azelnidipine, a dihydropyridine subclass of CCBs, significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Msx2-overexpressed HASMCs, whereas verapamil and diltiazem had no effect. Furthermore, azelnidipine, but not verapamil and diltiazem, significantly decreased matrix mineralization of Msx2-overexpressing HASMCs. Azelnidipine significantly attenuated the induction of ALP gene expression by Msx2, a key transcription factor in osteogenesis, while it did not reduce enzymatic activity of ALP. Furthermore, azelnidipine inhibited the ability of Msx2 to activate the ALP gene, but had no effect on Notch-induced Msx2 expression. Given that L-type calcium channels are equally blocked by these CCBs, our results suggest that azelnidipine inhibits the Msx2-dependent process of vascular calcification by mechanisms other than inhibition of calcium channel activity.

  18. cag Pathogenicity island-dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in infected patients with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghiani, Marzieh; Bagheri, Nader; Shahi, Heshmat; Reiisi, Somayeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rashidi, Reza; Mahsa, Majid; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Salimi, Elaheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2017-07-12

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been involved in the pathogenesis of most important gastroduodenal diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of zincendopeptidases which play important roles in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we examined MMP-7 mRNA levels in the gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori infection and evaluated the effects of virulence factors, such as vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin-associated gene), in H. pylori-infected patients upon the MMP-7 mRNA mucosal levels. We also determined the correlation between mucosal MMP-7 mRNA levels and the types of disease. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 50 H. pylori-infected patients and 50 uninfected individuals. Mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and non-infected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presences of cagA and vacA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. MMP-7 expression was significantly higher in biopsies of patients infected with H .pylori compared to uninfected individuals. In addition, mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected patients significantly associated with the cagA status and the types of disease. Our results suggest that MMP-7 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. Peptic ulcer was associated with cag pathogenicity island-dependent MMP-7 upregulation.

  19. Choice of dipole operator gauge in time-dependent R-matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S; Lysaght, M A; Van der Hart, H W, E-mail: shutchinson06@qub.ac.u [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-14

    We investigate multi-photon ionization of helium using the time-dependent R-matrix method in order to assess the best choice of gauge for the description of the laser field when the system under investigation is a multi-electron system. Ionization probabilities are obtained using the length gauge and the velocity gauge and various He basis sets, when a minimum of three or four photons need to be absorbed to achieve ionization. The probabilities are found to converge for both gauges as the number of orbitals used in the basis set increases, but they are more consistent in the length gauge. Ionization probabilities can be compared to those derived from other theoretical calculations. Agreement is within 10% when ionization requires absorption of at least three photons, but the differences increase to 20-50% when absorption of four photons is required. Analysis of the multi-photon matrix elements provides further evidence for better consistency in the length gauge than the velocity gauge when high-lying states are excluded from the calculations, which is, at present, unavoidable for a multi-electron system.

  20. Exploration of ultra-fast electron dynamics using time-dependent R-matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hart, Hugo; Rey, Hector; Hassouneh, Ola; Brown, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    When an atom is subjected to an intense laser field, the full atomic response can involve a collective response involving several electrons. This collective response will be affected by electron-electron repulsion, coupling the overall electron dynamics. In order to investigate this dynamics for a multi-electron system from first principles, we have developed time-dependent R-matrix theory. The theory applies the basic principles of R-matrix theory, in which all interactions between all electrons are taken into account close to the nucleus, but exchange interactions are neglected when one electron has become distanced from the parent atom. In this contribution, we will explain the basic principles of this theory and demonstrate its application to ultra-fast dynamics in C+, and harmonic generation in singly ionised noble-gas atoms. Both studies demonstrate that it is important to go beyond the single-active-electron approximation. This research has been supported by EPSRC UK, and by the EU Initial Training Network CORINF.

  1. Enhanced osteoprogenitor elongated collagen fiber matrix formation by bioactive glass ionic silicon dependent on Sp7 (osterix) transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Venu G; Odatsu, Tetsurou; Bishop, Timothy; Chang, Joyce; Owyoung, Jeremy; Loomer, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive glasses release ions, those enhance osteoblast collagen matrix synthesis and osteogenic marker expression during bone healing. Collagen matrix density and osteogenic marker expression depend on osteogenic transcription factors, (e.g., Osterix (OSX)). We hypothesize that enhanced expression and formation of collagen by Si(4+) depends on enhanced expression of OSX transcription. Experimental bioactive glass (6P53-b) and commercial Bioglass(TM) (45S5) were dissolved in basal medium to make glass conditioned medium (GCM). ICP-MS analysis was used to measure bioactive glass ion release rates. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured for 20 days, and gene expression and extracellular matrix collagen formation was analyzed. In a separate study, siRNA was used to determine the effect of OSX knockdown on impacting the effect of Si(4+) on osteogenic markers and matrix collagen formation. Each bioactive glass exhibited similar ion release rates for all ions, except Mg(2+) released by 6P53-b. Gene expression results showed that GCM markedly enhanced many osteogenic markers, and 45S5 GCM showed higher levels of expression and collagen matrix fiber bundle density than 6P53-b GCM. Upon knockdown of OSX transcription, collagen type 5, alkaline phosphatase, and matrix density were not enhanced as compared to wild type cells. This study illustrates that the enhancement of elongated collagen fiber matrix formation by Si(±) depends on OSX transcription. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2604-2615, 2016.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-12-01

    Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined.

  3. Concentration Dependent Structure of Block Copolymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soohyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2015-03-01

    Addition of solvent molecules into block copolymer can induce additional interactions between the solvent and both blocks, and therefore expands the range of accessible self-assembled morphologies. In particular, the distribution of solvent molecules plays a key role in determining the microstructure and its characteristic domain spacing. In this study, concentration dependent structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) solution in squalane are investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. This reveals that squalane is essentially completely segregated into the PEP domains. In addition, the conformation of the PS block changes from stretched to nearly fully relaxed (i.e., Gaussian conformation) as amounts of squalane increases. NRF

  4. Self-consistent RPA and the time-dependent density matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Grenoble (France); Tohyama, M. [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    The time-dependent density matrix (TDDM) or BBGKY (Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, Yvon) approach is decoupled and closed at the three-body level in finding a natural representation of the latter in terms of a quadratic form of two-body correlation functions. In the small amplitude limit an extended RPA coupled to an also extended second RPA is obtained. Since including two-body correlations means that the ground state cannot be a Hartree-Fock state, naturally the corresponding RPA is upgraded to Self-Consistent RPA (SCRPA) which was introduced independently earlier and which is built on a correlated ground state. SCRPA conserves all the properties of standard RPA. Applications to the exactly solvable Lipkin and the 1D Hubbard models show good performances of SCRPA and TDDM. (orig.)

  5. Atomic harmonic generation in time-dependent R-matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. C.; Robinson, D. J.; van der Hart, H. W.

    2012-11-01

    We have developed the capability to determine accurate harmonic spectra for multielectron atoms within time-dependent R-matrix (TDRM) theory. Harmonic spectra can be calculated using the expectation value of the dipole length, velocity, or acceleration operator. We assess the calculation of the harmonic spectrum from He irradiated by 390-nm laser light with intensities up to 4×1014 W cm-2 using each form, including the influence of the multielectron basis used in the TDRM code. The spectra are consistent between the different forms, although the dipole acceleration calculation breaks down at lower harmonics. The results obtained from TDRM theory are compared with results from the helium code, finding good quantitative agreement between the methods. We find that bases which include pseudostates give the best comparison with the helium code, but models comprising only physical orbitals also produce accurate results.

  6. Atomic harmonic generation in time-dependent R-matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, A C; van der Hart, H W

    2012-01-01

    We have developed the capability to determine accurate harmonic spectra for multielectron atoms within time-dependent R-matrix (TDRM) theory. Harmonic spectra can be calculated using the expectation value of the dipole length, velocity or acceleration operator. We assess the calculation of the harmonic spectrum from He irradiated by 390 nm laser light with intensities up to 4 x 10(14) W cm(-2) using each form, including the influence of the multielectron basis used in the TDRM code. The spectra are consistent between the different forms, although the dipole acceleration calculation breaks down at lower harmonics. The results obtained from TDRM theory are compared with results from the HELIUM code finding good quantitative agreement between the methods. We find that bases which include pseudostates give the best comparison with the HELIUM code, but models comprising only physical orbitals also produce accurate results.

  7. Time-dependent R-matrix theory applied to two-photon double ionization of He

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hart, H. W.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a time-dependent R-matrix theory generalized to describe double-ionization processes. The method is used to investigate two-photon double ionization of He by intense XUV laser radiation. We combine a detailed B-spline-based wave-function description in an extended inner region with a single-electron outer region containing channels representing both single ionization and double ionization. A comparison of wave-function densities for different box sizes demonstrates that the flow between the two regions is described with excellent accuracy. The obtained two-photon double-ionization cross sections are in excellent agreement with other cross sections available. Compared to calculations fully contained within a finite inner region, the present calculations can be propagated over the time it takes the slowest electron to reach the boundary.

  8. Time-dependent R-matrix theory applied to two-photon double ionization of He

    CERN Document Server

    van der Hart, H W

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a time-dependent R-matrix theory generalised to describe double ionization processes. The method is used to investigate two-photon double ionization of He by intense XUV laser radiation. We combine a detailed B-spline-based wavefunction description in a extended inner region with a single-electron outer region containing channels representing both single ionization and double ionization. A comparison of wavefunction densities for different box sizes demonstrates that the flow between the two regions is described with excellent accuracy. The obtained two-photon double ionization cross sections are in excellent agreement with other cross sections available. Compared to calculations fully contained within a finite inner region, the present calculations can be propagated over the time it takes the slowest electron to reach the boundary.

  9. Excitation energies with time-dependent density matrix functional theory: Singlet two-electron systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H; Pernal, K; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2009-03-21

    Time-dependent density functional theory in its current adiabatic implementations exhibits three striking failures: (a) Totally wrong behavior of the excited state surface along a bond-breaking coordinate, (b) lack of doubly excited configurations, affecting again excited state surfaces, and (c) much too low charge transfer excitation energies. We address these problems with time-dependent density matrix functional theory (TDDMFT). For two-electron systems the exact exchange-correlation functional is known in DMFT, hence exact response equations can be formulated. This affords a study of the performance of TDDMFT in the TDDFT failure cases mentioned (which are all strikingly exhibited by prototype two-electron systems such as dissociating H(2) and HeH(+)). At the same time, adiabatic approximations, which will eventually be necessary, can be tested without being obscured by approximations in the functional. We find the following: (a) In the fully nonadiabatic (omega-dependent, exact) formulation of linear response TDDMFT, it can be shown that linear response (LR)-TDDMFT is able to provide exact excitation energies, in particular, the first order (linear response) formulation does not prohibit the correct representation of doubly excited states; (b) within previously formulated simple adiabatic approximations the bonding-to-antibonding excited state surface as well as charge transfer excitations are described without problems, but not the double excitations; (c) an adiabatic approximation is formulated in which also the double excitations are fully accounted for.

  10. Comparison of two matrix data structures for advanced CSM testbed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelbrugge, M. E.; Brogan, F. A.; Nour-Omid, B.; Rankin, C. C.; Wright, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The first section describes data storage schemes presently used by the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) testbed sparse matrix facilities and similar skyline (profile) matrix facilities. The second section contains a discussion of certain features required for the implementation of particular advanced CSM algorithms, and how these features might be incorporated into the data storage schemes described previously. The third section presents recommendations, based on the discussions of the prior sections, for directing future CSM testbed development to provide necessary matrix facilities for advanced algorithm implementation and use. The objective is to lend insight into the matrix structures discussed and to help explain the process of evaluating alternative matrix data structures and utilities for subsequent use in the CSM testbed.

  11. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  12. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, G E; Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2000-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are extracellular enzymes taking part in the remodeling of extracellular matrix. The structures of the catalytic domain of MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and MMP8 are known, but structures of enzymes belonging to this family still remain to be determined. A general approach...... to the homology modeling of matrix metalloproteinases, exemplified by the modeling of MMP2, MMP9, MMP12 and MMP14 is described. The models were refined using an energy minimization procedure developed for matrix metalloproteinases. This procedure includes incorporation of parameters for zinc and calcium ions...... in the AMBER 4.1 force field, applying a non-bonded approach and a full ion charge representation. Energy minimization of the apoenzymes yielded structures with distorted active sites, while reliable three-dimensional structures of the enzymes containing a substrate in active site were obtained. The structural...

  13. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  14. Short Oligonucleotides Aligned in Stretched Humid Matrix: Secondary DNA Structure in Poly(vinyl alcohol) Environment

    KAUST Repository

    Hanczyc, Piotr

    2012-04-24

    We report that short, synthetic, double- as well as single-stranded DNA can be aligned in stretched humid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix, and the secondary structure (nucleobase orientation) can be characterized with linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Oligonucleotides of lengths varying between 10 (3.4 nm) and 60 bases (20.4 nm) were investigated with respect to structural properties in the gel-like polymer environment. The DNA conformation as a function of relative humidity reveals a strong dependence of helical structure of DNA on PVA hydration level, results of relevance for nanotechnical studies of DNA-based supramolecular systems. Also, the PVA gel could provide possibilities to test models for nucleic acid interactions and distribution in cell contexts, including structural stability of genetic material in the cell and PVA-packaging for gene delivery. A method by which duplex oligonucleotides, with sequences designed to provide specific binding sites, become amenable to polarized-light spectroscopy opens up new possibilities for studying structure in DNA complexes with small adduct molecules as well as proteins. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Temperature dependent spin structures in Hexaferrite crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y.C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.G., E-mail: jglin@ntu.edu.tw [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chun, S.H.; Kim, K.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the Hexaferrite Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (BSZFO) is studied due to its interesting characteristics of long-wavelength spin structure. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is used to probe the magnetic states of BSZFO single crystal and its temperature dependence behavior is analyzed by decomposing the multiple lines of FMR spectra into various phases. Distinguished phase transition is observed at 110 K for one line, which is assigned to the ferro(ferri)-magnetic transition from non-collinear to collinear spin state. - Highlights: • For the first time Ferromagnetic Resonance is used to probe the local magnetic structure of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22.} • The multiphases in the single crystal is identified, which provides important information toward its future application for the magnetoelectric devices.

  16. The Role of Structural Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brunner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM plays a key role in the modulation of cancer cell invasion. In urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC the role of ECM proteins has been widely studied. The mechanisms, which are involved in the development of invasion, progression and generalization, are complex, depending on the interaction of ECM proteins with each other as well as with cancer cells. The following review will focus on the pathogenetic role and prognostic value of structural proteins, such as laminins, collagens, fi bronectin (FN, tenascin (Tn-C and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 in UC. In addition, the role of integrins mediating the interaction of ECM molecules and cancer cells will be addressed, since integrin-mediated FN, Tn-C and TSP1 interactions seem to play an important role during tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis.

  17. Matrix-dependent Strain Distributions of Au and Ag Nanoparticles in a Metal-oxide-semiconductor-based Nonvolatile Memory Device

    OpenAIRE

    Honghua Huang; Ying Zhang; Wenyan Wei; Ting Yu; Xingfang Luo; Cailei Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The matrix-dependent strain distributions of Au and Ag nanoparticles in a metal-oxide-semiconductor based nonvolatile memory device are investigated by finite element calculations. The simulation results clearly indicate that both Au and Ag nanoparticles incur compressive strain by high-k Al2O3 and conventional SiO2 dielectrics. The strain distribution of nanoparticles is closely related to the surrounding matrix. Nanoparticles embedded in different matrices experience different compressive s...

  18. Inner structure of vehicular ensembles and random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hobza, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a special class of random matrices (DUE) whose spectral statistics corresponds to statistics of microscopical quantities detected in vehicular flows. Comparing the level spacing distribution (for ordered eigenvalues in unfolded spectra of DUE matrices) with the time-clearance distribution extracted from various areas of the flux-density diagram (evaluated from original traffic data measured on Czech expressways with high occupancies) we demonstrate that the set of classical systems showing an universality associated with Random Matrix Ensembles can be extended by traffic systems.

  19. Differentiation-dependent expression of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 in trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T J; Albieri, A; Bevilacqua, E; Chapman, B M; Crane, L H; Hamlin, G P; Seiki, M; Soares, M J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Rcho-1 trophoblast culture system as a model for studying trophoblast invasion and to examine stage-specific expression of enzyme(s) potentially participating in rat trophoblast giant cell invasive behavior. The invasive behavior of the differentiating Rcho-1 trophoblast cells was demonstrated using Matrigel invasion chambers. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analysis of conditioned medium from differentiating Rcho-1 trophoblast cell cultures and rat ectoplacental cone outgrowths revealed a differentiation-dependent increase in gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9). Nothern blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of Rcho-1 trophoblast or ectoplacental cone cells also showed increasing expression of MMP-9 accompanying cell differentiation. Rcho-1 trophoblast cells stably transfected with MMP-9 promoter/luciferase reporter constructs exhibited a differentiation-dependent increase in MMP-9 promoter activation. In conclusion, trophoblast giant cell differentiation is characterized by transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene and appearance of the invasive phenotype.

  20. Abnormal Structure of Fermion Mixings in a Seesaw Quark Mass Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, Y

    1997-01-01

    It is pointed out that in a seesaw quark mass matrix model which yields a singular enhancement of the top-quark mass, the right-handed fermion-mixing matrix U_R^u for the up-quark sector has a peculiar structure in contrast to the left-handed one U_L^u. As an example of the explicit structures of U_L^u and U_R^u, a case in which the heavy fermion mass matrix M_F is given by a form [(unit matrix)+(rank-one matrix)] is investigated. As a consequence, one finds observable signatures at projected high energy accelerators like the production of a fourth heavy quark family.

  1. Thermal stresses of flexible pavement with consideration of temperature-dependent material characteristics using stiffness matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Litao; Ren, Ruibo; Zhong, Yang; Xu, Qian

    2011-02-01

    The asphalt pavement is regarded as a multilayered elastic half space axisymmetrical body. By introducing the relationship between material characteristics and temperature into the fundamental equations of thermoelasticity and using mathematic methods of Laplace and Hankel integral transformation, the stiffness matrix for a layer is derived firstly. Then the global stiffness matrix is established for multilayered elastic half space using the finite element concepts in which layers are completely contacted. Therefore, explicit solution for thermal stresses of the asphalt pavement is obtained from the solution of the algebra equation formed by global stiffness matrix and the inverse Hankel and Laplace integral transformation. Because the elements of matrix do not include positive exponential function, the calculation is not overflowed and the shortages of transfer matrix method are overcome. This approach serves as a better model for real pavement structure as it takes into account the relationships between the material characteristics and temperature in the pavement system.

  2. A Unisonant r-Matrix Structure of Integrable Systems and Its Reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Zhi-Jun; Walter STRAMPP

    2000-01-01

    A new method is presented to generate finite dimensional integrable systems. Our starting point is a generalized Lax matrix instead of usual Lax pair. Then a unisonant r-matrix structure and a set of generalized Hamiltonian functions are constructed. It can be clearly seen that various constrained integrable flows by nonlinearization method, such as the c-AKNS, c-MKdV, c-Toda, etc., are derived from the reduction of this structure. Furthermore, some new integrable flows are produced

  3. Sec24D-dependent transport of extracellular matrix proteins is required for zebrafish skeletal morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    Full Text Available Protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER to Golgi is primarily conducted by coated vesicular carriers such as COPII. Here, we describe zebrafish bulldog mutations that disrupt the function of the cargo adaptor Sec24D, an integral component of the COPII complex. We show that Sec24D is essential for secretion of cartilage matrix proteins, whereas the preceding development of craniofacial primordia and pre-chondrogenic condensations does not depend on this isoform. Bulldog chondrocytes fail to secrete type II collagen and matrilin to extracellular matrix (ECM, but membrane bound receptor beta1-Integrin and Cadherins appear to leave ER in Sec24D-independent fashion. Consequently, Sec24D-deficient cells accumulate proteins in the distended ER, although a subset of ER compartments and Golgi complexes as visualized by electron microscopy and NBD C(6-ceramide staining appear functional. Consistent with the backlog of proteins in the ER, chondrocytes activate the ER stress response machinery and significantly upregulate BiP transcription. Failure of ECM secretion hinders chondroblast intercalations thus resulting in small and malformed cartilages and severe craniofacial dysmorphology. This defect is specific to Sec24D mutants since knockdown of Sec24C, a close paralog of Sec24D, does not result in craniofacial cartilage dysmorphology. However, craniofacial development in double Sec24C/Sec24D-deficient animals is arrested earlier than in bulldog/sec24d, suggesting that Sec24C can compensate for loss of Sec24D at initial stages of chondrogenesis, but Sec24D is indispensable for chondrocyte maturation. Our study presents the first developmental perspective on Sec24D function and establishes Sec24D as a strong candidate for cartilage maintenance diseases and craniofacial birth defects.

  4. Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Plana, F; Alastuey, A; Moreno, N; Izquierdo, M; Font, O; Moreno, T; Diez, S; Vázquez, E; Barra, M

    2008-06-15

    The synthesis of geopolymer matrixes from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes as the sole source of silica and alumina has been studied in order to assess both their capacity to immobilise the potentially toxic elements contained in these coal (co-)combustion by-products and their suitability to be used as cement replacements. The geopolymerisation process has been performed using (5, 8 and 12 M) NaOH solutions as activation media and different curing time (6-48 h) and temperature (40-80 degrees C) conditions. Synthesised geopolymers have been characterised with regard to their leaching behaviour, following the DIN 38414-S4 [DIN 38414-S4, Determination of leachability by water (S4), group S: sludge and sediments. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge. Institut für Normung, Berlin, 1984] and NEN 7375 [NEN 7375, Leaching characteristics of moulded or monolithic building and waste materials. Determination of leaching of inorganic components with the diffusion test. Netherlands Normalisation Institute, Delft, 2004] procedures, and to their structural stability by means of compressive strength measurements. In addition, geopolymer mineralogy, morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was found that synthesised geopolymer matrixes were only effective in the chemical immobilisation of a number of elements of environmental concern contained in fly ashes, reducing (especially for Ba), or maintaining their leachable contents after the geopolymerisation process, but not for those elements present as oxyanions. Physical entrapment does not seem either to contribute in an important way, in general, to the immobilisation of oxyanions. The structural stability of synthesised geopolymers was mainly dependent on the glass content of fly ashes, attaining at the optimal activation conditions (12 M NaOH, 48 h, 80

  5. Ultrasonic array imaging of multilayer structures using full matrix capture and extended phase shift migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiteng; Chen, Jian; Yang, Keji; Hu, Xuxiao

    2016-04-01

    Multilayer structures have been widely used in industrial fields, and non-destructive evaluation of these structures is of great importance to assure their quality and performance. Recently, ultrasonic array imaging using full matrix capture, e.g. the total focusing method (TFM), has been shown to increase sensitivity to small defects and improve imaging resolution in homogeneous media. However, it cannot be applied to multilayer structures directly, due to the sound velocity variation in different layers and because refraction occurs at layer interfaces, which gives rise to difficulties in determining the propagation path and time. To overcome these problems, an extended phase shift migration (EPSM) is proposed for the full matrix imaging of multilayer structures in this paper. Based on the theory of phase shift migration for monostatic pulse-echo imaging, full matrix imaging using EPSM is derived by extrapolating the wavefields in both transmission and reception, and extended to the multilayer case. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by full matrix imaging of a two-layer structure with side-drilled holes conducted both in the simulation and the experiment. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is capable of full matrix imaging of a layered structure with a high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. For comparison, full matrix imaging using the TFM with root-mean-squared velocity is also performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to the TFM in improving both the image quality and resolution.

  6. Wavelength dependent SHG imaging and scattering probes of extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Tilbury, Karissa B.; Campbell, Kirby R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Manish

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most deadly gynecological cancer with a poor aggregate survival rate. To improve upon this situation, we utilized collagen-specific Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy and optical scattering measurements to probe structural differences in the extracellular matrix of normal stroma, benign tumors, endometrioid tumors, and low and high-grade serous (LGS and HGS) tumors. The SHG signatures of the emission directionality and conversion efficiency as well as the optical scattering are related to the organization of collagen on the sub-micron size. The wavelength dependence of these readouts adds additional characterization of the size and distribution of collagen fibrils/fibers relative to the interrogating wavelengths. We found strong wavelength dependent dependencies of these metrics that were different between the different tumors that are related to respective structural attributes in the collagen organization. These sub-resolution determinations are consistent with the dualistic classification of type I and II serous tumors. However, type I endometrioid tumors have strongly differing ECM architecture than the serous malignancies. Moreover, our analyses are further consistent with LGS and benign tumors having similar etiology. We identified optimal wavelengths for the SHG metrics as well as optical scattering measurements. The SHG metrics and optical scattering measurements were then used to form a linear discriminant model to classify the tissues, and we obtained high accuracy ( 90%) between the tissue types. This delineation is superior to current clinical performance and has potential applicability in supplementing histological analysis, understanding the etiology, as well as development of an in vivo screening tool.

  7. Optimal pinning controllability of complex networks: dependence on network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Askari Sichani, Omid; Yu, Xinghuo

    2015-01-01

    Controlling networked structures has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we consider the problem of pinning control (pinning the dynamics into the reference state), and optimally placing the driver nodes, i.e., the nodes to which the control signal is fed. Considering the local controllability concept, a metric based on the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix is taken into account as a measure of controllability. We show that the proposed optimal placement strategy considerably outperforms heuristic methods including choosing hub nodes with high degree or betweenness centrality as drivers. We also study properties of optimal drivers in terms of various centrality measures including degree, betweenness, closeness, and clustering coefficient. The profile of these centrality values depends on the network structure. For homogeneous networks such as random small-world networks, the optimal driver nodes have almost the mean centrality value of the population (much lower than the centrality value of hub nodes), whereas the centrality value of optimal drivers in heterogeneous networks such as scale-free ones is much higher than the average and close to that of hub nodes. However, as the degree of heterogeneity decreases in such networks, the profile of centrality approaches the population mean.

  8. The mechanical behavior dependence on the TiB whisker realignment during hot-working in titanium matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengcang; Liu, Ping; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinkuan; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhang, Ke; Pan, Deng; Lu, Weijie

    2016-10-01

    Low-cost TiB whiskers reinforced titanium matrix composite (TMCs) was fabricated with enhanced mechanical performances using in situ technologies and hot working. Morphologies observation indicates that needle-like TiB whiskers with a hexagonal transverse section grow along the [010] direction due to B27 crystal structure and its growth mechanism. Mechanical properties tests show that the mechanical behavior of the TiB whiskers reinforced TMCs is dependent on the deformation amplitudes applied in hot-working. The improvement in yield strength by hot-working is attributed to the TiB whiskers realignment and the refinement of microstructure. Models are constructed to evaluate the realignment of TiB whisker during deformation and the increase in yield strength of the composite at elevated temperatures. These models clarify the alignment effect of TiB whiskers under various deformation amplitudes applied in hot-workings and reveals the yield strength dependence on TiB whiskers orientation.

  9. Anthocyanin kinetics are dependent on anthocyanin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Janet A; Clevidence, Beverly A; Kurilich, Anne C

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of anthocyanin metabolism was investigated in a human feeding trial. Volunteers (n 12) consumed purple carrots containing five anthocyanin forms: cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-coumuroyl-glucose-galactoside). The purple carrots were served as three different treatments in a crossover design with a 3-week washout between treatments. Purple carrot treatments were 250 g raw carrots, 250 g cooked carrots and 500 g cooked carrots. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for 8 and 24 h after the dose, respectively, and analysed for anthocyanins. Of the anthocyanin forms ingested, four were detected in plasma and urine: cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside). The time courses of plasma and urine anthocyanin contents were evaluated with compartmental modelling. Results showed that absorption, gastrointestinal transit and plasma elimination are dependent on anthocyanin structure. Absorption efficiencies of acylated compounds (cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside)) were less than those for non-acylated anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside)). The acylated anthocyanins exhibited a shorter half-life for gastrointestinal absorption than the non-acylated anthocyanins. Fractional elimination of non-acylated compounds was slower than that for acylated anthocyanins. These results provide the first information about the kinetics of individual anthocyanins in human beings.

  10. Integrated optomechanical structural optimization through coupling of sensitivity matrixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M.; Moschetti, M.

    2016-07-01

    The design of astronomical instrument is growing in dimension and complexity following ELT class telescopes. The availability of new structural material like composite ones is asking for more robust and reliable designing numerical tools. This paper wants to show a new opto-mechanical optimization approach developed starting from a previously developed integrated design framework. The Idea is to reduce number of iteration in a multi- variable structural optimization taking advantage of the embedded sensitivity routines that are available both in FEA software and in raytracing ones. This approach provide reduced iteration number mainly in case of high number of structural variable parameters.

  11. A density-dependent matrix model and its applications in optimizing harvest schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofan Shao; WANG Fei; DAI Limin; BAI Jianwei; LI Yingshan

    2006-01-01

    Based on temporal data collected from 36 re-measured plots, transition probabilities of trees from a diameter class to a higher class were analyzed for the broadleaved-Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains. It was found that the transition probabilities were related not only to diameter size but also to the total basal area of trees with the diameter class. This paper demonstrates the development of a density-dependent matrix model, DM2, and a series of simulations with it for forest stands with different conditions under different harvest schemes. After validations with independent field data, this model proved a suitable tool for optimization analysis of harvest schemes on computers. The optimum harvest scheme(s) can be determined by referring to stand growth, total timbers harvested, and size diversity changes over time. Three user-friendly interfaces were built with a forest management decision support system FORESTAR(R) for easy operations of DM2 by forest managers. This paper also summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of DM2.

  12. Density matrix based time-dependent configuration interaction approach to ultrafast spin-flip dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, H; Kühn, O

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in attosecond spectroscopy yield access to the correlated motion of electrons on their intrinsic time scales. Spin-flip dynamics is usually considered in the context of valence electronic states, where spin-orbit coupling is weak and processes related to the electron spin are usually driven by nuclear motion. However, for core-excited states, where the core hole has a nonzero angular momentum, spin-orbit coupling is strong enough to drive spin-flips on a much shorter time scale. Using density matrix based time-dependent restricted active space configuration interaction including spin-orbit coupling, we address an unprecedentedly short spin-crossover for the example of L-edge (2p$\\rightarrow$3d) excited states of a prototypical Fe(II) complex. This process occurs on a time scale, which is faster than that of Auger decay ($\\sim$4\\,fs) treated here explicitly. Modest variations of carrier frequency and pulse duration can lead to substantial changes in the spin-state yield, suggesting its cont...

  13. Extracellular Matrix-dependent Pathways in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveal Potential Targets for Anticancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Noreikiene, Rimante; Kuodyte, Karolina; Valius, Mindaugas; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells grown in a 3D culture are more resistant to anticancer therapy treatment compared to those in a monolayer 2D culture. Emerging evidence has suggested that the key reasons for increased cell survival could be gene expression changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-dependent manner. Global gene-expression changes were obtained in human colorectal carcinoma HT29 and DLD1 cell lines between 2D and laminin-rich (lr) ECM 3D growth conditions by gene-expression microarray analysis. The most significantly altered functional categories were revealed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The microarray data revealed that 841 and 1190 genes were differentially expressed in colorectal carcinoma DLD1 and HT29 cells. KEGG analysis indicated that the most significantly altered categories were cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase and immune response. Our results indicate altered pathways related to cancer development and progression and suggest potential ECM-regulated targets for the development of anticancer therapies. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Dependence structure of the Korean stock market in high frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kwak, Young Bin; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the dependence structure for various time window intervals, known as Epps effect, using the Trade and Quote data of 663 actively traded stocks in Korean stock market. It is found that the random matrix theory analysis could not represent the dependence structure of the stock market in the microstructure regime. The Cook-Johnson copula is introduced as a parsimonious alternative method to handle this problem, and the existence of the Epps effect is confirmed for the 663 stocks using high frequency data. It was also found that large capitalization companies tend to have a stronger dependence structure, except for the largest capitalization group, since the phenomenon of price level resistance leads to the weak dependence structure in the largest capitalization group. In addition, grouping the industry as a sub-portfolio is an appropriate approach for hour interval traders, whereas this approach is not a strategy recommended for high frequency traders.

  15. Study on voids of epoxy matrix composites sandwich structure parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Simin; Wen, Youyi; Yu, Wenjun; Liu, Hong; Yue, Cheng; Bao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Void is the most common tiny defect of composite materials. Porosity is closely related to composite structure property. The voids forming behaviour in the composites sandwich structural parts with the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins was researched by adjusting the manufacturing process parameters. The composites laminate with different porosities were prepared with the different process parameter. The ultrasonic non-destructive measurement method for the porosity was developed and verified through microscopic examination. The analysis results show that compaction pressure during the manufacturing process had influence on the porosity in the laminate area. Increasing the compaction pressure and compaction time will reduce the porosity of the laminates. The bond-line between honeycomb core and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins were also analyzed through microscopic examination. The mechanical properties of sandwich structure composites were studied. The optimization process parameters and porosity ultrasonic measurement method for composites sandwich structure have been applied to the production of the composite parts.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Matrix Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Bragg Grating had been identified as very important elements, especially for strain measurements in smart structures. In many applications, arrays of FBG...

  17. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  18. Collagen-binding VEGF mimetic peptide: Structure, matrix interaction, and endothelial cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tania R.

    Long term survival of artificial tissue constructs depends greatly on proper vascularization. In nature, differentiation of endothelial cells and formation of vasculature are directed by dynamic spatio-temporal cues in the extracellular matrix that are difficult to reproduce in vitro. In this dissertation, we present a novel bifunctional peptide that mimics matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can be used to encode spatially controlled angiogenic signals in collagen-based scaffolds. The peptide, QKCMP, contains a collagen mimetic domain (CMP) that binds to type I collagen by a unique triple helix hybridization mechanism and a VEGF mimetic domain (QK) with pro-angiogenic activity. We demonstrate QKCMP's ability to hybridize with native and heat denatured collagens through a series of binding studies on collagen and gelatin substrates. Circular dichroism experiments show that the peptide retains the triple helical structure vital for collagen binding, and surface plasmon resonance study confirms the molecular interaction between the peptide and collagen strands. Cell culture studies demonstrate QKCMP's ability to induce endothelial cell morphogenesis and network formation as a matrix-bound factor in 2D and 3D collagen scaffolds. We also show that the peptide can be used to spatially modify collagen-based substrates to promote localized endothelial cell activation and network formation. To probe the biological events that govern these angiogenic cellular responses, we investigated the cell signaling pathways activated by collagen-bound QKCMP and determined short and long-term endothelial cell response profiles for p38, ERK1/2, and Akt signal transduction cascades. Finally, we present our efforts to translate the peptide's in vitro bioactivity to an in vivo burn injury animal model. When implanted at the wound site, QKCMP functionalized biodegradable hydrogels induce enhanced neovascularization in the granulation tissue. The results show QKCMP

  19. Ultrastructural studies on the origin and structure of matrix vesicles in bone of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Atkin, I; Levy, J

    1980-01-01

    Tibiae of young rats were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to study the origin and structure of matrix vesicles in periosteal bone. SEM studies have shown that periosteal osteoblasts have elongated processes with globular structures of 0.1 micron in diameter attached to the cell surface and processes. Similar structures were found to cover the inner surface of osteoblastic lacunae. The SEM studies have further shown that in the periosteal surface (forming bone) the above-described globules once mineralized, aggregated to form larger, nonhomogeneous mineralized spherules in which, by proper treatment with NaOCl, hydroxyapatite crystals could be exposed. Endosteal osteoblasts had fewer processes, devoid of the globular structures. Similarly, osteocytic and osteoclastic processes, although elongated and numberous, were not covered by the globular structures. In the matrix, collagen fibers of forming bone were randomly orientated, while in the deeper areas of bone they formed bundles with a longitudinal orientation. TEM studies have shown that the structures found on the osteoblastic surface and in the matrix are membrane-bound matrix vesicles which seem to be formed by budding from cell processes. Preformed membrane-bound vesicles were also observed by TEM inside sections of osteoblastic processes. These vesicles resembled the extracellular matrix vesicles in size and shape, thus giving the impression that at least some of the matrix vesicles are preformed cellular structures. While comparing SEM with TEM, it can be conducted that in bone, as in cartilage, matrix vesicles which probably serve as the initial locus of calcification, are formed directly by osteoblasts.

  20. Development of a Subcell Based Modeling Approach for Modeling the Architecturally Dependent Impact Response of Triaxially Braided Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorini, Chris; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the high velocity impact response of polymer matrix composites with complex architectures is critical to many aerospace applications, including engine fan blade containment systems where the structure must be able to completely contain fan blades in the event of a blade-out. Despite the benefits offered by these materials, the complex nature of textile composites presents a significant challenge for the prediction of deformation and damage under both quasi-static and impact loading conditions. The relatively large mesoscale repeating unit cell (in comparison to the size of structural components) causes the material to behave like a structure rather than a homogeneous material. Impact experiments conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center have shown the damage patterns to be a function of the underlying material architecture. Traditional computational techniques that involve modeling these materials using smeared homogeneous, orthotropic material properties at the macroscale result in simulated damage patterns that are a function of the structural geometry, but not the material architecture. In order to preserve heterogeneity at the highest length scale in a robust yet computationally efficient manner, and capture the architecturally dependent damage patterns, a previously-developed subcell modeling approach where the braided composite unit cell is approximated as a series of four adjacent laminated composites is utilized. This work discusses the implementation of the subcell methodology into the commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.). Verification and validation studies are also presented, including simulation of the tensile response of straight-sided and notched quasi-static coupons composed of a T700/PR520 triaxially braided [0deg/60deg/-60deg] composite. Based on the results of the verification and validation studies, advantages and limitations of the methodology as well as plans for future work

  1. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles – which are common in natural environments – wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21855.001 PMID:28084994

  2. Transparent boundary conditions for time-dependent electron transport in the R-matrix method with applications to nanostructured interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemnes, G. A.; Palici, Alexandra; Manolescu, A.

