WorldWideScience

Sample records for deoxynivalenol don levels

  1. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  2. Monitoring levels of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Brazilian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano L Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and its intake represents a severe risk to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of DON in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour from two representative locations of south Brazil. Experiments were carried out in Pato Branco (Paraná and Coxilha (Rio Grande do Sul in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Levels of DON were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. This mycotoxin was detected in 97% of samples, ranging from 200 to 4140 u,g kg-1. Only 17% of samples presented DON beyond of the maximum allowed by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency up to the year 2012; even though, Fusarium head blight (FHB epidemics were slight low in the growing season that the study was performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first report showing genetic variability of Brazilian cultivars to DON contamination and some genotypes have potential to be exploited as a source of low accumulation of this toxin.

  3. Deoxynivalenol (DON Contamination of Feed and Grinding Fineness: Are There Interactive Implications on Stomach Integrity and Health of Piglets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity. DON contamination significantly reduced feed intake and serum albumin concentration with this effect being more pronounced after feeding the coarsely ground feed. Albeit at a higher level, albumin concentration was also reduced after feeding the finely ground and uncontaminated feed. Finely ground and DON-contaminated feed caused a significantly more pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltration both of PN and pars glandularis, partly paralleled by lymph follicle formation and detritus filled foveolae and tubes suggesting a local immune response probably triggered by epithelial lesions. It is concluded that DON contamination of feed exacerbates the adverse effects of finely ground feed on stomach mucosal integrity.

  4. Deoxynivalenol (DON) Contamination of Feed and Grinding Fineness: Are There Interactive Implications on Stomach Integrity and Health of Piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Beineke, Andreas; Berk, Andreas; Kersten, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON) was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN) of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity. DON contamination significantly reduced feed intake and serum albumin concentration with this effect being more pronounced after feeding the coarsely ground feed. Albeit at a higher level, albumin concentration was also reduced after feeding the finely ground and uncontaminated feed. Finely ground and DON-contaminated feed caused a significantly more pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltration both of PN and pars glandularis, partly paralleled by lymph follicle formation and detritus filled foveolae and tubes suggesting a local immune response probably triggered by epithelial lesions. It is concluded that DON contamination of feed exacerbates the adverse effects of finely ground feed on stomach mucosal integrity. PMID:28045426

  5. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  6. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

  7. Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Hametner, Christian; Nagl, Veronika; Fiby, Iris; Macheiner, Lukas; Winkler, Janine; Dänicke, Sven; Clark, Erica; Pestka, James J; Berthiller, Franz

    2017-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i.p. injection; pigs: 74 µg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; cows: 5.2 mg DON/kg dry mass, oral for 13 weeks) revealed additional DON and deepoxy-DON (DOM) glucuronides. To elucidate their structures, DON and DOM were incubated with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Besides the expected DON/DOM-3- and 15-GlcAc, minor amounts of four DON- and four DOM glucuronides were formed. Isolation and enzymatic hydrolysis of four of these compounds yielded iso-DON and iso-DOM, the identities of which were eventually confirmed by NMR. Incubation of iso-DON and iso-DOM with RLM and HLM yielded two main glucuronides for each parent compound, which were isolated and identified as iso-DON/DOM-3-GlcAc and iso-DON/DOM-8-GlcAc by NMR. Iso-DON-3-GlcAc, most likely misidentified as DON-7-GlcAc in the literature, proved to be a major DON metabolite in rats and a minor metabolite in pigs. In addition, iso-DON-8-GlcAc turned out to be one of the major DON metabolites in mice. DOM-3-GlcAc was the dominant DON metabolite in urine of cows and an important DON metabolite in rat urine. Iso-DOM-3-GlcAc was detected in urine of DON-treated rats and cows. Finally, DON-8,15-hemiketal-8-glucuronide, a previously described by-product of DON-3-GlcAc production by RLM, was identified in urine of DON-exposed mice and rats. The discovery of several novel DON-derived glucuronides in animal urine requires adaptation of

  8. Protien expression profiling of mouse thymoma upon exposure to the tricothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) Implications for its mechanism of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Blokland, M.H.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Loveren, van H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether proteomic analysis of thymoma cells treated with the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) as compared to non-treated (control) cells would reveal differential protein expression, and thus would contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms

  9. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  10. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is toxic to human colonic, lung and monocytic cell lines, but does not increase the IgE response in a mouse model for allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instanes, Christine; Hetland, Geir