    2016-11-01

    Transparent boundary conditions for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented using the R-matrix method. The employed scattering formalism is suitable for describing open quantum systems and provides the framework for the time-dependent coherent transport. Transmission and reflection of wave functions at the edges of a finite quantum system are essential for an accurate and efficient description of the time-dependent processes on large time scales. We detail the computational method and point out the numerical advantages stemming from the open system approach based on the R-matrix formalism. The approach is used here to describe time-dependent transport across nanostructured interfaces relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  3. Rich structure in the correlation matrix spectra in non-equilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soham; Leyvraz, Francois; Monroy Castillero, Paulino; Seligman, Thomas H

    2017-01-17

    It has been shown that, if a model displays long-range (power-law) spatial correlations, its equal-time correlation matrix will also have a power law tail in the distribution of its high-lying eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to show that the converse is generally incorrect: a power-law tail in the high-lying eigenvalues of the correlation matrix may exist even in the absence of equal-time power law correlations in the initial model. We may therefore view the study of the eigenvalue distribution of the correlation matrix as a more powerful tool than the study of spatial Correlations, one which may in fact uncover structure, that would otherwise not be apparent. Specifically, we show that in the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, whereas there are no clearly visible correlations in the steady state, the eigenvalues of its correlation matrix exhibit a rich structure which we describe in detail.

  4. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  5. Multiwalled carbon nanotube-reinforced ceramic matrix composites as a promising structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estili, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdiestili@gmail.co [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kwon, Hansang; Kawasaki, Akira; Cho, Seungchan; Takagi, Kenta; Kikuchi, Keiko [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawai, Masayoshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    In this paper, we introduce fully dense, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramic matrix composites recently processed by a novel powder technology in our laboratory to be considered as a promising potential structural materials for employment in severe working conditions. A strategy is also offered to investigate the effect of working condition on the mechanical properties of MWCNTs embedded in the ceramic matrix for a reliable material selection for the working conditions needed.

  6. r-Matrix Structure for a Restricted Flow with Bargmann Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the integrability of a finite-dimensional Hamiltonian system linked with the generalized coupled KdV hierarchy. For this purpose the associated Lax representation is presented after an elementary calculation. It is shown that the Lax representation enjoys a dynamical r-matrix formula instead of a classical one in the Poisson bracket on R2N. Consequently the resulting system is proved to be completely integrable in view of its r-matrix structure.

  7. Structural and functional features of a collagen-binding matrix protein from the mussel byssus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Michael H; Gertz, Melanie; Steegborn, Clemens; Scheibel, Thomas

    2014-02-26

    Blue mussels adhere to surfaces by the byssus, a holdfast structure composed of individual threads representing a collagen fibre reinforced composite. Here, we present the crystal structure and function of one of its matrix proteins, the proximal thread matrix protein 1, which is present in the proximal section of the byssus. The structure reveals two von Willebrand factor type A domains linked by a two-β-stranded linker yielding a novel structural arrangement. In vitro, the protein binds heterologous collagens with high affinity and affects collagen assembly, morphology and arrangement of its fibrils. By providing charged surface clusters as well as insufficiently coordinated metal ions, the proximal thread matrix protein 1 might interconnect other byssal proteins and thereby contribute to the integrity of the byssal threads in vivo. Moreover, the protein could be used for adjusting the mechanical properties of collagen materials, a function likely important in the natural byssus.

  8. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  9. Some Lower Valence Vanadium Fluorides: Their Crystal Distortions, Domain Structures, Modulated Structures, Ferrimagnetism, and Composition Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y. S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes some contemporary concepts unique to the structure of advanced solids, i.e., their crystal distortions, domain structures, modulated structures, ferrimagnetism, and composition dependence. (Author/CS)

  10. Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanowires Matrix from Ab Initio Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Boyko, Yaroslav V; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Potashnyk, Vasylyna Ya

    2016-12-01

    An investigation of the model of porous silicon in the form of periodic set of silicon nanowires has been carried out. The electronic energy structure was studied using a first-principle band method-the method of pseudopotentials (ultrasoft potentials in the basis of plane waves) and linearized mode of the method of combined pseudopotentials. Due to the use of hybrid exchange-correlation potentials (B3LYP), the quantitative agreement of the calculated value of band gap in the bulk material with experimental data is achieved. The obtained results show that passivation of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms leads to substantial transformation of electronic energy structure. At complete passivation of the dangling silicon bonds by hydrogen atoms, the band gap value takes the magnitude which substantially exceeds that for bulk silicon. The incomplete passivation gives rise to opposite effect when the band gap value decreases down the semimetallic range.

  11. Optimal control of large space structures via generalized inverse matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Fang, Xiaowen

    1987-01-01

    Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) is a control scheme that decouples the space structure into n independent second-order subsystems according to n controlled modes and controls each mode independently. It is well-known that the IMSC eliminates control and observation spillover caused when the conventional coupled modal control scheme is employed. The independent control of each mode requires that the number of actuators be equal to the number of modelled modes, which is very high for a faithful modeling of large space structures. A control scheme is proposed that allows one to use a reduced number of actuators to control all modeled modes suboptimally. In particular, the method of generalized inverse matrices is employed to implement the actuators such that the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as closed as possible to those specified by the optimal IMSC. Computer simulation of the proposed control scheme on a simply supported beam is given.

  12. Freeform fabrication of polymer-matrix composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, S.G.; Spletzer, B.L.; Guess, T.L.

    1997-05-01

    The authors have developed, prototyped, and demonstrated the feasibility of a novel robotic technique for rapid fabrication of composite structures. Its chief innovation is that, unlike all other available fabrication methods, it does not require a mold. Instead, the structure is built patch by patch, using a rapidly reconfigurable forming surface, and a robot to position the evolving part. Both of these components are programmable, so only the control software needs to be changed to produce a new shape. Hence it should be possible to automatically program the system to produce a shape directly from an electronic model of it. It is therefore likely that the method will enable faster and less expensive fabrication of composites.

  13. Micromechanism Based Modeling of Structural Life in Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    subsequent radial cracking. The work performed under this grant also included a program to experimentally characterize the morphology of Ti02 , one of...experimentally characterize the morphology of Ti02 , one of the primary stoichiometric oxides formed during oxidation of titanium, in order to develop more...accurate oxide layer growth models. An part of dm iffuu, Lhi growtn ana structure uf(thj— Ti02 mrirlr Inyrr, mnnnlilliii, rinmpli i i dlM! lllllilj

  14. Temperature Dependence of Electrical Resistance of Woven Melt-Infiltrated SiCf/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have successfully shown the use of electrical resistance (ER)measurements to monitor room temperature damage accumulation in SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiCf/SiC) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). In order to determine the feasibility of resistance monitoring at elevated temperatures, the present work investigates the temperature dependent electrical response of various MI (Melt Infiltrated)-CVI (Chemical Vapor Infiltrated) SiC/SiC composites containing Hi-Nicalon Type S, Tyranno ZMI and SA reinforcing fibers. Test were conducted using a commercially available isothermal testing apparatus as well as a novel, laser-based heating approach developed to more accurately simulate thermomechanical testing of CMCs. Secondly, a post-test inspection technique is demonstrated to show the effect of high-temperature exposure on electrical properties. Analysis was performed to determine the respective contribution of the fiber and matrix to the overall composite conductivity at elevated temperatures. It was concluded that because the silicon-rich matrix material dominates the electrical response at high temperature, ER monitoring would continue to be a feasible method for monitoring stress dependent matrix cracking of melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites under high temperature mechanical testing conditions. Finally, the effect of thermal gradients generated during localized heating of tensile coupons on overall electrical response of the composite is determined.

  15. Vitamin K-Dependent Carboxylation of Matrix Gla Protein Influences the Risk of Calciphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Bloch, Donald B; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Vermeer, Cees; Booth, Sarah L; Xu, Dihua; Thadhani, Ravi I; Malhotra, Rajeev

    2017-06-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. The ability of MGP to inhibit calcification requires the activity of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme, which mediates MGP carboxylation. We investigated how MGP carboxylation influences the risk of calciphylaxis in adult patients receiving dialysis and examined the effects of vitamin K deficiency on MGP carboxylation. Our study included 20 patients receiving hemodialysis with calciphylaxis (cases) and 20 patients receiving hemodialysis without calciphylaxis (controls) matched for age, sex, race, and warfarin use. Cases had higher plasma levels of uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and carboxylated MGP (cMGP) than controls. However, the fraction of total MGP that was carboxylated (relative cMGP concentration = cMGP/[cMGP + uncarboxylated MGP]) was lower in cases than in controls (0.58±0.02 versus 0.69±0.03, respectively; P=0.003). In patients not taking warfarin, cases had a similarly lower relative cMGP concentration. Each 0.1 unit reduction in relative cMGP concentration associated with a more than two-fold increase in calciphylaxis risk. Vitamin K deficiency associated with lower relative cMGP concentration in multivariable adjusted analyses (β=-8.99; P=0.04). In conclusion, vitamin K deficiency-mediated reduction in relative cMGP concentration may have a role in the pathogenesis of calciphylaxis. Whether vitamin K supplementation can prevent and/or treat calciphylaxis requires further study. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Active matrix metalloproteinase-8 and periodontal bacteria depending on periodontal status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, A; Jäger, J; Krohn-Grimberghe, B; Patschan, S; Kottmann, T; Schmalz, G; Mausberg, R F; Haak, R; Ziebolz, D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this clinical cross-sectional study was to determine the level of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) and periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with varying periodontal conditions. In total, 103 patients with RA and 104 healthy controls (HC) were included. The assessment of periodontal status included periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss. Periodontal disease was classified as healthy/mild, moderate or severe. For the determination of aMMP-8 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and periodontal pathogenic bacteria using polymerase chain reaction, samples of gingival crevicular fluid were taken from the deepest gingival pockets. The statistical analyses used included a Mann-Whitney U-test, a chi-squared test or a Fisher's exact test, and the significance level was set at α = 5%. We found that 65% of patients with RA and 79% of HC had moderate to severe periodontal disease (p = 0.02). The prevalence of periodontal pathogens was almost equal (p > 0.05). Furthermore, depending on periodontal disease severity only minor differences in bacterial prevalence were detected. With increasing severity of periodontal disease, higher aMMP-8 levels were observed. Accordingly, a significant difference in patients with moderate periodontal disease (RA: 15.3 ± 13.8; HC: 9.1 ± 9.1; p ≤ 0.01) and severe periodontal disease (RA: 21.7 ± 13.3; HC: 13.1 ± 8.6; p = 0.07) was detected, with a greater tendency in the latter group. The increased aMMP-8 levels in the RA group indicate that the presence of RA appears to have an influence on the host response at a comparable level of bacterial load and periodontal disease severity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Energy-dependent correlations in the S-matrix of chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    The M-dimensional unitary matrix S(E), which describes scattering of waves, is a strongly fluctuating function of the energy for complex systems such as ballistic cavities, whose geometry induces chaotic ray dynamics. Its statistical behaviour can be expressed by means of correlation functions of the kind , which have been much studied within the random matrix approach. In this work, we consider correlations involving an arbitrary number of matrix elements and express them as infinite series in 1/M, whose coefficients are rational functions of ɛ. From a mathematical point of view, this may be seen as a generalization of the Weingarten functions of circular ensembles.

  18. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncé, S., E-mail: samuel.pon@gmail.com; Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, bte L07.03.01, B-1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Marini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Salaria Km 29.3, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Verstraete, M. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Physique des matériaux et nanostructures, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  19. Structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharide matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Koo, H

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans during the biofilm development process. Biofilms of Strep. mutans were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) discs in the presence of glucose or sucrose (alone or mixed with starch). At specific time points, biofilms were subjected to confocal fluorescence imaging and computational analysis. EPS matrix was steadily formed on sHA surface in the presence of sucrose during the first 8 h followed by a threefold biomass increase between 8 and 30 h of biofilm development. The initial formation and further development of three-dimensional microcolony structure occurred concomitantly with EPS matrix synthesis. Tridimensional renderings showed EPS closely associated with microcolonies throughout the biofilm development process forming four distinct domains (i) between sHA surface and microcolonies, (ii) within, (iii) covering and (iv) filling the spaces between microcolonies. The combination of starch and sucrose resulted in rapid formation of elevated amounts of EPS matrix and faster assembly of microcolonies by Strep. mutans, which altered their structural organization and susceptibility of the biofilm to acid killing (vs sucrose-grown biofilms; P matrix and microcolonies provide a more precise examination of the structural organization of biofilms than labelling bacteria alone, which could be a useful approach to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which Strep. mutans influences oral biofilm formation and possibly identify novel targets for effective antibiofilm therapies.

  20. Multi-shot multi-channel diffusion data recovery using structured low-rank matrix completion

    CERN Document Server

    Mani, Merry; Kelley, Douglas; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a novel method for the recovery of multi-shot diffusion weighted (MS-DW) images from echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions. Methods: Current EPI-based MS-DW reconstruction methods rely on the explicit estimation of the motion- induced phase maps to recover the unaliased images. In the new formulation, the k-space data of the unaliased DWI is recovered using a structured low-rank matrix completion scheme, which does not require explicit estimation of the phase maps. The structured matrix is obtained as the lifting of the multi-shot data. The smooth phase-modulations between shots manifest as null-space vectors of this matrix, which implies that the structured matrix is low-rank. The missing entries of the structured matrix are filled in using a nuclear-norm minimization algorithm subject to the data-consistency. The formulation enables the natural introduction of smoothness regularization, thus enabling implicit motion-compensated recovery of fully-sampled as well as under-sampled MS-DW ...

  1. Followee Recommendation in Microblog Using Matrix Factorization Model with Structural Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microblog that provides us a new communication and information sharing platform has been growing exponentially since it emerged just a few years ago. To microblog users, recommending followees who can serve as high quality information sources is a competitive service. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a matrix factorization model with structural regularization to improve the accuracy of followee recommendation in microblog. More specifically, we adapt the matrix factorization model in traditional item recommender systems to followee recommendation in microblog and use structural regularization to exploit structure information of social network to constrain matrix factorization model. The experimental analysis on a real-world dataset shows that our proposed model is promising.

  2. Extracellular matrix-dependent differentiation of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Squiban, A; Boisvieux-Ulrich, E; Guilianelli, C; Houcine, O; Geraud, G; Guennou, C; Marano, F

    1994-01-01

    The differentiation of tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture was investigated according to the nature of the extracellular matrix used. Cultures obtained by the explant technique were realized on a type I collagen substratum either as a thin, dried coating or as a thick, hydrated gel supplemented with culture medium and serum. These two types of substratum induced distinct cell morphology and cytokeratin expression in the explant derived cells. Where cells are less proliferating (from Day 7 to 10 of culture), differentiation was evaluated by morphologic ultrastructural observations, immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratins, and determination of cytokeratin pattern by biochemical analysis. The epithelium obtained on gel was multilayered, with small, round basal cells under large, flattened upper cells. The determination of the keratin pattern expressed by cells grown on gel revealed an expression of keratin 13, already considered as a specific marker of squamous metaplasia, that diminished with retinoic acid treatment. Present results demonstrated by confocal microscopy that K13-positive cells were large upper cells with a dense keratin network, whereas lower cells were positively stained with a specific monoclonal antibody to basal cells (KB37). Moreover, keratin neosynthesis analysis pointed out a higher expression of K6, a marker of hyperproliferation, on gel than on coating. All these data suggest a differentiation of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells grown on gel toward squamous metaplasia. By contrast, the epithelium observed on coating is nearly a monolayer of very large and spread out cells. No K13-positive cells were observed, but an increase in the synthesis of simple epithelium marker (K18) was detected. These two substrata, similar in composition and different in structure, induce separate differentiation and appear as good tools to explore the mechanisms of differentiation of epithelial tracheal cells.

  3. {\\it Ab initio} nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem

    CERN Document Server

    Vary, James P; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Sosonkina, Masha

    2009-01-01

    The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several {\\it ab initio} methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The {\\it ab initio} no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds $10^{10}$ and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving t...

  4. A New Derivation of the Time-Dependent Schr\\"odinger Equation from Wave and Matrix Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for deriving the time dependent Schroedinger equation from the pictures of wave and matrix mechanics. The derivation is of a mixed classical quantum character, since time is treated as a classical variable, thus avoiding any controversy over its meaning in quantum mechanics. The derivation method proposed in this paper requires no ad hoc assumption and avoids going through a second-order differential equation that can be reduced to the well known time-dependent Schroedinger equation only postulating a complex wavefunction with an exponential time dependence, as did by Schroedinger in its original paper of 1926.

  5. Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2013-11-01

    Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment.

  6. Structural Response Analysis under Dependent Variables Based on Probability Boxes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiao, Z; Yang, G

    2015-01-01

      This paper considers structural response analysis when structural uncertainty parameters distribution cannot be specified precisely due to lack of information and there are complex dependencies in the variables...

  7. Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Harkins, Catriona; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are communities of microbial cells that underpin diverse processes including sewage bioremediation, plant growth promotion, chronic infections and industrial biofouling. The cells resident in the biofilm are encased within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that commonly comprises lipids, proteins that frequently exhibit amyloid-like properties, eDNA and exopolysaccharides. This matrix fulfils a variety of functions for the community, from providing structural rigidity and protection from the external environment to controlling gene regulation and nutrient adsorption. Critical to the development of novel strategies to control biofilm infections, or the capability to capitalize on the power of biofilm formation for industrial and biotechnological uses, is an in-depth knowledge of the biofilm matrix. This is with respect to the structure of the individual components, the nature of the interactions between the molecules and the three-dimensional spatial organization. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of the structural and functional role that carbohydrates and proteins play within the biofilm matrix to provide three-dimensional architectural integrity and functionality to the biofilm community. We highlight, where relevant, experimental techniques that are allowing the boundaries of our understanding of the biofilm matrix to be extended using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis as exemplars. © FEMS 2015.

  8. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages.

  9. Modularising design processes of façades in Denmark: re-exploring the use of design structure matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Pörzgen, Jesse; Bull, Sebbe Sidenius

    2017-01-01

    with a cross-functional design team. The findings were that (1) the application of a modularity perspective in design has the advantage of accelerating the execution process, as the workload and coordination are transferred to the design process, which, in turn, requires enhanced design management. (2......) The design structure matrix (DSM), an approach for operationalising modularity theory, is a promising tool for planning and scheduling complex design processes. The DSM method successfully enabled the identification of dependencies and interfaces between the crucial cross-organisational design activities...

  10. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, G E; Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2000-01-01

    in the AMBER 4.1 force field, applying a non-bonded approach and a full ion charge representation. Energy minimization of the apoenzymes yielded structures with distorted active sites, while reliable three-dimensional structures of the enzymes containing a substrate in active site were obtained. The structural...... differences between the eight enzyme-substrate complexes were studied with particular emphasis on the active site, and possible sites for obtaining selectivity among the MMP's are discussed. Differences in the P1' pocket are well-documented and have been extensively exploited in inhibitor design. The present......Matrix metalloproteinases are extracellular enzymes taking part in the remodeling of extracellular matrix. The structures of the catalytic domain of MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and MMP8 are known, but structures of enzymes belonging to this family still remain to be determined. A general approach...

  11. Structural diversity of a collagen-binding matrix protein from the byssus of blue mussels upon refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Michael H; Scheibel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Blue mussels firmly adhere to a variety of different substrates by the byssus, an extracorporal structure consisting of several protein threads. These threads are mainly composed of fibrillar collagens called preCols which are embedded in a proteinaceous matrix. One of the two so far identified matrix proteins is the Proximal Thread Matrix Protein 1 (PTMP1). PTMP1 comprises two von Willebrand factor type A-like domains (A1 and A2) in a special arrangement. Here, we describe the refolding of recombinant PTMP1 from inclusion bodies. PTMP1 refolded into two distinct monomeric isoforms. Both isomers exhibited alternative intramolecular disulfide bonds. One of these isomers is thermodynamically favored and presumably represents the native form of PTMP1, while the other isoform is kinetically favored but is likely non-native. Oligomerization during refolding was influenced by, but not strictly dependent on disulfide formation. The conformational stability of PTMP1 indicates an influence of intramolecular disulfides on the native state, but not on unfolding intermediates. Monomeric PTMP1 exhibited a high thermal stability, dependent on the pH of the surrounding environment. Especially under acidic conditions the disulfide bonds were critically involved in thermal stability.

  12. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Torarinsson, Elfar; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving...... and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool...

  13. Harmonic generation by noble-gas atoms in the near-IR regime using ab initio time-dependent R -matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, O.; Brown, A. C.; van der Hart, H. W.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate the capability of ab initio time-dependent R -matrix theory to obtain accurate harmonic generation spectra of noble-gas atoms at near-IR wavelengths between 1200 and 1800 nm and peak intensities up to 1.8 × 10 14 W /cm 2. To accommodate the excursion length of the ejected electron, we use an angular-momentum expansion up to Lmax=279 . The harmonic spectra show evidence of atomic structure through the presence of a Cooper minimum in harmonic generation for Kr, and of multielectron interaction through the giant resonance for Xe. The theoretical spectra agree well with those obtained experimentally.

  14. Harmonic generation of noble-gas atoms in the Near-IR regime using ab-initio time-dependent R-matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hassouneh, O; van der Hart, H W

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the capability of ab-initio time-dependent R-matrix theory to obtain accurate harmonic generation spectra of noble-gas atoms at Near-IR wavelengths between 1200 and 1800 nm and peak intensities up to 1.8 X 10(14) W/cm(2) . To accommodate the excursion length of the ejected electron, we use an angular-momentum expansion up to Lmax = 279. The harmonic spectra show evidence of atomic structure through the presence of a Cooper minimum in harmonic generation for Kr, and of multielectron interaction through the giant resonance for Xe. The theoretical spectra agree well with those obtained experimentally.

  15. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances.

  16. Oppor tunistic maintenance for multi-component systems considering structural dependence and economic dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbao Geng; Michael Azarian; Michael Pecht

    2015-01-01

    Although opportunistic maintenance strategies are widely used for multi-component systems, al opportunistic mainte-nance strategies only consider economic dependence and do not take structural dependence into account. An opportunistic main-tenance strategy is presented for a multi-component system that considers both structural dependence and economic dependence. The cost relation and time relation among components based on structural dependence are developed. The maintenance strategy for each component of a multi-component system involves one of five maintenance actions, namely, no-maintenance, a minimal maintenance action, an imperfect maintenance action, a perfect maintenance action, and a replacement action. The maintenance action is determined by the virtual age of the component, the life expectancy of the component, and the age threshold values. Monte Carlo simulation is designed to obtain the optimal oppor-tunistic maintenance strategy of the system over its lifetime. The simulation result reveals that the minimum maintenance cost with a strategy that considers structural dependence is less than that with a strategy that does not consider structural dependence. The availability with a strategy that considers structural dependence is greater than that with a strategy that does not consider structural dependence under the same conditions.

  17. Random Time Dependent Resistance Analysis on Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chang-sheng; WU Ling

    2002-01-01

    The analysis method on random time dependence of reinforced concrete material is introduced,the effect mechanism on reinforced concrete are discussed, and the random time dependence resistance of reinforced concrete is studied. Furthermore, the corrosion of steel bar in reinforced concrete structures is analyzed. A practical statistical method of evaluating the random time dependent resistance, which includes material, structural size and calculation influence, is also established. In addition, an example of predicting random time dependent resistance of reinforced concrete structural element is given.

  18. Modelling the Dependence Structure of MUR/USD and MUR/INR Exchange Rates using Copula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Jowaheer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available American Dollar (USD and Indian Rupee (INR play an important role in Mauritian economy. It is important to model the pattern of dependence in their co-movement with respect to Mauritian Rupee (MUR, as this may indicate the export-import behavior in Mauritius. However, it is known that distributions of exchange rates are usually non-normal and the use of linear correlation as a dependence measure is inappropriate. Moreover it is quite difficult to obtain the joint distribution of such random variables in order to specify the complete covariance matrix to measure their dependence structure. In this paper, we first identify the marginal distributions of the exchange rates of MUR against USD and INR and then select the best fitting copula model for the bivariate series. It is concluded that both the series are asymmetric and fat-tailed following hyperbolic distribution. Their dependence structure is appropriately modeled by t copula.

  19. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the matri

  20. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the matri

  1. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging...

  2. Influence of matrix structure on the fatigue properties of an alloyed ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toktas, Guelcan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey)], E-mail: gzeytin@balikesir.edu.tr; Toktas, Alaaddin; Tayanc, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    Rotary bending fatigue tests were conducted on ductile iron containing 1.25 wt% nickel, 1.03 wt% copper and 0.18 wt% molybdenum with various matrix structures. Several heat treatments were applied to obtain ferritic, pearlitic/ferritic, pearlitic, tempered martensitic, lower and upper ausferritic structures in the matrix of a pearlitic as-cast alloyed ductile iron. The tensile properties (ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% yield strength and percent elongation), the hardness and the microstructures of the matrixes were also investigated in addition to fatigue properties. Fractured surfaces of the fatigue specimens were examined by the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the lowest hardness, tensile and fatigue properties were obtained for the ferritic structure and the values of these properties seemed to increase with rising pearlite content in the matrix. While the lower ausferritic structure had the highest fatigue strength, the upper ausferritic one showed low fatigue and tensile properties due to the formation of the second reaction during the austempering process.

  3. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2003-01-01

    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  4. A regularized matrix factorization approach to induce structured sparse-low-rank solutions in the EEG inverse problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya-Martinez, Jair; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Pontil, Massimiliano;

    2014-01-01

    We consider the estimation of the Brain Electrical Sources (BES) matrix from noisy electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements, commonly named as the EEG inverse problem. We propose a new method to induce neurophysiological meaningful solutions, which takes into account the smoothness, structured...... sparsity, and low rank of the BES matrix. The method is based on the factorization of the BES matrix as a product of a sparse coding matrix and a dense latent source matrix. The structured sparse-low-rank structure is enforced by minimizing a regularized functional that includes the ℓ21-norm of the coding...... matrix and the squared Frobenius norm of the latent source matrix. We develop an alternating optimization algorithm to solve the resulting nonsmooth-nonconvex minimization problem. We analyze the convergence of the optimization procedure, and we compare, under different synthetic scenarios...

  5. The extracellular matrix: Structure, composition, age-related differences, tools for analysis and applications for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kular, Jaspreet K; Basu, Shouvik; Sharma, Ram I

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a structural support network made up of diverse proteins, sugars and other components. It influences a wide number of cellular processes including migration, wound healing and differentiation, all of which is of particular interest to researchers in the field of tissue engineering. Understanding the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix will aid in exploring the ways the extracellular matrix can be utilised in tissue engineering applications especially as a scaffold. This review summarises the current knowledge of the composition, structure and functions of the extracellular matrix and introduces the effect of ageing on extracellular matrix remodelling and its contribution to cellular functions. Additionally, the current analytical technologies to study the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-related cellular processes are also reviewed.

  6. The Effectiveness of Matrix Model in Relapse Prevention and Coping Skills Enhancement in Participants with Substance Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Matrix model in relapse prevention and enhancement of coping skills in participants with opiate substance dependency. Method: In a semi-experimental study, 23 participants with diagnosis of opiate dependency who successfully detoxified, selected by cluster random sampling and they were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 32 sessions of Matrix model training and the control group did not receive any treatment. All subjects were assessed by alcohol abuse coping response inventory (AACRI and Morphine test before treatment, randomly during treatment, after treatment, and after 3-months follow up stage. Results: The results showed that experimental and control groups had a significant differed in relapse rates. In addition, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA showed a significant difference between two groups in coping skills enhancement at periods of post test and follow up. Conclusion: With consideration of the results of the present study indicated that matrix model is effective in relapse prevention and coping skills enhancement in people with opiate substance dependency.

  7. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory applied to laser-driven, correlated two-electron dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.

  8. Sound power radiation from a vibrating structure in terms of structure-dependent radiation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lin; Bolton, J. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    As a good supplement of conventional acoustic radiation modes (a-modes), a set of so-called "structure-dependent radiation modes" (s-modes) is introduced to describe the sound power radiation from a vibrating structure. Differing from a-modes, s-modes are determined by not only the acoustic resistance matrix of the structure but also the frequency-independent normal modes of the structure. Such a new definition has the following main advantages over the conventional one: (1) it can reflect directly the influences of dynamic properties (e.g., boundary conditions) of the structures on its sound power radiation; (2) the number of s-modes generated is generally less than that of a-modes since the former depends on the number of structural modes involved in the vibration while the latter depends on the number of segmented elemental radiators of the structure, and consequently, the demand for large data storage can be greatly alleviated, especially for large structures and/or higher frequency vibrations; (3) the set of s-modes possesses a better convergence than that of a-modes because the higher ordered s-modes can decay more rapidly than the same ordered a-modes. Two baffled, finite, models, i.e., a simple beam and a thin plate, are employed to investigate numerically the acoustic properties of s-modes, and then compared with those of a-modes. It has been shown that the two sets of radiation modes share a very similar frequency-dependent behavior in that the radiation efficiency falls off very rapidly with increasing mode order at low frequency range (typically with kl<1). Meanwhile, the number of s-modes required to describe the total sound power radiation is found to be the same as that of a-modes. Consequently, an appropriate truncation of a-modes can be achieved by using the number of vibrational modes involved. Nevertheless, the odd-ordered (even-ordered) s-modes are found only associated with the odd-numbered (even-ordered) structural modes. In case of only few

  9. Computing the Density Matrix in Electronic Structure Theory on Graphics Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Sanville, E J; Mniszewski, S M; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2012-11-13

    The self-consistent solution of a Schrödinger-like equation for the density matrix is a critical and computationally demanding step in quantum-based models of interatomic bonding. This step was tackled historically via the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. We have investigated the performance and accuracy of the second-order spectral projection (SP2) algorithm for the computation of the density matrix via a recursive expansion of the Fermi operator in a series of generalized matrix-matrix multiplications. We demonstrate that owing to its simplicity, the SP2 algorithm [Niklasson, A. M. N. Phys. Rev. B2002, 66, 155115] is exceptionally well suited to implementation on graphics processing units (GPUs). The performance in double and single precision arithmetic of a hybrid GPU/central processing unit (CPU) and full GPU implementation of the SP2 algorithm exceed those of a CPU-only implementation of the SP2 algorithm and traditional matrix diagonalization when the dimensions of the matrices exceed about 2000 × 2000. Padding schemes for arrays allocated in the GPU memory that optimize the performance of the CUBLAS implementations of the level 3 BLAS DGEMM and SGEMM subroutines for generalized matrix-matrix multiplications are described in detail. The analysis of the relative performance of the hybrid CPU/GPU and full GPU implementations indicate that the transfer of arrays between the GPU and CPU constitutes only a small fraction of the total computation time. The errors measured in the self-consistent density matrices computed using the SP2 algorithm are generally smaller than those measured in matrices computed via diagonalization. Furthermore, the errors in the density matrices computed using the SP2 algorithm do not exhibit any dependence of system size, whereas the errors increase linearly with the number of orbitals when diagonalization is employed.

  10. Conformation of repaglinide: A solvent dependent structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashmniam, Saeed; Tafazzoli, Mohsen

    2017-09-01

    Experimental and theoretical conformational study of repaglinide in chloroform and dimethyl sulfoxide was investigated. By applying potential energy scanning (PES) at B3LYP/6-311++g** and B3LYP-D3/6-311++g** level of theory on rotatable single bonds, four stable conformers (R1-R4) were identified. Spin-spin coupling constant values were obtained from a set of 2D NMR spectra (Hsbnd H COSY, Hsbnd C HMQC and Hsbnd C HMBC) and compared to its calculated values. Interestingly, from 1HNMR and 2D-NOESY NMR, it has been found that repaglinide structure is folded in CDCl3 and cause all single bonds to rotate at an extremely slow rate. On the other hand, in DMSO-d6, with strong solvent-solute intermolecular interactions, the single bonds rotate freely. Also, energy barrier and thermodynamic parameters for chair to chair interconversion was measured (13.04 kcal mol-1) in CDCl3 solvent by using temperature dynamic NMR.

  11. The matrix representation for the mathematic structure of Shannon's information measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yan-hua

    2007-01-01

    Shannon's information measure is a crucial concept in Information Theory. And the research, for the mathematics structure of Shannon's information measure, is to recognize the essence of information measure.The linear relation between Shannon's information measures and some signed measure space by using the formal symbols substitution rule is discussed. Furthermore, the coefficient matrix recurrent formula of the linear relation is obtained. Then the coefficient matrix is proved to be invertible via mathematical induction. This shows that the linear relation is one-to-one, and according to this, it can be concluded that a compact space can be generated from Shannon's information measures.

  12. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E{sub 6} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftci, R., E-mail: rciftci@cern.ch [Ankara (Turkey); Çiftci, A. K., E-mail: abbas.kenan.ciftci@cern.ch [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E{sub 6} Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  13. A Novel Validity Index for Evaluating the Item Ordering Structure Based on Q-matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chuan Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Before then, no validity index can be used for evaluating the item ordering structure for cognition diagnosis. In this study, based on the Q-matrix theory, an ideal item ordering structure without slip and guess for an efficient test is proposed by using the set containing relation operation. It can be viewed as a criterion of the item ordering structure for a given test. Furthermore, a novel criterion-related validity index for evaluating the item ordering structure of any item ordering algorithm is proposed, it is more useful for cognition diagnosis.

  14. R-Matrix Analysis of Structures in Economic Indices: from Nuclear Reactions to High-Frequency Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firk, Frank W. K.

    2014-03-01

    It is shown that the R-matrix theory of nuclear reactions is a viable mathematical theory for the description of the fine, intermediate and gross structure observed in the time-dependence of economic indices in general, and the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average in particular. A Lorentzian approximation to R-matrix theory is used to analyze the complex structures observed in the Dow Jones Industrial Average on a typical trading day. Resonant structures in excited nuclei are characterized by the values of their fundamental strength function, (average total width of the states)/(average spacing between adjacent states). Here, values of the ratios (average lifetime of individual states of a given component of the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average)/(average interval between the adjacent states) are determined. The ratios for the observed fine and intermediate structure of the index are found to be essentially constant throughout the trading day. These quantitative findings are characteristic of the highly statistical nature of many-body, strongly interacting systems, typified by daily trading. It is therefore proposed that the values of these ratios, determined in the first hour-or-so of trading, be used to provide valuable information concerning the likely performance of the fine and intermediate components of the index for the remainder of the trading day.

  15. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  16. Efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model on restraining methamphetamine-dependence: Biological evidence and self-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is accompanied by a wide range of psychological, social, and economic adverse outcomes and damages. Methamphetamine (abuse is dangerous because of its wide range adverse outcomes and hazardous sustaining side effects. Moreover, Methamphetamine-dependence is usually treatment-resistant. This study evaluated the Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in treatment of outpatient ethamphetamine-dependent individuals. Method: 24 individuals were chosen according to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study and randomly assigned to equal experimental (age range 19-41; mean age: 46.9 and control groups (age range: 21-42; mean age: 27.8. Experimental group members partook Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model once a week in 12 consecutive weeks, while control group members remained at waitlist. Results:Independent t-test in 12th week showed that experimental group had lower methamphetamine use, comparing to control group (p<.05.Phillai’s Trace, Wilk’sLambda,Hotelling-Lawley's trace, and Roy's largest root showed that there are significant association between experimental and control groups in reduction of methamphetamine-use lapse (p<.05.Within-subject F ratio revealed that “methamphetamine use” was significantly reduced in experimental group after clinical intervention (p<.001. Urine test showed significant difference in results of negative responses by the end of intervention (p<.05 in experimental group, compared to control group, which was also significant from the results of both groups in pre-test (p<.001. Discussion and conclusion: Efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in craving control and reduction of lapse and substance (abuse in methamphetamine-dependent patients was approved with self-reports and biological indicators. Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model has been proved to be beneficial in methamphetaminedependencetreatment in Iran and other alike cultural and social atmospheres. Limitations and future

  17. Time dependent integration of matrix metalloproteinases and their targeted substrates directs axonal sprouting and synaptogenesis following central nervous system injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda L. Phillips; Julie L. Chan; Adele E. Doperalski; Thomas M. Reeves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many investigators have reported how extracellular matrix molecules act to regulate neuroplasticity. The majority of these studies involve proteins which are targets of matrix metalloproteinases. Importantly, these enzyme/substrate interactions can regulate degenerative and regenerative phases of synaptic plasticity, directing axonal and dendritic re-organization after brain insult. The present review ifrst summarizes literature support for the prominent role of matrix metalloproteinases during neuroregeneration, followed by a discussion of data contrasting adaptive and maladaptive neuroplasticity that reveals time-dependent metal-loproteinase/substrate regulation of postinjury synaptic recovery. The potential for these enzymes to serve as therapeutic targets for enhanced neuroplasticity after brain injury is illustrated with experiments demonstrating that metalloproteinase inhibitors can alter adaptive and maladaptive outcome. Finally, the complexity of metalloproteinase role in reactive synaptogenesis is revealed in new studies showing how these enzymes interact with immune molecules to mediate cellu-lar response in the local regenerative environment, and are regulated by novel binding partners in the brain extracellular matrix. Together, these different examples show the complexity with which metalloproteinases are integrated into the process of neuroregeneration, and point to a promising new angle for future studies exploring how to facilitate brain plasticity.

  18. The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Ba nuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2014-12-15

    We present our recent results for the tensor network (TN) approach to lattice gauge theories. TN methods provide an efficient approximation for quantum many-body states. We employ TN for one dimensional systems, Matrix Product States, to investigate the 1-flavour Schwinger model. In this study, we compute the chiral condensate at finite temperature. From the continuum extrapolation, we obtain the chiral condensate in the high temperature region consistent with the analytical calculation by Sachs and Wipf.

  19. The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product States

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Hana; Cichy, Krzysztof; Cirac, J Ignacio; Jansen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    We present our recent results for the tensor network (TN) approach to lattice gauge theories. TN methods provide an efficient approximation for quantum many-body states. We employ TN for one dimensional systems, Matrix Product States, to investigate the 1-flavour Schwinger model. In this study, we compute the chiral condensate at finite temperature. From the continuum extrapolation, we obtain the chiral condensate in the high temperature region consistent with the analytical calculation by Sachs and Wipf.