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether the common crop mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from Fusarium species is toxic to human colonic (Caco-2), lung (A549) and monocytic (U937) cell lines. Moreover, since DON reportedly induces increased levels of Th2 cytokines and total IgE, and we have observed that mould extracts adjuvated allergy development in mice, possible adjuvant effect of DON on allergy was studied in a mouse model. For all the cells, exposure to DON for 24 h reduced cellular protein synthesis, proliferation and survival rate dose-dependently. In addition, production of IL-8 in the U937 cell line increased up to eight-fold at levels of DON just lower than the most toxic one, suggesting that IL-8 can be used as an additional index for cytotoxicity in mononuclear phagocytes. However, DON did not increase levels of allergen-specific IgE or IgG1 in the mouse model for allergy. These results suggest that DON, when inhaled or ingested, may have toxic effect on human alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells in lungs and colon, but does not increase the allergic response to allergens

  11. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; De Mets, Laura; De Boevre, Marthe; Uka, Valdet; Di Mavungu, José Diana; De Saeger, Sarah; De Gelder, Leen; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-02-13

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose-response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  12. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON, Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Vanhoutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose–response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1 were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  13. Assessment of Urinary Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in UK Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papageorgiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, the mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum and found in contaminated cereal-based foodstuff, has been consistently detected in body fluids in adults. Available data in children and adolescents are scarce. This study assessed urinary DON concentrations in children aged 3–9 years (n = 40 and adolescents aged 10–17 years (n = 39 in the UK. Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days and analysed for free DON (un-metabolised form, DON-glucuronides (DON-GlcA, deepoxy deoxynivalenol (DOM-1, and total DON (sum of free DON, DON-GlcA, and DOM-1. Total DON was detected in the urine of >95% of children and adolescents on both days. Mean total DON concentrations (ng/mg creatinine were 41.6 and 21.0 for children and adolescents, respectively. The greatest total DON levels were obtained in female children on both days (214 and 219 ng/mg creatinine on days 1 and 2, respectively. Free DON and DON-GlcA were detected in most urine specimens, whereas DOM-1 was not present in any sample. Estimation of dietary DON exposure suggested that 33–63% of children and 5–46% of adolescents exceeded current guidance regarding the maximum provisional tolerable daily intake (PMTDI for DON. Although moderate mean urinary DON concentrations were shown, the high detection frequency of urinary DON, the maximum biomarker concentrations, and estimated dietary DON exposure are concerning.

  14. Relationship between the level of deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat and the fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium spp invades grain commodities in the field and during storage in Uruguay and produces Deoxynivalenol  as the main toxin.The Department of Natural Toxins of Technological Laboratory of Uruguay, as partner in the Project titled " The Development of a Food Quality Management System for the Control of Mycotoxins in Cereal Production and Proccesing Chains in Latin America South Cone Countries", INCO Project ICA4-CT-2002-10043 participates in two workpackages (WP. WP1 related to the development and standarisation of effective analytical tools for mycotoxin determination in cereal and by- products and WP4 related to hazard analysis on mycotoxins.Once DON results were obtained, the objective of this work was to evaluate a possible relationship between the level of deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat and the fungi infection.To reach the objective nine samples corresponding to four different levels of DON contamination were selected as representative of the 87 samples. One sample of 1379 ppb (Group A, four samples of 2536 ppb average (Group B, one sample of 7349 ppb (Group C and three samples of 20076 ppb average (Group D were used for the study. The water activity (aw was measured previous DON content analysis and fungi contamination determination. The values recorded were lower than 0,7.The grains, before and after treatment with sodium hipocloride solution 5%, were placed in duplicate Petri dishes containing yeast glucose cloramphenicol agar (YGCA, twenty grains without treatment and fourty grains treated per dish. The colonies grown were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA and malt extract agar (MEA tubes. Cultures on Czapek Agar were made. Petri dishes and tubes were incubated at 25 ± 1 °C, 4 to 7 days. Cultures on Cazapek Agar were observed under microscope every 24 hours.After sodium hipocloride treatment Fusarium, Penicillium and Alternaria spp were found. The results obtained showed that Fusarium spp colonies were isolated from