  20. Precise integration method without inverse matrix calculation for structural dynamic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mengfu; F. T. K. Au

    2007-01-01

    The precise integration method proposed for linear time-invariant homogeneous dynamic systems can provide accurate numerical results that approach an exact solution at integration points. However, difficulties arise when the algorithm is used for non-homogeneous dynamic systems due to the inverse matrix calculation required. In this paper, the structural dynamic equalibrium equations are converted into a special form, the inverse matrix calculation is replaced by the Crout decomposition method to solve the dynamic equilibrium equations, and the precise integration method without the inverse matrix calculation is obtained. The new algorithm enhances the present precise integration method by improving both the computational accuracy and efficiency. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre reinforced, epoxy-matrix hybrid composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandra Shekar; M Sai Priya; P K Subramanian; Anil Kumar; B Anjaneya Prasad; N Eswara Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Advanced materials such as continuous fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer significant enhancements in variety of properties, as compared to their bulk, monolithic counterparts. These properties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However, till date, there are hardly any scientific studies reported on carbon fibre (Cf) and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hybrid epoxy matrix composites (unidirectional). The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength properties along with a detailed investigation in the synthesis of reinforced hybrid composite. In this present study, the importance of alignment of fibre is comprehensively evaluated and reported. The results obtained are discussed in terms of material characteristics, microstructure and mode of failure under flexural (3-point bend) loading. The study reveals the material exhibiting exceptionally high strength values and declaring itself as a material with high strength to weight ratio when compared to other competing polymer matrix composites (PMCs); as a novel structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications.

  2. Graphene nanoplatelets induced heterogeneous bimodal structural magnesium matrix composites with enhanced mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shulin; Wang, Xiaojun; Gupta, Manoj; Wu, Kun; Hu, Xiaoshi; Zheng, Mingyi

    2016-12-12

    In this work, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) reinforced magnesium (Mg) matrix composites were synthesised using the multi-step dispersion route. Well-dispersed but inhomogeneously distributed GNPs were obtained in the matrix. Compared with the monolithic alloy, the nanocomposites exhibited dramatically enhanced Young's modulus, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength and relatively high plasticity, which mainly attributed to the significant heterogeneous laminated microstructure induced by the addition of GNPs. With increasing of the concentration of GNPs, mechanical properties of the composites were gradually improved. Especially, the strengthening efficiency of all the composites exceeded 100%, which was significantly higher than that of carbon nanotubes reinforced Mg matrix composites. The grain refinement and load transfer provided by the two-dimensional and wrinkled surface structure of GNPs were the dominated strengthening mechanisms of the composites. This investigation develops a new method for incorporating GNPs in metals for fabricating high-performance composites.

  3. Robustly Stable Signal Recovery in Compressed Sensing with Structured Matrix Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The sparse signal recovery in standard compressed sensing (CS) requires that the sensing matrix be known a priori. The CS problem subject to perturbation in the sensing matrix is often encountered in practice and results in the literature have shown that the signal recovery error grows linearly with the perturbation level. This paper assumes a structure for the perturbation. Under mild conditions on the perturbed sensing matrix, it is shown that a sparse signal can be recovered by $\\ell_1$ minimization with the recovery error being at most proportional to the measurement noise level, similar to that in the standard CS. The recovery is exact in the special noise free case provided that the signal is sufficiently sparse with respect to the perturbation level. A similar result holds for compressible signals under an additional assumption of small perturbation. Algorithms are proposed for implementing the $\\ell_1$ minimization problem and numerical simulations are carried out that verify our analysis.

  4. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.

  5. STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION OF NEW FORMATIONS IN CEMENT MATRIX USING CARBON NANOTUBE DISPERSIONS AND NANOSILICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex nanodispersed systems with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodispersed silica have a significant impact on the processes of hydration, hardening and strength gain of construction composites predetermining their durability. While using a scanning electron microscope with an attachment for X-ray microanalysis and a device for infrared spectral analysis investigations have shown that the main effect of the cement matrix modification in the case of adding complex nanodispersed systems is provided by direct influence of hydration processes with subsequent crystallization of new formations. It has been noted that while adding carbon nanotube dispersion and nanosized silica a binding matrix is structured in the form of an extremely dense shell from crystalline hydrate new formations on the surface of solid phases that provides strong binding matrix in cement concrete. The addition effect of carbon nanotubes has been analyzed and quantitatively assessed through an investigation for every case of one sample with nanotubes and one sample without them with the help of a nanoindenter and scanning electron microscope. It is necessary to solve rather complicated challenging task in order to assess quantitatively the addition effect of CNT on material characteristics at a micromechanical level. At the same time it is possible to investigate surface of a concrete sample with one-micron resolution. In this case it is necessary to prepare samples for nanoindentation with exclusion of all CNT defectable effects that have been shown by a SEM. So in this case more adequate method for assessment must be a picoindenter , which combines a test method for nanoindentation with an optical SEM potential. Such equipment is in the stage of in-situ testing process at the Vienna University of Technology. The investigation is based on the fact that the main modification effect of mineral binding matrix while using incorporated complex nanodispersed systems and

  6. Experimental Verification of Coupled Stiffness Matrix in Multilayer Composite Structure with Complex Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun Hwan; Kim, Jae Hoon

    The paper presents an experimental verification for calculating coupled stiffness matrix in complex curvature composite structure. The results of the analytical procedure using Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional Analysis also indicate that the calculation of 2-D, beam, cross-sectional properties can then be incorporated into and 1-D beam analysis expressed coupled stiffness matrix. This paper presents the 2-D cross-sectional analysis of active anisotropic beams. Comparison between the analytical and experimental results shows that the proposed analytical procedure can provide an accurate and efficient prediction of the both deflection and flexural stiffness of multilayer composite slender structure. Verified comparison results can be used to efficiently design accurate complex slender structure properties for preliminary design and optimization.

  7. Nanoscale Structural Plasticity of the Active Zone Matrix Modulates Presynaptic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Oleg O; Jackson, Rachel E; Winterflood, Christian M; Owen, Dylan M; Barker, Ellen A; Doherty, Patrick; Ewers, Helge; Burrone, Juan

    2017-03-14

    The active zone (AZ) matrix of presynaptic terminals coordinates the recruitment of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and synaptic vesicles to orchestrate neurotransmitter release. However, the spatial organization of the AZ and how it controls vesicle fusion remain poorly understood. Here, we employ super-resolution microscopy and ratiometric imaging to visualize the AZ structure on the nanoscale, revealing segregation between the AZ matrix, VGCCs, and putative release sites. Long-term blockade of neuronal activity leads to reversible AZ matrix unclustering and presynaptic actin depolymerization, allowing for enrichment of AZ machinery. Conversely, patterned optogenetic stimulation of postsynaptic neurons retrogradely enhanced AZ clustering. In individual synapses, AZ clustering was inversely correlated with local VGCC recruitment and vesicle cycling. Acute actin depolymerization led to rapid (5 min) nanoscale AZ matrix unclustering. We propose a model whereby neuronal activity modulates presynaptic function in a homeostatic manner by altering the clustering state of the AZ matrix. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Thomas L

    2015-12-21

    The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

  9. Implementation of Improved Transverse Shear Calculations and Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Analyses of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin-Fa; Kim, Soo; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear and strain rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composite laminated plates under high strain rate impact loadings. A recently developed strength of materials based micromechanics model, incorporating a set of nonlinear, strain rate dependent constitutive equations for the polymer matrix, is extended to account for the transverse shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of transverse shear deformation are investigated in order to improve the developed strain rate dependent micromechanics model. The validities of these assumptions are investigated using numerical and theoretical approaches. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio of the composite is developed. The revised micromechanics model is then implemented into a higher order laminated plate theory which is modified to include the effects of inelastic strains. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the mechanical response of composite plates under high strain rate loadings. Results show the transverse shear stresses cannot be neglected in the impact problem. A significant level of strain rate dependency and material nonlinearity is found in the deformation response of representative composite specimens.

  10. A low-complexity adaptive beamformer for ultrasound imaging using structured covariance matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Babak Mohammadzadeh; Mahloojifar, Ali

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, adaptive beamforming methods have been successfully applied to medical ultrasound imaging, resulting in simultaneous improvement in imaging resolution and contrast. These improvements have been achieved at the expense of higher computational complexity, with respect to the conventional non-adaptive delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer, in which computational complexity is proportional to the number of elements, O(M). The computational overhead results from the covariance matrix inversion needed for computation of the adaptive weights, the complexity of which is cubic with the subarray size, O(L(3)). This is a computationally intensive procedure, which makes the implementation of adaptive beamformers less attractive in spite of their advantages. Considering that, in medical ultrasound applications, most of the energy is scattered from angles close to the steering angle, assuming spatial stationarity is a good approximation, allowing us to assume the Toeplitz structure for the estimated covariance matrix. Based on this idea, in this paper, we have applied the Toeplitz structure to the spatially smoothed covariance matrix by averaging the entries along all subdiagonals. Because the inverse of the resulting Toeplitz covariance matrix can be computed in O(L(2)) operations, this technique results in a greatly reduced computational complexity. By using simulated and experimental RF data-point targets as well as cyst phantoms-we show that the proposed low-complexity adaptive beamformer significantly outperforms the DAS and its performance is comparable to that of the minimum variance beamformer, with reduced computational complexity.

  11. On the role of hydrogel structure and degradation in controlling the transport of cell-secreted matrix molecules for engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Valentin; Skaalure, Stacey; Akalp, Umut; Roberts, Justine; Bryant, Stephanie J; Vernerey, Franck J

    2013-03-01

    Damage to cartilage caused by injury or disease can lead to pain and loss of mobility, diminishing one's quality of life. Because cartilage has a limited capacity for self-repair, tissue engineering strategies, such as cells encapsulated in synthetic hydrogels, are being investigated as a means to restore the damaged cartilage. However, strategies to date are suboptimal in part because designing degradable hydrogels is complicated by structural and temporal complexities of the gel and evolving tissue along multiple length scales. To address this problem, this study proposes a multi-scale mechanical model using a triphasic formulation (solid, fluid, unbound matrix molecules) based on a single chondrocyte releasing extracellular matrix molecules within a degrading hydrogel. This model describes the key players (cells, proteoglycans, collagen) of the biological system within the hydrogel encompassing different length scales. Two mechanisms are included: temporal changes of bulk properties due to hydrogel degradation, and matrix transport. Numerical results demonstrate that the temporal change of bulk properties is a decisive factor in the diffusion of unbound matrix molecules through the hydrogel. Transport of matrix molecules in the hydrogel contributes both to the development of the pericellular matrix and the extracellular matrix and is dependent on the relative size of matrix molecules and the hydrogel mesh. The numerical results also demonstrate that osmotic pressure, which leads to changes in mesh size, is a key parameter for achieving a larger diffusivity for matrix molecules in the hydrogel. The numerical model is confirmed with experimental results of matrix synthesis by chondrocytes in biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels. This model may ultimately be used to predict key hydrogel design parameters towards achieving optimal cartilage growth.

  12. Copula-based measures of dependence structure in assets returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Viviana

    2008-06-01

    Copula modeling has become an increasingly popular tool in finance to model assets returns dependency. In essence, copulas enable us to extract the dependence structure from the joint distribution function of a set of random variables and, at the same time, to isolate such dependence structure from the univariate marginal behavior. In this study, based on US stock data, we illustrate how tail-dependency tests may be misleading as a tool to select a copula that closely mimics the dependency structure of the data. This problem becomes more severe when the data is scaled by conditional volatility and/or filtered out for serial correlation. The discussion is complemented, under more general settings, with Monte Carlo simulations and portfolio management implications.

  13. A spectral method to detect community structure based on distance modularity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-08-01

    There are many community organizations in social and biological networks. How to identify these community structure in complex networks has become a hot issue. In this paper, an algorithm to detect community structure of networks is proposed by using spectra of distance modularity matrix. The proposed algorithm focuses on the distance of vertices within communities, rather than the most weakly connected vertex pairs or number of edges between communities. The experimental results show that our method achieves better effectiveness to identify community structure for a variety of real-world networks and computer generated networks with a little more time-consumption.

  14. Metallic nanostructures in a polymer matrix and substrate fabrication and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Siddhartha; Holm, Arliena; Ostroverkhova, Oksana; Atre, Sundar [Oregon State University, Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Metal nanostructures are of considerable interest in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials and could have a wider impact if they are successfully embedded in a stable, inert and flexible polymer matrix. Fabrication of such structures is challenging for a variety of reasons including thermal stability, material compatibility with processing steps and general handling of material. In this work we have demonstrated the fabrication of metal nanostructures and embedded them in a polymer. Furthermore, these structures were fabricated on a flexible polymer membrane and detached from a carrier substrate. Characterization of these structures was performed with SEM, TEM and EDS. (orig.)

  15. Structure-performance maps of polymeric, metal, and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tsu-Wei; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents the results of extensive analytical studies of the thermo-elastic properties of unidirectional laminated composites, as well as two-dimensional and three-dimensional textile structural composites with polymeric, metal, and ceramic matrices. Some comparisons of the theoretical predictions with experimental data have been made. By the construction of the structure-performance maps, the effective composite properties based upon various reinforcement forms and fiber and matrix combinations can be easily assessed. The uniqueness of various textile structural reinforcements also has been demonstrated. These comprehensive performance maps can provide the data base necessary for material selections and guidance for future investigations of advanced composites.

  16. PKCδ localization at the membrane increases matrix traction force dependent on PLCγ1/EGFR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Jamison

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During wound healing, fibroblasts initially migrate into the wound bed and later contract the matrix. Relevant mediators of transcellular contractility revealed by systems analyses are protein kinase c delta/myosin light chain-2 (PKCδ/MLC-2. PKCδ is activated by growth factor-driven PLCγ1 hydrolysis of phosphoinositide bisphosphate (PIP2 hydrolysis when it becomes tranlocated to the membrane. This leads to MLC-2 phosphorylation that regulates myosin for contractility. Furthermore, PKCδ n-terminus mediates PKCδ localization to the membrane in relative proximity to PLCγ1 activity. However, the role this localization and the relationship to its activation and signaling of force is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated whether the membrane localization of PKCδ mediates the transcellular contractility of fibroblasts. METHODS: To determine PKCδ activation in targeted membrane locations in mouse fibroblast cells (NR6-WT, two PKCδ constructs were generated; PKCδ-CaaX with farnesylation moiety targeting PKCδ to the membrane and PKCδ-SaaX a non-targeting control. RESULTS: Increased mean cell force was observed before and during EGF stimulation in fibroblasts expressing membrane-targeted PKCδ (PKCδ-CaaX when analyzed with 2D cell traction force and 3D compaction of collagen matrix. This effect was reduced in cells deficient in EGFR/PLCy1 signaling. In cells expressing non-membrane targeted PKCδ (PKCδ-SaaX, the cell force exerted outside the ECM (extracellular matrix was less, but cell motility/speed/persistence was increased after EGF stimulation. Change in cell motility and increased force exertion was also preceded by change in cell morphology. Organization of actin stress fibers was also decreased as a result of increasing membrane targeting of PKCδ. CONCLUSION: From these results membrane tethering of PKCδ leads to increased force exertion on ECM. Furthermore, our data show PLCγ1 regulation of PKCδ, at least

  17. PKCδ localization at the membrane increases matrix traction force dependent on PLCγ1/EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Joshua; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Wang, James C-H; Wells, Alan

    2013-01-01

    During wound healing, fibroblasts initially migrate into the wound bed and later contract the matrix. Relevant mediators of transcellular contractility revealed by systems analyses are protein kinase c delta/myosin light chain-2 (PKCδ/MLC-2). PKCδ is activated by growth factor-driven PLCγ1 hydrolysis of phosphoinositide bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis when it becomes tranlocated to the membrane. This leads to MLC-2 phosphorylation that regulates myosin for contractility. Furthermore, PKCδ n-terminus mediates PKCδ localization to the membrane in relative proximity to PLCγ1 activity. However, the role this localization and the relationship to its activation and signaling of force is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated whether the membrane localization of PKCδ mediates the transcellular contractility of fibroblasts. To determine PKCδ activation in targeted membrane locations in mouse fibroblast cells (NR6-WT), two PKCδ constructs were generated; PKCδ-CaaX with farnesylation moiety targeting PKCδ to the membrane and PKCδ-SaaX a non-targeting control. Increased mean cell force was observed before and during EGF stimulation in fibroblasts expressing membrane-targeted PKCδ (PKCδ-CaaX) when analyzed with 2D cell traction force and 3D compaction of collagen matrix. This effect was reduced in cells deficient in EGFR/PLCy1 signaling. In cells expressing non-membrane targeted PKCδ (PKCδ-SaaX), the cell force exerted outside the ECM (extracellular matrix) was less, but cell motility/speed/persistence was increased after EGF stimulation. Change in cell motility and increased force exertion was also preceded by change in cell morphology. Organization of actin stress fibers was also decreased as a result of increasing membrane targeting of PKCδ. From these results membrane tethering of PKCδ leads to increased force exertion on ECM. Furthermore, our data show PLCγ1 regulation of PKCδ, at least in part, drives transcellular contractility in fibroblasts.

  18. The dimer interface of the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase hemopexin domain: crystal structure and biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochowicz, Anna; Goettig, Peter; Evans, Richard; Visse, Robert; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Palmisano, Ralf; Ito, Noriko; Richter, Klaus; Maskos, Klaus; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; Nagase, Hideaki; Bode, Wolfram; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2011-03-04

    Homodimerization is an essential step for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to activate proMMP-2 and to degrade collagen on the cell surface. To uncover the molecular basis of the hemopexin (Hpx) domain-driven dimerization of MT1-MMP, a crystal structure of the Hpx domain was solved at 1.7 Å resolution. Two interactions were identified as potential biological dimer interfaces in the crystal structure, and mutagenesis studies revealed that the biological dimer possesses a symmetrical interaction where blades II and III of molecule A interact with blades III and II of molecule B. The mutations of amino acids involved in the interaction weakened the dimer interaction of Hpx domains in solution, and incorporation of these mutations into the full-length enzyme significantly inhibited dimer-dependent functions on the cell surface, including proMMP-2 activation, collagen degradation, and invasion into the three-dimensional collagen matrix, whereas dimer-independent functions, including gelatin film degradation and two-dimensional cell migration, were not affected. These results shed light on the structural basis of MT1-MMP dimerization that is crucial to promote cellular invasion.

  19. Matrix dependent changes in metachromasy of crystal violet in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shil, Ashis; Saha, Mitu; Debnath, Chandan; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2016-11-01

    This communication reports the effect of building matrices and nano clay platelets on the aggregation pattern of a water soluble cationic fluorescent dye Crystal Violet (CV) in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) Films. When stearic acid (SA) was used as a building matrix, pressure induced changes in metachromasy was observed in the SA-CV complex LB films with a characteristic J-band formed at the longer wavelength side. On the other hand, clay incorporated hybrid LB films showed high degree of control over H-dimeric band. Isotherm characteristics, Brewster Angle Microscopic (BAM) images, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence characteristic studies were employed to investigate this result.

  20. Fibronectin alters the rate of formation and structure of the fibrin matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Anand; Karuri, Nancy

    2014-01-10

    Plasma fibronectin is a vital component of the fibrin clot; however its role on clot structure is not clearly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of fibronectin on the kinetics of formation, structural characteristics and composition of reconstituted fibrin clots or fibrin matrices. Fibrin matrices were formed by adding thrombin to 1, 2 or 4 mg/ml fibrinogen supplemented with 0-0.4 mg/ml fibronectin. The rate of fibrin matrix formation was then monitored by measuring light absorbance properties at different time points. Confocal microscopy of fluorescein conjugated fibrinogen was used to visualize the structural characteristics of fibrin matrices. The amount of fibronectin in fibrin matrices was determined through electrophoresis and immunoblotting of solubilized matrices. Fibronectin concentration positively correlated with the initial rate of fibrin matrix formation and with steady state light absorbance values of fibrin matrices. An increase in fibronectin concentration resulted in thinner and denser fibers in the fibrin matrices. Electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that fibronectin was covalently and non-covalently bound to fibrin matrices and in the form of high molecular weight multimers. The formation of fibronectin multimers was attributed to cross-linking of fibronectin by trace amounts Factor XIIIa. These findings are novel because they link results from light absorbance studies to microcopy analyses and demonstrate an influence of fibronectin on fibrin matrix structural characteristics. This data is important in developing therapies that destabilize fibrin clots.

  1. Time-dependent bladder tissue regeneration using bilayer bladder acellular matrix graft-silk fibroin scaffolds in a rat bladder augmentation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; He, Yi; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, Jian-hua; Wu, Jia-sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhou, Juan; Xiao, Dong-dong; Wang, Zhong; Sun, Kang; Zhu, Ying-jian; Lu, Mu-jun

    2015-09-01

    With advances in tissue engineering, various synthetic and natural biomaterials have been widely used in tissue regeneration of the urinary bladder in rat models. However, reconstructive procedures remain insufficient due to the lack of appropriate scaffolding, which should provide a waterproof barrier function and support the needs of various cell types. To address these problems, we have developed a bilayer scaffold comprising a porous network (silk fibroin [SF]) and an underlying natural acellular matrix (bladder acellular matrix graft [BAMG]) and evaluated its feasibility and potential for bladder regeneration in a rat bladder augmentation model. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining) and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold promoted smooth muscle, blood vessel, and nerve regeneration in a time-dependent manner. At 12weeks after implantation, bladders reconstructed with the BAMG-SF matrix displayed superior structural and functional properties without significant local tissue responses or systemic toxicity. These results demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold may be a promising scaffold with good biocompatibility for bladder regeneration in the rat bladder augmentation model.

  2. Matrix-Geometric Method for Queueing Model with State-Dependent Arrival of an Unreliable Server and PH Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ReniSagaya Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a state-dependent queueing system in which the system is subject to random breakdowns. Customer arrive at the system randomly following a Poisson process with state-dependent rates. Service times follows PH distribution and repair times are exponentially distributed. The server may fail to service with probability depending on the number of customer completed since the last repair. The main result of this paper is the matrix-geometric solution of the steady-state queue length from which many performance measurements of this queueing system like the stationary queue length distribution, waiting time distribution and the distribution of regular busy period, system utilization are obtained. Numerical examples are presented for both cases.

  3. Temperature dependence of the magnetization of canted spin structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Lefmann, Kim; Brok, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies of the low-temperature saturation magnetization of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles and diamagnetically substituted ferrites have shown an anomalous temperature dependence. It has been suggested that this is related to freezing of canted magnetic structures. We present models for the ......Numerous studies of the low-temperature saturation magnetization of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles and diamagnetically substituted ferrites have shown an anomalous temperature dependence. It has been suggested that this is related to freezing of canted magnetic structures. We present models...

  4. Modeling the Dependency Structure of Integrated Intensity Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ki Ma

    Full Text Available This paper studies an important issue of dependence structure. To model this structure, the intensities within the Cox processes are driven by dependent shot noise processes, where jumps occur simultaneously and their sizes are correlated. The joint survival probability of the integrated intensities is explicitly obtained from the copula with exponential marginal distributions. Subsequently, this result can provide a very useful guide for credit risk management.

  5. Matrix factorization to time-frequency distribution for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Huang, Shieh-Kung

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring enables structural information to be acquired through sensing technology, and is of need to early detect problems and damages in structures. Health monitoring strategies are often realized through a combination of qualitative sensing systems and high-performance structural integrity assessment methods. Structural deviations can be then effectively identified by interpreting the raw sensor measurements using signal processing techniques. The objective of this study is to develop a new structural health monitoring method that applies a matrix factorization algorithm to a time-frequency representation of multi-channel signals measured from a structure. This method processes vibrational input and/or output responses of structures to improve raw data quality, to estimate structural responses, to derive signal features, and to detect structural variations. For example, the proposed method can reduce the signal noise by utilizing first few principle vectors to reconstruct the measured signals. For frequency-domain responses, this method can smooth the phase to obtain a better input-output relationship of a structure. Additionally, the method removes abnormal signals in time series, allowing better understanding of structural behavior. Due to communication loss, this method is able to recover lost data from other channel measurements in a structure. Moreover, the proposed method transforms the signal components into a specific domain and then yield meaningful characteristics. All these features are numerically verified using experimental data, and the proposed method permits more detailed investigation of structural behavior.

  6. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg

    2016-10-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are still considered as gold standard for investigation of in vitro metabolism and hepatotoxicity in pharmaceutical research. It has been shown that the three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of PHH in a sandwich configuration between two layers of extracellular matrix (ECM) enables the hepatocytes to adhere three dimensionally leading to formation of in vivo like cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different ECM compositions on morphology, cellular arrangement and bile canaliculi formation as well as bile excretion processes in PHH sandwich cultures systematically. Freshly isolated PHH were cultured for 6 days between two ECM layers made of collagen and/or Matrigel in four different combinations. The cultures were investigated by phase contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis with respect to cell-cell connections, repolarization as well as bile canaliculi formation. The influence of the ECM composition on cell activity and viability was measured using the XTT assay and a fluorescent dead or alive assay. Finally, the bile canalicular transport was analyzed by live cell imaging to monitor the secretion and accumulation of the fluorescent substance CDF in bile canaliculi. Using collagen and Matrigel in different compositions in sandwich cultures of hepatocytes, we observed differences in morphology, cellular arrangement and cell activity of PHH in dependence of the ECM composition. Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes with an underlay of collagen seem to represent the best in vivo tissue architecture in terms of formation of trabecular cell arrangement. Cultures overlaid with collagen were characterized by the formation of abundant bile canaliculi, while the bile canaliculi network in hepatocytes cultured on a layer of Matrigel and overlaid with collagen showed the most branched and stable canalicular network. All cultures showed a time-dependent leakage of

  7. Domain structure and function of matrix metalloprotease 23 (MMP23): role in potassium channel trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Charles A; Nguyen, Hai M; George Chandy, K; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S

    2014-04-01

    MMP23 is a member of the matrix metalloprotease family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions. Its catalytic domain displays a high degree of structural homology with those of other metalloproteases, but its atypical domain architecture suggests that it may possess unique functional properties. The N-terminal MMP23 pro-domain contains a type-II transmembrane domain that anchors the protein to the plasma membrane and lacks the cysteine-switch motif that is required to maintain other MMPs in a latent state during passage to the cell surface. Instead of the C-terminal hemopexin domain common to other MMPs, MMP23 contains a small toxin-like domain (TxD) and an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) domain. The MMP23 pro-domain can trap Kv1.3 but not closely-related Kv1.2 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, preventing their passage to the cell surface, while the TxD can bind to the channel pore and block the passage of potassium ions. The MMP23 C-terminal IgCAM domain displays some similarity to Ig-like C2-type domains found in IgCAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which are known to mediate protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. MMP23 and Kv1.3 are co-expressed in a variety of tissues and together are implicated in diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of this unique member of the MMP family.

  8. Structure and function of the interphotoreceptor matrix surrounding retinal photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Sawada, Yu; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    The interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) is a highly organized structure with interconnected domains surrounding cone and rod photoreceptor cells and extends throughout the subretinal space. Based on known roles of the extracellular matrix in other tissues, the IPM is thought to have several prominent functions including serving as a receptor for growth factors, regulating retinoid transport, participating in cytoskeletal organization in surrounding cells, and regulation of oxygen and nutrient transport. In addition, a number of studies suggest that the IPM also may play a significant role in the etiology of retinal degenerative disorders. In this review, we describe the present knowledge concerning the structure and function of the IPM under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation and vibrational structure of Si nano-clusters in ZnO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serrano, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pal, U. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Koshizaki, N.; Sasaki, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    We have studied the formation and vibrational structure of Si nano-clusters in ZnO matrix prepared by radio-frequency (r.f.) co-sputtering, and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy techniques. The composite films of Si/ZnO were grown o quartz substrates by co-sputtering of Si and ZnO targets. TEM images show a homogeneous distribution of clusters in the matrix with average size varied from 3.7 nm to 34 nm depending on the temperature of annealing. IR absorption measurements revealed the bands correspond to the modes of vibrations of Si{sub 3} in its triangular geometrical structure. By analysing the IR absorption and XPS spectra we found that the nano-clusters consist of a Si{sub 3} core and a SiO{sub x} cap layer. With the increase of annealing temperature, the vibrational states of Si changed from the triplet {sup 3}B1(C2{sub v}) and {sup 3}A'{sub 2}(D{sub 3h}) states to its singlet ground state {sup 1}A{sub 1}(C2{sub v}) and the oxidation state of Si in SiO{sub x} increased. The evolution of the local atomic structure of the Si nano-clusters with the variation of Si content in the film and with the variation of the temperature of annealing are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia la formacion y estructura vibracional de nano-cumulos de Si en matriz de ZnO preparados por la tecnica de radio-frecuencia (r.f.) co-sputtering, y caracterizados por Microscopia Electronica de Transmision (TEM), Espectroscopia Fotoelectronica de rayos X (XPS) y Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (IR). Las peliculas compositas de Si/ZnO fueron crecidas sobre sustratos de cuarzo mediante el co-sputtering de blancos de Si y ZnO. Las imagenes de TEM mostraron una distribucion homogenea de cumulos en la matriz con un tamano promedio de 3.7 nm a 34 nm dependiendo de la temperatura de tratamiento. Las mediciones de IR relevaron las bandas correspondientes a los modos de vibracion de Si{sub 3} en su estructura

  10. Generic uniqueness of a structured matrix factorization and applications in blind source separation

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Algebraic geometry, although little explored in signal processing, provides tools that are very convenient for investigating generic properties in a wide range of applications. Generic properties are properties that hold "almost everywhere". We present a set of conditions that are sufficient for demonstrating the generic uniqueness of a certain structured matrix factorization. This set of conditions may be used as a checklist for generic uniqueness in different settings. We discuss two partic...

  11. A matrix structured LED backlight system with 2D-DHT local dimming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Yang; Du, Sidan

    To reduce the number of the drivers in the conventional local dimming method for LCDs, a novel LED backlight local dimming system is proposed in this paper. The backlight of this system is generated by 2D discrete Hadamard transform and its matrix structured LED modules. Compared with the conventional 2D local dimming method, the proposed method costs much fewer drivers but with little degradation.

  12. Incommensurate structures studied by a modified Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    A modified density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method is introduced and applied to classical two-dimensional models: the anisotropic triangular nearest- neighbor Ising (ATNNI) model and the anisotropic triangular next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. Phase diagrams of both models have complex structures and exhibit incommensurate phases. It was found that the incommensurate phase completely separates the disordered phase from one of the commensurate phases, i. e. the non-existenc...

  13. Study on band gap structure of Fibonacci quantum superlattices by using the transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, V.; Castro-Palacio, J. C.; Marí, B.; Monsoriu, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    The scattering properties of particles in a one-dimensional Fibonacci sequence based potential have been analyzed by means of the Transfer Matrix Method. The electronic band gaps are examined comparatively with those obtained using the corresponding periodic potentials. The reflection coefficient shows self-similar properties for the Fibonacci superlattices. Moreover, by using the generalized Bragg's condition, the band gaps positions are derived from the golden mean involved in the design of the superlattice structure.

  14. The Dependance of Damage Accumulation in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites on Matrix Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Diguuibutiofl Unlimited 0- Contract U.S. AIR FORCE/ARMINES- Centre des Matdriaux No A.F.O.S.R. 84-0397 - Final Report December 1985 THE DEPENDANCE OF DAMAGE...61102F 2301 D1 185 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) THE DEPENDANCE OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES ON...ATN OF: LTS/Autovon 235-4299 26 March 1986 SUBJECT: EOARD-TR-86-04, Final Scientific Report, "The Dependance of Damage Accumu- lation in Carbon Fibre

  15. Crystal Structures of Al-Nd Codoped Zirconolite Derived from Glass Matrix and Powder Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Shih, Kaimin; Lee, William E

    2015-08-03

    Zirconolite is a candidate host for immobilizing long-lived radionuclides. Zirconolite-based glass-ceramics in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-ZrO2-Nd2O3-Na2O matrix are a potential waste form for immobilizing actinide radionuclides and can offer double barriers to immobilize radioactive elements. However, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the zirconolite derived from the glass matrix (glass ceramic, GC) are significantly different from those prepared by powder sintering (PS). In this Article, the crystal structures of Al-Nd codoped zirconolite grown via the glass matrix route and the powder sintering route are investigated in detail. Two samples of Al-Nd codoped zirconolite were prepared: one was grown from a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-ZrO2-Nd2O3-Na2O glass matrix, and the other was prepared with a Ca0.75Nd0.25ZrTi1.75Al0.25O7 composition by powder sintering. The samples were then characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The chemical composition of the 100-500 nm zirconolite crystals grown from a glass matrix was determined by TEM-EDX to be Ca0.83Nd0.25Zr0.85Ti1.95Al0.11O7. PXRD and SAED results showed that these two Al-Nd codoped zirconolite phases were crystallized in space group C12/c1. The HRTEM images and SAED results showed that there were heavy stacking faults in the zirconolite crystals grown from the glass matrix. In contrast, far fewer defects were found in the zirconolite crystals prepared by powder sintering. The split-atom model was adopted for the first time to construct the Al-Nd codoped zirconolite structure grown from glass during the Rietveld refinement. The isostructural method assisted by Rietveld refinement was used to resolve the Al-Nd codoped zirconolite structures prepared by different methods. The occupancies of the cation sites were identified, and the distribution behavior of Nd

  16. Departure of some parameter-dependent spectral statistics of irregular quantum graphs from random matrix theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hul, Oleh; Seba, Petr; Sirko, Leszek

    2009-06-01

    Parameter-dependent statistical properties of spectra of totally connected irregular quantum graphs with Neumann boundary conditions are studied. The autocorrelation functions of level velocities c(x) and c[over ](omega,x) as well as the distributions of level curvatures and avoided crossing gaps are calculated. The numerical results are compared with the predictions of random matrix theory for Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) and for coupled GOE matrices. The application of coupled GOE matrices was justified by studying localization phenomena in graphs' wave functions Psi(x) using the inverse participation ratio and the amplitude distribution P(Psi(x)) .

  17. Numerical solution of time-dependent diffusion equations with nonlocal boundary conditions via a fast matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Tohidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes a matrix approach by using Taylor approximation to obtain the numerical solution of one-dimensional time-dependent parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs subject to nonlocal boundary integral conditions. We first impose the initial and boundary conditions to the main problems and then reach to the associated integro-PDEs. By using operational matrices and also the completeness of the monomials basis, the obtained integro-PDEs will be reduced to the generalized Sylvester equations. For solving these algebraic systems, we apply a famous technique in Krylov subspace iterative methods. A numerical example is considered to show the efficiency of the proposed idea.

  18. Matrix stiffness dependent electro-mechanical response of dipole grafted silicones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul, Björn; Risse, Sebastian; Wegener, Michael; Kofod, Guggi; Krüger, Hartmut

    2012-06-01

    The properties of dielectric elastomer actuators can be optimized by modifying the dielectric or mechanical properties of the dielectric elastomer. This paper presents the simultaneous control of both dielectric and mechanical properties, in a silicone elastomer network comprising cross-linker, chains and grafted molecular dipoles. Chains with two different molecular weights were each combined with varying amounts of grafted dipole. Chemical and physical characterization showed that networks with stoichiometric control of cross-linking density and permittivity were obtained, and that longer chain lengths resulted in higher electrical field response due to the reduction in cross-linking density and correspondingly in mechanical stiffness. Both actuation sensitivities were enhanced by 6.3 and 4.6 times for the short and long chain matrix material, respectively.

  19. Parametric dependent Hamiltonians, wave functions, random matrix theory, and quantal-classical correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Kottos, T

    2001-03-01

    We study a classically chaotic system that is described by a Hamiltonian H(Q,P;x), where (Q,P) are the canonical coordinates of a particle in a two-dimensional well, and x is a parameter. By changing x we can deform the "shape" of the well. The quantum eigenstates of the system are /n(x)>. We analyze numerically how the parametric kernel P(n/m)=//(2) evolves as a function of delta(x)[triple bond](x-x(0)). This kernel, regarded as a function of n-m, characterizes the shape of the wave functions, and it also can be interpreted as the local density of states. The kernel P(n/m) has a well-defined classical limit, and the study addresses the issue of quantum-classical correspondence. Both the perturbative and the nonperturbative regimes are explored. The limitations of the random matrix theory approach are demonstrated.

  20. Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae Extract Modifies the Peritrophic Matrix Structure of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmão Desiely Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae, collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae. The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 µg/ml (LC50 17.6 µg/ml 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed that larvae fed with 150 µg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality.

  1. The structure of myristoylated Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein and the role of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate in its membrane binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, Jan; Srb, Pavel; Hunter, Eric; Ruml, Tomáš; Hrabal, Richard

    2012-10-26

    We determined the solution structure of myristoylated Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein by NMR spectroscopy. The myristoyl group is buried inside the protein and causes a slight reorientation of the helices. This reorientation leads to the creation of a binding site for phosphatidylinositols. The interaction between the matrix protein and phosphatidylinositols carrying C(8) fatty acid chains was monitored by observation of concentration-dependent chemical shift changes of the affected amino acid residues, a saturation transfer difference experiment and changes in (31)P chemical shifts. No differences in the binding mode or affinity were observed with differently phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols. The structure of the matrix protein-phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] complex was then calculated with HADDOCK software based on the intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancement contacts between the ligand and the matrix protein obtained from a (13)C-filtered/(13)C-edited nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy experiment. PI(4,5)P(2) binding was not strong enough for triggering of the myristoyl-switch. The structural changes of the myristoylated matrix protein were also found to result in a drop in the oligomerization capacity of the protein.

  2. Structural characterization of PTX3 disulfide bond network and its multimeric status in cumulus matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inforzato, Antonio; Rivieccio, Vincenzo; Morreale, Antonio P; Bastone, Antonio; Salustri, Antonietta; Scarchilli, Laura; Verdoliva, Antonio; Vincenti, Silvia; Gallo, Grazia; Chiapparino, Caterina; Pacello, Lucrezia; Nucera, Eleonora; Serlupi-Crescenzi, Ottaviano; Day, Anthony J; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; De Santis, Rita; Salvatori, Giovanni

    2008-04-11

    PTX3 is an acute phase glycoprotein that plays key roles in resistance to certain pathogens and in female fertility. PTX3 exerts its functions by interacting with a number of structurally unrelated molecules, a capacity that is likely to rely on its complex multimeric structure stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. In this study, PAGE analyses performed under both native and denaturing conditions indicated that human recombinant PTX3 is mainly composed of covalently linked octamers. The network of disulfide bonds supporting this octameric assembly was resolved by mass spectrometry and Cys to Ser site-directed mutagenesis. Here we report that cysteine residues at positions 47, 49, and 103 in the N-terminal domain form three symmetric interchain disulfide bonds stabilizing four protein subunits in a tetrameric arrangement. Additional interchain disulfide bonds formed by the C-terminal domain cysteines Cys(317) and Cys(318) are responsible for linking the PTX3 tetramers into octamers. We also identified three intrachain disulfide bonds within the C-terminal domain that we used as structural constraints to build a new three-dimensional model for this domain. Previously it has been shown that PTX3 is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix, which forms around the oocyte prior to ovulation, because cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice show defective matrix organization. Recombinant PTX3 is able to restore the normal phenotype ex vivo in cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice. Here we demonstrate that PTX3 Cys to Ser mutants, mainly assembled into tetramers, exhibited wild type rescue activity, whereas a mutant, predominantly composed of dimers, had impaired functionality. These findings indicate that protein oligomerization is essential for PTX3 activity within the cumulus matrix and implicate PTX3 tetramers as the functional molecular units required for cumulus matrix organization and stabilization.