  15. Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZON content in corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods and they have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures (190°C reduce fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of temperature (200 and 220 °C and time (15 and 20 min on the detoxification of corn flour deliberately contaminated with DON and ZON. After processing at 200°C for 15 min, an average of 12% and after 20 min an average of 15% of DON was lost. At 200°C ZON content was reduced by 22% (after 15 min and by 27% (after 20 min. Higher temperature (220°C did not significantly affect further reduction of DON or ZON content. The process was only partially effective in both cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

  16. Transcriptome analysis of the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON): New mechanistic insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katika, Madhumohan R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Hendriksen, Peter J.M. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Shao, Jia [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad, E-mail: ad.peijnenburg@wur.nl [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is a commonly encountered type-B trichothecene mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species predominantly found in cereals and grains. DON is known to exert toxic effects on the gastrointestinal, reproductive and neuroendocrine systems, and particularly on the immune system. Depending on dose and exposure time, it can either stimulate or suppress immune function. The main objective of this study was to obtain a deeper insight into DON-induced effects on lymphoid cells. For this, we exposed the human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to various concentrations of DON for various times and examined gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis. Jurkat cells were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 μM DON for 3, 6 and 24 h. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicated that DON affects various processes in these cells: It upregulates genes involved in ribosome structure and function, RNA/protein synthesis and processing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium-mediated signaling, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, the NFAT and NF-κB/TNF-α pathways, T cell activation and apoptosis. The effects of DON on the expression of genes involved in ER stress, NFAT activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Other biochemical experiments confirmed that DON activates calcium-dependent proteins such as calcineurin and M-calpain that are known to be involved in T cell activation and apoptosis. Induction of T cell activation was also confirmed by demonstrating that DON activates NFATC1 and induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. For the gene expression profiling of PBMCs, cells were exposed to 2 and 4 μM DON for 6 and 24 h. Comparison of the Jurkat microarray data with those obtained with PBMCs showed that most of the processes affected by DON in the Jurkat cell line were also affected in the PBMCs. -- Highlights: ► The human T cell line Jurkat and human

  17. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  18. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day.

  19. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Liz; Hardie, Laura; Williams, Courtney; White, Kay; Liu, Yunru; De Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; Moretti, Georgio; Greetham, Stephanie; Brera, Carlo; Papageorgiou, Maria; Thatcher, Natalie J; Rigby, Alan; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2017-06-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians ( t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed) were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI) of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day).

  20. Urinary analysis reveals high deoxynivalenol exposure in pregnant women from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkanj, Bojan; Warth, Benedikt; Uhlig, Silvio; Abia, Wilfred A; Sulyok, Michael; Klapec, Tomislav; Krska, Rudolf; Banjari, Ines

    2013-12-01

    In this pilot survey the levels of various mycotoxin biomarkers were determined in third trimester pregnant women from eastern Croatia. First void urine samples were collected and analysed using a "dilute and shoot" LC-ESI-MS/MS multi biomarker method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites: deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide and deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide were detected in 97.5% of the studied samples, partly at exceptionally high levels, while ochratoxin A was found in 10% of the samples. DON exposure was primarily reflected by the presence of deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide with a mean concentration of 120 μg L(-1), while free DON was detected with a mean concentration of 18.3 μg L(-1). Several highly contaminated urine samples contained a third DON conjugate, tentatively identified as deoxynivalenol-7-glucuronide by MS/MS scans. The levels of urinary DON and its metabolites measured in this study are the highest ever reported, and 48% of subjects were estimated to exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (1 μg kg(-1) b.w.). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of deoxynivalenol on pigeon health : occurrence in feed, toxicokinetics and interaction with salmonellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-...

  2. Transgenic Wheat Expressing a Barley UDP-Glucosyltransferase Detoxifies Deoxynivalenol and Provides High Levels of Resistance to Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shin, Sanghyun; Heinen, Shane; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Berthiller, Franz; Nersesian, Natalya; Clemente, Thomas; McCormick, Susan; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat that results in economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase (HvUGT13248) were developed and evaluated for FHB resistance, DON accumulation, and the ability to metabolize DON to the less toxic DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G). Point-inoculation tests in the greenhouse showed that transgenic wheat carrying HvUGT13248 exhibited significantly higher resistance to disease spread in the spike (type II resistance) compared with nontransformed controls. Two transgenic events displayed complete suppression of disease spread in the spikes. Expression of HvUGT13248 in transgenic wheat rapidly and efficiently conjugated DON to D3G, suggesting that the enzymatic rate of DON detoxification translates to type II resistance. Under field conditions, FHB severity was variable; nonetheless, transgenic events showed significantly less-severe disease phenotypes compared with the nontransformed controls. In addition, a seedling assay demonstrated that the transformed plants had a higher tolerance to DON-inhibited root growth than nontransformed plants. These results demonstrate the utility of detoxifying DON as a FHB control strategy in wheat.