  3. Development of damped metal-matrix composites for advanced structural applications. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Updike, C.A.; Bhagat, R.B.

    1990-04-01

    The development of damped metal matrix composite structures for advanced applications has been investigated by the use of two different approaches: (1) the development of metal matrix composites with high intrinsic damping compared to that of the matrix material, and (2) the development of coated metal matrix composites with high structural damping compared to that of the composite substrates. The two different approaches are analyzed in terms of their potential for improved damping and feasibility for structural applications. Damping was measured by the transverse vibration of free-free beams using the bandwidth technique by a laser vibrometer under ambient conditions. The damping measurements were made over a wide range of frequencies (.7 kHz to 25.6 kHz) at low strain amplitudes (10 to the -10 power to 10 to the -7 power). Materials investigated for their tensile stiffness, strength, and damping performance include mechanically alloyed (MA) Aluminum-Magnesium, SiC(p)/Aluminum-Copper (MA), SiC(p)/AL, AL2O3(p)/AL, SiC(W)/AL, planar random Gr/AL, unidirectional Gr/AL and unidirectional SiC(Nicalon)/AL composites. The effects of coatings of high damping metals (nitinol and incramute) on 6061-T6 AL and AL2O3(p)/AL substrates have also been studied. The AL-Mg (MA), SiC(p)/AL (MA), SiC(W)/AL and th AL2O3(p)/AL composites show no significant improvement in damping compared with that of the 6061-T6 AL.

  4. PERTURBATION TRANSFER MATRIX METHOD FOR EIGENDATA OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM WITH PARAMETER UNCERTAINTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保国; 殷学纲; 蹇开林; 吴永

    2003-01-01

    A general method based on Riccati transfer matrix is presented to calculate the2 nd order perturbations of eigendatas for one-dimensional structural system with parameteruncertainties. The method is applicable to both real and complex eigendatas of any one-dimensional structural system. The formulas for calculating the sensitivity derivatives ofeigendatas based on this method are also presented. The method is applied to theperturbation analysis for the eigendatas of a rotor with gyroscopic moment, and thedifferences between the perturbation results and the accurate calculating results are small.

  5. Method and apparatus for evaluating structural weakness in polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus for evaluating structural weaknesses in polymer matrix composites is described. An object to be studied is illuminated with laser radiation and fluorescence emanating therefrom is collected and filtered. The fluorescence is then imaged and the image is studied to determine fluorescence intensity over the surface of the object being studied and the wavelength of maximum fluorescent intensity. Such images provide a map of the structural integrity of the part being studied and weaknesses, particularly weaknesses created by exposure of the object to heat, are readily visible in the image. 6 figs.

  6. Optical Measurement of Micromechanics and Structure in a 3D Fibrin Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarchyk, Maxwell Aaron

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanics to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Methods for tuning extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics in 3D cell culture that rely on increasing the concentration of either protein or cross-linking molecules fail to control important parameters such as pore size, ligand density, and molecular diffusivity. Alternatively, ECM stiffness can be modulated independently from protein concentration by mechanically loading the ECM. We have developed an optical tweezers-based microrheology system to investigate the fundamental role of ECM mechanical properties in determining cellular behavior. Further, this thesis outlines the development of a novel device for generating stiffness gradients in naturally derived ECMs, where stiffness is tuned by inducing strain, while local structure and mechanical properties are directly determined by laser tweezers-based passive and active microrheology respectively. Hydrogel substrates polymerized within 35 mm diameter Petri dishes are strained non-uniformly by the precise rotation of an embedded cylindrical post, and exhibit a position-dependent stiffness with little to no modulation of local mesh geometry. Here we present microrheological studies in the context of fibrin hydrogels. Microrheology and confocal imaging were used to directly measure local changes in micromechanics and structure respectively in unstrained hydrogels of increasing fibrinogen concentration, as well as in our strain gradient device, in which the concentration of fibrinogen is held constant. Orbital particle tracking, and raster image correlation analysis are used to quantify changes in fibrin mechanics on the

  7. Time-dependent transition density matrix for visualizing charge-transfer excitations in photoexcited organic donor-acceptor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghui; Ullrich, Carsten

    2013-03-01

    The time-dependent transition density matrix (TDM) is a useful tool to visualize and interpret the induced charges and electron-hole coherences of excitonic processes in large molecules. Combined with time-dependent density functional theory on a real-space grid (as implemented in the octopus code), the TDM is a computationally viable visualization tool for optical excitation processes in molecules. It provides real-time maps of particles and holes which gives information on excitations, in particular those that have charge-transfer character, that cannot be obtained from the density alone. Some illustration of the TDM and comparison with standard density difference plots will be shown for photoexcited organic donor-acceptor molecules. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR-1005651

  8. On non-negative matrix factorization algorithms for signal-dependent noise with application to electromyography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Karthik; Cheung, Vincent C.K.

    2017-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) by the multiplicative updates algorithm is a powerful machine learning method for decomposing a high-dimensional nonnegative matrix V into two nonnegative matrices, W and H where V ~ WH. It has been successfully applied in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale data arising in neuroscience, computational biology and natural language processing, among other areas. A distinctive feature of NMF is its nonnegativity constraints that allow only additive linear combinations of the data, thus enabling it to learn parts that have distinct physical representations in reality. In this paper, we describe an information-theoretic approach to NMF for signal-dependent noise based on the generalized inverse Gaussian model. Specifically, we propose three novel algorithms in this setting, each based on multiplicative updates and prove monotonicity of updates using the EM algorithm. In addition, we develop algorithm-specific measures to evaluate their goodness-of-fit on data. Our methods are demonstrated using experimental data from electromyography studies as well as simulated data in the extraction of muscle synergies, and compared with existing algorithms for signal-dependent noise. PMID:24684448

  9. A unified approach to modeling delamination and matrix cracking in smart composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert Preston

    The development of smart structures technology has coincided with the increased use of composite materials in structural design. Composite laminates have forms of damage that are not found in other materials, specifically delamination and transverse matrix cracking. An in-depth understanding of the effects of damage on smart composite structures is necessary for predicting not only the life of the structure, but also for modeling any method to be used for damage detection. The objective of this research was to develop a comprehensive model for accurately and efficiently modeling smart composite structures including the effects of composite damage. First, a new, efficient method for modeling smart structures with piezoelectric devices was developed. The coupled model simultaneously solves for the mechanical and electrical response of the system using mechanical displacements and electrical displacements. The developed theory utilizes a refined higher order displacement field that accurately captures the transverse shear deformation in moderately thick laminates. The model was then extended to include internal damage in the form of delamination and matrix cracking. When delamination is present, the sublaminates are modeled as individual plates and continuity is enforced at the interfaces. Matrix cracking was modeled as a reduction in laminate stiffness using parameters determined using finite element analysis of a representative crack. Finally, the simultaneous optimization of both mechanical and electrical parameters in an adaptive structural system was studied. This study demonstrates how multidisciplinary optimization techniques, such as the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function, can be utilized to optimize both structural and electrical aspects of an adaptive structural system. Optimization of piezoelectric actuator placement and electrical circuitry was performed on passive electrical damping systems. Results show that the developed model is capable of accurately

  10. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Li, M.L.; Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1987-09-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appeared to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of {beta}-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of {beta}-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types.

  11. Time-dependent matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases expression change in fusarium solani keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Gao, Xin-Rui; Cui, Hong-Ping; Lang, Li-Li; Xie, Xiu-Wen; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression during the progress of fusarium solani (F.solani) keratitis in a rat model. A rat model of F.solani keratitis was produced using corneal scarification and a hand-made contact lens. MMPs and TIMPs expressiond were explored in this rat model of F.solani keratitis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DIF. GM6001 (400 µmol/mL) was used to treat infected corneas. The keratitis duration, amount and area of corneal neovascularization (CNV) were evaluated. MMP-3 expression was 66.3 times higher in infected corneas compared to normal corneas. MMP-8, -9, and -13 expressions were significantly upregulated in the mid-period of the infection, with infected-to-normal ratios of 4.03, 39.86, and 5.94, respectively. MMP-2 and -7 expressions increased in the late period, with the infected-to-normal ratios of 5.94 and 16.22, respectively. TIMP-1 expression was upregulated in the early period, and it was 43.17 times higher in infected compared to normal corneas, but TIMP-2, -3, and -4 expressions were mildly downregulated or unchanged. The results of DIF were consistent with the result of real-time PCR. GM6001, a MMPs inhibitor, decreased the duration of F.solani infection and the amount and area of CNV. MMPs and TIMPs contributed into the progress of F.solani keratitis.

  12. Phase Structure of the T-matrix and Multichannel Unitary Isobar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Nakayama, K.

    2015-04-01

    By exploiting the full phase structure of the meson-baryon coupled channels reaction amplitude-here including also the photon-baryon channel-an isobar model is constructed which fulfills automatically the unitarity and analyticity conditions of the S-matrix, in addition to gauge invariance in the case of photoproduction. In particular, it is shown that the unitarity of the (resonance) pole amplitude arises from the dressing mechanism inherent in the basic T-matrix equation, requiring no extra unitarity condition on the pole amplitude as is the case in earlier works on isobar models. As an example, the present model is applied in the description of the meson-nucleon reactions including the πN , ηN , σN , ρN and πΔ channels. The latter three account effectively for the ππN channel. FFE-COSY Grant No. 41788390.

  13. Generic Uniqueness of a Structured Matrix Factorization and Applications in Blind Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanov, Ignat; Lathauwer, Lieven De

    2016-06-01

    Algebraic geometry, although little explored in signal processing, provides tools that are very convenient for investigating generic properties in a wide range of applications. Generic properties are properties that hold "almost everywhere". We present a set of conditions that are sufficient for demonstrating the generic uniqueness of a certain structured matrix factorization. This set of conditions may be used as a checklist for generic uniqueness in different settings. We discuss two particular applications in detail. We provide a relaxed generic uniqueness condition for joint matrix diagonalization that is relevant for independent component analysis in the underdetermined case. We present generic uniqueness conditions for a recently proposed class of deterministic blind source separation methods that rely on mild source models. For the interested reader we provide some intuition on how the results are connected to their algebraic geometric roots.

  14. The Google matrix controls the stability of structured ecological and biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lewi

    2016-09-01

    May's celebrated theoretical work of the 70's contradicted the established paradigm by demonstrating that complexity leads to instability in biological systems. Here May's random-matrix modelling approach is generalized to realistic large-scale webs of species interactions, be they structured by networks of competition, mutualism or both. Simple relationships are found to govern these otherwise intractable models, and control the parameter ranges for which biological systems are stable and feasible. Our analysis of model and real empirical networks is only achievable on introducing a simplifying Google-matrix reduction scheme, which in the process, yields a practical ecological eigenvalue stability index. These results provide an insight into how network topology, especially connectance, influences species stable coexistence. Constraints controlling feasibility (positive equilibrium populations) in these systems are found more restrictive than those controlling stability, helping explain the enigma of why many classes of feasible ecological models are nearly always stable.

  15. From Function to System: Advances in Choosing a Matrix Structure of the Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Ремхе

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the authors’ view on the transition towards a new paradigm in the study of the translation process based on synergy, collaboration, networking and the cognitive structure of the translator’s mind. In the search for a hypothetical cognitive model of translation, a matrix model is represented to further enrich the interdisciplinary platform through understanding the conglomerate of the many sources involved in the act of translation and focusing on the role of the individual human being in translational cognition. The Map-Matrix Model comprises three levels of the translator’s mental space: Neurological, Representational and Conceptual. Each level corresponds to the inheritance relations between mapping patterns, clusters and frames. The model will be presented and interrogated through the results of a practical Think-aloud protocols experiment in order to give a better insight into the translation efficiency in terms of information processing and a clearer assumption of the feasibility of the concept.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases: a review of their structure and role in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-jia; Yan, Jun-wei; Wan, Ya-nan; Wang, Bing-xiang; Tao, Jin-hui; Yang, Guo-jun; Pan, Hai-feng; Wang, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main enzymes involved in arterial wall extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and remodeling, whose activity has been involved in various normal and pathologic processes, such as inflammation, fibrosis. As a result, the MMPs have come to consider as both therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools for the treatment and diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterized by an excessive over-production of collagen and other ECM, resulting in skin thickening and fibrosis of internal organs. In recent years, abnormal expression of MMPs has been demonstrated with the pathogenesis of SSc, and the association of different polymorphisms on MMPs genes with SSc has been extensively studied. This review describes the structure, function and regulation of MMPs and shortly summarizes current understanding on experimental findings, genetic associations of MMPs in SSc.

  17. Permanent dissipative structures in water: the matrix of life? Experimental evidences and their quantum origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, V; Germano, R; Napoli, E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the evidence - both experimental and theoretical - of the formation of dissipative structures in liquid water induced by three kinds of physical perturbations having a low energy content: extremely diluted solution (EDS), iteratively filtered water (IFW), and iteratively nafionated water (INW). Particular attention is devoted to the very recent discovery that such structures are tremendously persistent even in the solid phase: large ponderal quantities of supramolecular aggregates of water (with each nucleus hundreds of nanometers in size) have been observed - at ambient pressure and temperature - using easily-reproducible experimental methods. The nature of these dissipative structures is analyzed and explained in terms of the thermodynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems and irreversible processes, showing their spontaneous quantum origin. Are these kinds of structures the matrix itself of life?.

  18. Orthogonality of Modes of Structures When Using the Exact Transcendental Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Chan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theory, physical insight and results for mode orthogonality of piecewise continuous structures, including both coincident and non-coincident natural frequencies. The structures are ones for which exact member equations have been obtained by solving the governing differential equations, e.g. as can be done for members of plane frames or prismatic plate assemblies. Such member equations are transcendental functions of the distributed member mass and the frequency. They are used to obtain a transcendental overall stiffness matrix for the structure, from which the natural frequencies are extracted by using the Wittrick-Williams algorithm, prior to using any existing method to find the modes which are examined from the orthogonality viewpoint in this paper. The natural frequencies and modes found are the exact values for the structure in the sense that the usual finite element method approximations are avoided.

  19. Community structure discovery method based on the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chonghui; Zhao, Haipeng

    2012-03-01

    Community structure discovery in complex networks is a popular issue, and overlapping community structure discovery in academic research has become one of the hot spots. Based on the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix and spectral bisection, this paper proposes a new community structure discovery method. First, by adjusting the Gaussian kernel parameter to change the scale of similarity, we can find the corresponding non-overlapping community structure when the value of the modularity is the largest relatively. Second, the changes of the Gaussian kernel parameter would lead to the unstable nodes jumping off, so with a slight change in method of non-overlapping community discovery, we can find the overlapping community nodes. Finally, synthetic data, karate club and political books datasets are used to test the proposed method, comparing with some other community discovery methods, to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  20. Ataxin-1 with an expanded glutamine tract alters nuclear matrix-associated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, P J; Koshy, B T; Cummings, C J

    1997-01-01

    the subcellular localization of wild-type human ataxin-1 (the protein encoded by the SCA1 gene) and mutant ataxin-1 in the Purkinje cells of transgenic mice. We found that ataxin-1 localizes to the nuclei of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Normal ataxin-1 localizes to several nuclear structures approximately 0.......5 microm across, whereas the expanded ataxin-1 localizes to a single approximately 2-microm structure, before the onset of ataxia. Mutant ataxin-1 localizes to a single nuclear structure in affected neurons of SCA1 patients. Similarly, COS-1 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant ataxin-1 show...... a similar pattern of nuclear localization; with expanded ataxin-1 occurring in larger structures that are fewer in number than those of normal ataxin-1. Colocalization studies show that mutant ataxin-1 causes a specific redistribution of the nuclear matrix-associated domain containing promyelocytic...

  1. Structural damage detection based on covariance of covariance matrix with general white noise excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yi; Law, Siu Seong; Ku, Chiu Jen

    2017-02-01

    Covariance of the auto/cross-covariance matrix based method is studied for the damage identification of a structure with illustrations on its advantages and limitations. The original method is extended for structures under direct white noise excitations. The auto/cross-covariance function of the measured acceleration and its corresponding derivatives are formulated analytically, and the method is modified in two new strategies to enable successful identification with much fewer sensors. Numerical examples are adopted to illustrate the improved method, and the effects of sampling frequency and sampling duration are discussed. Results show that the covariance of covariance calculated from responses of higher order modes of a structure play an important role to the accurate identification of local damage in a structure.

  2. An Investigation of the Structure-Property Relationships for High Performance Thermoplastic Matrix, Carbon Fiber Composites with a Tailored Polyimide Interphase

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Slade Havelock II

    1998-01-01

    The aqueous suspension prepregging technique was used to fabricate PEEK and PPS matrix composites with polyimide interphases of tailored properties. The structure-property relationships of Ultem-type polyimide and BisP-BTDA polyimide which were made from various water soluble polyamic acid salts were studied. The molecular weight of the polyimides was shown to be dependant upon the selection of the base used for making the polyamic acid salt. The development of an Ultem-type polyimide with...

  3. A self-propagating matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 dependent cycle of chronic neutrophilic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is a poorly understood feature in a variety of diseases with notable worldwide morbidity and mortality. We have recently characterized N-acetyl Pro-Gly-Pro (Ac-PGP as an important neutrophil (PMN chemoattractant in chronic inflammation generated from the breakdown of collagen by the actions of MMP-9. MMP-9 is present in the granules of PMNs and is differentially released during inflammation but whether Ac-PGP contributes to this ongoing proteolytic activity in chronic neutrophilic inflammation is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing isolated primary blood PMNs from human donors, we found that Ac-PGP induces significant release of MMP-9 and concurrently activates the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. This MMP-9 release is attenuated by an inhibitor of ERK1/2 MAPK and upstream blockade of CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors with repertaxin leads to decreased MMP-9 release and ERK 1/2 MAPK activation. Supernatants obtained from PMNs stimulated by Ac-PGP generate more Ac-PGP when incubated with intact collagen ex vivo; this effect is inhibited by an ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor. Finally, clinical samples from individuals with CF demonstrate a notable correlation between Ac-PGP (as measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and MMP-9 levels even when accounting for total PMN burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that ECM-derived Ac-PGP could result in a feed-forward cycle by releasing MMP-9 from activated PMNs through the ligation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and subsequent activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK, highlighting for the first time a matrix-derived chemokine (matrikine augmenting its generation through a discrete receptor/intracellular signaling pathway. These findings have notable implications to the development unrelenting chronic PMN inflammation in human disease.

  4. Cardiac fibroblast-dependent extracellular matrix accumulation is associated with diastolic stiffness in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk R Hutchinson

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest manifestations of diabetes-induced changes in left ventricular (LV function, and results from a reduced rate of relaxation and increased stiffness. The mechanisms responsible for increased stiffness are not completely understood. Chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs, and increased levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines are molecular pathways known to be involved in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis and accumulation resulting in increased LV diastolic stiffness. Experiments were conducted using a genetically-induced mouse model of T2DM generated by a point mutation in the leptin receptor resulting in nonfunctional leptin receptors (db/db murine model. This study correlated changes in LV ECM and stiffness with alterations in basal activation of signaling cascades and expression of profibrotic markers within primary cultures of cardiac fibroblasts from diabetic (db/db mice with nondiabetic (db/wt littermates as controls. Primary cultures of cardiac fibrobroblasts were maintained in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemic-HG; diabetic db/db media or 5 mM glucose (normoglycemic-NG, nondiabetic db/wt media. The cells then underwent a 24-hour exposure to their opposite (NG; diabetic db/db media or 5 mM glucose (HG, nondiabetic db/wt media. Protein analysis demonstrated significantly increased expression of type I collagen, TIMP-2, TGF-β, PAI-1 and RAGE in diabetic db/db cells as compared to nondiabetic db/wt, independent of glucose media concentration. This pattern of protein expression was associated with increased LV collagen accumulation, myocardial stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Isolated diabetic db/db fibroblasts were phenotypically distinct from nondiabetic db/wt fibroblasts and exhibited a profibrotic phenotype in normoglycemic conditions.

  5. Cardiac Fibroblast-Dependent Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Is Associated with Diastolic Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kirk R.; Lord, C. Kevin; West, T. Aaron; Stewart, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest manifestations of diabetes-induced changes in left ventricular (LV) function, and results from a reduced rate of relaxation and increased stiffness. The mechanisms responsible for increased stiffness are not completely understood. Chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), and increased levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines are molecular pathways known to be involved in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and accumulation resulting in increased LV diastolic stiffness. Experiments were conducted using a genetically-induced mouse model of T2DM generated by a point mutation in the leptin receptor resulting in nonfunctional leptin receptors (db/db murine model). This study correlated changes in LV ECM and stiffness with alterations in basal activation of signaling cascades and expression of profibrotic markers within primary cultures of cardiac fibroblasts from diabetic (db/db) mice with nondiabetic (db/wt) littermates as controls. Primary cultures of cardiac fibrobroblasts were maintained in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemic-HG; diabetic db/db) media or 5 mM glucose (normoglycemic-NG, nondiabetic db/wt) media. The cells then underwent a 24-hour exposure to their opposite (NG; diabetic db/db) media or 5 mM glucose (HG, nondiabetic db/wt) media. Protein analysis demonstrated significantly increased expression of type I collagen, TIMP-2, TGF-β, PAI-1 and RAGE in diabetic db/db cells as compared to nondiabetic db/wt, independent of glucose media concentration. This pattern of protein expression was associated with increased LV collagen accumulation, myocardial stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Isolated diabetic db/db fibroblasts were phenotypically distinct from nondiabetic db/wt fibroblasts and exhibited a profibrotic phenotype in normoglycemic conditions. PMID:23991045

  6. A randomized Mirror-Prox method for solving structured large-scale matrix saddle-point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Michel; Nemirovski, Arkadi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a randomized version of the Mirror-Prox method for solving some structured matrix saddle-point problems, such as the maximal eigenvalue minimization problem. Deterministic first-order schemes, such as Nesterov's Smoothing Techniques or standard Mirror-Prox methods, require the exact computation of a matrix exponential at every iteration, limiting the size of the problems they can solve. Our method allows us to use stochastic approximations of matrix exponentials. We prove that our randomized scheme decreases significantly the complexity of its deterministic counterpart for large-scale matrix saddle-point problems. Numerical experiments illustrate and confirm our theoretical results.

  7. Decellularized matrix from tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells promotes neovascularization with galectin-1 dependent endothelial interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Kristiansen, Malthe; Kristensen, Lars P

    2011-01-01

    . Histological analysis showed that cells of the most vascularized tumorigenic clone, -BD11 had a pericyte-like alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA+) and CD146+ positive phenotype. Upon serum withdrawal in culture, -BD11 cells formed cord-like structures mimicking capillary morphogenesis. In contrast, cells...

  8. Improved Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite/Foam Core Integrated Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hybridized carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) fabric to reinforce ceramic matrix composite face sheets and the integration of such face sheets with a foam core creates a sandwich structure capable of withstanding high-heatflux environments (150 W/cm2) in which the core provides a temperature drop of 1,000 C between the surface and the back face without cracking or delamination of the structure. The composite face sheet exhibits a bilinear response, which results from the SiC matrix not being cracked on fabrication. In addition, the structure exhibits damage tolerance under impact with projectiles, showing no penetration to the back face sheet. These attributes make the composite ideal for leading edge structures and control surfaces in aerospace vehicles, as well as for acreage thermal protection systems and in high-temperature, lightweight stiffened structures. By tailoring the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a carbon fiber containing ceramic matrix composite (CMC) face sheet to match that of a ceramic foam core, the face sheet and the core can be integrally fabricated without any delamination. Carbon and SiC are woven together in the reinforcing fabric. Integral densification of the CMC and the foam core is accomplished with chemical vapor deposition, eliminating the need for bond-line adhesive. This means there is no need to separately fabricate the core and the face sheet, or to bond the two elements together, risking edge delamination during use. Fibers of two or more types are woven together on a loom. The carbon and ceramic fibers are pulled into the same pick location during the weaving process. Tow spacing may be varied to accommodate the increased volume of the combined fiber tows while maintaining a target fiber volume fraction in the composite. Foam pore size, strut thickness, and ratio of face sheet to core thickness can be used to tailor thermal and mechanical properties. The anticipated CTE for the hybridized composite is managed by

  9. A study of angle dependent surface plasmon polaritons in nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-07-21

    We report that the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures possess a subwavelength hole radius and periodicity. The transmission coefficient for nano-hole array structures was measured for different angles of incidence of light. Each measured transmission spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. A theory of the transmission coefficient was developed based on the quantum density matrix method. It was found that the location of the surface plasmon polariton and the heights of the spectral peaks were dependent on the angle of incidence of light. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. This property of these structures has opened up new possibilities for sensing applications.

  10. Probing Models of Dirac Neutrino Masses via the Flavor Structure of the Mass Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya; Sugiyama, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We classify models of the Dirac neutrino mass by concentrating on flavor structures of the mass matrix. The advantage of our classification is that we do not need to specify detail of models except for Yukawa interactions because flavor structures can be given only by products of Yukawa matrices. All possible Yukawa interactions between leptons (including the right-handed neutrino) are taken into account by introducing appropriate scalar fields. We also take into account the case with Yukawa interactions of leptons with the dark matter candidate. Then, we see that flavor structures can be classified into seven groups. The result is useful for the efficient test of models of the neutrino mass. One of seven groups can be tested by measuring the absolute neutrino mass. Other two can be tested by probing the violation of the lepton universality in $\\ell \\to \\ell^\\prime \

  11. Non-negative matrix factorization and term structure of interest rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hellinton H.; Stern, Julio M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) is a technique for dimensionality reduction with a wide variety of applications from text mining to identification of concentrations in chemistry. NNMF deals with non-negative data and results in non-negative factors and factor loadings. Consequently, it is a natural choice when studying the term structure of interest rates. In this paper, NNMF is applied to obtain factors from the term structure of interest rates and the procedure is compared with other very popular techniques: principal component analysis and Nelson-Siegel model. The NNMF approximation for the term structure of interest rates is better in terms of fitting. From a practitioner point of view, the NNMF factors and factor loadings obtained possess straightforward financial interpretations due to their non-negativeness.

  12. A variable transverse stiffness sandwich structure using fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Lotfi, Amir; Shan, Ying; Wang, K. W.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Bakis, Charles E.

    2008-03-01

    Presented in this paper is the development of a novel honeycomb sandwich panel with variable transverse stiffness. In this structure, the traditional sandwich face sheets are replaced by the fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) tube layers developed in recent studies. The F2MC layers, combined with the anisotropic honeycomb core material properties, provide a new sandwich structure with variable stiffness properties for transverse loading. In this research, an analytical model is derived based on Lekhitskii's anisotropic pressurized tube solution and Timoshenko beam theory. Experimental investigations are also conducted to verify the analytical findings. A segmented multiple-F2MC-tube configuration is synthesized to increase the variable stiffness range. The analysis shows that the new honeycomb sandwich structure using F2MC tubes of 10 segments can provide a high/low transverse stiffness ratio of 60. Segmentation and stiffness control can be realized by an embedded valve network, granting a fast response time.

  13. Application of Transfer Matrix Approach to Modeling and Decentralized Control of Lattice-Based Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Nick; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Cheung, Kenny; Teodorescu, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling and control of aerostructure developed by lattice-based cellular materials/components. The proposed aerostructure concept leverages a building block strategy for lattice-based components which provide great adaptability to varying ight scenarios, the needs of which are essential for in- ight wing shaping control. A decentralized structural control design is proposed that utilizes discrete-time lumped mass transfer matrix method (DT-LM-TMM). The objective is to develop an e ective reduced order model through DT-LM-TMM that can be used to design a decentralized controller for the structural control of a wing. The proposed approach developed in this paper shows that, as far as the performance of overall structural system is concerned, the reduced order model can be as e ective as the full order model in designing an optimal stabilizing controller.

  14. Structure combinatorics and thermodynamics of a matrix model with Penner interaction inspired by interacting RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadola, P.; Garg, I. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Deo, N., E-mail: ndeo@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2013-05-11

    In this manuscript, we study the logarithmic Penner type nonlinear interaction in the random matrix model for interacting RNA folding and structure combinatorics. The Penner interaction originally appeared in the studies of moduli space of punctured surfaces and has been applied here in the context of RNA folding for the first time. An exact analytic formula for the generating function is derived using the orthogonal polynomial method. The partition function for a given length L of the RNA chain, derived from the generating function enumerates all possible topological structures as well as the pairings. The partition function and the asymptotic large length distribution functions are found and show a change in the critical exponent of the secondary structure contribution from L{sup −3/2} for large N (size of matrix, N>L) to L{sup −1/2} for small N (N≪L). The exact analytic results calculated in the proposed model allow evaluation of the specific heat versus T curve for large interaction strength. In particular, the second derivative of specific heat shows a striking behavior, changing from single peaked function for large N to a double peak for small N.

  15. Classification of Structure Defects of Metal Matrix Castings with Saturated Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawdzińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Definition of a composite [1] describes an ideal composite material with perfect structure. In real composite materials, structure isusually imperfect – composites contain various types of defects [2, 3–5], especially as the casted composites are of concern. The reason for this is a specific structure of castings, related to course of the manufacturing process. In case of metal matrix composite castings, especially regarding these manufactured by saturation, there is no classification of these defects [2, 4]. Classification of defects in castings of classic materials (cast iron, cast steel, non-ferrous alloys is insufficient and requires completion of specific defects of mentioned materials. This problem (noted during manufacturing metal matrix composite castings with saturated reinforcement in Institute of Basic Technical Sciences of Maritime University Szczecin has become a reason of starting work aimed at creating such classification. As a result, this paper was prepared. It can contribute to improvement of quality of studied materials and, as a consequence, improve the environment protection level.

  16. Classification of Structure Defects of Metal Matrix Castings with Saturated Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Definition of a composite [1] describes an ideal composite material with perfect structure. In real composite materials, structure is usually imperfect - composites contain various types of defects [2, 3-5], especially as the casted composites are of concern. The reason for this is a specific structure of castings, related to course of the manufacturing process. In case of metal matrix composite castings, especially regarding these manufactured by saturation, there is no classification of these defects [2, 4]. Classification of defects in castings of classic materials (cast iron, cast steel, non-ferrous alloys is insufficient and requires completion of specific defects of mentioned materials. This problem (noted during manufacturing metal matrix composite castings with saturated reinforcement in Institute of Basic Technical Sciences of Maritime University Szczecin has become a reason of starting work aimed at creating such classification. As a result, this paper was prepared. It can contribute to improvement of quality of studied materials and, as a consequence, improve the environment protection level.

  17. Roundtrip matrix method for calculating the leaky resonant modes of open nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical method for calculating quasi-normal modes of open nanophotonic structures. The method is based on scattering matrices and a unity eigenvalue of the roundtrip matrix of an internal cavity, and we develop it in detail with electromagnetic fields expanded on Bloch modes...... cavities are side-coupled and in-line-coupled to an infinite W1 waveguide and show that the scattering spectrum of these types of cavities can be reconstructed from the complex quasi-normal mode frequency....

  18. Poisson structures on affine spaces and flag varieties. I. Matrix affine Poisson space

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Brown; Goodearl, K. R.; Yakimov, M

    2006-01-01

    The standard Poisson structure on the rectangular matrix variety Mm,n(C) is\\ud investigated, via the orbits of symplectic leaves under the action of the maximal torus T ⊂\\ud GLm+n(C). These orbits, finite in number, are shown to be smooth irreducible locally closed\\ud subvarieties of Mm,n(C), isomorphic to intersections of dual Schubert cells in the full flag\\ud variety of GLm+n(C). Three different presentations of the T-orbits of symplectic leaves in\\ud Mm,n(C) are obtained – (a) as pu...

  19. Extension of standard transfer-matrix method for three-wave mixing for plasmonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loot, A.; Hizhnyakov, V.

    2017-03-01

    Fast and accurate modeling of three-wave mixing processes in arbitrary stratified medium has significant practical and scientific importance. Several attempts to generalize transfer-matrix method (TMM) for nonlinear interactions have been made; however, none suits for easy-to-use modeling of plasmonic structures which requires oblique angle of incidence, p-polarization and minimal approximations. In this work, an easy-to-use extension to standard TMM is proposed. The proposed method is used to study the strength of unconventional plasmonic enhancement of second harmonic generation.

  20. Passivity-Based Nonlinear Excitation Control of Power Systems with Structure Matrix Reassignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Chu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Passivity-based control is widely used in electronic circuit systems because it can utilize their internal structures to facilitate the controller design. In this paper, we first propose a dissipative Hamiltonian realization of power systems and discuss the disadvantages of the traditional passivity-based excitation controller. Then, a novel excitation controller is put forward to reassign the interconnection and dissipative matrix, and the corresponding Hamiltonian function. Simulation results verify that the proposed controller can effectively improve the transient stability of the power system.

  1. Structure of Hamiltonian Matrix and the Shape of Eigenfunctions: Nuclear Octupole Deformation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yong-Zhong; LI Jun-Qing; LIU Fang; ZUO Wei

    2002-01-01

    The structure of a Hamiltonian matrix for a quantum chaotic system, the nuclear octupole deformationmodel, has been discussed in detail. The distribution of the eigenfunctions of this system expanded by the eigenstates ofa quantum integrable system is studied with the help ofgeneralized Brillouin-Wigner pcrturbation theory. The resultsshow that a significant randomness in this distribution can be observed when its classical counterpart is under the strongchaotic condition. The averaged shape of the eigenfunctions fits with the Gaussian distribution only when the effects ofthe symmetry have been removed.

  2. Biophysical characterization and crystal structure of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p15 matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrière, Jennifer; Robert, Xavier; Perez, Magali; Gouet, Patrice; Guillon, Christophe

    2013-06-24

    Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a viral pathogen that infects domestic cats and wild felids. During the viral replication cycle, the FIV p15 matrix protein oligomerizes to form a closed matrix that underlies the lipidic envelope of the virion. Because of its crucial role in the early and late stages of viral morphogenesis, especially in viral assembly, FIV p15 is an interesting target in the development of potential new therapeutic strategies. Our biochemical study of FIV p15 revealed that it forms a stable dimer in solution under acidic conditions and at high concentration, unlike other retroviral matrix proteins. We determined the crystal structure of full-length FIV p15 to 2 Å resolution and observed a helical organization of the protein, typical for retroviral matrix proteins. A hydrophobic pocket that could accommodate a myristoyl group was identified, and the C-terminal end of FIV p15, which is mainly unstructured, was visible in electron density maps. As FIV p15 crystallizes in acidic conditions but with one monomer in the asymmetric unit, we searched for the presence of a biological dimer in the crystal. No biological assembly was detected by the PISA server, but the three most buried crystallographic interfaces have interesting features: the first one displays a highly conserved tryptophan acting as a binding platform, the second one is located along a 2-fold symmetry axis and the third one resembles the dimeric interface of EIAV p15. Because the C-terminal end of p15 is involved in two of these three interfaces, we investigated the structure and assembly of a C-terminal-truncated form of p15 lacking 14 residues. The truncated FIV p15 dimerizes in solution at a lower concentration and crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The EIAV-like dimeric interface is the only one to be retained in the new crystal form. The dimeric form of FIV p15 in solution and its extended C-terminal end are characteristic among lentiviral matrix proteins

  3. A low-cost biofuel cell with pH-dependent power output based on porous carbon as matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Mingkui; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Baifeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2005-08-19

    A glucose/O2 biofuel cell (BFC) possessing a pH-dependent power output was fabricated by taking porous carbon (PC) as the matrix to load glucose oxidase or fungi laccase as the catalysts. The electrolytes in the anode and cathode compartments contain ferrocene monocarboxylic acid and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt as the mediators, respectively. The power of the BFC was enhanced significantly by using PC as the matrix, rather than glassy carbon electrode. Additionally, the power output of the BFC decreases as the pH of the solution increases from 4.0 to 7.0, which provides a simple and efficient method to achieve the required power output. More importantly, the BFC can operate at pH 6.0, and even at pH 7.0, which overcomes the requirement for cathode solutions of pHBFC at neutral pH may provide a means to power medical devices implanted in physiological systems. The facile and low-cost fabrication of this BFC may enable its development for other applications.

  4. miR-132 Regulates Dendritic Spine Structure by Direct Targeting of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Magdalena; Miłek, Jacek; Cymerman, Iwona A; Łęski, Szymon; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Dziembowska, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Mir-132 is a neuronal activity-regulated microRNA that controls the morphology of dendritic spines and neuronal transmission. Similar activities have recently been attributed to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an extrasynaptic protease. In the present study, we provide evidence that miR-132 directly regulates MMP-9 mRNA in neurons to modulate synaptic plasticity. With the use of luciferase reporter system, we show that miR-132 binds to the 3'UTR of MMP-9 mRNA to regulate its expression in neurons. The overexpression of miR-132 in neurons reduces the level of endogenous MMP-9 protein secretion. In synaptoneurosomes, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced signaling stimulates the dissociation of miR-132 from polyribosomal fractions and shifts it towards the messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP)-containing fraction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the overexpression of miR-132 in the cultured hippocampal neurons from Fmr1 KO mice that have increased synaptic MMP-9 level provokes enlargement of the dendritic spine heads, a process previously implicated in enhanced synaptic plasticity. We propose that activity-dependent miR-132 regulates structural plasticity of dendritic spines through matrix metalloproteinase 9.

  5. Time Variation in Asset Return Dependence: Strength or Structure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Markwat (Thijs); H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe dependence between asset returns varies. Its strength can become stronger or weaker. Also, its structure can change, for example, when asymmetries related to bull and bear markets become more or less pronounced. To analyze these different types of variations, we develop a model that

  6. Dynamic structure evolution of time-dependent network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Zhou, Yadong; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we research the long-voided problem of formulating the time-dependent network structure evolution scheme, it focus not only on finding new emerging vertices in evolving communities and new emerging communities over the specified time range but also formulating the complex network structure evolution schematic. Previous approaches basically applied to community detection on time static networks and thus failed to consider the potentially crucial and useful information latently embedded in the dynamic structure evolution process of time-dependent network. To address these problems and to tackle the network non-scalability dilemma, we propose the dynamic hierarchical method for detecting and revealing structure evolution schematic of the time-dependent network. In practice and specificity, we propose an explicit hierarchical network evolution uncovering algorithm framework originated from and widely expanded from time-dependent and dynamic spectral optimization theory. Our method yields preferable results compared with previous approaches on a vast variety of test network data, including both real on-line networks and computer generated complex networks.