  3. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  4. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycological analysis of cereal samples and screening of Fusarium strains' ability to form deoxynivalenole (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxins--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłyszejko, Adriana; Kubus, Zaneta; Zakowska, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are cosmopolitan microorganisms found in almost all environments. It should be pointed out that occurance of moulds on food or feed may cause health disorders in humans and animals. Mycoflora appears as a source of toxic methabolites, mycotoxins, which hepatotoxic, genotoxic, nefrotoxic and carcinogenic abilities were already proven in several studies. Hense mycological analysis of cereal grains raises as an important manner in evaluation of food and feed health features. Among the most frequent cereal contaminants Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium strains are mentioned. Due to their ability to grow on cereals during both its field growth and storage, Fusarium moulds occure to be an important contamination factors in food and feed industry. In this study Fusarium strains isolates from wheat and maize were examined in order to recognize their abilities to produce two toxins: zearalenon (ZEA) and deoxynivalenole (DON). Mycological analysis shown differentiation within fungal microflora occuring in samples of different storage conditions, where Fusarium strains represented aproximately 20-70% of all mould species present. In purpose of Fusarium strains species evaluation, isolates were mycologically analysed. In the second step of the project, toxicological screening of isolates was performed using Thin Liquid Chromatography (TLC) evaluating toxigenic potential of single strains' production of ZEA and DON. This data gives the possibility of pointing the most toxigenic strains and also shows differentiations in their occurance in cereals. This paper presents introductory research data, which can be useful in recognition of cereal contamination with moulds and their toxic methabolites.

  6. Deoxynivalenol transport across the human placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Vikström, Anna C; Turner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly detected mycotoxin contaminant of cereal crops and cereal based food products in temperate regions of the world. DON causes adverse health effects in animals, passes through to the foetus and causes foetal abnormalities in animals. Biomonitoring for DON has...

  7. Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels of total DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in pregnant human urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days from 42 volunteers and associated food consumption was recorded for the 24 h prior to the sample. Spearman’s rho non-parametric test for correlation was used to assess the data. Levels of DON did not differ significantly between day 1 (mean 29.7 ng/mL urine or 40.1 ng DON/mg creatinine and day 2 (mean 28.7 ng/mL urine or 38.8 ng DON/mg creatinine ng/mL/day urine samples. The only significant positive correlation was found between total ng DON/mg creatinine and parity (rho = 0.307, n = 42, p < 0.005 two-tailed and total ng DON/mg creatinine with baked goods on day 1 (rho = 0.532, n = 42, p < 0.0005 two-tailed. This study provides data on the DON levels in pregnancy in this suburban population and reassurance that those levels are within acceptable limits.

  8. On the effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) administered per os or intraperitoneal infusion to sows during days 63 to 70 of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyarts, Tanja; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Valenta, Hana; Tiemann, Ute; Jäger, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven

    2010-05-01

    Six pregnant sows of 180.6 ± 5.6 kg were fed either a Fusarium-contaminated (4.42 mg DON and 48.3 µg ZON per kg, DON per os, n = 3) or a control diet (0.15 mg DON and 5 µg ZON/kg) in the period of days 63 and 70 of gestation. On day 63 of gestation, sows fed the control diet were implanted with an intraperitoneal osmotic minipump (delivery rate of 10 µL/h, for 7 days) containing 50 mg pure (98%) DON in 2 ml 50% DMSO (DON ip, n = 3). Frequent plasma samples were taken to estimate the kinetics after oral and ip DON exposure. The intended continuous delivery of DON by the intraperitoneal minipump could not be shown, as there was a plasma peak (Cmax) of 4.2-6.4 ng DON/mL either immediately (sow IP-2+3) or 2.5 h (sow IP-1) after implantation of the pump followed by a one-exponential decline with a mean half-time (t1/2) of 1.75-4.0 h and only negligible DON plasma concentrations after 12 h. Therefore, the DON ip exposure has to be regarded as one single dose 1 week before termination of experiment. The DON per os sows showed a mean basis level (after achieving a steady state) of DON plasma concentration of about 6-8 ng/mL, as also indicated by the plasma DON concentration at the termination of the experiment. On day 70, caesarean section was carried out, the fetuses were killed immediately after birth, and samples of plasma, urine, and bile were taken to analyze the concentration of DON and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON. At necropsy there were no macroscopic lesions observed in any organ of either sows or piglets. Histopathological evaluation of sows liver and spleen revealed no alterations. The proliferation rate of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with or without stimulation was not affected by the kind of DON treatment. The exposure of pregnant sows at mid-gestation (days 63-70, period of organogenesis) to a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON and 0.048 mg ZON per kg) or pure DON via intraperitoneal osmotic minipump