  7. A Structural Equation Approach to Models with Spatial Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Folmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it poss

  8. A structural equation approach to models with spatial dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Folmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it poss

  9. Structural requirements of pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent enzymatic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oubrie, Arthur; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of crystal structures of the pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) dependent enzymes methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) and soluble glucose dehydrogenase (s-GDH), different catalytic mechanisms have been proposed. However, several lines of biochemical and kinetic evidence are strikingly similar for

  10. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, Joachim [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  11. Crystalline structure and symmetry dependence of acoustic nonlinearity parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative measure of elastic wave nonlinearity in crystals is provided by the acoustic nonlinearity parameters. The nonlinearity parameters are defined for arbitrary propagation modes for solids of arbitrary crystalline symmetry and are determined along the pure mode propagation directions for 33 crystals of cubic symmetry from data reported in the literature. The magnitudes of the nonlinearity parameters are found to exhibit a strong dependence on the crystalline structure and symmetries associated with the modal direction in the solid. Calculations based on the Born-Mayer potential for crystals having a dominant repulsive contribution to the elastic constants from the interatomic pair potential suggest that the origin of the structure dependence is associated with the shape rather than the strength of the potential. Considerations based on variations in crystal symmetry during loading along pure mode propagation directions of face-centered-cubic solids provide a qualitative explanation for the dependence of the acoustic nonlinearity parameters on modal direction.

  12. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...... of the composite is inclined compared to a standard pressure independent yield surfaces. The evolution of the macroscopic yield surface is investigated by quantifying both anisotropic hardening (expansion) and kinematic hardening (translation), where the coefficients of anisotropy and the Bauschinger stress...

  13. Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunyou; Gou, Shanmiao; Fu, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in the human body, making up 30% of the total protein content. Quantitative studies have shown structural differences between collagen fibers of the normal and diseased tissues, due to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the pathological process. The dominant orientation, which is an important characteristic of collagen fibers, has not been taken into consideration for quantitative collagen analysis. Based on the conventional gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method, the authors proposed the orientation-dependent GLCM (OD-GLCM) method by estimating the dominant orientation of collagen fibers. The authors validated the utility of the OD-GLCM method on second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopic images of tendons from rats with different ages. Compared with conventional GLCM method, the authors' method has not only improved the discrimination between different tissues but also provided additional texture information of the orderliness of collagen fibers and the fiber size. The OD-GLCM method was further applied to the differentiation of the preliminary SHG images of normal and cancerous human pancreatic tissues. The combination of SHG microscopy and the OD-GLCM method might be helpful for the evaluation of diseases marked with abnormal collagen morphology.

  14. Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunyou; Gou, Shanmiao; Fu, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in the human body, making up 30% of the total protein content. Quantitative studies have shown structural differences between collagen fibers of the normal and diseased tissues, due to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the pathological process. The dominant orientation, which is an important characteristic of collagen fibers, has not been taken into consideration for quantitative collagen analysis. Based on the conventional gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method, the authors proposed the orientation-dependent GLCM (OD-GLCM) method by estimating the dominant orientation of collagen fibers. The authors validated the utility of the OD-GLCM method on second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopic images of tendons from rats with different ages. Compared with conventional GLCM method, the authors' method has not only improved the discrimination between different tissues but also provided additional texture information of the orderliness of collagen fibers and the fiber size. The OD-GLCM method was further applied to the differentiation of the preliminary SHG images of normal and cancerous human pancreatic tissues. The combination of SHG microscopy and the OD-GLCM method might be helpful for the evaluation of diseases marked with abnormal collagen morphology.

  15. Optimum 3D Matrix Stiffness for Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells Is Dependent on Tissue Origin of Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaiel Jabbari

    Full Text Available The growth and expression of cancer stem cells (CSCs depend on many factors in the tumor microenvironment. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of cancer cells' tissue origin on the optimum matrix stiffness for CSC growth and marker expression in a model polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA hydrogel without the interference of other factors in the microenvironment.Human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma, HCT116 colorectal and AGS gastric carcinoma, and U2OS osteosarcoma cells were used. The cells were encapsulated in PEGDA gels with compressive moduli in the 2-70 kPa range and optimized cell seeding density of 0.6x106 cells/mL. Micropatterning was used to optimize the growth of encapsulated cells with respect to average tumorsphere size. The CSC sub-population of the encapsulated cells was characterized by cell number, tumorsphere size and number density, and mRNA expression of CSC markers.The optimum matrix stiffness for growth and marker expression of CSC sub-population of cancer cells was 5 kPa for breast MCF7 and MDA231, 25 kPa for colorectal HCT116 and gastric AGS, and 50 kPa for bone U2OS cells. Conjugation of a CD44 binding peptide to the gel stopped tumorsphere formation by cancer cells from different tissue origin. The expression of YAP/TAZ transcription factors by the encapsulated cancer cells was highest at the optimum stiffness indicating a link between the Hippo transducers and CSC growth. The optimum average tumorsphere size for CSC growth and marker expression was 50 μm.The marker expression results suggest that the CSC sub-population of cancer cells resides within a niche with optimum stiffness which depends on the cancer cells' tissue origin.

  16. PPARdelta promotes wound healing by up-regulating TGF-beta1-dependent or -independent expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sun Ah; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Eun Sil; Eun, So Young; Kim, Gil Hyeong; Park, Myung Hyun; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Lee, Jae Heun; Seo, Han Geuk

    2010-06-01

    Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta has been implicated in the wound healing process, its exact role and mechanism of action have not been fully elucidated. Our previous findings showed that PPARdelta induces the expression of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, which has been implicated in the deposit of extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we demonstrate that administration of GW501516, a specific PPARdelta ligand, significantly promoted wound closure in the experimental mouse and had a profound effect on the expression of collagen types I and III, alpha-smooth muscle actin, pSmad3 and TGF-beta1, which play a pivotal role in wound healing processes. Activation of PPARdelta increased migration of human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in in vitro scrape-wounding assays. Addition of a specific ALK5 receptor inhibitor SB431542 significantly suppressed GW501516-induced migration of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In these cells, activated PPARdelta also induced the expression of collagen types I and III and fibronectin in a TGF-beta1-dependent or -independent manner. The effect of PPARdelta on the expression of type III collagen was dually regulated by the direct binding of PPARdelta and Smad3 to a direct repeat-1 site and a Smad-binding element, respectively, of the type III gene promoter. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PPARdelta plays an important role in skin wound healing in vivo and that it functions by accelerating extracellular matrix-mediated cellular interactions in a process mediated by the TGF-beta1/Smad3 signaling-dependent or - independent pathway.

  17. Sensitive dependence of network dynamics on network structure

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E

    2016-01-01

    The relation between network structure and dynamics is determinant for the behavior of complex systems in numerous domains. An important longstanding problem concerns the properties of the networks that optimize the dynamics with respect to a given performance measure. Here we show that such optimization can lead to sensitive dependence of the dynamics on the structure of the network. Specifically, we demonstrate that the stability of the dynamical state, as determined by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, can exhibit a cusp-like dependence on the number of nodes and links as well as on the size of perturbations applied to the network structure. As mechanisms underlying this sensitivity, we identify discontinuous transitions occurring in the complement of optimal networks and the prevalence of eigenvector degeneracy in these networks. These findings establish a unified characterization of networks optimized for dynamical stability in diffusively coupled systems, which we illustrate using Turing instability in act...

  18. Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process.

  19. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1 promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Xiao

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer with tumor cell invasion playing a crucial role in the metastatic process. PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We now present evidence showing that PDK1-expressing cells exhibit enhanced anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and are highly invasive when grown on Matrigel. These properties correlate with induction of MMP-2 activity, increased MT1-MMP expression and a unique gene expression profile. Methods Invasion assays in Matrigel, MMP-2 zymogram analysis, gene microarray analysis and mammary isografts were used to characterize the invasive and proliferative function of cells expressing PDK1. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers was used to measure PDK1 expression in invasive tumors by IHC. Results Enhanced invasion on Matrigel in PDK1-expressing cells was accompanied by increased MMP-2 activity resulting from stabilization against proteasomal degradation. Increased MMP-2 activity was accompanied by elevated levels of MT1-MMP, which is involved in generating active MMP-2. Gene microarray analysis identified increased expression of the ECM-associated genes decorin and type I procollagen, whose gene products are substrates of MT1-MMP. Mammary fat pad isografts of PDK1-expressing cells produced invasive adenocarcinomas. Tissue microarray analysis of human invasive breast cancer indicated that PDK1pSer241 was strongly expressed in 90% of samples. Conclusion These results indicate that PDK1 serves as an important effector of mammary epithelial cell growth and invasion in the transformed phenotype. PDK1 mediates its effect in part by MT1-MMP induction, which in turn activates MMP-2 and modulates the ECM proteins decorin and collagen. The presence of increased PDK1

  20. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM for construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari J. Uma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost among others. The existing design theories and practice are primarily based on functional requirements. Function-based design deals with design of artifact alone, which may yield favourable or unfavourable consequences with the design artifact. However, incorporating other interactions such as interactions between user & designer is necessary for optimised end-result. Hence, the objective of this research work is to devise a systematic design methodology considering all the three interactions among users, designers and artefacts for improved design efficiency. In this study, it has been attempted to apply the theory of affordances in a case project that involves the design of an offshore facility. A step-by-step methodology for developing Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM, which integrates House of Quality (HOQ and Design Structure Matrix (DSM, is proposed that can effectively capture the user requirements. HOQ is a popular quality management tool for capturing client requirements and DSM is a matrix-based tool that can capture the interdependency among the design entities. The proposed methodology utilises the strengths of both the tools, as DSM compliments HOQ in the process. In this methodology, different affordances such as AUA (Artifact-User-Affordance, AAA (Artifact-Artifact-Affordance and DDA (Designer-Designer-Affordance are captured systematically. Affordance is considered to be user-driven in this context that is in contrast to prevailing design

  1. Electrical conduction of ion tracks in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: temperature, field and doping dependence and comparison with matrix data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauser, J.; Gehrke, H.-G.; Hofsäss, H.; Amani, J.; Trautmann, C.; Weidinger, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper gives an extended overview of the electrical properties of ion tracks in hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) with a sp3 bond fraction of about 80%. The films were grown by mass selected ion beam deposition of 100 eV 12C+ ions. The ion tracks are generated by irradiation of ta-C films with uranium ions of 1 GeV kinetic energy. Along the ion path a conversion from diamond-like (sp3) carbon to graphite-like (sp2) carbon takes place. Topography and current measurements of individual ion tracks were performed by atomic force microscopy at ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of the electric conductivity was studied between 15 and 390 K by means of 0.28 mm2 large contact pads averaging over about 107 tracks. For each sample and at each temperature the conductivity as a function of the applied electrical field (non-ohmic behaviour) was measured separately and the data were extrapolated to field zero. In this way, the zero-field conductivity was determined independent from the field dependence. In spite of large differences in the absolute values, the temperature dependence of the zero-field conductivities is found to be very similar in shape for all samples. The conductivities follow a {T}-{1/4} law up to temperatures slightly below room temperature. At higher temperatures a transport mechanism based on over-barrier hopping dominates with an activation energy of about 220 meV for tracks and 260 meV for the ta-C matrix. The field dependence measurements show that the deviation of the I-V characteristics from ohmic behaviour decreases with increasing zero-field conductivity. We also tested Cu-doped ta-C samples and found that they conduct significantly better than pure ta-C. However, the doping also increases the zero-field conductivity resulting in a weaker contrast between the track and matrix. The data are interpreted within the so-called ‘barrier model’ where the electrons are assumed to move fairly freely in well-conducting sp2

  2. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites tailored for multifunctionality by filler incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungjin

    This dissertation provides multifunctional carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites for vibration damping, thermal conduction and thermoelectricity. Specifically, (i) it has strengthened and stiffened carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites by the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes, carbon nanotubes and silicon carbide whiskers, (ii) it has improved mechanical energy dissipation using carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites with filler incorporation, (iii) it has increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composite by curing pressure increase and filler incorporation, and (iv) it has enhanced the thermoelectric behavior of carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites. Low-cost natural halloysite nanotubes (0.1 microm diameter) were effective for strengthening and stiffening continuous fiber polymer-matrix composites, as shown for crossply carbon fiber (5 microm diameter, ˜59 vol.%) epoxy-matrix composites under flexure, giving 17% increase in strength, 11% increase in modulus and 21% decrease in ductility. They were less effective than expensive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (0.02 microm diameter), which gave 25% increase in strength, 11% increase in modulus and 14% decrease in ductility. However, they were more effective than expensive silicon carbide whiskers (1 microm diameter), which gave 15% increase in strength, 9% increase in modulus and 20% decrease in ductility. Each filler, at ˜2 vol.%, was incorporated in the composite at every interlaminar interface by fiber prepreg surface modification. The flexural strength increase due to halloysite nanotubes incorporation related to the interlaminar shear strength increase. The measured values of the composite modulus agreed roughly with the calculated values based on the Rule of Mixtures. Continuous carbon fiber composites with enhanced vibration damping under flexure are provided by incorporation of fillers between the laminae

  3. Structure and dynamics of spin-labeled insulin entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanea, E; Gruian, C; Rickert, C; Steinhoff, H-J; Simon, V

    2013-08-12

    The structure and conformational dynamics of insulin entrapped into a silica matrix was monitored during the sol to maturated-gel transition by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Insulin was successfully spin-labeled with iodoacetamide and the bifunctional nitroxide reagent HO-1944. Room temperature continuous wave (cw) EPR spectra of insulin were recorded to assess the mobility of the attached spin labels. Insulin conformation and its distribution within the silica matrix were studied using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) and low-temperature cw-EPR. A porous oxide matrix seems to form around insulin molecules with pore diameters in the order of a few nanometers. Secondary structure of the encapsulated insulin investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved a high structural integrity of insulin even in the dried silica matrix. The results show that silica encapsulation can be used as a powerful tool to effectively isolate and functionally preserve biomolecules during preparation, storage, and release.

  4. Topology optimization of support structure of telescope skin based on bit-matrix representation NSGA-II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weidong; Zhu Hua; Wang Yiping; Zhou Shengqiang; Bai Yalei; Zhao Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) with multiple constraints han-dling is employed for multi-objective optimization of the topological structure of telescope skin, in which a bit-matrix is used as the representation of a chromosome, and genetic algorithm (GA) operators are introduced based on the matrix. Objectives including mass, in-plane performance, and out-of-plane load-bearing ability of the individuals are obtained by finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS, and the matrix-based optimization algorithm is realized in MATLAB by han-dling multiple constraints such as structural connectivity and in-plane strain requirements. Feasible configurations of the support structure are achieved. The results confirm that the matrix-based NSGA-II with multiple constraints handling provides an effective method for two-dimensional multi-objective topology optimization.

  5. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  6. Matrix composition and community structure analysis of a novel bacterial pyrite leaching community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sibylle; Ackermann, Sonia; Majzlan, Juraj; Gescher, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Here we describe a novel bacterial community that is embedded in a matrix of carbohydrates and bio/geochemical products of pyrite (FeS(2)) oxidation. This community grows in stalactite-like structures--snottites--on the ceiling of an abandoned pyrite mine at pH values of 2.2-2.6. The aqueous phase in the matrix contains 200 mM of sulfate and total iron concentrations of 60 mM. Micro-X-ray diffraction analysis showed that jarosite [(K,Na,H(3)O)Fe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)] is the major mineral embedded in the snottites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure experiments revealed three different sulfur species. The major signal can be ascribed to sulfate, and the other two features may correspond to thiols and sulfoxides. Arabinose was detected as the major sugar component in the extracellular polymeric substance. Via restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a community was found that mainly consists of iron oxidizing Leptospirillum and Ferrovum species but also of bacteria that could be involved in dissimilatory sulfate and dissimilatory iron reduction. Each snottite can be regarded as a complex, self-contained consortium of bacterial species fuelled by the decomposition of pyrite.

  7. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  8. CH{sub 3} spin probe in solid Kr: Matrix structure and guest–host interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, Yu.A., E-mail: dmitrievyurij@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melnikov, V.D. [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Styrov, K.G. [Institute of Computing and Control, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Benetis, N.P. [Department of Pollution Control, Technological Education Institution, TEI, West Macedonia, Kozani 501 00 (Greece)

    2015-02-01

    Experimental EPR data obtained for the methyl, CH{sub 3}, radical trapped in quench condensed solid Kr are analyzed rendering the radical a probe for determination of regional disorder in Kr and similar solid matrices. Formation of regions of a highly disordered local matrix structure is proved. An attempt is presented of assessing a disorder parameter, based on the line broadening. The new structure is shown to be very effective in accumulating the radicals which are transiently mobile at the Kr 4.2 K surface. We discuss a model of the trapped radical rotation, which includes somewhat different mechanism than the hindrance of the rotation about the C{sub 3} axis and the rotation about the in-plane C{sub 2} axes. The level of the thermal contact of the radical spin-rotation motion with the lattice degrees of freedom in regions of varying order in the Kr solid matrix was assessed by progressive saturation curve-fitting parameters related to the spin-lattice relaxation time T{sub 1} of the radical.

  9. The structure and function of the pericellular matrix of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, Rebecca E; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-10-01

    Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are surrounded by a narrow pericellular matrix (PCM) that is both biochemically and biomechanically distinct from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue. While the PCM was first observed nearly a century ago, its role is still under investigation. In support of early hypotheses regarding its function, increasing evidence indicates that the PCM serves as a transducer of biochemical and biomechanical signals to the chondrocyte. Work over the past two decades has established that the PCM in adult tissue is defined biochemically by several molecular components, including type VI collagen and perlecan. On the other hand, the biomechanical properties of this structure have only recently been measured. Techniques such as micropipette aspiration, in situ imaging, computational modeling, and atomic force microscopy have determined that the PCM exhibits distinct mechanical properties as compared to the ECM, and that these properties are influenced by specific PCM components as well as disease state. Importantly, the unique relationships among the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM in different zones of cartilage suggest that this region significantly influences the stress-strain environment of the chondrocyte. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the measurement of PCM mechanical properties and structure that further increase our understanding of PCM function. Taken together, these studies suggest that the PCM plays a critical role in controlling the mechanical environment and mechanobiology of cells in cartilage and other cartilaginous tissues, such as the meniscus or intervertebral disc.

  10. Spatially-explicit matrix models. A mathematical analysis of stage-structured integrodifference equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Lewis, Mark A

    2004-03-01

    This paper is concerned with mathematical analysis of the 'critical domain-size' problem for structured populations. Space is introduced explicitly into matrix models for stage-structured populations. Movement of individuals is described by means of a dispersal kernel. The mathematical analysis investigates conditions for existence, stability and uniqueness of equilibrium solutions as well as some bifurcation behaviors. These mathematical results are linked to species persistence or extinction in connected habitats of different sizes or fragmented habitats; hence the framework is given for application of such models to ecology. Several approximations which reduce the complexity of integrodifference equations are given. A simple example is worked out to illustrate the analytical results and to compare the behavior of the integrodifference model to that of the approximations.

  11. An Enhanced Collaborative Optimization Approach with Design Structure Matrix Algorithms to Group and Decouple Multidisciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifan Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the solution efficiency and reliability of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO, an enhanced MDO approach, called sequenced collaborative optimization (SCO, is proposed. The proposed approach introduces the design structure matrix (DSM to describe the coupling effects among disciplines and aggregates those mutually coupling disciplines into the strong tie groups among similar ones and the weak tie among heterogeneous ones through clustering algorithms. Further, those in the same group are sequenced by the DSM division algorithm. Moreover, by adding constraints, the groups are made independent, resulting in a tree structure without loops, thus decoupling the original multidisciplinary problem into several independent collaborative optimization modules. In the end, an example is employed to verify the efficiency and reliability of the approach.

  12. Applications of multiple-constraint matrix updates to the optimal control of large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. W.; Walcott, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Low-authority control or vibration suppression in large, flexible space structures can be formulated as a linear feedback control problem requiring computation of displacement and velocity feedback gain matrices. To ensure stability in the uncontrolled modes, these gain matrices must be symmetric and positive definite. In this paper, efficient computation of symmetric, positive-definite feedback gain matrices is accomplished through the use of multiple-constraint matrix update techniques originally developed for structural identification applications. Two systems were used to illustrate the application: a simple spring-mass system and a planar truss. From these demonstrations, use of this multiple-constraint technique is seen to provide a straightforward approach for computing the low-authority gains.

  13. A structure-based extracellular matrix expansion mechanism of fibrous tissue growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalson, Nicholas S; Lu, Yinhui; Taylor, Susan H; Starborg, Tobias; Holmes, David F; Kadler, Karl E

    2015-05-20

    Embryonic growth occurs predominately by an increase in cell number; little is known about growth mechanisms later in development when fibrous tissues account for the bulk of adult vertebrate mass. We present a model for fibrous tissue growth based on 3D-electron microscopy of mouse tendon. We show that the number of collagen fibrils increases during embryonic development and then remains constant during postnatal growth. Embryonic growth was explained predominately by increases in fibril number and length. Postnatal growth arose predominately from increases in fibril length and diameter. A helical crimp structure was established in embryogenesis, and persisted postnatally. The data support a model where the shape and size of tendon is determined by the number and position of embryonic fibroblasts. The collagen fibrils that these cells synthesise provide a template for postnatal growth by structure-based matrix expansion. The model has important implications for growth of other fibrous tissues and fibrosis.

  14. Ordered mixed-layer structures in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix has revealed the presence of a new mixed layer structure material. This mixed-layer material consists of an ordered arrangement of serpentine-type (S) and brucite-type (B) layers in the sequence SBBSBB. Electron diffraction and imaging techniques show that the basal periodicity is approximately 17 A. Discrete crystals of SBB-type material are typically curved, of small size (less than 1 micron) and show structural variations similar to the serpentine group minerals. Mixed-layer material also occurs in association with planar serpentine. Characteristics of SBB-type material are not consistent with known terrestrial mixed-layer clay minerals. Evidence for formation by a condensation event or by subsequent alteration of pre-existing material is not yet apparent.

  15. The crystal structure of the signature domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein: implications for collagen, glycosaminoglycan and integrin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Duquette, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lawler, Jack

    2009-08-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), or thrombospondin-5 (TSP-5), is a secreted glycoprotein that is important for growth plate organization and function. Mutations in COMP cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1). In this study, we determined the structure of a recombinant protein that contains the last epidermal growth factor repeat, the type 3 repeats and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of COMP to 3.15-A resolution limit by X-ray crystallography. The CTD is a beta-sandwich that is composed of 15 antiparallel beta-strands, and the type 3 repeats are a contiguous series of calcium binding sites that associate with the CTD at multiple points. The crystal packing reveals an exposed potential metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) on one edge of the beta-sandwich that is common to all TSPs and may serve as a binding site for collagens and other ligands. Disease-causing mutations in COMP disrupt calcium binding, disulfide bond formation, intramolecular interactions, or sites for potential ligand binding. The structure presented here and its unique molecular packing in the crystal identify potential interactive sites for glycosaminoglycans, integrins, and collagens, which are key to cartilage structure and function.

  16. Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Stankoska, Katerina; Swain, Michael Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Dentin is a mineralized dental tissue underlying the outer enamel that has a peculiar micro morphology. It is composed of micrometer sized tubules that are surrounded by a highly mineralized structure, called peritubular dentin (PTD), and embedded in a collagen-rich matrix, named intertubular dentin. The PTD has been thought to be composed of a highly mineralized collagen-free organic matrix with unknown composition. Here we tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, two important organic structural features found in dentin, are key participants in the microstructure and composition of the PTD. To test this hypothesis dentin blocks were demineralized with 10 vol% citric acid for 2 min and either digested with 1mg/ml TPCK-treated trypsin with 0.2 ammonium bicarbonate at pH 7.9 (TRY) or 0.1 U/mL C-ABC with 50mM Tris, 60mM sodium acetate and 0.02% bovine serum albumin at pH 8.0 (C-ABC). TRY is known to cleave the protein core of dentin proteoglycans, whereas C-ABC is expected to selectively remove glycosaminoglycans. All specimens were digested for 48 h in 37°C, dehydrated in ascending grades of acetone, immersed in HMDS, platinum coated and imaged using an FE-SEM. Images of demineralized dentin revealed a meshwork of noncollagenous fibrils protruding towards the tubule lumen following removal of the peritubular mineral and confirmed the lack of collagen in the peritubular matrix. Further, images revealed that the peritubular organic network originates from a sheet-like membrane covering the entire visible length of tubule, called lamina limitans. Confirming our initial hypothesis, after the digestion with C-ABC the organic network appeared to vanish, while the lamina limitans was preserved. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the PTD organic network. Following digestion with TRY, both the organic network and the lamina limitans disappeared, thus suggesting that the lamina limitans may be primarily composed of

  17. Nucleon effective mass and the A dependence of structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Santangelo, E.M.; Vucetich, H.

    1984-10-08

    The nucleon effective mass was successfully used, as the only free parameter, to adjust the ratio R(A) of structure functions measured in a nucleus of mass number A and in the deuteron, for each A value in the SLAC set of experimental data. The resulting A dependence of the effective mass, being linear in A/sup -1/3/, is consistent with the behavior expected from nuclear structure considerations. The extrapolated value of the effective mass for nuclear matter agrees with previous estimations.

  18. Measuring spin-dependent structure functions at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The author analyses whether CEBAF with a 10 GeV beam could contribute significantly to the understanding of spin-dependent deep-inelastic scattering as well as semi-inclusive reactions. The main advantage of CEBAF is the much better attainable statistics, its great disadvantage its comparably low energy, which limits the accessible x-range to about 0.15 to 0.7. Within these constraints CEBAF could provide (1) high precision data which would be very valuable to understand the Q{sup 2} dependence of the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}(x) and G{sub 2}(x) and (2) the by far most precise determination of the third moments of g{sub 1}(x) and g{sub 2}(x) the latter of which the author argues to be related to a fundamental property of the nucleon.

  19. Cosmological parameter dependence in local string theories of structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, E J; Steer, D A; Magueijo, Joao

    2000-01-01

    We perform the most accurate study to date of the dependence on cosmological parameters of structure formation with local cosmic strings. The crucial new ingredients are the inclusion of the effects of gravitational backreaction on the evolution of the network, and the accurate evolution of the network through the radiation to matter transition. Our work re-iterates the fact that expanding Universe numerical simulations only probe a transient regime, and we incorporate our results into the unequal time correlators recently measured. We then compute the CMB and CDM fluctuations' power spectra for various values of the Hubble constant $H_0$ and baryon fraction $\\Omega_b$. We find that, whereas the dependence on $\\Omega_b$ is negligible, there is still a strong dependence on $H_0$.

  20. Nonlinear Structure Formation with the Environmentally Dependent Dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Phil; Davis, Anne-C; Li, Baojiu; Shaw, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the nonlinear structure formation of the environmentally dependent dilaton model using $N$-body simulations. We find that the mechanism of suppressing the scalar fifth force in high-density regions works very well. Within the parameter space allowed by the solar system tests, the dilaton model predicts small deviations of the matter power spectrum and the mass function from their $\\Lambda$CDM counterparts. The importance of taking full account of the nonlinearity of the model is also emphasized.

  1. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  2. Dependence of thermal conductivity on structural parameters in porous samples

    OpenAIRE

    L. Miettinen; Kekäläinen, P; T. Turpeinen; Hyväluoma, J; Merikoski, J.; J. Timonen

    2012-01-01

    The in-plane thermal conductivity of porous sintered bronze plates was studied both experimentally and numerically. We developed and validated an experimental setup, where the sample was placed in vacuum and heated while its time-dependent temperature field was measured with an infrared camera. The porosity and detailed three-dimensional structure of the samples were determined by X-ray microtomography. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of thermal conductivity in the tomographic reconstructions o...

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce matrix metalloprotease 1 in human pulmonary fibroblasts partly via an interleukin-1β-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Lucie; Dagouassat, Maylis; Belade, Esther; Simon-Deckers, Angélique; Le Gouvello, Sabine; Tharabat, Chantal; Duprez, Corinne; Andujar, Pascal; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is associated with lung remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 is an important actor in matrix homeostasis and could therefore participate in TiO2 NP effects. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of TiO2 NPs on MMP-1 expression and activity in lung pulmonary fibroblasts and to understand the underlying mechanisms and assess the importance of the physicochemical characteristics of the particles in these effects. Human pulmonary fibroblasts (MRC-5 cell line and primary cells) were exposed to 10 or 100 μg/cm(2) TiO2 (two anatases, two anatase/rutile mix, one rutile NP, and one micrometric) and carbon black (CB) NPs for 6 to 48 hours. We examined cell viability, MMP-1 expression and activity, and the implication of oxidative stress, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, extracellular MMP inducer, and IL-1β in MMP-1 expression. All TiO2 NPs induced MMP-1 (mRNA and protein expression), repression of procollagen-1, and α-actin expression, but only the two anatase/rutile mix induced MMP-1 activity. Micrometric TiO2 had smaller effects than TiO2 NPs, and CB NPs did not induce MMP-1. MMP-1 induction by TiO2 NPs was not related to TGF-β, oxidative stress, or EMPRIN expression but was related to IL-1β expression, which partly drives MMP-1 induction by two TiO2 NPs (one anatase/rutile mix and the rutile one). Taken together, our results show that TiO2 NPs are potent inducers and regulators of MMP-1 expression and activity, partly via an IL-1β-dependent mechanism. This may explain TiO2 lung remodeling effects.

  4. Finding Imaging Patterns of Structural Covariance via Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) for the analysis of structural neuroimaging data. The goal is to identify the brain regions that co-vary across individuals in a consistent way, hence potentially being part of underlying brain networks or otherwise influenced by underlying common mechanisms such as genetics and pathologies. NNMF offers a directly data-driven way of extracting relatively localized co-varying structural regions, thereby transcending limitations of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and other related methods that tend to produce dispersed components of positive and negative loadings. In particular, leveraging upon the well known ability of NNMF to produce parts-based representations of image data, we derive decompositions that partition the brain into regions that vary in consistent ways across individuals. Importantly, these decompositions achieve dimensionality reduction via highly interpretable ways and generalize well to new data as shown via split-sample experiments. We empirically validate NNMF in two data sets: i) a Diffusion Tensor (DT) mouse brain development study, and ii) a structural Magnetic Resonance (sMR) study of human brain aging. We demonstrate the ability of NNMF to produce sparse parts-based representations of the data at various resolutions. These representations seem to follow what we know about the underlying functional organization of the brain and also capture some pathological processes. Moreover, we show that these low dimensional representations favorably compare to descriptions obtained with more commonly used matrix factorization methods like PCA and ICA. PMID:25497684

  5. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, Kristie Jo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  6. Crystal structures of phosphoketolase: thiamine diphosphate-dependent dehydration mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Katayama, Takane; Kim, Byung-Jun; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2010-10-29

    Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes are ubiquitously present in all organisms and catalyze essential reactions in various metabolic pathways. ThDP-dependent phosphoketolase plays key roles in the central metabolism of heterofermentative bacteria and in the pentose catabolism of various microbes. In particular, bifidobacteria, representatives of beneficial commensal bacteria, have an effective glycolytic pathway called bifid shunt in which 2.5 mol of ATP are produced per glucose. Phosphoketolase catalyzes two steps in the bifid shunt because of its dual-substrate specificity; they are phosphorolytic cleavage of fructose 6-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate to produce aldose phosphate, acetyl phosphate, and H(2)O. The phosphoketolase reaction is different from other well studied ThDP-dependent enzymes because it involves a dehydration step. Although phosphoketolase was discovered more than 50 years ago, its three-dimensional structure remains unclear. In this study we report the crystal structures of xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase from Bifidobacterium breve. The structures of the two intermediates before and after dehydration (α,β-dihydroxyethyl ThDP and 2-acetyl-ThDP) and complex with inorganic phosphate give an insight into the mechanism of each step of the enzymatic reaction.

  7. Significance of chymase-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kazuki; Takai, Shinji; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Ishida, Kumi; Yoda, Yukiko; Inoue, Takuya; Jin, Denan; Umegaki, Eiji; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2010-02-01

    The side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include gastrointestinal damage not only in the stomach but also in the small intestine. Chymase converts promatrix metalloproteinase-9 to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which plays an important role in NSAID-induced gastric damage, but it has been unclear whether chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation is involved in the NSAID-induced small intestinal damage. To clarify the involvement of chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage, the effect of a chymase inhibitor, 2-[4-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)sulfonamido-3-methanesulfonylphenyl] thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (TY-51469), on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats was evaluated. Until 6 h after oral administration of indomethacin in rats, intestinal MMP-9 activity was unchanged compared with normal rats, but significant increases in MMP-9 activity were observed 12 and 24 h after indomethacin administration. Significant increases in the small intestinal damage score were also observed 12 and 24 h after indomethacin administration. In the extract from the small intestine 24 h after indomethacin administration, the MMP-9 activation was significantly attenuated by TY-51469. Intraperitoneal injection of TY-51469 (10 mg/kg) 3 h before indomethacin administration significantly attenuated the MMP-9 activity in the small intestine compared with placebo treatment. Myeloperoxidase activity, which indicates accumulation of neutrophils, was significantly increased in the small intestine in the placebo-treated rats, but its activity was significantly attenuated by TY-51469 treatment. The area of small intestinal damage was also significantly ameliorated by TY-51469 treatment. These findings suggest that chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation has a significant role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats.

  8. Micromechanics and Structural Response of Functionally Graded, Particulate-Matrix, Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Guy M; Birman, Victor

    2009-05-15

    Reinforcement of fibrous composites by stiff particles embedded in the matrix offers the potential for simple, economical functional grading, enhanced response to mechanical loads, and improved functioning at high temperatures. Here, we consider laminated plates made of such a material, with spherical reinforcement tailored by layer. The moduli for this material lie within relatively narrow bounds. Two separate moduli estimates are considered: a "two-step" approach in which fibers are embedded in a homogenized particulate matrix, and the Kanaun-Jeulin (2001) approach, which we re-derive in a simple way using the Benveniste (1988) method. Optimal tailoring of a plate is explored, and functional grading is shown to improve the performance of the structures considered. In the example of a square, simply supported, cross-ply laminated panel subjected to uniform transverse pressure, a modest functional grading offers significant improvement in performance. A second example suggests superior blast resistance of the panel achieved at the expense of only a small increase in weight.

  9. In silico study on the effects of matrix structure in controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Rafael; Cordero, Salomón; Maria Vidales, Ana; Domínguez, Armando

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of drug concentration and spatial distribution of the medicament, in porous solid dosage forms, on the kinetics and total yield of drug release. Methods: Cubic networks are used as models of drug release systems. They were constructed by means of the dual site-bond model framework, which allows a substrate to have adequate geometrical and topological distribution of its pore elements. Drug particles can move inside the networks by following a random walk model with excluded volume interactions between the particles. The drug release time evolution for different drug concentration and different initial drug spatial distribution has been monitored. Results: The numerical results show that in all the studied cases, drug release presents an anomalous behavior, and the consequences of the matrix structural properties, i.e., drug spatial distribution and drug concentration, on the drug release profile have been quantified. Conclusions: The Weibull function provides a simple connection between the model parameters and the microstructure of the drug release device. A critical modeling of drug release from matrix-type delivery systems is important in order to understand the transport mechanisms that are implicated, and to predict the effect of the device design parameters on the release rate.

  10. Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...

  11. From nano to macro: studying the hierarchical structure of the corneal extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantock, Andrew J; Winkler, Moritz; Parfitt, Geraint J; Young, Robert D; Brown, Donald J; Boote, Craig; Jester, James V

    2015-04-01

    In this review, we discuss current methods for studying ocular extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly from the 'nano' to the 'macro' levels of hierarchical organization. Since collagen is the major structural protein in the eye, providing mechanical strength and controlling ocular shape, the methods presented focus on understanding the molecular assembly of collagen at the nanometre level using X-ray scattering through to the millimetre to centimetre level using non-linear optical (NLO) imaging of second harmonic generated (SHG) signals. Three-dimensional analysis of ECM structure is also discussed, including electron tomography, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and digital image reconstruction. Techniques to detect non-collagenous structural components of the ECM are also presented, and these include immunoelectron microscopy and staining with cationic dyes. Together, these various approaches are providing new insights into the structural blueprint of the ocular ECM, and in particular that of the cornea, which impacts upon our current understanding of the control of corneal shape, pathogenic mechanisms underlying ectatic disorders of the cornea and the potential for corneal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure and self-assembly of the calcium binding matrix protein of human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Huiskonen, Juha T; Grimes, Jonathan M

    2014-01-07

    The matrix protein (M) of paramyxoviruses plays a key role in determining virion morphology by directing viral assembly and budding. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human metapneumovirus M at 2.8 Å resolution in its native dimeric state. The structure reveals the presence of a high-affinity Ca²⁺ binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) predict a secondary lower-affinity site that correlates well with data from fluorescence-based thermal shift assays. By combining small-angle X-ray scattering with MDS and ensemble analysis, we captured the structure and dynamics of M in solution. Our analysis reveals a large positively charged patch on the protein surface that is involved in membrane interaction. Structural analysis of DOPC-induced polymerization of M into helical filaments using electron microscopy leads to a model of M self-assembly. The conservation of the Ca²⁺ binding sites suggests a role for calcium in the replication and morphogenesis of pneumoviruses.

  13. Universal matrix of structural-logic transformations of n-measuring cube En of uniform coding format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Yu. D.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The universal matrix of structural-logic transformations of the discrete information in the terms of n-measuring cube En, intended for construction of a uniform coding format, code combination of a structural-logic code (SLC, and correction of mistakes of transformation in code combinations SLC is developed. The matrix can be realized on the basis of modern microcontrollers at the appropriate software, that defines an opportunity of its wide use in computing structures for maintenance of a necessary noise stability of the processable discrete data.

  14. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  15. Robust Sensorless Control for Induction Motor Drives Fed by a Matrix Converter with Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Won-Sang; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Huh, Sunghoi;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust sensorless control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with variable structure. The lumped disturbances such as parameter variation and load disturbance of the system are estimated by a variable structure approach based...