  9. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Shahbazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  10. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Generotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc, along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range.

  11. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generotti, Silvia; Cirlini, Martina; Malachova, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Berthiller, Franz; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Suman, Michele

    2015-07-24

    In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range.

  12. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generotti, Silvia; Cirlini, Martina; Malachova, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Berthiller, Franz; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range. PMID:26213969

  13. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  14. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  15. Serum cation profile of broilers at various stages of exposure to deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Böhm, Josef

    2013-05-01

    The present experiment was carried out to investigate if levels of serum cations in broilers are modulated differently at various stages of exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON). Male broiler chicks at 7 days of age were fed a basal diet (0.27 mg of DON; 0.01 mg of zearalenone/kg), or either a low DON diet (1.68 mg of DON; 0.15 mg of zearalenone/kg) or a high DON diet (12.21 mg of DON; 1.09 mg of zearalenone/kg) produced using extracts from Fusarium graminearum cultures. Blood samples from the birds were collected during weeks 2, 4, and 5 of exposure. The high DON diet resulted in lower serum calcium levels compared to the basal diet at all the 3 sampling stages, while the low DON diet resulted in lower serum calcium levels only during weeks 2 and 5. Serum potassium levels were reduced under both the DON diets during weeks 2 and 5, while no diet-associated changes were found for serum levels of magnesium, sodium, and zinc. Under the present experimental conditions, the serum levels of calcium were consistently modulated in the broilers exposed to the DON-contaminated diets. The modulation of serum levels of potassium was, however, dependent upon the stage of exposure to DON.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of deoxynivalenol in wheat and corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.C.; Zhang, G.S.; Chu, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of antibody against deoxynivalenol triacetate (DON-triacetate), a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for DON in wheat was developed. DON is extracted from the sample with acetonitrile-water defatted with hexane, and then reacted with acetic anhydride to form DON-triacetate. The reaction mixture is loaded onto a C-18 cartridge to remove excess reagents and impurities. Acetylated DON is eluted from the cartridge with 50% methanol in water, and then analyzed by radioimmunoassay utilizing antiserum against DON-triacetate and tritiated DON-triacetate. Overall recovery for DON added to wheat between 50 and 5000 ppb was 86% with a standard deviation of 7% and coefficient of variation of 8%. The limit of detection for DON was about 20 ppb. Analysis of 12 naturally contaminated wheat, corn, and mixed feed samples for DON revealed that RIA results agreed well with thin layer chromatographic analyses performed by other laboratories

  17. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kushiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.

  18. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  19. Murine Anorectic Response to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin Is Sex-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin, a common trichothecene mycotoxin found in cereal foods, dysregulates immune function and maintenance of energy balance. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences are similarly evident in DON’s anorectic responses in mice. A bioassay for feed refusal, previously developed by our lab, was used to compare acute i.p. exposures of 1 and 5 mg/kg bw DON in C57BL6 mice. Greater anorectic responses were seen in male than female mice. Male mice had higher organ and plasma concentrations of DON upon acute exposure than their female counterparts. A significant increase in IL-6 plasma levels was also observed in males while cholecystokinin response was higher in females. When effects of sex on food intake and body weight changes were compared after subchronic dietary exposure to 1, 2.5, and 10 ppm DON, males were found again to be more sensitive. Demonstration of male predilection to DON-induced changes in food intake and weight gain might an important consideration in future risk assessment of DON and other trichothecenes.