  16. Quantum and classical correlations for a two-qubit X structure density matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Bang-Fu; Wang Xiao-Yun; Zhao He-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We derive explicit expressions for quantum discord and classical correlation for an X structure density matrix.Based on the characteristics of the expressions,the quantum discord and the classical correlation are easily obtained and compared under different initial conditions using a novel analytical method.We explain the relationships among quantum discord,classical correlation,and entanglement,and further find that the quantum discord is not always larger than the entanglement measured by concurrence in a general two-qubit X state.The new method,which is different from previous approaches,has certain guiding significance for analysing quantum discord and classical correlation of a two-qubit X state,such as a mixed state.

  17. Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiuguo; Ma, Zhichao; Xu, Zhimou [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Chuanwei; Jiang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: shyliu@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-21

    Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME) is applied to detect foot-like asymmetry encountered in nanoimprint lithography (NIL) processes. We present both theoretical and experimental results which show that MME has good sensitivity to both the magnitude and direction of asymmetric profiles. The physics behind the use of MME for asymmetry detection is the breaking of electromagnetic reciprocity theorem for the zeroth-order diffraction of asymmetric gratings. We demonstrate that accurate characterization of asymmetric nanoimprinted gratings can be achieved by performing MME measurements in a conical mounting with the plane of incidence parallel to grating lines and meanwhile incorporating depolarization effects into the optical model. The comparison of MME-extracted asymmetric profile with the measurement by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy also reveals the strong potential of this technique for in-line monitoring NIL processes, where symmetric structures are desired.

  18. Monolithic ionizing particle detector based on active matrix of functionally integrated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashev, V.N. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Legotin, S.A., E-mail: serlego@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Karmanov, D.E. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (MSU SINP) (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, F.M.; Didenko, S.I. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new type of monolithic silicon position detector is presented. • An operating principle, design and technology of the detector are described. • Calculated estimations of the detecting efficiency are carried out. • Experimental results of alpha-particle and electron detection are shown. -- Abstract: An operating principle, design and technology of a new type of the monolithic silicon position detector (MSPD) for registration of ionizing particles and photons are described. The detector represents a specialized monolithic silicon VLSI that contains a two-dimensional detecting matrix of active functionally integrated bipolar structures and peripheral electronic circuitry for signal amplification and processing. This paper presents experimental results of α-particles and electrons detection with position accuracy and operation speed better than 12.5 μm and 1 ns, respectively. The given estimations show the capabilities of this detector and its advantages in comparison with analogs.

  19. AN EFFICIENT AND STABLE STRUCTURE PRESERVING ALGORITHM FOR COMPUTING THE EIGENVALUES OF A HAMILTONIAN MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆友; 熊西文

    2002-01-01

    An efficient and stable structure preserving algorithm, which is a variant of the QR like (SR) algorithm due to Bunse-Gerstner and Mehrmann, is presented for computing the eigenvalues and stable invariant subspaces of a Hamiltonian matrix. In the algorithm two strategies are employed, one of which is called dis- unstabilization technique and the other is preprocessing technique. Together with them, a so-called ratio-reduction equation and a backtrack technique are introduced to avoid the instability and breakdown in the original algorithm. It is shown that the new algorithm can overcome the instability and breakdown at low cost. Numerical results have demonstrated that the algorithm is stable and can compute the eigenvalues to very high accuracy.

  20. Patchwork structure-function analysis of the Sendai virus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet-Osman, Geneviève; Miazza, Vincent; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roux, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Paramyxoviruses contain a bi-lipidic envelope decorated by two transmembrane glycoproteins and carpeted on the inner surface with a layer of matrix proteins (M), thought to bridge the glycoproteins with the viral nucleocapsids. To characterize M structure-function features, a set of M domains were mutated or deleted. The genes encoding these modified M were incorporated into recombinant Sendai viruses and expressed as supplemental proteins. Using a method of integrated suppression complementation system (ISCS), the functions of these M mutants were analyzed in the context of the infection. Cellular membrane association, localization at the cell periphery, nucleocapsid binding, cellular protein interactions and promotion of viral particle formation were characterized in relation with the mutations. At the end, lack of nucleocapsid binding go together with lack of cell surface localization and both features definitely correlate with loss of M global function estimated by viral particle production.

  1. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  2. Vibration analysis of fluid -structure interaction in water hammer based on transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; TANG Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the problem that the effect of conduit structure on water hammer has been ignored in the classical theory,the Poisson coupling between the fluid and the pipeline was stu-died and a fourteen-equation mathematical model of fluid -structure interaction (FSI)was developed. Then,the transfer matrix method (TMM)was used to calculate the modal frequency,modal shape and frequency response.The results were compared with that in experiment to verify the correctness of the TMMand the results show that the fluid -structure coupling has a greater impact on the modal frequen-cies than the modal shape.Finally,the influence on the response spectrum of different damping ratios was studied and the results show that the natural frequency under different damping ratios has changed little but there is a big difference for the pressure spectrum.With the decreasing of damping ratio,the damping of the system on frequency spectrum is more and more significant and the dispersion and dissi-pation is more and more apparent.Therefore the appropriate damping ratio should be selected to mini-mize the effects of the vibration of the FSI.The results provide references for the theory research of FSI in the transient process.

  3. On the structure and functions of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Van Damme, Jo; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specific structure that is composed of two basement membranes (BMs) and that contributes to the control of neuroinflammation. As long as the BBB is intact, extravasated leukocytes may accumulate between two BMs, generating vascular cuffs. Specific matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been shown to cleave BBB beta-dystroglycan and to disintegrate thereby the parenchymal BM, resulting in encephalomyelitis. This knowledge has been added to the molecular basis of the REGA model to understand the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and it gives further ground for the use of MMP inhibitors for the treatment of acute neuroinflammation. MMP-9 is associated with central nervous system inflammation and occurs in various forms: monomers and multimers. None of the various neurological and neuropathologic functions of MMP-9 have been associated with either molecular structure or molecular form, and therefore, in-depth structure-function studies are needed before medical intervention with MMP-9-specific inhibitors is initiated.

  4. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  5. Mesenchymal Transition of High-Grade Breast Carcinomas Depends on Extracellular Matrix Control of Myeloid Suppressor Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sangaletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM contributes to the biological and clinical heterogeneity of breast cancer, and different prognostic groups can be identified according to specific ECM signatures. In high-grade, but not low-grade, tumors, an ECM signature characterized by high SPARC expression (ECM3 identifies tumors with increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, reduced treatment response, and poor prognosis. To better understand how this ECM3 signature is contributing to tumorigenesis, we expressed SPARC in isogenic cell lines and found that SPARC overexpression in tumor cells reduces their growth rate and induces EMT. SPARC expression also results in the formation of a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment, composed by infiltrating T regulatory cells, mast cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs. The ability of SPARC to induce EMT depended on the localization and suppressive function of myeloid cells, and inhibition of the suppressive function MDSCs by administration of aminobisphosphonates could revert EMT, rendering SPARC-overexpressing tumor cells sensitive to Doxil. We conclude that that SPARC is regulating the interplay between MDSCs and the ECM to drive the induction of EMT in tumor cells.

  6. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites for electrical-resistance-based sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojun

    This dissertation has advanced the science and technology of electrical-resistance-based sensing of strain/stress and damage using continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for aircraft structures. In particular, it has extended the technology of self-sensing of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites from uniaxial longitudinal loading and flexural loading to uniaxial through-thickness loading and has extended the technology from structural composite self-sensing to the use of the composite (specifically a one-lamina composite) as an attached sensor. Through-thickness compression is encountered in the joining of composite components by fastening. Uniaxial through-thickness compression results in strain-induced reversible decreases in the through-thickness and longitudinal volume resistivities, due to increase in the fiber-fiber contact in the through-thickness direction, and minor-damage-induced irreversible changes in these resistivities. The Poisson effect plays a minor role. The effects in the longitudinal resistivity are small compared to those in the through-thickness direction, but longitudinal resistance measurement is more amenable to practical implementation in structures than through-thickness resistance measurement. The irreversible effects are associated with an increase in the through-thickness resistivity and a decrease in the longitudinal resistivity. The through-thickness gage factor is up to 5.1 and decreases with increasing compressive strain above 0.2%. The reversible fractional change in through-thickness resistivity per through-thickness strain is up to 4.0 and decreases with increasing compressive strain. The irreversible fractional change in through-thickness resistivity per unit through-thickness strain is around -1.1 and is independent of the strain. The sensing is feasible by measuring the resistance away from the stressed region, though the effectiveness is less than that at the stressed region. A one

  7. A Bridging Cell Multiscale Methodology to Model the Structural Behaviour of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Vincent

    Composite and nanocomposite materials exhibit behaviour which is inherently multiscale, extending from the atomistic to continuum levels. In composites, damage growth tends to occur at the nano and microstructural scale by means of crack growth and fibre-matrix debonding. Concurrent multiscale modeling provides a means of efficiently solving such localized phenomena, however its use in this application has been limited due to a number of existing issues in the multiscale field. These include the seamless transfer of information between continuum and atomistic domains, the small timesteps required for dynamic simulation, and limited research into concurrent multiscale modeling of amorphous polymeric materials. The objective of this thesis is thus twofold: to formulate a generalized approach to solving a coupled atomistic-to-continuum system that addresses these issues and to extend the application space of concurrent multiscale modeling to damage modeling in composite microstructures. To achieve these objectives, a finite element based multiscale technique termed the Bridging Cell Method (BCM), has been formulated with a focus on crystalline material systems. Case studies are then presented that show the effectiveness of the developed technique with respect to full atomistic simulations. The BCM is also demonstrated for applications of stress around a nanovoid, nanoindentation, and crack growth due to monotonic and cyclic loading. Next, the BCM is extended to modeling amorphous polymeric material systems where an adaptive solver and a two-step iterative solution algorithm are introduced. Finally, the amorphous and crystalline BCM is applied to modeling a polymer-graphite interface. This interface model is used to obtain cohesive zone parameters which are used in a cohesive zone model of fibre-matrix interfacial cracking in a composite microstructure. This allows for an investigation of the temperature dependent damage mechanics from the nano to microscale within

  8. Mode Characterization for Planar and Corrugated Multilayer Structures via Scattering Matrix Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kneale, Casey; Booksh, Karl S

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the unconditionally stable planar rank 2 scattering matrix for stratified systems is detailed from Fresnel equations. Several matrix decompositions and numerical calculations performed on the planar S matrix allow for the expedient characterization of purely absorbing, brewster, surface plasmon, and wave-guide modes. A figure of merit is presented from the decompositions of the scattering matrix constructed from the Chandezon method for corrugated surfaces. This figure of merit represents the hyper-area of the scattering matrix transform and allows for rapid distinguishability between lossy absorption phenomena, and surface plasmons. Some extension of this technique is possible for surface plasmon polaritons in the infrared region.

  9. Trace Element Geochemistry of Matrix Glass from the Bedout Impact Structure,Canning Basin NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreda, R. J.; Basu, A. R.; Chakrabarti, R.; Becker, L.

    2004-12-01

    We report on geochemical and petrographic analysis of separated matrix glass from Lagrange-1 and Bedout-1 drill cores that penetrated the Bedout structure offshore NW Australia. The results support the conclusion that the Bedout structure was produced by a a major ET impact at the end-Permian that generated shock melted glass and impact breccias (Becker et al., Science, v.304, p.1469, 2004) The Bedout structure is a 30 km, circular, 1.5 km uplifted basment high that occurs on the passive margin offshore NW Australia. The isolated feature, covered by 3 km of Triassic to Recent sediments,is not consistent with any typical volcanic province (i.e. arc or hotspot volcanism). This hypothesis is supported by the unique mineralogy and chemistry of the matrix glass. At Lagrange, major elements crudely resemble low-K, Fe-Ti basalts while the trace element patterns have two distinct signatures. The lower 250 m of Lagrange (3260 - 3010 m depth) have essentially flat REE and "spider" patterns that superficially resemble some E-MORB; a signal not typically found in arc, hotspot or continental margin settings. The upper 150 meters (3000 - 2850m) of Lagrange and the entire Bedout core (3030 - 3070m) have similar light REE-enriched patterns but low levels of alkalis, alkaline-earths and high field strength elements. Again, the chemistry is not consistent with an arc or hotspot setting, based on the low Ba and extremely low Sr (30-110 ppm) concentrations. Based on the geophysical, chemical and petrologic evidence, we hypothesize that the Bedout structure formed as the result` of an ET impact with Permian age rift margin basalts and continental sediment. The basalts did not completely melt as evidenced by the abundance of large (1 mm) An50 plagioclase,that exist as both crystalline plag and shock melted maskelynite. Plagioclase is the major repository of Sr in basalts and the lack of a plagioclase contribution to the melt glass is reflected in the low Sr abundance. Shock

  10. Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2016-03-03

    Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.

  11. Temperature dependence of crystal structure and digestibility of roasted diaspore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋生; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 刘桂华

    2004-01-01

    Through X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electronic micrographs, temperature dependence of the crystal structure of roasted diasporic bauxite at different temperatures and the digestibility of roasting production were investigated systematically. The lattice parameters of unit cell for chemically purified diaspore and unequilibrium alumina-contained oxide obtained from the diaspore roasted at different temperatures were determined. It is found that, with roasting temperature increasing, the roasting production changes from the original dense and perfect diaspore crystal into imperfect corundum with many microcracks and small pores on its surface and then into perfect corundum with low digestibility. The optimum roasting temperature with best digestibility is approximately 525 ℃ when residence time is about 25 min. It is thought that the change of crystal structure, formation of microcracks and small pores in the temperature field are the main essential reasons for improving digestibility of diasporic bauxite and its roasting production.

  12. Use of Synthetic Peptides to Study Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel-Arnett, Sarah Joann

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc proteinases that is collectively capable of degrading the major components of the extracellular matrix. A variety of synthetic peptides has been prepared which are models for the human MMP and their substrates to study structure -function relationships in this enzyme-substrate system. To elucidate the sequence specificity of the MMP, the k _{cat}/K_ M values for the hydrolysis of over 50 synthetic octapeptides has been investigated. Similarities, as well as distinct differences have been found between the individual MMP with the largest differences occurring at subsites P_1, P_1^' and P_3 ^'. Based on these data, quenched -fluorescence substrates with optimized sequences have been developed for five human MMP. The key features of these heptapeptides are a tryptophan on the P_ n^' side and a dinitrophenol quenching group on the amino terminus. To assess the role of the triple helical conformation in the collagenase-collagen system, a series of triple helical peptides has been prepared and shown to compete with collagen in collagenase assays. This provides evidence for the existence of a triple helical recognition site distinct from the active site. All of the MMP are secreted as zymogens and it has been postulated that the portion of the propeptide surrounding a critical cysteine is responsible for maintaining latency. Conformational energy calculations and mutagenesis studies have suggested that this region adopts a specific conformation that stabilizes the latent form. Peptide models of this region of the propeptide have been prepared and shown to inhibit the MMP. CD and NMR studies, however, have failed to provide evidence for the predicted peptide conformation. Thus, the observed inhibition may reflect their propensity to adopt the propeptide conformation upon binding to the enzyme.

  13. Effects of the implantation of Sn ions on W matrix's chemical state, crystal structure and hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Z. X.; Sun, J. Z.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y. M.

    2017-09-01

    Prior to the practical application of liquid metals as facing material for fusion reactor, the nature of the interaction layer between liquid metal and tungsten substrate should be studied deeply. In the present work, by means of ion implantation technique using a metal vapor vacuum arc source (MEVVA), Sn ions were injected into a W matrix and a W-Sn modified layer was prepared. The chemical state, crystal structure and nano-indentation hardness of the modified layer were investigated and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and a nano-indentor. The results indicate that, after the injection of Sn ions into the W matrix, Sn atoms interacted intensively with W, leading to the generation of a large number of point defects (such as vacancies and self-interstitial atoms) and the decrease of average grain size from 16.7 to 11.9 nm. Additionally, chemical shifts appeared, i.e., the binding energy values of W 4f7/2, W 4f5/2, W 5p3/2 and W 4p1/2 in the modified layer was reduced by 0.3 eV, 0.3 eV, 0.4 eV, 1-1.4 eV, respectively. The binding energy values of Sn 3d5/2 and Sn 3d3/2 decreased, with a chemical shift of 0.6-0.7 eV and 0.1-0.3 eV, respectively. The nano-indentation hardness of the modified layer was enhanced; specifically, when the indentation depth was 26.3 nm, the hardness reached a peak value of 13.8 GPa. In the modified layer, the surface chemical states are quite complex, mainly including SnO, WO3, SnO2 and WC.

  14. Structural damage detection using sparse sensors installation by optimization procedure based on the modal flexibility matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Hosseinzadeh, A.; Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Seyed Razzaghi, S. A.; Koo, K. Y.; Sung, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting a novel and effective method to detect and estimate structural damage by introducing an efficient objective function which is based on Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) and modal flexibility matrix. The main strategy in the proposed objective function relies on searching a geometrical correlation between two vectors. Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO) algorithm, a modified version of original PSO approach, is used to minimize the objective function resulting in the assessment of damage in different structure types. Finally, the presented method is generalized for a condition in which a limited number of sensors are installed on the structure using Neumann Series Expansion-based Model Reduction (NSEMR) approach. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, different damage patterns in three numerical examples of engineering structures are simulated and the proposed method is employed for damage identification. Moreover, the stability of the method is investigated by considering the effects of a number of important challenges such as effects of different locations for sensor installation, prevalent modeling errors and presence of random noises in the input data. It is followed by different comparative studies to evaluate not only the robustness of the proposed method, but also the necessity of using introduced techniques for problem solution. Finally, the applicability of the presented method in real conditions is also verified by an experimental study of a five-story shear frame on a shaking table utilizing only three sensors. All of the obtained results demonstrate that the proposed method precisely identifies damages by using only the first several modes' data, even when incomplete noisy modal data are considered as input data.

  15. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter Ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons.

  16. Dependence of thermal conductivity on structural parameters in porous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, L.; Kekäläinen, P.; Turpeinen, T.; Hyväluoma, J.; Merikoski, J.; Timonen, J.

    2012-03-01

    The in-plane thermal conductivity of porous sintered bronze plates was studied both experimentally and numerically. We developed and validated an experimental setup, where the sample was placed in vacuum and heated while its time-dependent temperature field was measured with an infrared camera. The porosity and detailed three-dimensional structure of the samples were determined by X-ray microtomography. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of thermal conductivity in the tomographic reconstructions of the samples were used to correct the contact area between bronze particles as determined by image analysis from the tomographic reconstructions. Small openings in the apparent contacts could not be detected with the imaging resolution used, and they caused an apparent thermal contact resistance between particles. With this correction included, the behavior of the measured thermal conductivity was successfully explained by an analytical expression, originally derived for regular structures, which involves three structural parameters of the porous structures. There was no simple relationship between heat conductivity and porosity.

  17. Dependence of thermal conductivity on structural parameters in porous samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miettinen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The in-plane thermal conductivity of porous sintered bronze plates was studied both experimentally and numerically. We developed and validated an experimental setup, where the sample was placed in vacuum and heated while its time-dependent temperature field was measured with an infrared camera. The porosity and detailed three-dimensional structure of the samples were determined by X-ray microtomography. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of thermal conductivity in the tomographic reconstructions of the samples were used to correct the contact area between bronze particles as determined by image analysis from the tomographic reconstructions. Small openings in the apparent contacts could not be detected with the imaging resolution used, and they caused an apparent thermal contact resistance between particles. With this correction included, the behavior of the measured thermal conductivity was successfully explained by an analytical expression, originally derived for regular structures, which involves three structural parameters of the porous structures. There was no simple relationship between heat conductivity and porosity.

  18. 1α,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (Vitamin D3 Induces NO-Dependent Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Migration in a Three-Dimensional Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Molinari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (Vit. D induces eNOS dependent nitric oxide (NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. To our knowledge, there are no reports directly relating Vit. D induced NO production to proliferation and/or migration in endothelial cells (EC. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Vit. D addition to porcine EC could affect their proliferation and/or migration in a three-dimensional matrix via NO production. Materials and Methods: Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE were used to evaluate Vit. D effects on cell proliferation and migration in a three-dimensional matrix. Results: Vit. D induced NO production in PAE cells. Moreover, it induced a significant increase in cellular proliferation and migration in a three-dimensional matrix. These effects were NO dependent, as inhibiting eNOS activity by L-NAME PAE migration was abrogated. This effect was strictly related to MMP-2 expression and apparently dependent on Vit. D and NO production. Conclusions: Vit. D can promote both endothelial cells proliferation and migration in a three-dimensional matrix via NO-dependent mechanisms. These findings cast new light on the role of Vit. D in the angiogenic process, suggesting new applications for Vit. D in such fields as tissue repair and wound healing.

  19. Structural and thermophysical properties characterization of continuously reinforced cast Al matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gordon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the process of manufacturing a continuously reinforced cast Al matrix composite and its properties are presented. The described technology permits obtaining a structural material of competitive properties compared to either heat treatable aluminum alloys or polymer composites for several types of applications. The examined thermophysical properties and structural characterization, including material anisotropy, coupled with the results of previous measurements of the mechanical properties of both Al2O3 reinforcing filaments and metallic prepregs have proven the high quality of this material and the possibility of its operation under special loading modes and environmental conditions. Microscopic examinations (LM, SEM were carried out to reveal the range of morphological homogeneity of the microstructure, the anisotropy of the filament band distribution, and simultaneously the adhesive behavior of the metal/fiber interface. The 3D morphology of the chosen microstructure components was revealed by computed tomography. The obtained results indicate that special properties of the examined prepreg materials have been strongly influenced, on the one hand, by the geometry of its internal microstructure, i.e. spatial distribution and volume fraction of the Al2O3 reinforcing filaments and, on the other hand, by a very good compatibility obtained between the individual metal prepreg components.

  20. Structural and optical properties of cordierite glass-ceramic doped in polyurethane matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Nadafan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cordierite (2Mg.2Al2O3.5SiO2 was synthesized by the Pechini method and added to polyurethane open cell (PUOC foam in three different percentages. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to evaluate the bonding characteristics of PUOC/cordierites. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of cordierite and crystallographic structure of the final product were studied by XRD. By increasing the temperature, the widths of the XRD peaks decreased, approaching the single crystal spectrum. The SEM results show that by increasing of cordierite percentage in PUOC foam, the matrix structure was much damaged. Using Z-scan method, optical nonlinearities of samples were measured by continues wave (CW laser at the wavelength of 532 nm. The nonlinear refractive (NLR indices and nonlinear absorption (NLA coefficients of the synthesized samples are obtained in the order of 10−8 (cm2/W with negative sign and 10−5 (cm/W, respectively. The origin of optical nonlinearity may be attributed to the presence of strong saturable absorption (SA effect.

  1. The structure-function relationship of MSI7, a matrix protein from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoli Feng; Zi Fang; Zhenguang Yan; Rui Xing; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We previously identified a matrix protein, MSI7, from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. According to the struc-tural analysis, the DGD site in the N-terminal of MSI7 is crucial for its role in the shell formation. In this study, we expressed a series of recombinant MSI7 pro-teins, including the wild-type and several mutants directed at the DGD site, using an Escherichia coli expression system to reveal the structure-function relationship of MSI7. Furthermore, in vitro crystalliza-tion, crystallization speed assay, and circular dichroism spectrometry were carried out. Results indicated that wild-type MSI7 could induce the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibit the crystallization of calcite. However, none of the mutants could induce the nucleation of ara-gonite, but all of them could inhibit the crystallization of calcite to some extent. And all the proteins acceler-ated the crystallization process. Taken together, the results indicated that MSI7 could contribute to arago-nite crystallization by inducing the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibiting the crystallization of calcite, which agrees with our prediction about its role in the nacr-eous layer formation of the shell. The DGD site was critical for the induction of the nucleation of aragonite.

  2. Effects of Mutations on Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Warispreet; Fields, Gregg B; Christov, Christo Z; Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G

    2016-10-14

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX) domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT) domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP). The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

  3. Extracellular matrix control of dendritic spine and synapse structure and plasticity in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Levy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are the receptive contacts at most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Spines are dynamic in the developing brain, changing shape as they mature as well as appearing and disappearing as they make and break connections. Spines become much more stable in adulthood, and spine structure must be actively maintained to support established circuit function. At the same time, adult spines must retain some plasticity so their structure can be modified by activity and experience. As such, the regulation of spine stability and remodeling in the adult animal is critical for normal function, and disruption of these processes is associated with a variety of late onset diseases including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The extracellular matrix (ECM, composed of a meshwork of proteins and proteoglycans, is a critical regulator of spine and synapse stability and plasticity. While the role of ECM receptors in spine regulation has been extensively studied, considerably less research has focused directly on the role of specific ECM ligands. Here, we review the evidence for a role of several brain ECM ligands and remodeling proteases in the regulation of dendritic spine and synapse formation, plasticity, and stability in adults.

  4. The Deuteron Spin-dependent Structure Function $g^{d}_1$ and its First Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Becker, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Bytchkov, V.N.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Demchenko, D.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Horn, I.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ivanchin, I.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, D.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Krivokhizhin, G.V.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kubart, J.; Kuhn, R.; Kukhtin, V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.E.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leberig, M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Masek, L.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Matthia, D.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Neyret, D.P.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nozdrin, A.A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, I.A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schroeder, W.; Seeharsch, D.; Seimetz, M.; Setter, D.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Trippel, S.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g^d_1 based on the data collected by the COMPASS experiment at CERN during the years 2002-2004. The data provide an accurate evaluation for \\Gamma^d_1, the first moment of g^d_1(x), and for the matrix element of the singlet axial current, a_0. The results of QCD fits in the next to leading order (NLO) on all g1 deep inelastic scattering data are also presented. They provide two solutions with the gluon spin distribution function \\Delta_G positive or negative, which describe the data equally well. In both cases, at Q^2 = 3(GeV/c)^2 the first moment of \\Delta G is found to be of the order of 0:2 - 0:3 in absolute value.

  5. TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Guillier, Maude; Barnard, Travis J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2010-01-01

    TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that bind and transport ferric chelates, called siderophores, as well as vitamin B(12), nickel complexes, and carbohydrates. The transport process requires energy in the form of proton motive force and a complex of three inner membrane proteins, TonB-ExbB-ExbD, to transduce this energy to the outer membrane. The siderophore substrates range in complexity from simple small molecules such as citrate to large proteins such as serum transferrin and hemoglobin. Because iron uptake is vital for almost all bacteria, expression of TBDTs is regulated in a number of ways that include metal-dependent regulators, σ/anti-σ factor systems, small RNAs, and even a riboswitch. In recent years, many new structures of TBDTs have been solved in various states, resulting in a more complete understanding of siderophore selectivity and binding, signal transduction across the outer membrane, and interaction with the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex. However, the transport mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding regulation, structure, and function in TBDTs and questions remaining to be answered.

  6. Crystalline structure-dependent growth of bimetallic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Jiang, Ruibin; Ming, Tian; Fang, Caihong; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-11-21

    Morphological control of multimetallic nanostructures is crucial for obtaining shape-dependent physical and chemical properties. Up to date, control of the shapes of multimetallic nanostructures has remained largely empirical. Multimetallic nanostructures have been produced mostly through seed-mediated growth. Understanding the role played by starting nanocrystal seeds can help in controlling the shape and in turn the plasmonic and catalytic properties of multimetallic nanostructures. In this work, we have studied the effect of the crystalline structure and shape of Au nanocrystal seeds on the morphology of the resultant bimetallic nanostructures. Single-crystalline Au nanorods, multiply twinned Au nanorods, and multiply twinned Au nanobipyramids were employed as the starting seeds. Both silver and palladium exhibit highly preferential growth on the side surfaces of the single-crystalline Au nanorods, giving rise to bimetallic cuboids, whereas they prefer to grow at the ends of the multiply twinned Au nanorods and nanobipyramids, giving rise to bimetallic nanorods. These results indicate that the morphology of the bimetallic nanostructures is highly dependent on the crystalline structure of the Au nanocrystal seeds. Our results will be useful for guiding the preparation of multimetallic nanostructures with desired shapes and therefore plasmonic properties for various plasmon-based applications.

  7. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all Cα RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the Cα RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with Cα RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy-dependent

  8. Ferromagnetism and temperature-dependent electronic structure in metallic films

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, T

    1999-01-01

    reduced at the surface compared to the inner layers. This observation clearly contradicts the well-known Stoner picture of band magnetism and can be explained in terms of general arguments which are based on exact results in the limit of strong Coulomb interaction. The magnetic behavior of the Hubbard films can be analyzed in detail by inspecting the local quasi particle density of states as well as the wave vector dependent spectral density. The electronic structure is found to be strongly spin-, layer-, and temperature-dependent. The last part of this work is concerned about the temperature-driven reorientation transition in thin metallic films. For the description of the magnetic anisotropy in thin films the dipole interaction as well as the spin-orbit interaction have to be included in the model. By calculating the temperature-dependence of the magnetic anisotropy energy it is found that both types of temperature-driven reorientation transitions, from out-of-plane to in-plane (''Fe-type'') and from in-pla...

  9. Finding structure with randomness: Stochastic algorithms for constructing approximate matrix decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Halko, Nathan; Tropp, Joel A

    2009-01-01

    Low-rank matrix approximations, such as the truncated singular value decomposition and the rank-revealing QR decomposition, play a central role in data analysis and scientific computing. This work surveys recent research which demonstrates that \\emph{randomization} offers a powerful tool for performing low-rank matrix approximation. These techniques exploit modern computational architectures more fully than classical methods and open the possibility of dealing with truly massive data sets. In particular, these techniques offer a route toward principal component analysis (PCA) for petascale data. This paper presents a modular framework for constructing randomized algorithms that compute partial matrix decompositions. These methods use random sampling to identify a subspace that captures most of the action of a matrix. The input matrix is then compressed - either explicitly or implicitly - to this subspace, and the reduced matrix is manipulated deterministically to obtain the desired low-rank factorization. In ...

  10. Neutrophil bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus adherent on biological surfaces. Surface-bound extracellular matrix proteins activate intracellular killing by oxygen-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, M; Jaconi, M E; Dahlgren, C; Waldvogel, F A; Stendahl, O; Lew, D P

    1990-09-01

    The activation patterns of surface adherent neutrophils are modulated via interaction of extracellular matrix proteins with neutrophil integrins. To evaluate neutrophil bactericidal activity, Staphylococcus aureus adherent to biological surfaces were incubated with neutrophils and serum, and the survival of surface bacteria was determined. When compared to albumin-coated surfaces, the bactericidal activity of neutrophils adherent to purified human extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced (mean survival: 34.2% +/- 9.0% of albumin, P less than 0.0001) despite similar efficient ingestion of extracellular bacteria. Enhancement of killing was observed when surfaces were coated with purified constituents of extracellular matrix, i.e., fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, vitronectin, or type IV collagen. In addition to matrix proteins, the tetrapeptide RGDS (the sequence recognized by integrins) crosslinked to surface bound albumin was also active (survival: 74.5% +/- 5.5% of albumin, P less than 0.02), and fibronectin-increased killing was inhibited by soluble RGDS. Chemiluminescence measurements and experiments with CGD neutrophils revealed that both oxygen-dependent and -independent bactericidal mechanisms are involved. In conclusion, matrix proteins enhance intracellular bactericidal activity of adherent neutrophils, presumably by integrin recognition of RGDS-containing ligands. These results indicate a role for extracellular matrix proteins in the enhancement of the host defense against pyogenic infections.

  11. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Torarinsson, Elfar; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may...... the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained....... Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned...

  12. Stiffness-dependent cellular internalization of matrix-bound BMP-2 and its relation to Smad and non-Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Flora; Fourel, Laure; Guillot, Raphael; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Okada, Takaharu; Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Boudou, Thomas; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Surface coatings delivering BMP are a promising approach to render biomaterials osteoinductive. In contrast to soluble BMPs which can interact with their receptors at the dorsal side of the cell, BMPs presented as an insoluble cue physically bound to a biomimetic matrix, called here matrix-bound (bBMP-2), are presented to cells by their ventral side. To date, BMP-2 internalization and signaling studies in cell biology have always been performed by adding soluble (sBMP-2) to cells adhered on cell culture plates or glass slides, which will be considered here as a "reference" condition. However, whether and how matrix-bound BMP-2 can be internalized by cells and its relation to canonical (SMAD) and non-canonical signaling (ALP) remain open questions. In this study, we investigated the uptake and processing of BMP-2 by C2C12 myoblasts. This BMP-2 was presented either embedded in polyelectrolyte multilayer films (matrix-bound presentation) or as soluble form. Using fluorescently labeled BMP-2, we showed that the amount of matrix-bound BMP-2 internalized is dependent on the level of crosslinking of the polyelectrolyte films. Cav-1-mediated internalization is related to both SMAD and ALP signaling, while clathrin-mediated is only related to ALP signaling. BMP-2 internalization was independent of the presentation mode (sBMP-2 versus bBMP-2) for low crosslinked films (soft, EDC10) in striking contrast with high crosslinked (stiff, EDC70) films where internalization was much lower and slower for bBMP-2. As anticipated, internalization of sBMP-2 barely depended on the underlying matrix. Taken together, these results indicate that BMP-2 internalization can be tuned by the underlying matrix and activates downstream BMP-2 signaling, which is key for the effective formation of bone tissue.

  13. Sub-inhibitory tigecycline concentrations induce extracellular matrix binding protein Embp dependent Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Julian; Henke, Hanae A; Hector, Nina; Both, Anna; Christner, Martin; Büttner, Henning; Kaplan, Jeffery B; Rohde, Holger

    2016-09-01

    Biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis implant infections are notoriously reluctant to antibiotic treatment. Here we studied the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tigecycline on S. epidermidis 1585 biofilm formation, expression of extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) and potential implications for S. epidermidis - macrophage interactions. Penicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid had no biofilm augmenting effect at any of the concentrations tested. In contrast, at sub-inhibitory concentrations tigecycline and oxacillin exhibited significant biofilm inducing activity. In S. epidermidis 1585, SarA is a negative regulator of giant 1 MDa Embp, and down regulation of sarA induces Embp-dependent assembly of a multi-layered biofilm architecture. Dot blot immune assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and qPCR showed that under biofilm inducing conditions, tigecycline augmented embp expression compared to the control grown without antibiotics. Conversely, expression of regulator sarA was suppressed, suggesting that tigecycline exerts its effects on embp expression through SarA. Tigecycline failed to induce biofilm formation in embp transposon mutant 1585-M135, proving that under these conditions Embp up-regulation is necessary for biofilm accumulation. As a functional consequence, tigecycline induced biofilm formation significantly impaired the up-take of S. epidermidis by mouse macrophage-like cell line J774A.1. Our data provide novel evidence for the molecular basis of antibiotic induced biofilm formation, a phenotype associated with inherently increased antimicrobial tolerance. While this could explain failure of antimicrobial therapies, persistence of S. epidermidis infections in the presence of sub-inhibitory antimicrobials is additionally propelled by biofilm-related impairment of macrophage-mediated pathogen eradication.

  14. A Novel Riemannian Metric Based on Riemannian Structure and Scaling Information for Fixed Low-Rank Matrix Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shasha; Xiong, Lin; Jiao, Licheng; Feng, Tian; Yeung, Sai-Kit

    2016-07-26

    Riemannian optimization has been widely used to deal with the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem, and Riemannian metric is a crucial factor of obtaining the search direction in Riemannian optimization. This paper proposes a new Riemannian metric via simultaneously considering the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information, which is smoothly varying and invariant along the equivalence class. The proposed metric can make a tradeoff between the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information effectively. Essentially, it can be viewed as a generalization of some existing metrics. Based on the proposed Riemanian metric, we also design a Riemannian nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, which can efficiently solve the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem. By experimenting on the fixed low-rank matrix completion, collaborative filtering, and image and video recovery, it illustrates that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods on the convergence efficiency and the numerical performance.

  15. Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A [NNL-National Nanotechnology Laboratory, INFM, CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: despina.fragouli@unile.it

    2009-04-15

    A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

  16. Albumin induces upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in astrocytes via MAPK and reactive oxygen species-dependent pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranaivo Hantamalala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytes are an integral component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB which may be compromised by ischemic or traumatic brain injury. In response to trauma, astrocytes increase expression of the endopeptidase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9. Compromise of the BBB leads to the infiltration of fluid and blood-derived proteins including albumin into the brain parenchyma. Albumin has been previously shown to activate astrocytes and induce the production of inflammatory mediators. The effect of albumin on MMP-9 activation in astrocytes is not known. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of MMP-9 by albumin in astrocytes. Methods Primary enriched astrocyte cultures were used to investigate the effects of exposure to albumin on the release of MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was analyzed by zymography. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS and the TGF-β receptor-dependent pathways were investigated using pharmacological inhibitors. The production of ROS was observed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. The level of the MMP-9 inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 produced by astrocytes was measured by ELISA. Results We found that albumin induces a time-dependent release of MMP-9 via the activation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal regulated kinase, but not Jun kinase. Albumin-induced MMP-9 production also involves ROS production upstream of the MAPK pathways. However, albumin-induced increase in MMP-9 is independent of the TGF-β receptor, previously described as a receptor for albumin. Albumin also induces an increase in TIMP-1 via an undetermined mechanism. Conclusions These results link albumin (acting through ROS and the p38 MAPK to the activation of MMP-9 in astrocytes. Numerous studies identify a role for MMP-9 in the mechanisms of compromise of the BBB, epileptogenesis, or synaptic remodeling after ischemia or

  17. Structure of collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix and the influence to its integrity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuying; Patra, Prabir; Faezipour, Miad

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is a chain-like disaccharide that is linked to polypeptide core to connect two collagen fibrils/fibers and provide the intermolecular force in Collagen-GAG matrix (C-G matrix). Thus, the distribution of GAG in C-G matrix contributes to the integrity and mechanical properties of the matrix and related tissue. This paper analyzes the transverse isotropic distribution of GAG in C-G matrix. The angle of GAGs related to collagen fibrils is used as parameters to qualify the GAGs isotropic characteristic in both 3D and 2D rendering. Statistical results included that over one third of GAGs were perpendicular directed to collagen fibril with symmetrical distribution for both 3D matrix and 2D plane cross through collagen fibrils. The three factors tested in this paper: collagen radius, collagen distribution, and GAGs density, were not statistically significant for the strength of Collagen-GAG matrix in 3D rendering. However in 2D rendering, a significant factor found was the radius of collagen in matrix for the GAGs directed to orthogonal plane of Collagen-GAG matrix. Between two cross-section selected from Collagen-GAG matrix model, the plane cross through collagen fibrils was symmetrically distributed but the total percentage of perpendicular directed GAG was deducted by decreasing collagen radius. There were some symmetry features of GAGs angle distribution in selected 2D plane that passed through space between collagen fibrils, but most models showed multiple peaks in GAGs angle distribution. With less GAGs directed to perpendicular of collagen fibril, strength in collagen cross-section weakened. Collagen distribution was also a factor that influences GAGs angle distribution in 2D rendering. True hexagonal collagen packaging is reported in this paper to have less strength at collagen cross-section compared to quasi-hexagonal collagen arrangement. In this work focus is on GAGs matrix within the collagen and its relevance to anisotropy.

  18. Homodimerization Controls the Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 Subfamily's Receptor Binding and Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Diffusion in the Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, J.; Byron, S; Makarenkova, H; Olsen, S; Eliseenkova, A; Larochelle, W; Dhanabal, M; Blais, S; Mohammadi, M; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Uncontrolled fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling can lead to human diseases, necessitating multiple layers of self-regulatory control mechanisms to keep its activity in check. Herein, we demonstrate that FGF9 and FGF20 ligands undergo a reversible homodimerization, occluding their key receptor binding sites. To test the role of dimerization in ligand autoinhibition, we introduced structure-based mutations into the dimer interfaces of FGF9 and FGF20. The mutations weakened the ability of the ligands to dimerize, effectively increasing the concentrations of monomeric ligands capable of binding and activating their cognate FGF receptor in vitro and in living cells. Interestingly, the monomeric ligands exhibit reduced heparin binding, resulting in their increased radii of heparan sulfate-dependent diffusion and biologic action, as evidenced by the wider dilation area of ex vivo lung cultures in response to implanted mutant FGF9-loaded beads. Hence, our data demonstrate that homodimerization autoregulates FGF9 and FGF20's receptor binding and concentration gradients in the extracellular matrix. Our study is the first to implicate ligand dimerization as an autoregulatory mechanism for growth factor bioactivity and sets the stage for engineering modified FGF9 subfamily ligands, with desired activity for use in both basic and translational research.

  19. An integrated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the activity-dependent analysis of matrix metalloproteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, Robert; Klein, Theo; Ooms, Bert; Kauffman, Henk F.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) comprise a family of enzymes that play important roles in mediating angiogenesis, the remodelling of tissues and in cancer metastasis. Consequently, they are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in chronic inflammation, cancer and neurological disorders. In

  20. Dependence structure of the commodity and stock markets, and relevant multi-spread strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Sehyun; Jo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the dependence structure between the commodity and stock markets is a crucial issue in constructing a portfolio. It can also help us to discover new opportunities to implement spread trading using multiple assets classified in the two different markets. This study analyzed the dependence structure of the commodity and stock markets using the random matrix theory technique and network analysis. Our results show that the stock and commodity markets must be handled as completely separated asset classes except for the oil and gold markets, so the performance enhancement of the mean-variance portfolio is significant as expected. In light of the fact that WTI 1 month futures and four oil-related stocks are strongly correlated, they were selected as basic ingredients to complement the multi-spread convergence trading strategy using a machine learning technique called the AdaBoost algorithm. The performance of this strategy for non-myopic investors, who can endure short-term loss, can be enhanced significantly on a risk measurement basis.

  1. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases with potential implications for inhibitor selectivity examined by the GRID/CPCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Gitte Elgaard; Cruciani, Gabriele; Christensen, Inge Thøger

    2002-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, which have been the focus of a lot of research in recent years because of their involvement in various disease conditions. In this study, structures of 10 enzymes (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP12, MMP13, MMP14...

  2. Detection of Q-Matrix Misspecification Using Two Criteria for Validation of Cognitive Structures under the Least Squares Distance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Sonia J.; Ordoñez, Xavier G.; Ponsoda, Vincente; Revuelta, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Diagnostic Models (CDMs) aim to provide information about the degree to which individuals have mastered specific attributes that underlie the success of these individuals on test items. The Q-matrix is a key element in the application of CDMs, because contains links item-attributes representing the cognitive structure proposed for solve…

  3. Composition Feature of the Element Tangent Stiffness Matrix of Geometrically Nonlinear 2D Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanas Karkauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expressions of the finite element method tangent stiffness matrix of geometrically nonlinear constructions are not fully presented in publications. The matrixes of small displacements stiffness are usually presented only. To solve various problems of construction analysis or design and to specify the mode of the real deflection of construction, it is necessary to have a fully described tangent matrix analytical expression. This paper presents a technique of tangent stiffness matrix generation using discrete body total potential energy stationary conditions considering geometrically nonlinear 2D frame element taking account of interelement interaction forces only. The obtained vector-function derivative of internal forces considering nodal displacements is the tangent stiffness matrix. The analytical expressions having nodal displacements of matrixes forming the content of the 2D frame construction element tangent stiffness matrix are presented in the article. The suggested methodology has been checked making symbolical calculations in the medium of MatLAB calculation complex. The analytical expression of the stiffness matrix has been obtained.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  5. The Application of Concurrent Engineering Tools and Design Structure Matrix in Designing Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Rosnani; Fachrozi Fitra Ramadhan, T.

    2016-02-01

    The development of automobile industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. This phenomenon causes companies related to the automobile industry such as tire industry must develop products based on customers’ needs and considering the timeliness of delivering the product to the customer. It could be reached by applying strategic planning in developing an integrated concept of product development. This research was held in PT. XYZ that applied the sequential approach in designing and developing products. The need to improve in one stage of product development could occur re-designing that needs longer time in developing a new product. This research is intended to get an integrated product design concept of tire pertaining to the customer's needs using Concurrent Engineering Tools by implementing the two-phased of product development. The implementation of Concurrent Engineering approach results in applying the stage of project planning, conceptual design, and product modules. The product modules consist of four modules that using Product Architecture - Design Structure Matrix to ease the designing process of new product development.

  6. Fibroblastic Transformation of Corneal Keratocytes by Rac Inhibition is Modulated by Extracellular Matrix Structure and Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matthew Petroll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate how alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM biophysical properties modulate corneal keratocyte phenotypes in response to specific wound healing cytokines and Rho GTPases. Rabbit corneal keratocytes were plated within standard collagen matrices (2.5 mg/mL or compressed collagen matrices (~100 mg/mL and cultured in serum-free media, PDGF BB, IGF, FGF2 or TGFβ1, with or without the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 and/or the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. After 1 to 4 days, cells were labeled for F-actin and imaged using confocal microscopy. Keratocytes within standard collagen matrices (which are highly compliant maintained a dendritic phenotype following culture in serum-free media, PDGF, IGF and FGF, but developed stress fibers in TGFβ1. Keratocytes within compressed collagen (which has high stiffness and low porosity maintained a dendritic phenotype following culture in serum-free media, PDGF and IGF, but developed stress fibers in both FGF and TGFβ1. The Rac inhibitor had no significant impact on growth factor responses in compliant matrices. Within compressed collagen matrices however, the Rac inhibitor induced fibroblastic transformation in serum-free media, PDGF and IGF. Fibroblast and myofibroblast transformation was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. Overall, keratocyte growth factor responses appear to be regulated by both the interplay between Rho and Rac signaling, and the structural and mechanical properties of the ECM.

  7. On the structure of positive maps. II. Low dimensional matrix algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Władysław A.; Tylec, Tomasz I.

    2013-07-01

    We use a new idea that emerged in the examination of exposed positive maps between matrix algebras to investigate in more detail the differences and similarities between unital positive maps on M2 ({C}) and M3({C}). Our main tool stems from classical Grothendieck theorem on tensor product of Banach spaces and is an older and more general version of Choi-Jamiołkowski isomorphism between positive maps and block positive Choi matrices. It takes into account the correct topology on the latter set that is induced by the uniform topology on positive maps. In this setting, we show that in M2({C}) case a large class of nice positive maps can be generated from the small set of maps represented by self-adjoint unitaries, 2Px with x maximally entangled vector and p⊗ {1} with p rank 1 projector. We indicate problems with passing this result to M3({C}) case. Among similarities, in both M2({C}) and M3({C}) cases any unital positive map represented by self-adjoint unitary is unitarily equivalent to the transposition map. Consequently, we obtain a large family of exposed maps. Furthermore, for M3({C}) there appear new non-trivial class of maps represented by Choi matrices with square equal to a projector. We examine this case. We also investigate a convex structure of the Choi map, the first example of non-decomposable map. As a result the nature of the Choi map will be explained.

  8. Partial volume correction using structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-06-01

    We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [(18)F]DOPA utilization rates (ki(cer)). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test-retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [(18)F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the ki(cer) was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected ki(cer) was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model.

  9. Laser structuring of carbon nanotubes in the albumin matrix for the creation of composite biostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Alexander Yu.; Glukhova, Olga E.; Savostyanov, Georgy V.; Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the composite biostructures created by laser structuring of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an albumin matrix. Under the exposure of femtosecond laser radiation, the heating of the albumin aqueous solution causes liquid water to evaporate. As a result, we obtained a solid-state composite in the bulk or film form. Using the molecular dynamic method, we showed the formation of a framework from SWCNTs by the example of splicing of the open end of one nanotube with the defect region of another nanotube under the action of the laser heating. Laser heating of SWCNTs up to a temperature of 80°C to 100°C causes the C-C bond formation. Raman spectra measured for the composite biostructures allowed us to describe the binding of oxygen atoms of amino acid residues of the albumin with the carbon atoms of the SWCNTs. It is found that the interaction energy of the nanotube atoms and albumin atoms amounts up to 580 kJ/mol. We used atomic force microscopy to investigate the surface of the composite biostructures. The pore size is in the range of 30 to 120 nm. It is proved that the proliferation of the fibroblasts occurred on the surface of the composite biostructures during 72 h of incubation.

  10. Global rescue of defects in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation: implications for matrix structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Tedbury

    Full Text Available The matrix (MA domain of HIV-1 Gag plays key roles in membrane targeting of Gag, and envelope (Env glycoprotein incorporation into virions. Although a trimeric MA structure has been available since 1996, evidence for functional MA trimers has been elusive. The mechanism of HIV-1 Env recruitment into virions likewise remains unclear. Here, we identify a point mutation in MA that rescues the Env incorporation defects imposed by an extensive panel of MA and Env mutations. Mapping the mutations onto the putative MA trimer reveals that the incorporation-defective mutations cluster at the tips of the trimer, around the perimeter of a putative gap in the MA lattice into which the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 could insert. By contrast, the rescue mutation is located at the trimer interface, suggesting that it may confer rescue of Env incorporation via modification of MA trimer interactions, a hypothesis consistent with additional mutational analysis. These data strongly support the existence of MA trimers in the immature Gag lattice and demonstrate that rescue of Env incorporation defects is mediated by modified interactions at the MA trimer interface. The data support the hypothesis that mutations in MA that block Env incorporation do so by imposing a steric clash with the gp41 cytoplasmic tail, rather than by disrupting a specific MA-gp41 interaction. The importance of the trimer interface in rescuing Env incorporation suggests that the trimeric arrangement of MA may be a critical factor in permitting incorporation of Env into the Gag lattice.

  11. Effect of host glass matrix on structural and optical behavior of glass-ceramic nanocomposite scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Barta, M.; Nadler, Jason H.; Kang, Zhitao; Wagner, Brent K.; Rosson, Robert; Kahn, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    Composite scintillator systems have received increased attention in recent years due to their promise for merging the radioisotope discrimination capabilities of single crystal scintillators with the high throughput scanning capabilities of portal monitors. However, producing the high light yield required for good energy resolution has proven challenging as scintillation photons are often scattered by variations in refractive index and agglomerated scintillator crystals within the composite. This investigation sought to mitigate these common problems by using glass-ceramic nanocomposite materials systems in which nanoscale scintillating crystallites are precipitated in a controlled manner from a transparent glass matrix. Precipitating crystallites in situ precludes nanoparticle agglomeration, and limiting crystallite size to 50 nm or less mitigates the effect of refractive index mismatch between the crystals and host glass. Cerium-doped gadolinium bromide (GdBr3(Ce)) scintillating crystals were incorporated into sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) and alumino-borosilicate (ABS) host glass matrices, and the resulting glass-ceramic structures and luminescence behavior were characterized. The as-cast glass from the ABS system displayed a highly ordered microstructure that produced the highest luminescence intensity (light yield) of the samples studied. However, heat treating to form the glass-ceramic precipitated rare-earth oxide crystallites rather than rare-earth halides. This degraded light yield relative to the unaged sample.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases and left ventricular function and structure in spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roberto; Paim, Layde R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Matos-Souza, José R; Costa E Silva, Anselmo de A; Souza, Cristiane M; Borges, Mariane; Azevedo, Eliza R; Alonso, Karina C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, which has been reported to be attenuated by regular physical activity. This study investigated the relationship between circulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and echocardiographic parameters in SCI subjects and the role of physical activity in this regard. Forty-two men with SCI [19 sedentary (S-SCI) and 23 physically-active (PA-SCI)] were evaluated by clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis. Plasmatic pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography. PA-SCI subjects presented lower pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 levels and improved markers of LV diastolic function (lower E/Em and higher Em and E/A values) than S-SCI ones. Bivariate analysis showed that pro-MMP-2 correlated inversely with Em and directly with E/Em, while MMP-9 correlated directly with LV mass index and LV end-diastolic diameter in the whole sample. Following multiple regression analysis, pro-MMP-2, but not physical activity, remained associated with Em, while MMP-9 was associated with LV mass index in the whole sample. These findings suggest differing roles for MMPs in LV structure and function regulation and an interaction among pro-MMP-2, diastolic function and physical activity in SCI subjects.

  13. The time-dependent magneto-visco-elastic behavior of a magnetostrictive fiber actuated viscoelastic polymer matrix composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogea, Cosmina S; Armstrong, William D

    2002-11-01

    The paper develops a one-dimensional magneto-elastic model of a magnetostrictive fiber actuated polymer matrix composite material which accounts for a strong viscoelastic response in the polymer matrix. The viscoelastic behavior of the composite polymer matrix is modeled with a three parallel Maxwell element viscoelastic model, the magnetoelastic behavior of the composite fibers is modeled with an anhysteric directional potential based domain occupation theory. Example calculations are performed to identify and explain the dynamical behavior of the composite. These calculations assume that a constant stress and the oscillating magnetic field are applied in the fiber longitudinal direction. The inclusion of matrix viscosity results in an apparent hysteresis loop in the magnetization and magnetostriction curves even though the model does not include magnetoelastic hysteresis in the fibers. The apparent hysteresis is a consequence of the interaction of the time varying fiber stress caused by matrix viscosity with a multidomain state in the fiber. The small increase in fiber longitudinal compressive stress due to matrix viscosity under increasing field inhibits the occupation of domains with magnetization orientations near the fiber longitudinal [112] direction. As a consequence, the summed longitudinal magnetization and magnetostriction is reduced as compared to the decreasing field limb.

  14. Ran-dependent nuclear export mediators: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Thomas; Görlich, Dirk

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear export is an essential eukaryotic activity. It proceeds through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and is mediated by soluble receptors that shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. RanGTPase-dependent export mediators (exportins) constitute the largest class of these carriers and are functionally highly versatile. All of these exportins load their substrates in response to RanGTP binding in the nucleus and traverse NPCs as ternary RanGTP-exportin-cargo complexes to the cytoplasm, where GTP hydrolysis leads to export complex disassembly. The different exportins vary greatly in their substrate range. Recent structural studies of both protein- and RNA-specific exporters have illuminated how exportins bind their cargoes, how Ran triggers cargo loading and how export complexes are disassembled in the cytoplasm. Here, we review the current state of knowledge and highlight emerging principles as well as prevailing questions.

  15. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  16. Structural insight into the sequence dependence of nucleosome positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Mohideen, Kareem; Vasudevan, Dileep; Davey, Curt A

    2010-03-14

    Nucleosome positioning displays sequence dependency and contributes to genomic regulation in a site-specific manner. We solved the structures of nucleosome core particle composed of strong positioning TTTAA elements flanking the nucleosome center. The positioning strength of the super flexible TA dinucleotide is consistent with its observed central location within minor groove inward regions, where it can contribute maximally to energetically challenging minor groove bending, kinking and compression. The marked preference for TTTAA and positioning power of the site 1.5 double helix turns from the nucleosome center relates to a unique histone protein motif at this location, which enforces a sustained, extremely narrow minor groove via a hydrophobic "sugar clamp." Our analysis sheds light on the basis of nucleosome positioning and indicates that the histone octamer has evolved not to fully minimize sequence discrimination in DNA binding.

  17. Structural models of vanadate-dependent haloperoxidases and their reactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mannar R Maurya

    2006-11-01

    Vanadium(V) complexes with hydrazone-based ONO and ONN donor ligands that partly model active-site structures of vanadate-dependent haloperoxidases have been reported. On reaction with [VO(acac)2] (Hacac = acetylacetone) under nitrogen, these ligands generally provide oxovanadium(IV) complexes [VO(ONO)X] (X = solvent or nothing) and [VO(acac)(ONN)], respectively. Under aerobic conditions, these oxovanadium(IV) species undergo oxidation to give oxovanadium(V), dioxovanadium (V) or -oxobis{oxovanadium(V)} species depending upon the nature of the ligand. Anionic and neutral dioxovanadium(V) complexes slowly deoxygenate in methanol to give monooxo complexes [VO(OMe)(MeOH)(ONO)]. The anionic complexes [VO2(ONO)]- can also be converted in situ on acidification to oxohydroxo complexes [VO(OH)(HONO)]+ and to peroxo complexes [VO(O2)(ONO)]-, and thus to the species assumed to be intermediates in the haloperoxidases activity of the enzymes. In the presence of catechol (H2cat) and benzohydroxamic acid (H2bha), oxovanadium (IV) complexes, [VO (acac)(ONN)] gave mixed-chelate oxovanadium(V) complexes [VO(cat)(ONN)] and [VO(bha)(ONN)] respectively. These complexes are not very stable in solution and slowly convert to the corresponding dioxo species [VO2(ONN)] as observed by 51V NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopic studies.

  18. Spin and spatial dynamics in electron-impact scattering off S-wave He using R-matrix with Time-Dependence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wragg, Jack

    2016-01-01

    R-matrix with time-dependence theory is applied to electron-impact ionisation processes for He in the S-wave model. Cross sections for electron-impact excitation, ionisation and ionisation with excitation for impact energies between 25 and 225 eV are in excellent agreement with benchmark cross sections. Ultra-fast dynamics induced by a scattering event is observed through time-dependent signatures associated with autoionisation from doubly excited states. Further insight into dynamics can be obtained through examination of the spin components of the time-dependent wavefunction.

  19. Structure constrained semi-nonnegative matrix factorization for EEG-based motor imagery classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Li, Tengfei; Pan, Jinjin; Ren, Xiaodong; Feng, Zuren; Miao, Hongyu

    2015-05-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) provides a non-invasive approach to measure the electrical activities of brain neurons and has long been employed for the development of brain-computer interface (BCI). For this purpose, various patterns/features of EEG data need to be extracted and associated with specific events like cue-paced motor imagery. However, this is a challenging task since EEG data are usually non-stationary time series with a low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we propose a novel method, called structure constrained semi-nonnegative matrix factorization (SCS-NMF), to extract the key patterns of EEG data in time domain by imposing the mean envelopes of event-related potentials (ERPs) as constraints on the semi-NMF procedure. The proposed method is applicable to general EEG time series, and the extracted temporal features by SCS-NMF can also be combined with other features in frequency domain to improve the performance of motor imagery classification. Real data experiments have been performed using the SCS-NMF approach for motor imagery classification, and the results clearly suggest the superiority of the proposed method. Comparison experiments have also been conducted. The compared methods include ICA, PCA, Semi-NMF, Wavelets, EMD and CSP, which further verified the effectivity of SCS-NMF. The SCS-NMF method could obtain better or competitive performance over the state of the art methods, which provides a novel solution for brain pattern analysis from the perspective of structure constraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atomic and electronic structure of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Dufour, Christian [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique, 6 boulevard Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Petit, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences des Materiaux, 6 boulevard Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2008-11-12

    The atomic structures and the optical and electronic properties of silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) in a {beta} cristobalite matrix are studied using DFT calculations provided by the AIMPRO code. Five atomic models are considered (two nanocrystal diameters of 5.6 and 11 A with and without interface defects). After total relaxation, the mean Si-Si distances in nc-Si are found to be 6% higher than those in perfect bulk silicon. The optical and electronic properties are influenced by many parameters, among which are the nanograin density and size. The quantum confinement effect is demonstrated by the increase of energy gap when decreasing nanograin size. The energy gap of nc-Si is adjusted by using B3LYP functional calculations; the energy gap of 5.6 A nc-Si is found to be equal to 3.4 eV while that of 11 A nc-Si is equal to 3.1 eV. In the band structure, the levels due to nc-Si appear in the forbidden band of SiO{sub 2}. The electronic density of these levels is presented in 3D. A redshift is observed in the optical absorption spectrum as the nc-Si size increases, and the absorbance of nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} is proportional to the nanograin density. The system is more stable as the distance between nanograins increases. We have also studied two kinds of nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} interface defects (Si-O-Si and Si = O bonds). It is found that the Si-O-Si bridge bond leads to the most stable configuration. The presence of Si = O double bonds reduces the nc-Si energy gap and leads to a redshift in the absorption spectrum. The Si-O-Si bonds produce the inverse effect, i.e. an energy gap increase associated with a blueshift in the absorption spectrum.

  1. Exact matrix treatment of an osmotic ensemble model of adsorption and pressure induced structural transitions in metal organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George

    2016-03-14

    Here we present an exactly treated quasi-one dimensional statistical mechanical osmotic ensemble model of pressure and adsorption induced breathing structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The treatment uses a transfer matrix method. The model successfully reproduces the gas and pressure induced structural changes which are observed experimentally in MOFs. The model treatment presented here is a significant step towards analytical statistical mechanical treatments of flexible metal-organic frameworks.

  2. The HIV matrix protein p17 subverts nuclear receptors expression and induces a STAT1-dependent proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Renga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term remission of HIV-1 disease can be readily achieved by combinations of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. However, a residual persistent immune activation caused by circulating non infectious particles or viral proteins is observed under HAART and might contribute to an higher risk of non-AIDS pathologies and death in HIV infected persons. A sustained immune activation supports lipid dysmetabolism and increased risk for development of accelerated atehrosclerosis and ischemic complication in virologically suppressed HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. AIM: While several HIV proteins have been identified and characterized for their ability to maintain immune activation, the role of HIV-p17, a matrix protein involved in the viral replication, is still undefined. RESULTS: Here, we report that exposure of macrophages to recombinant human p17 induces the expression of proinflammatory and proatherogenic genes (MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36 while downregulating the expression of nuclear receptors (FXR and PPARγ that counter-regulate the proinflammatory response and modulate lipid metabolism in these cells. Exposure of macrophage cell lines to p17 activates a signaling pathway mediated by Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 and causes a promoter-dependent regulation of STAT-1 target genes. These effects are abrogated by sera obtained from HIV-infected persons vaccinated with a p17 peptide. Ligands for FXR and PPARγ counteract the effects of p17. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that HIV p17 highjacks a Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 pathway in macrophages, and that the activation of this pathway leads to a simultaneous dysregulation of immune and metabolic functions. The binding of STAT-1 to specific responsive elements in the promoter of PPARγ and FXR and MCP-1 shifts macrophages toward a pro-atherogenetic phenotype characterized by high levels of expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. The present work identifies p17 as a

  3. Nanocomposites based on opal matrixes with 3D-structure formed by mangnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinkevich A. B.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of electromagnetic waves with nanocomposites of materials obtained by doping of opal matrixes with nickel-zinc and manganese-zinc ferrite has been studied. The opal matrixes contain of SiO2 nanospheres with diameter about 250 nm with ferrite nanoparticles in the nanosphere voids. The measurements are carried out in frequency range from 26 to 38 GHz in magnetic fields up to 30 kOe. It was shown that magnetic resonance in the doped matrix is the main reason for microwave variations.

  4. Structure and properties of a pulp fibre-reinforced composite with regenerated cellulose matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl, W.; Schöberl, T.; Keckes, J.

    2006-04-01

    Fully bio-based cellulose cellulose composites were produced by partly dissolving beech pulp fibres in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) and subsequent regeneration of matrix cellulose in the presence of undissolved fibres. Compared to cellulose epoxy composites produced from the same fibres, a two-fold increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus was observed for cellulose cellulose composites. From scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation it is concluded that changes in the fibre cell wall during LiCl/DMAc treatment, improved matrix properties of regenerated cellulose compared to epoxy, and improved fibre matrix adhesion are responsible for the superior properties of cellulose cellulose composites.

  5. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 3 - Ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume discusses ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites in prospective aerospace systems, monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened and whisker-reinforced ceramic composites, glass-ceramic matrix composites, reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC composites, and chemical vapor-infiltrated composites. Also discussed are the sol-gel-processing of ceramic composites, the fabrication and properties of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites with directed metal oxidation, the fracture behavior of ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), the fatigue of fiber-reinforced CMCs, creep and rupture of CMCs, structural design methodologies for ceramic-based materials systems, the joining of ceramics and CMCs, and carbon-carbon composites.

  6. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark A; Kohl, Tobias; Lehnart, Stephan E; Greenstein, Joseph L; Lederer, W J; Winslow, Raimond L

    2015-11-01

    In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2). Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1) of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  7. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2. Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1 of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  8. Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites for use in aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2014-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively nascent solid state joining technique developed at The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991. The process was first used at NASA to weld the super lightweight external tank for the Space Shuttle. Today FSW is used to join structural components of the Delta IV, Atlas V, and Falcon IX rockets as well as the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. A current focus of FSW research is to extend the process to new materials which are difficult to weld using conventional fusion techniques. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) consist of a metal alloy reinforced with ceramics and have a very high strength to weight ratio, a property which makes them attractive for use in aerospace and defense applications. MMCs have found use in the space shuttle orbiter's structural tubing, the Hubble Space Telescope's antenna mast, control surfaces and propulsion systems for aircraft, and tank armors. The size of MMC components is severely limited by difficulties encountered in joining these materials using fusion welding. Melting of the material results in formation of an undesirable phase (formed when molten Aluminum reacts with the reinforcement) which leaves a strength depleted region along the joint line. Since FSW occurs below the melting point of the workpiece material, this deleterious phase is absent in FSW-ed MMC joints. FSW of MMCs is, however, plagued by rapid wear of the welding tool, a consequence of the large discrepancy in hardness between the steel tool and the reinforcement material. This work characterizes the effect of process parameters (spindle speed, traverse rate, and length of joint) on the wear process. Based on the results of these experiments, a phenomenological model of the wear process was constructed based on the rotating plug model for FSW. The effectiveness of harder tool materials (such as Tungsten Carbide, high speed steel, and tools with diamond coatings) to combat abrasive wear is explored. In-process force, torque, and

  9. Analysis of X-ray Structures of Matrix Metalloproteinases via Chaotic Map Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano Gianfranco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. With this in mind, the perception of the intimate relationships among diverse MMPs could be a solid basis for accelerated learning in designing new selective MMP inhibitors. In this regard, decrypting the latent molecular reasons in order to elucidate similarity among MMPs is a key challenge. Results We describe a pairwise variant of the non-parametric chaotic map clustering (CMC algorithm and its application to 104 X-ray MMP structures. In this analysis electrostatic potentials are computed and used as input for the CMC algorithm. It was shown that differences between proteins reflect genuine variation of their electrostatic potentials. In addition, the analysis has been also extended to analyze the protein primary structures and the molecular shapes of the MMP co-crystallised ligands. Conclusions The CMC algorithm was shown to be a valuable tool in knowledge acquisition and transfer from MMP structures. Based on the variation of electrostatic potentials, CMC was successful in analysing the MMP target family landscape and different subsites. The first investigation resulted in rational figure interpretation of both domain organization as well as of substrate specificity classifications. The second made it possible to distinguish the MMP classes, demonstrating the high specificity of the S1' pocket, to detect both the occurrence of punctual mutations of ionisable residues and different side-chain conformations that likely account for induced-fit phenomena. In addition, CMC demonstrated a potential comparable to the most popular UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean method that, at present, represents a standard clustering bioinformatics approach. Interestingly, CMC and

  10. Flexible and rigid structures in HIV-1 p17 matrix protein monitored by relaxation and amide proton exchange with NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohori, Yuka; Okazaki, Honoka; Watanabe, Satoru; Tochio, Naoya; Arai, Munehito; Kigawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Chiaki

    2014-03-01

    The HIV-1 p17 matrix protein is a multifunctional protein that interacts with other molecules including proteins and membranes. The dynamic structure between its folded and partially unfolded states can be critical for the recognition of interacting molecules. One of the most important roles of the p17 matrix protein is its localization to the plasma membrane with the Gag polyprotein. The myristyl group attached to the N-terminus on the p17 matrix protein functions as an anchor for binding to the plasma membrane. Biochemical studies revealed that two regions are important for its function: D14-L31 and V84-V88. Here, the dynamic structures of the p17 matrix protein were studied using NMR for relaxation and amide proton exchange experiments at the physiological pH of 7.0. The results revealed that the α12-loop, which includes the 14-31 region, was relatively flexible, and that helix 4, including the 84-88 region, was the most protected helix in this protein. However, the residues in the α34-loop near helix 4 had a low order parameter and high exchange rate of amide protons, indicating high flexibility. This region is probably flexible because this loop functions as a hinge for optimizing the interactions between helices 3 and 4. The C-terminal long region of K113-Y132 adopted a disordered structure. Furthermore, the C-terminal helix 5 appeared to be slightly destabilized due to the flexible C-terminal tail based on the order parameters. Thus, the dynamic structure of the p17 matrix protein may be related to its multiple functions.

  11. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  12. Oxidation modifies the structure and function of the extracellular matrix generated by human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Christine Y; Degendorfer, Georg; Hammer, Astrid; Whitelock, John M; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

    2014-04-15

    ECM (extracellular matrix) materials, such as laminin, perlecan, type IV collagen and fibronectin, play a key role in determining the structure of the arterial wall and the properties of cells that interact with the ECM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxynitrous acid, an oxidant generated by activated macrophages, on the structure and function of the ECM laid down by HCAECs (human coronary artery endothelial cells) in vitro and in vivo. We show that exposure of HCAEC-derived native matrix components to peroxynitrous acid (but not decomposed oxidant) at concentrations >1 μM results in a loss of antibody recognition of perlecan, collagen IV, and cell-binding sites on laminin and fibronectin. Loss of recognition was accompanied by decreased HCAEC adhesion. Real-time PCR showed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes, including MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7) and MMP13, as well as down-regulation of the laminin α2 chain, in HCAECs cultured on peroxynitrous acid-treated matrix compared with native matrix. Immunohistochemical studies provided evidence of co-localization of laminin with 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrous acid damage, in type II-III/IV human atherosclerotic lesions, consistent with matrix damage occurring during disease development in vivo. The results of the present study suggest a mechanism through which peroxynitrous acid modifies endothelial cell-derived native ECM proteins of the arterial basement membrane in atherosclerotic lesions. These changes to ECM and particularly perlecan and laminin may be important in inducing cellular dysfunction and contribute to atherogenesis.

  13. Market Correlation Structure Changes Around the Great Crash: A Random Matrix Theory Analysis of the Chinese Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui-Qi; Xie, Wen-Jie; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    The correlation structure of a stock market contains important financial contents, which may change remarkably due to the occurrence of financial crisis. We perform a comparative analysis of the Chinese stock market around the occurrence of the 2008 crisis based on the random matrix analysis of high-frequency stock returns of 1228 Chinese stocks. Both raw correlation matrix and partial correlation matrix with respect to the market index in two time periods of one year are investigated. We find that the Chinese stocks have stronger average correlation and partial correlation in 2008 than in 2007 and the average partial correlation is significantly weaker than the average correlation in each period. Accordingly, the largest eigenvalue of the correlation matrix is remarkably greater than that of the partial correlation matrix in each period. Moreover, each largest eigenvalue and its eigenvector reflect an evident market effect, while other deviating eigenvalues do not. We find no evidence that deviating eigenvalues contain industrial sectorial information. Surprisingly, the eigenvectors of the second largest eigenvalues in 2007 and of the third largest eigenvalues in 2008 are able to distinguish the stocks from the two exchanges. We also find that the component magnitudes of the some largest eigenvectors are proportional to the stocks’ capitalizations.

  14. A Random Matrix Approach to Differential Privacy and Structure Preserved Social Network Graph Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Faraz; Liu, Alex X

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks are being increasingly used for analyzing various societal phenomena such as epidemiology, information dissemination, marketing and sentiment flow. Popular analysis techniques such as clustering and influential node analysis, require the computation of eigenvectors of the real graph's adjacency matrix. Recent de-anonymization attacks on Netflix and AOL datasets show that an open access to such graphs pose privacy threats. Among the various privacy preserving models, Differential privacy provides the strongest privacy guarantees. In this paper we propose a privacy preserving mechanism for publishing social network graph data, which satisfies differential privacy guarantees by utilizing a combination of theory of random matrix and that of differential privacy. The key idea is to project each row of an adjacency matrix to a low dimensional space using the random projection approach and then perturb the projected matrix with random noise. We show that as compared to existing approaches for ...

  15. Light-dependent structural change of chicken retinal Cryptochrome4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Chiaki; Zemba, Wataru; Kubo, Yoko; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2012-12-14

    Animals have several classes of cryptochromes (CRYs), some of which function as core elements of circadian clockwork, circadian photoreceptors, and/or light-dependent magnetoreceptors. In addition to the circadian clock genes Cry1 and Cry2, nonmammalian vertebrates have the Cry4 gene, the molecular function of which remains unknown. Here we analyzed chicken CRY4 (cCRY4) expression in the retina with in situ hybridization and found that cCRY4 was likely transcribed in the visual pigment cells, cells in the inner nuclear layer, and retinal ganglion cells. We further developed several monoclonal antibodies to the carboxyl-terminal extension of cCRY4 and localized cCRY4 protein with immunohistochemistry. Consistent with the results of in situ hybridization, cCRY4 immunoreactivity was found in visual pigment cells and cells located at the inner nuclear layer and the retinal ganglion cell layer. Among the antibodies, one termed C1-mAb had its epitope within the carboxyl-terminal 14-amino acid sequence (QLTRDDADDPMEMK) and associated with cCRY4 in the retinal soluble fraction more strongly in the dark than under blue light conditions. Immunoprecipitation experiments under various light conditions indicated that cCRY4 from the immunocomplex formed in the dark dissociated from C1-mAb during blue light illumination as weak as 25 μW/cm(2) and that the release occurred with not only blue but also near UV light. These results suggest that cCRY4 reversibly changes its structure within the carboxyl-terminal region in a light-dependent manner and operates as a photoreceptor or magnetoreceptor with short wavelength sensitivity in the retina.

  16. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifkovits, Jamie L; Wu, Katherine; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2010-12-22

    Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus). The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA) versus aligned (AL)) and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO)). PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa) appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important considerations in

  17. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Ifkovits

    Full Text Available Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus. The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate (PGS, with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA versus aligned (AL and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO. PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important

  18. Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites: Functional Lightweight Materials for High-Performance Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    The special topic "Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites" is intended to capture the state of the art in the research and practice of functional composites. The current set of articles related to metal-matrix composites includes reviews on functionalities such as self-healing, self-lubricating, and self-cleaning capabilities; research results on a variety of aluminum-matrix composites; and investigations on advanced composites manufacturing methods. In addition, the processing and properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer-matrix composites and adhesive bonding of laminated composites are discussed. The literature on functional metal-matrix composites is relatively scarce compared to functional polymer-matrix composites. The demand for lightweight composites in the transportation sector is fueling the rapid development in this field, which is captured in the current set of articles. The possibility of simultaneously tailoring several desired properties is attractive but very challenging, and it requires significant advancements in the science and technology of composite materials. The progress captured in the current set of articles shows promise for developing materials that seem capable of moving this field from laboratory-scale prototypes to actual industrial applications.

  19. The exact explicit dynamic stiffness matrix of multi-cracked Euler-Bernoulli beam and applications to damaged frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddemi, S.; Caliò, I.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the closed form expression of the exact dynamic stiffness matrix of an Euler-Bernoulli beam in the presence of an arbitrary number of concentrated cracks is derived. The procedure adopted for the evaluation of the dynamic stiffness matrix is based on the availability of the exact closed form solution of the vibration modes of the multi-cracked beam, derived by the same authors in a previous paper. The knowledge of the exact explicit dynamic stiffness matrix of the multi-cracked beam makes the direct evaluation of the exact global dynamic stiffness matrix of damaged frame structures possible. Furthermore, it allows the exact evaluation of the frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes, consistent with the distributed parameter model, through the application of the well-known Wittrick-Williams algorithm. Some numerical applications, relative to the evaluation of frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of multi-cracked framed structure, are reported. Furthermore, the closed-form solution has been validated by comparing with some exact results available in the literature, for a simple single cracked frame. Finally, further new results for a multi-cracked frame have been compared with those obtained by a finite element simulation.

  20. Universal composition-structure-property maps for natural and biomimetic platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhavand, Navid; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2015-03-16

    Many natural and biomimetic platelet-matrix composites--such as nacre, silk, and clay-polymer-exhibit a remarkable balance of strength, toughness and/or stiffness, which call for a universal measure to quantify this outstanding feature given the structure and material characteristics of the constituents. Analogously, there is an urgent need to quantify the mechanics of emerging electronic and photonic systems such as stacked heterostructures. Here we report the development of a unified framework to construct universal composition-structure-property diagrams that decode the interplay between various geometries and inherent material features in both platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures. We study the effects of elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic matrices, overlap offset ratio and the competing mechanisms of platelet versus matrix failures. Validated by several 3D-printed specimens and a wide range of natural and synthetic materials across scales, the proposed universally valid diagrams have important implications for science-based engineering of numerous platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures.