  20. Deoxynivalenol exposure induces autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modification changes during porcine oocyte maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung [Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Shao-Chen, E-mail: sunsc@njau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates agricultural staples and elicits a complex spectrum of toxic effects on humans and animals. It has been shown that DON impairs oocyte maturation, reproductive function and causes abnormal fetal development in mammals; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the possible reasons of the toxic effects of DON on porcine oocytes. Our results showed that DON significantly inhibited porcine oocyte maturation and disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK protein level, which caused retardation of cell cycle progression. In addition, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and aberrant Lamp2, LC3 and mTOR mRNA levels were observed with DON exposure, together with Annexin V-FITC staining assay analysis, these results indicated that DON treatment induced autophagy/apoptosis in porcine oocytes. We also showed that DON exposure increased DNA methylation level in porcine oocytes through altering DNMT3A mRNA levels. Histone methylation levels were also changed showing with increased H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 protein levels, and mRNA levels of their relative methyltransferase genes, indicating that epigenetic modifications were affected. Taken together, our results suggested that DON exposure reduced porcine oocytes maturation capability through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modifications. - Highlights: • DON exposure disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK expression. • DON exposure caused retardation of cell cycle progression in porcine oocytes. • DON triggered autophagy and early-apoptosis in porcine oocytes. • DON exposure led to aberrant epigenetic modifications in porcine oocytes.

  1. Deoxynivalenol exposure induces autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modification changes during porcine oocyte maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates agricultural staples and elicits a complex spectrum of toxic effects on humans and animals. It has been shown that DON impairs oocyte maturation, reproductive function and causes abnormal fetal development in mammals; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the possible reasons of the toxic effects of DON on porcine oocytes. Our results showed that DON significantly inhibited porcine oocyte maturation and disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK protein level, which caused retardation of cell cycle progression. In addition, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and aberrant Lamp2, LC3 and mTOR mRNA levels were observed with DON exposure, together with Annexin V-FITC staining assay analysis, these results indicated that DON treatment induced autophagy/apoptosis in porcine oocytes. We also showed that DON exposure increased DNA methylation level in porcine oocytes through altering DNMT3A mRNA levels. Histone methylation levels were also changed showing with increased H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 protein levels, and mRNA levels of their relative methyltransferase genes, indicating that epigenetic modifications were affected. Taken together, our results suggested that DON exposure reduced porcine oocytes maturation capability through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modifications. - Highlights: • DON exposure disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK expression. • DON exposure caused retardation of cell cycle progression in porcine oocytes. • DON triggered autophagy and early-apoptosis in porcine oocytes. • DON exposure led to aberrant epigenetic modifications in porcine oocytes.

  2. Reduction of deoxynivalenol in barley by treatment with aqueous sodium carbonate and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David; House, James D; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2005-11-01

    Naturally contaminated lots of Canadian barley containing either 18.4 or 4.3 microg/g deoxynivalenol (DON) were heated at 80 degrees C, with small amounts of water or 1 M sodium carbonate solution to study the rate of DON reduction. Samples were heated in sealed polypropylene containers for periods of up to 8 days. In the 18.4 microg/g DON barley, rapid reductions were observed: with no solutions added, DON declined to 14.7 microg/g after 1 day, and to 4.9 microg/g after 8 days solely due to heat; with water at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON levels reached 3.7 microg/g after 8 days; with 1 M sodium carbonate solution added at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 4.7 microg/g after 1 day, and to 0.4 microg/g after 8 days; with 20 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 1.4 microg/g after 1 day and to near-zero levels after 8 days. In the 4.3 microg/g DON barley, more gradual reductions were evident: with no solutions added, DON declined to 2.9 microg/g after 8 days solely due to heat; with water at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON levels reached 2.3 microg/g after 8 days; with 1 M sodium carbonate solution added at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 2.7 microg/g after 1 day, and to near-zero levels after 8 days; with 20 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 1.4 microg/g after 1 day and to near-zero levels after 3, 5 and 8 days.