  1. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis : a possible role for the vitamin K-dependent protein matrix Gla protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Summeren, M. J. H.; Spliet, W. G. M.; Van Royen-Kerkhof, A.; Vermeer, C.; Lilien, M.; Kuis, W.; Schurgers, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP) is expressed in muscle biopsies of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and whether different forms of MGP are differentially expressed in JDM patients with and without

  2. Nucleus-Dependent Valence-Space Approach to Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroberg, S. R.; Calci, A.; Hergert, H.; Holt, J. D.; Bogner, S. K.; Roth, R.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a nucleus-dependent valence-space approach for calculating ground and excited states of nuclei, which generalizes the shell-model in-medium similarity renormalization group to an ensemble reference with fractionally filled orbitals. Because the ensemble is used only as a reference, and not to represent physical states, no symmetry restoration is required. This allows us to capture three-nucleon (3 N ) forces among valence nucleons with a valence-space Hamiltonian specifically targeted to each nucleus of interest. Predicted ground-state energies from carbon through nickel agree with results of other large-space ab initio methods, generally to the 1% level. In addition, we show that this new approach is required in order to obtain convergence for nuclei in the upper p and s d shells. Finally, we address the 1+/3+ inversion problem in 22Na and 46V. This approach extends the reach of ab initio nuclear structure calculations to essentially all light- and medium-mass nuclei.

  3. Complex structures for an S-matrix of Klein-Gordon theory on AdS spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Dohse, Max

    2015-01-01

    While the standard construction of the S-matrix fails on Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime, a generalized S-matrix makes sense, based on the hypercylinder geometry induced by the boundary of AdS. In contrast to quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime, there is not yet a standard way to resolve the quantization ambiguities arising in its construction. These ambiguities are conveniently encoded in the choice of a complex structure. We explore in this paper the space of complex structures for real scalar Klein-Gordon theory based on a number of criteria. These are: invariance under AdS isometries, induction of a positive definite inner product, compatibility with the standard S-matrix picture and recovery of standard structures in Minkowski spacetime under a limit of vanishing curvature. While there is no complex structure that satisfies all demands, we emphasize two interesting candidates that satisfy most: In one case we have to give up part of the isometry invariance, in the other case the induced inner prod...

  4. Manufacturing Challenges Associated with the Use of Metal Matrix Composites in Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2014-01-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) consist of a metal alloy reinforced with ceramic particles or fibers. These materials possess a very high strength to weight ratio, good resistance to impact and wear, and a number of other properties which make them attractive for use in aerospace and defense applications. MMCs have found use in the space shuttle orbiter's structural tubing, the Hubble Space Telescope's antenna mast, control surfaces and propulsion systems for aircraft, and tank armors. The size of MMC components is severely limited by difficulties encountered in joining these materials using fusion welding. Melting of the material results in formation of an undesirable phase (formed when molten Aluminum reacts with the reinforcement) which leaves a strength depleted region along the joint line. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively nascent solid state joining technique developed at The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991. The process was first used at NASA to weld the super lightweight external tank for the Space Shuttle. Today FSW is used to join structural components of the Delta IV, Atlas V, and Falcon IX rockets as well as NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Space Launch System. A current focus of FSW research is to extend the process to new materials, such as MMCs, which are difficult to weld using conventional fusion techniques. Since Friction Stir Welding occurs below the melting point of the workpiece material, this deleterious phase is absent in FSW-ed MMC joints. FSW of MMCs is, however, plagued by rapid wear of the welding tool, a consequence of the large discrepancy in hardness between the steel tool and the reinforcement material. This chapter summarizes the challenges encountered when joining MMCs to themselves or to other materials in structures. Specific attention is paid to the influence of process variables in Friction Stir Welding on the wear process characterizes the effect of process parameters (spindle speed, traverse rate, and length

  5. Gender-dependence of bone structure and properties in adult osteogenesis imperfecta murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaomei; Carleton, Stephanie M; Kettle, Arin D; Melander, Jennifer; Phillips, Charlotte L; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformities. Though the oim mouse model has been the most widely studied of the OI models, it has only recently been suggested to exhibit gender-dependent differences in bone mineralization. To characterize the impact of gender on the morphometry/ultra-structure, mechanical properties, and biochemical composition of oim bone on the congenic C57BL/J6 background, 4-month-old oim/oim, +/oim, and wild-type (wt) female and male tibiae were evaluated using micro-computed tomography, three-point bending, and Raman spectroscopy. Dramatic gender differences were evident in both cortical and trabecular bone morphological and geometric parameters. Male mice had inherently more bone and increased moment of inertia than genotype-matched female counterparts with corresponding increases in bone biomechanical strength. The primary influence of gender was structure/geometry in bone growth and mechanical properties, whereas the mineral/matrix composition and hydroxyproline content of bone were influenced primarily by the oim collagen mutation. This study provides evidence of the importance of gender in the evaluation and interpretation of potential therapeutic strategies when using mouse models of OI.

  6. Impact of ischemia-reperfusion on extracellular matrix processing and structure of the basement membrane of the heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lauten

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acute ischemic injury is a strong inductor of cardiac remodelling, resulting in structural changes of the extracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane (BM. In a large animal model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R we investigated the post-ischemic liberation of the collagen-IV-fragments Tumstatin (TUM; 28 kDa-fragment of collagen-IV-alpha-3, Arresten (ARR; 26 kDa-fragment of collagen-IV-alpha-1 and Endorepellin (LG3, 85 kDa-fragment of perlecan which are biologically active in angiogenesis and vascularization in the post-ischemic myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this blinded study, 30 pigs were randomized to 60 min of global I/R at either 4°C or 32°C or served as control. Three transmyocardial tissue samples were collected prior to ischemia and within 30 min and 150 min of reperfusion. Tissue content of TUM, ARR and LG3 was analyzed by western blotting and immunostaining. Within 150 min of mild hypothermic I/R a significantly increased tissue content of ARR (0.17±0.14 vs. 0.56±0.56; p = 0.001 and LG3 (1.13±0.34 vs. 2.51±1.71, p11fold elevation of creatine kinase (2075±2595 U/l vs. 23248±6551 U/l; p<0.001 in the coronary sinus plasma samples. Immunostaining demonstrated no changes for ARR and LG3 presentation irrespective of temperature. In contrast, TUM significantly decreased in the BM surrounding cardiomyocytes and capillaries after mild and deep hypothermic I/R, thus representing structural alterations of the BM in these groups. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates an early temperature-dependent processing of Col-IV as major component of the BM of cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelium. These observations support the protective effects of deep hypothermia during I/R. Furthermore, the results suggest an increased structural remodelling of the myocardial basement membrane with potential functional impairment during mild hypothermic I/R which may contribute to the progression to post-ischemic heart failure.

  7. Encoding the structure of many-body localization with matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekker, David; Clark, Bryan K.

    2017-01-01

    Anderson insulators are noninteracting disordered systems which have localized single-particle eigenstates. The interacting analog of Anderson insulators are the many-body localized (MBL) phases. The spectrum of the many-body eigenstates of an Anderson insulator is efficiently represented as a set of product states over the single-particle modes. We show that product states over matrix product operators of small bond dimension is the corresponding efficient description of the spectrum of an MBL insulator. In this language all of the many-body eigenstates are encoded by matrix product states (i.e., density matrix renormalization group wave functions) consisting of only two sets of low bond dimension matrices per site: the Gi matrices corresponding to the local ground state on site i and the Ei matrices corresponding to the local excited state. All 2n eigenstates can be generated from all possible combinations of these sets of matrices.

  8. Wax-matrix tablet for time-dependent colon-specific delivery system of sophora flavescens Aiton: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Caihong; Cheng, Gang; Ren, Jungang; Wu, Gaolei

    2009-02-01

    A wax-matrix time-dependent colon-specific tablet (WM-TDCS) was studied. Wax-matrix tablet core consisting of semi-synthetic glycerides, as a wax polymeric expanding agent, carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), and NaCl was prepared, and Sophora flavescens Aiton (ASF, extracts of traditional Chinese medicine) was used as model drug. The wax-matrix ASF tablets core was coated with Eudragit NE 30 D as the inner coating materials and with Opadry OY-P-7171 as the outer coating materials. The in vitro release behaviors of the coated tablets were examined and then in vivo absorption kinetics of the coated tablets in dogs was further investigated. The volume of the tablet core was markedly increased at 37 degrees C because of the expand effect of polymer semi-synthetic glycerides and CMS-Na. The drug release from WM-TDCS was more stable than TDCS in vitro and in vivo. The lag time of ASF release was also controlled by the thickness of the inner coating layer. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that in vivo lag time of absorption was in a good agreement with in vitro lag time of release. ASF wax-matrix tablets coated with Eudragit NE 30 D and Opadry OY-P-7171 using the regular coating technique could be designed to achieve a lag time of 3 h in the small intestinal tract.

  9. R-matrix calculations for electron-impact excitation of C(+), N(2+), and O(3+) including fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D.; Pradhan, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    The new R-matrix package for comprehensive close-coupling calculations for electron scattering with the first three ions in the boron isoelectronic sequence, the astrophysically significant C(+), N(2+), and O(3+), is presented. The collision strengths are calculated in the LS coupling approximation, as well as in pair-coupling scheme, for the transitions among the fine-structure sublevels. Calculations are carried out at a large number of energies in order to study the detailed effects of autoionizing resonances.

  10. New generation nuclear fuel structures: dense particles in selectively soluble matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pattillo, Steve G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a technology for dispersing sub-millimeter sized fuel particles within a bulk matrix that can be selectively dissolved. This may enable the generation of advanced nuclear fuels with easy separation of actinides and fission products. The large kinetic energy of the fission products results in most of them escaping from the sub-millimeter sized fuel particles and depositing in the matrix during burning of the fuel in the reactor. After the fuel is used and allowed to cool for a period of time, the matrix can be dissolved and the fission products removed for disposal while the fuel particles are collected by filtration for recycle. The success of such an approach would meet a major goal of the GNEP program to provide advanced recycle technology for nuclear energy production. The benefits of such an approach include (1) greatly reduced cost of the actinide/fission product separation process, (2) ease of recycle of the fuel particles, and (3) a radiation barrier to prevent theft or diversion of the recycled fuel particles during the time they are re-fabricated into new fuel. In this study we describe a method to make surrogate nuclear fuels of micrometer scale W (shell)/Mo (core) or HfO2 particles embedded in an MgO matrix that allows easy separation of the fission products and their embedded particles. In brief, the method consists of physically mixing W-Mo or hafnia particles with an MgO precursor. Heating the mixture, in air or argon, without agitation, to a temperature is required for complete decomposition of the precursor. The resulting material was examined using chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray computed tomography and found to consist of evenly dispersed particles in an MgO + matrix. We believe this methodology can be extended to actinides and other matrix materials.

  11. Associative Flow Rule Used to Include Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Analysis of Strain-Rate-Dependent Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and the strain-rate dependence of the composite response are due primarily to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. By applying micromechanics techniques along with given fiber properties, one can also determine the effects of the hydrostatic stresses in the polymer on the overall composite deformation response. First efforts to account for the hydrostatic stress effects in the composite deformation applied purely empirical methods that relied on composite-level data. In later efforts, to allow polymer properties to be characterized solely on the basis of polymer data, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed equations to model the polymers that were based on a non-associative flow rule, and efforts to use these equations to simulate the deformation of representative polymer materials were reasonably successful. However, these equations were found to have difficulty in correctly analyzing the multiaxial stress states found in the polymer matrix constituent of a composite material. To correct these difficulties, and to allow for the accurate simulation of the nonlinear strain-rate-dependent deformation analysis of polymer matrix composites, in the efforts reported here Glenn researchers reformulated the polymer constitutive equations from basic principles using the concept of an associative flow rule. These revised equations were characterized and validated in an

  12. Extracellular Matrix Components Regulate Cellular Polarity and Tissue Structure in the Developing and Mature Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Shweta; Hunter, Dale D; Brunken, William J

    2015-01-01

    While genetic networks and other intrinsic mechanisms regulate much of retinal development, interactions with the extracellular environment shape these networks and modify their output. The present review has focused on the role of one family of extracellular matrix molecules and their signaling pathways in retinal development. In addition to their effects on the developing retina, laminins play a role in maintaining Müller cell polarity and compartmentalization, thereby contributing to retinal homeostasis. This article which is intended for the clinical audience, reviews the fundamentals of retinal development, extracellular matrix organization and the role of laminins in retinal development. The role of laminin in cortical development is also briefly discussed.

  13. Extracellular Matrix components regulate cellular polarity and tissue structure in the developing and mature Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While genetic networks and other intrinsic mechanisms regulate much of retinal development, interactions with the extracellular environment shape these networks and modify their output. The present review has focused on the role of one family of extracellular matrix molecules and their signaling pathways in retinal development. In addition to their effects on the developing retina, laminins play a role in maintaining Müller cell polarity and compartmentalization, thereby contributing to retinal homeostasis. This article which is intended for the clinical audience, reviews the fundamentals of retinal development, extracellular matrix organization and the role of laminins in retinal development. The role of laminin in cortical development is also briefly discussed.

  14. Maxwell equations in matrix form, squaring procedure, separating the variables, and structure of electromagnetic solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Kisel, V V; Red'kov, V M; Tokarevskaya, N G

    2009-01-01

    The Riemann -- Silberstein -- Majorana -- Oppenheimer approach to the Maxwell electrodynamics in vacuum is investigated within the matrix formalism. The matrix form of electrodynamics includes three real 4 \\times 4 matrices. Within the squaring procedure we construct four formal solutions of the Maxwell equations on the base of scalar Klein -- Fock -- Gordon solutions. The problem of separating physical electromagnetic waves in the linear space \\lambda_{0}\\Psi^{0}+\\lambda_{1}\\Psi^{1}+\\lambda_{2}\\Psi^{2}+ lambda_{3}\\Psi^{3} is investigated, several particular cases, plane waves and cylindrical waves, are considered in detail.

  15. Reverse right ventricular structural and extracellular matrix remodeling by estrogen in severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, Rangarajan D; Umar, Soban; Wong, Gabriel; Eghbali, Mansour; Iorga, Andrea; Matori, Humann; Partow-Navid, Rod; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-07-01

    Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) leads to right-ventricular failure (RVF) characterized by RV remodeling. Ventricular remodeling is emerging as an important process during heart failure and recovery. Remodeling in RVF induced by PH is not fully understood. Recently we discovered that estrogen (E2) therapy can rescue severe preexisting PH. Here, we focused on whether E2 (42.5 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 10 days) can reverse adverse RV structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling induced by PH using monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). RV fibrosis was evident in RVF males. Intact females developed less severe RV remodeling compared with males and ovariectomized (OVX) females. Novel ECM-degrading disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM15 and ADAM17 transcripts were elevated ∼2-fold in all RVF animals. E2 therapy reversed RV remodeling in all groups. In vitro, E2 directly inhibited ANG II-induced expression of fibrosis markers as well as the metalloproteinases in cultured cardiac fibroblasts. Estrogen receptor-β agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) but not estrogen receptor-α agonist 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) was as effective as E2 in inhibiting expression of these genes. Expression of ECM-interacting cardiac fetal-gene osteopontin (OPN) also increased ∼9-fold in RVF males. Intact females were partially protected from OPN upregulation (∼2-fold) but OVX females were not. E2 reversed OPN upregulation in all groups. Upregulation of OPN was also reversed in vitro by E2. Plasma OPN was elevated in RVF (∼1.5-fold) and decreased to control levels in the E2 group. RVF resulted in elevated Akt phosphorylation, but not ERK, in the RV, and E2 therapy restored Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, E2 therapy reverses adverse RV remodeling associated with PH by reversing fibrosis and upregulation of novel ECM enzymes ADAM15, ADAM17, and OPN. These effects are likely mediated through estrogen receptor-β.

  16. The Influence of Copper Condensates Alloying with Co, Mo, Ta Transition Metals on the Structure and the Hall-Petch Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Glushchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mechanical properties of two-component copper based Cu-Co, Cu-Mo, Cu-Ta is investigated. It is shown that cobalt, molybdenum and tantalum disperse the grain structure of the copper matrix to submicron and nanometer dimension, form a supersaturated solid solution in the copper fcc lattice and heterophase structure. Reducing of the grain size of condensates is explained by the formation of adsorption layers of atoms of alloying elements on the surface of the copper matrix metal growing grains. The Hall-Petch dependences for the the yield strength are built. The dependences for Cu-Mo and Cu-Ta condensates have greater slope than a similar function for the single component copper. The observed effect is explained by the influence of monolayer grain boundary segregation of molybdenum and tantalum atoms and multilayer segregation of Co atoms.

  17. A Novel Matrix Protein Hic31 from the Prismatic Layer of Hyriopsis Cumingii Displays a Collagen-Like Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, we clone and characterize a novel matrix protein, hic31, from the mantle of Hyriopsis cumingii. The amino acid composition of hic31 consists of a high proportion of Glycine residues (26.67%. Tissue expression detection by RT-PCR indicates that hic31 is expressed specifically at the mantle edge. In situ hybridization results reveals strong signals from the dorsal epithelial cells of the outer fold at the mantle edge, and weak signals from inner epithelial cells of the same fold, indicating that hic31 is a prismatic-layer matrix protein. Although BLASTP results identify no shared homology with other shell-matrix proteins or any other known proteins, the hic31 tertiary structure is similar to that of collagen I, alpha 1 and alpha 2. It has been well proved that collagen forms the basic organic frameworks in way of collagen fibrils and minerals present within or outside of these fibrils. Therefore, hic31 might be a framework-matrix protein involved in the prismatic-layer biomineralization. Besides, the gene expression of hic31 increase in the early stages of pearl sac development, indicating that hic31 may play important roles in biomineralization of the pearl prismatic layer.

  18. Assessment of a hybrid finite element-transfer matrix model for flat structures with homogeneous acoustic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Luca; Atalla, Noureddine; Berry, Alain; Sgard, Franck

    2014-05-01

    Modeling complex vibroacoustic systems including poroelastic materials using finite element based methods can be unfeasible for practical applications. For this reason, analytical approaches such as the transfer matrix method are often preferred to obtain a quick estimation of the vibroacoustic parameters. However, the strong assumptions inherent within the transfer matrix method lead to a lack of accuracy in the description of the geometry of the system. As a result, the transfer matrix method is inherently limited to the high frequency range. Nowadays, hybrid substructuring procedures have become quite popular. Indeed, different modeling techniques are typically sought to describe complex vibroacoustic systems over the widest possible frequency range. As a result, the flexibility and accuracy of the finite element method and the efficiency of the transfer matrix method could be coupled in a hybrid technique to obtain a reduction of the computational burden. In this work, a hybrid methodology is proposed. The performances of the method in predicting the vibroacoutic indicators of flat structures with attached homogeneous acoustic treatments are assessed. The results prove that, under certain conditions, the hybrid model allows for a reduction of the computational effort while preserving enough accuracy with respect to the full finite element solution.

  19. How the structural integrity of the matrix can influence the microstructural response of articular cartilage to compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, James M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how the structural integrity of healthy, surface-removed (healthy), and degenerate matrices can modify the response of cartilage to compression. Six groups of specimens were loaded up to the onset of consolidation or at full consolidation (N = 30, 5 per group, respectively) and then subsequently chemically fixed to capture the deformed state of the tissues. Creep compression was applied through an 8 mm flat-ended indenter containing a 450 μm diameter central pore, providing a region of high stress that also allowed the tissue samples to deform freely around the indenter pore during compression. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used in order to explore the microstructural responses of the tissues. The results demonstrated that superficial layer removal or tissue degeneration can reduce the observed deformation within the tissue region corresponding to the central pore of the loading indenter. Fibril crimping within the central pore matrix and matrix shear at the indenter edge regions are also reduced by both superficial layer removal and by tissue degeneration. These findings suggest that surface removal or tissue degeneration renders the matrix more susceptible to deformation and can also reduce the tissue's ability to transfer forces over a greater surface area and induce stress within the matrix.

  20. A Novel Matrix Protein Hic31 from the Prismatic Layer of Hyriopsis Cumingii Displays a Collagen-Like Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Shimei; Dong, Shaojian; Jin, Can; Li, Jiale

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we clone and characterize a novel matrix protein, hic31, from the mantle of Hyriopsis cumingii. The amino acid composition of hic31 consists of a high proportion of Glycine residues (26.67%). Tissue expression detection by RT-PCR indicates that hic31 is expressed specifically at the mantle edge. In situ hybridization results reveals strong signals from the dorsal epithelial cells of the outer fold at the mantle edge, and weak signals from inner epithelial cells of the same fold, indicating that hic31 is a prismatic-layer matrix protein. Although BLASTP results identify no shared homology with other shell-matrix proteins or any other known proteins, the hic31 tertiary structure is similar to that of collagen I, alpha 1 and alpha 2. It has been well proved that collagen forms the basic organic frameworks in way of collagen fibrils and minerals present within or outside of these fibrils. Therefore, hic31 might be a framework-matrix protein involved in the prismatic-layer biomineralization. Besides, the gene expression of hic31 increase in the early stages of pearl sac development, indicating that hic31 may play important roles in biomineralization of the pearl prismatic layer.

  1. Structure and dynamics of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ras; Farmer, Barry

    Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 (consisting of 326 residues) plays a critical role in viral assembly and its functions such as regulation of viral transcription, packaging, and budding of mature virions into the plasma membrane of infected cells. How does the protein VP40 go through structural evolution during the viral life cycle remains an open question? Using a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation we investigate the structural evolution of VP40 as a function of temperature with the input of a knowledge-based residue-residue interaction. A number local and global physical quantities (e.g. mobility profile, contact map, radius of gyration, structure factor) are analyzed with our large-scale simulations. Our preliminary data show that the structure of the protein evolves through different state with well-defined morphologies which can be identified and quantified via a detailed analysis of structure factor.

  2. A New Matrix Theorem: Interpretation in Terms of Internal Trade Structure and Implications for Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Thissen, Mark J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Economic systems often are described in matrix form as x = Mx. We present a new theorem for systems of this type where M is square, nonnegative and indecomposable. The theorem discloses the existence of additional economic relations that have not been discussed in the literature up to now, and gives

  3. Structure of matrix metalloproteinase-3 with a platinum-based inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviso, Benny Danilo; Caliandro, Rocco; Siliqi, Dritan; Calderone, Vito; Arnesano, Fabio; Natile, Giovanni

    2013-06-18

    An X-ray investigation has been performed with the aim of characterizing the binding sites of a platinum-based inhibitor (K[PtCl3(DMSO)]) of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (stromelysin-1). The platinum complex targets His224 in the S1' specificity loop, representing the first step in the selective inhibition process (PDB ID code 4JA1).

  4. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  5. Proteome-level display by 2-dimensional chromatography of extracellular matrix-dependent modulation of the phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extracellular matrix can have a profound effect upon the phenotype of cancer cells. Previous work has shown that growth of bladder cancer cells on a matrix derived from normal basement membrane suppresses many malignant features that are displayed when the cells are grown on a matrix that has been modified by malignant tumors. This work was undertaken to investigate proteome-level changes as determined by a new commercially available proteome display involving 2-dimensional chromatography for bladder cancer cells grown on different extracellular matrix preparations that modulate the expression of the malignant phenotype. Results Depending on the matrix, between 1300 and 2000 distinct peaks were detected by two-dimensional chromatographic fractionation of 2.1 – 4.4 mg of total cellular protein. The fractions eluting from the reversed-phase fractionation were suitable for mass spectrometric identification following only lyophilization and trypsin digestion and achieved approximately 10-fold higher sensitivity than was obtained with gel-based separations. Abundant proteins that were unique to cells grown on one of the matrices were identified by mass spectrometry. Following concentration, peaks of 0.03 AU provided unambiguous identification of protein components when 10% of the sample was analyzed, whereas peaks of 0.05 AU was approximately the lower limit of detection when the entire sample was separated on a gel and in-gel digestion was used. Although some fractions were homogeneous, others were not, and up to 3 proteins per fraction were identified. Strong evidence for post-translational modification of the unique proteins was noted. All 13 of the unique proteins from cells grown on Matrigel were related to MYC pathway. Conclusion The system provides a viable alternative to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis for proteomic display of biological systems. The findings suggest the importance of MYC to the malignant phenotype

  6. A study of common discovery dosing formulation components and their potential for causing time-dependent matrix effects in high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoying; Mei, Hong; Wang, Shiyong; Zhou, Qiao; Wang, Ganfeng; Broske, Lisa; Pena, Adrienne; Korfmacher, Walter A

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyproyl-beta-cyclodextran (HPBCD), methyl cellulose (MC), Tween 80 and PEG400 are commonly used in dosing formulations in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies during the early drug discovery stage. A series of studies was designed to evaluate the potential matrix effects of these dosing vehicles when the samples are assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). These dosing vehicles were dosed into the rats via either an intravenous (IV) or an oral route (PO) and plasma samples were collected for a 24-h post-dose period. Five test compounds with CLog P values ranging from 0.9 to 5.4 were spiked into the collected rat plasma. After protein precipitation, these samples were analyzed using a generic fast-gradient HPLC/MS/MS method. Three popular mass spectrometers (Thermo-Finnigan Quantum with ESI and APCI, AB-Sciex API 3000 with ESI and APCI, and Waters-Micromass Quattro Ultima with ESI) were used to test these plasma samples. Results indicated that there was no observed matrix effect for all five compounds when 20% HPBCD or 0.4% MC was used as the vehicle in either the IV or the PO route, respectively. In addition, 0.1% Tween 80 dosed either IV or PO caused significant ion suppression (50-80%, compared to results obtained from plasma samples free from vehicles) for compounds that eluted at the beginning of the chromatogram. Also, PEG400 when used in an oral formulation caused significant ion suppression (30-50%) for early eluting compounds. These matrix effects were not only ionization mode (ESI or APCI) dependent, but also source design (Thermo-Finnigan, AB-Sciex or Waters-Micromass) dependent. Overall, the APCI mode proved to be less vulnerable to matrix effects than the ESI mode. Some possible mechanisms of these matrix effects are proposed and simple strategies to avoid these matrix effects are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Unification of perturbation theory, random matrix theory, and semiclassical considerations in the study of parametrically dependent eigenstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen; Heller

    2000-03-27

    We consider a classically chaotic system that is described by a Hamiltonian H(Q,P;x), where x is a constant parameter. Specifically, we discuss a gas particle inside a cavity, where x controls a deformation of the boundary or the position of a "piston." The quantum eigenstates of the system are |n(x)>. We describe how the parametric kernel P(nmid R:m) = ||(2) evolves as a function of deltax = x-x(0). We explore both the perturbative and the nonperturbative regimes, and discuss the capabilities and the limitations of semiclassical as well as random waves and random-matrix-theory considerations.

  8. The organization of the wall filaments and characterization of the matrix structures of Toxoplasma gondii cyst form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgruber, Leandro; Lupetti, Pietro; Martins-Duarte, Erica S; De Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C

    2011-12-01

    The encystation process is a key step in Toxoplasma gondii life cycle, allowing the parasite to escape from the host immune system and the transmission among the hosts. A detailed characterization of the formation and structure of the cyst stage is essential for a better knowledge of toxoplasmosis. Here we isolated cysts from mice brains and analysed the cyst wall structure and cyst matrix organization using different electron microscopy techniques. Images obtained showed that the cyst wall presented a filamentous aspect, with circular openings on its surface. The filaments were organized in two layers: a compact one, facing the exterior of the whole cyst and a more loosen one, facing the matrix. Within the cyst wall, we observed tubules and a large number of vesicles. The cyst matrix presented vesicles of different sizes and tubules, which were organized in a network connecting the bradyzoites to each other and to the cyst wall. Large vesicles, with a granular material in their lumen of glycidic nature were observed. Similar vesicles were also found associated with the posterior pole of the bradyzoites and in proximity to the cyst wall. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The nature of the structural gradient in epoxy curing at a glass fiber/epoxy matrix interface using FTIR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Benito, J

    2003-11-15

    The curing process of an epoxide system was studied at the interface formed between a silane-coated glass fiber and an epoxy matrix. The gradient in the structure of the epoxy resin as a result of the cure process at the fiber/matrix interfacial region was monitored by FTIR imaging. For comparison, the epoxy curing at the interface formed between the epoxy resin and (a) an uncoated glass fiber and (b) a polyorganosiloxane (obtained from the silane used for the glass-fiber coating) were also monitored. Chemically specific images of the OH and the H-N-H groups near the interface region were obtained. These images suggest that there is a chemical gradient in the structure of the matrix from the fiber surface to the polymer bulk due to different conversions. The basis of the different kinetics of the curing reactions is a result of amino group inactivation at the interface. This deactivation translates into an off-stoichiometry of the reaction mixture, which is a function of the distance from the surface of the glass fiber.

  10. Preparation and structural stability of ordered nanocomposites: opal matrix - lead titanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylovich, M. I.; Mkrtchyan, A. R.; Belyanin, A. F.; Bagdasaryan, S. A.; Kiziridi, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The conditions for the formation of nanocomposites based on the basis of lattice packings of SiO2 nanospheres (opal matrices) with included crystallites of lead titanates (PbTiO3 and PbTi3O7) in interspherical nanospacing are considered. For the formation of nanocomposites are used sample opal matrices with dimensions of single-domain regions ≥0,1 mm.3 The diameter of SiO2 nanospheres was ∼260 nm. Obtained nanocomposites volume >2 cm3 in filling >20% of interspherical nanospacing PbTiO3, PbTi3O7 crystallites were size of 16-36 nm. Using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy are studied composition and structural stability when heated nanocomposites to 550°C, which allowed the identification of a local phase transition with change of the space group. The dependence of the composition of synthesized materials on the conditions of their preparation is submitted.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite materials based on a mesoporous silicon dioxide matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor’eva, N. A., E-mail: natali@lns.pnpi.spb.ru [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Eckerlebe, H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany); Eliseev, A. A.; Lukashin, A. V.; Napol’skii, K. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kraje, M. [Reactor Institute Delft (Netherlands); Grigor’ev, S. V. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of the mesoporous systems based on silicon dioxide with a regular hexagonal arrangement of pores several microns in length and several nanometers in diameter, which are filled with iron compound nanofilaments in various chemical states, are studied in detail. The studies are performed using the following mutually complementary methods: transmission electron microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, electron spin resonance, Mössbauer spectroscopy, polarized neutron small-angle diffraction, and synchrotron radiation diffraction. It is shown that the iron nanoparticles in pores are mainly in the γ phase of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a small addition of the α phase and atomic iron clusters. The effective magnetic field acting on a nanofilament from other nanofilaments is 11 mT and has a dipole nature, the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition temperature is in the range 76–94 K depending on the annealing temperature of the samples, and the temperature that corresponds to the change in the magnetic state of the iron oxide nanofilaments is T ≈ 50–60 K at H = 0 and T ≈ 80 K at H = 300 mT. It is also shown that the magnetization reversal of an array of nanofilaments is caused by the magnetostatic interaction between nanofilaments at the fields that are lower than the saturation field.

  12. Tissue-specific and SRSF1-dependent splicing of fibronectin, a matrix protein that controls host cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mejia, Isabel Cristina; De Toledo, Marion; Della Seta, Flavio; Fafet, Patrick; Rebouissou, Cosette; Deleuze, Virginie; Blanchard, Jean Marie; Jorgensen, Christian; Tazi, Jamal; Vignais, Marie-Luce

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion targets specific tissues in physiological placental implantation and pathological metastasis, which raises questions about how this process is controlled. We compare dermis and endometrium capacities to support trophoblast invasion, using matching sets of human primary fibroblasts in a coculture assay with human placental explants. Substituting endometrium, the natural trophoblast target, with dermis dramatically reduces trophoblast interstitial invasion. Our data reveal that endometrium expresses a higher rate of the fibronectin (FN) extra type III domain A+ (EDA+) splicing isoform, which displays stronger matrix incorporation capacity. We demonstrate that the high FN content of the endometrium matrix, and not specifically the EDA domain, supports trophoblast invasion by showing that forced incorporation of plasma FN (EDA–) promotes efficient trophoblast invasion. We further show that the serine/arginine-rich protein serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) is more highly expressed in endometrium and, using RNA interference, that it is involved in the higher EDA exon inclusion rate in endometrium. Our data therefore show a mechanism by which tissues can be distinguished, for their capacity to support invasion, by their different rates of EDA inclusion, linked to their SRSF1 protein levels. In the broader context of cancer pathology, the results suggest that SRSF1 might play a central role not only in the tumor cells, but also in the surrounding stroma. PMID:23966470

  13. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode.

  14. Nanoporous Structure of Bone Matrix at Osteoporosis from Data of Atomic Force Microscopy and IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gaidash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that in an osteoporotic bone the fraction of nanosized pores decreases, the mineral phase amorphizes, hydrated shells around mineralized particles of the bone matrix thicken, and adhesion forces increase. This contributes to the formation of water clusters similar to bulk water clusters compared to the healthy bone tissue and leads to the accumulation of more viscous liquid with increased intermolecular interaction forces in the pores of the bone matrix. Given this, the rates of chemical reactions proceeding in the water phase of ultrathin channels of general parts of collagen fibrils decrease. Ultimately, nanopores of collagen-apatite interfaces lose, to a certain extent, the capability of catalyzing the hydroxyapatite crystallization.

  15. A Random Matrix Approach to Differential Privacy and Structure Preserved Social Network Graph Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Faraz; Jin, Rong; Liu, Alex X.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks are being increasingly used for analyzing various societal phenomena such as epidemiology, information dissemination, marketing and sentiment flow. Popular analysis techniques such as clustering and influential node analysis, require the computation of eigenvectors of the real graph's adjacency matrix. Recent de-anonymization attacks on Netflix and AOL datasets show that an open access to such graphs pose privacy threats. Among the various privacy preserving models, Dif...

  16. Matrix solution to longitudinal impedance of multi-layer circular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.

    2008-10-01

    A matrix method in which radial wave propagation is treated in analogy to longitudinal transmission lines is presented and applied to finding the longitudinal coupling impedance of axially symmetric multi-layer beam tubes. The method is demonstrated in the case of a Higher Order Mode ferrite absorber with an inserted coated ceramic beam tube. The screening of the ferrite damping properties by the dielectric beam tube is discussed.

  17. Dependence of optical structure of coke from black coal on petrologic peculiarities of the coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.; Stankevich, A.S.; Podchishchaeva, N.I.; Shkoller, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes factors that influence optical structure of coke from Kuzbass black coal. An optical microscope (magnification 800-2,000 times) was used. On the basis of investigations 8 types of optical structures in coke were determined: an isotropic structure, fine grain structure, medium grain structure, large grain structure, fibre-like structure, inertinite structure and a relict structure. The following criteria for determining optical structures are used: optical character of coke matter, grain size, grain geometry, microlites and primary structure. Using regression analysis, dependence of the optical structures on the following indices were derived: vitrinite reflectivity, vitrinite content and reduction degree. 12 refs.

  18. Matrix Configurations for Spherical 4-branes and Non-commutative Structures on S^4

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, R; Nakayama, Ryuichi; Shimono, Yusuke

    2004-01-01

    We present a Matrix theory action and Matrix configurations for spherical 4-branes. The dimension of the representations is given by N=2(2j+1) (j=1/2,1,3/2,...). The algebra which defines these configurations is not invariant under SO(5) rotations but under SO(3) \\otimes SO(2). We also construct a non-commutative product for field theories on S^4 in terms of that on S^2. An explicit formula of the non-commutative product which corresponds to the N=4 dim representation of the non-commutative S^4 algebra is worked out. Because we use S^2 \\otimes S^2 parametrization of S^4, our S^4 is doubled and the non-commutative product and functions on S^4 are indeterminate on a great circle (S^1) on S^4. We will however, show that despite this mild singularity it is possible to write down a finite action integral of the non-commutative field thoery on S^4. NS-NS B field background on S^4 which is associated with our Matrix S^4 configurations is also constructed.

  19. Microfabrication of extracellular matrix structures using multipohoton-excited photochemistry: Application to modeling ovarian tissue in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeti, Visar

    The extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in tissue development, differentiation and homeostasis by providing the necessary biophysical and biochemical cues for the cells. In tumors, the composition and the structure of the microenvironment is thought to be manipulated by the cancers cells to support proliferative growth and enhanced migration as means of facilitated metastasis. Current in vitro tools to address these mechanistic events in tumor progression are lacking in part due to the difficulty in recapitulating the complexity of the composition and nanoarchitecture of the tumor microenvironment. In this thesis, we explore the feasibility of multiphoton-excited photochemistry as a fabrication tool for generating in vitro scaffolds that are highly repeatable, biologically relevant and relatively affordable in a research setting. The power of this technique lays in the capabilities of crosslinking whole extracellular matrix proteins in three dimensions (3D) to recreate key topographical features of the tissue with sub-micron resolution and high fidelity. The technological developments we present here enable direct translation of matrix topographies by using the high resolution image data of the tissue samples as a fabrication template. To this effect, we have applied the fabrication technique to generate gradients of crosslinked proteins as means of studying the role of haptotaxis in ovarian and breast cancers. Our findings show that cancer cells modulate their migration velocity and persistence in response to the changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we have examined structural features of the stroma in relation to cancer migration dynamics. We find that by recreating highly aligned nanoarchitectural features prevalent in cancer stroma, we see permissive and enhanced cell migration with cell morphologies similar to in vivo. We believe multiphoton fabrication to be an enabling tool in the next generation of tissue scaffolding

  20. Hierarchical structure of genetic distances: Effects of matrix size, spatial distribution and correlation structure among gene frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Melo Rodrigues

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic structure of genetic distances among local populations within species, based on allozyme data, has usually been evaluated by estimating genetic distances clustered with hierarchical algorithms, such as the unweighted pair-group method by arithmetic averages (UPGMA. The distortion produced in the clustering process is estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient. This hierarchical approach, however, can fail to produce an accurate representation of genetic distances among populations in a low dimensional space, especially when continuous (clinal or reticulate patterns of variation exist. In the present study, we analyzed 50 genetic distance matrices from the literature, for animal taxa ranging from Platyhelminthes to Mammalia, in order to determine in which situations the UPGMA is useful to understand patterns of genetic variation among populations. The cophenetic correlation coefficients, derived from UPGMA based on three types of genetic distance coefficients, were correlated with other parameters of each matrix, including number of populations, loci, alleles, maximum geographic distance among populations, relative magnitude of the first eigenvalue of covariance matrix among alleles and logarithm of body size. Most cophenetic correlations were higher than 0.80, and the highest values appeared for Nei's and Rogers' genetic distances. The relationship between cophenetic correlation coefficients and the other parameters analyzed was defined by an "envelope space", forming triangles in which higher values of cophenetic correlations are found for higher values in the parameters, though low values do not necessarily correspond to high cophenetic correlations. We concluded that UPGMA is useful to describe genetic distances based on large distance matrices (both in terms of elevated number of populations or alleles, when dimensionality of the system is low (matrices with large first eigenvalues or when local populations are separated