  3. Effects of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on steroidogenesis and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Netro, Hilda M; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins can reduce fertility and development in livestock, notably in pigs and poultry, although the effect of most mycotoxins on reproductive function in cattle has not been established. One major mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), not only targets immune cells and activates the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) involving MAPK activation, but also inhibits oocyte maturation in pigs. In this study, we determined the effect of DON on bovine granulosa cell function using a serum-free culture system. Addition of DON inhibited estradiol and progesterone secretion, and reduced levels of mRNA encoding estrogenic (CYP19A1) but not progestogenic (CYP11A1 and STAR) proteins. Cell apoptosis was increased by DON, which also increased FASLG mRNA levels. The mechanism of action of DON was assessed by western blotting and PCR experiments. Addition of DON rapidly and transiently increased phosphorylation of MAPK3/1, and resulted in a more prolonged phosphorylation of MAPK14 (p38) and MAPK8 (JNK). Activation of these pathways by DON resulted in time- and dose-dependent increases in abundance of mRNA encoding the transcription factors FOS, FOSL1, EGR1, and EGR3. We conclude that DON is deleterious to granulosa cell function and acts through a RSR pathway. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Novel methods for determination of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, V.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A rapid method for analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) was developed using high pressure liquid chromatography with reductive electrochemical detection (LCECD). Deoxynivalenol produced by Fusarium roseum growing on solid cornmeal and rice substrates and from naturally contaminated wheat was extracted and quantitated. Two deoxynivalenol producing isolates of Fusarium roseum (ATCC number28114, NCPRL-A) were incubated in stationary liquid culture in the presence of [1- 14 C] sodium acetate to biosynthetically produce a radiolabeled toxin suitable for use in tissue distribution studies. Specific activities of 139 uCi/mmole (NCPRL-A on corn media), 67.5 uCi/mmole (NCPRL-A on rice media) and 21.5 uCi/mmol (ATCC number28114 on rice media) were obtained in this study and represent the first reported incorporation of 14 C into deoxynivalenol. A minicolumn method for DON determination was also investigated

  5. The prevalence of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives in the spring wheat grain from different agricultural production systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaviciene, Sigita; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Suproniene, Skaidre; Kochiieru, Yuliia; Keriene, Ilona

    2018-02-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) occurs in cereal grains and their products. Co-occurrence of DON and acetylated derivatives in cereal grain is detected worldwide. Until now, DON and its derivatives have been considered equally toxic by health authorities. In this study, we analysed 103 samples of spring wheat grain, originating from the fields of different production systems in Lithuania, for the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON). The samples were classified according to the production system-organic, sustainable and intensive. Mycotoxin levels in the spring wheat grain samples were determined by the HPLC method with UV detection. The type-B trichothecenes were found to be present at higher concentrations in the grain from the intensive production system. Eighty-one percent of the spring wheat grain samples from the intensive production system were co-contaminated with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON, 1% with DON+3-ADON. Additionally, DON+15-ADON and DON were found in 5% and 10% of the tested samples, respectively. Two percent of the samples were free from mycotoxins. In the grain samples from the sustainable production system, DON and a combination of DON+3-ADON showed a higher incidence - 47% and 23%, respectively. The samples with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON accounted for 18%. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of organic grain samples. A large number of the organic spring wheat grain samples were contaminated with DON+3-ADON (55%) or DON (36%). The combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON was not present, while DON+15-ADON was present in 9% of the samples tested. The production systems did not lead to significant differences in mycotoxin levels, although a trend toward higher incidence and higher contamination was observed for the samples from the intensive and sustainable production systems.

  6. Transmission of [14C]deoxynivalenol to eggs following oral administration to laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelusky, D.B.; Trenholm, H.L.; Hamilton, R.M.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Following a single oral dose of [ 14 C]deoxynivalenol (2.2 mg of DON, 2.4 μCi/bird) low levels of residues were transmitted to eggs. Maximum radioactivity, which occurred in the first eggs laid after dosing (within 24 h), amounted to 1.9 μg DON-equivalents/60-g egg (0.087% of dose) levels dropped rapidly in ensuing eggs. During daily consumption of DON, administered in spiked feed over a 12-day period (2.2 mg of DON/bird per day for 6 days followed by 2.2 mg of [ 14 C]DON, 1.5 μCi/bird per day for 6 days), radioactivity levels increased with each subsequent egg laid up until the last exposure to the toxin; maximum levels accounted for 4.2 μg DON-equivalents/60-g egg. Residues quickly declined once the birds were switched to clean feed. Results indicate that although residues appear to accumulate in eggs, levels do not persist once the contaminated source is withdrawn. Preliminary analysis of egg material showed only about 10% of radioactivity present could be identified as the parent toxin, DON

  7. Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Walle, Jacqueline; Sergent, Therese; Piront, Neil; Toussaint, Olivier; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2010-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial protein synthesis and barrier integrity. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, as a widely used model of the human intestinal barrier, were exposed to realistic intestinal concentrations of DON (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) during 24 h. DON caused a concentration-dependent decrease in total protein content associated with a reduction in the incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis. DON simultaneously increased the paracellular permeability of the monolayer as reflected through a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increased paracellular flux of the tracer [ 3 H]-mannitol. A concentration-dependent reduction in the expression level of the tight junction constituent claudin-4 was demonstrated by Western blot, which was not due to diminished transcription, increased degradation, or NF-κB, ERK or JNK activation, and was also observed for a tight junction independent protein, i.e. intestinal alkaline phosphatase. These results demonstrate a dual toxicological effect of DON on differentiated Caco-2 cells consisting in an inhibition of protein synthesis as well as an increase in monolayer permeability, and moreover suggest a possible link between them through diminished synthesis of the tight junction constituent claudin-4.

  8. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinton, Philippe; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Del Rio, Juan-Carlos; Moreno, Carolina; Marin, Daniela E.; Ferrier, Laurent; Bracarense, Ana-Paula; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2009-01-01

    'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we investigated the effects of DON on the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated that, in intestinal epithelial cell lines from porcine (IPEC-1) or human (Caco-2) origin, DON decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increases in a time and dose-dependent manner the paracellular permeability to 4 kDa dextran and to pathogenic Escherichia coli across intestinal cell monolayers. In pig explants treated with DON, we also observed an increased permeability of intestinal tissue. These alterations of barrier function were associated with a specific reduction in the expression of claudins, which was also seen in vivo in the jejunum of piglets exposed to DON-contaminated feed. In conclusion, DON alters claudin expression and decreases the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health.

  9. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erica S; Flannery, Brenna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M; Pestka, James J

    2015-10-19

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  10. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Clark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos and adult (3 mos mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  11. The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health: Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 μg/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.

  12. The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health: Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Antonissen

    Full Text Available Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON. Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 μg/kg. Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F of DON in pigeons (30.4%, which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.

  13. Deoxynivalenol as a contaminant of broiler feed: intestinal development, absorptive functionality, and metabolism of the mycotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A W; Blajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Khan, M Z; Rehman, H; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has been recently documented to deteriorate intestinal morphology in chickens at dietary doses that are regarded as safe for this species. The present trial was conducted to explore the significance of these morphological changes in relation to intestinal absorptive functionality and DON metabolism. Ross broilers at 7 d of age were fed either a basal diet (0.265 ± 0.048 mg of DON/kg; 0.013 ± 0.001 mg of zearalenone/kg), a low DON diet (1.68 mg of DON/kg; 0.145 ± 0.007 mg of zearalenone/kg), or a high DON diet (12.209 ± 1.149 mg of DON/kg; 1.094 ± 0.244 mg of zearalenone/kg). The DON diets (to variable degrees) progressively decreased the relative density (weight:length) of the small intestine with increasing exposure length, which could be correlated with a decrease in villus height in the small intestine. Short circuit current of the jejunal epithelium, reflecting transport function of the epithelium per unit area, was reduced (P = 0.001) in the birds fed the high DON diet. The increasing dietary level of DON linearly (P = 0.035) increased the length of the jejunum in wk 4 of exposure, resulting in conservation of macronutrient retention. Upon challenging the birds with a fixed amount of DON after wk 5 of exposure, higher (P ≤ 0.033) amounts of DON and the detoxification metabolite (de-epoxy-DON) were found at 5 h postchallenge in the guts of birds raised on the DON diets. The increasing level of previous exposure to DON linearly (P = 0.040) decreased the plasma level of DON in the birds at 1 h postchallenge. The amounts of zearalenone and its analogs in the gut and plasma also followed a trend similar to that for DON. These data suggest that intestines in chickens may adapt to a chronic DON challenge by morphological and functional modifications. The birds having previous exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins showed moderate detoxification coupled with reduced transfer of the mycotoxins to systemic circulation. Some metabolites of

  14. Genotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens fed low-protein feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Dadak, A; Gille, L; Staniek, K; Hess, M; Böhm, J

    2012-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens

  15. Deoxynivalenol occurrence in Serbian maize under different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajić Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence in maize samples originating from two harvest seasons in Serbia. The key differences between harvest seasons were weather conditions, specifically the humidity. The samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection, after clean-up on SPE columns. In samples from 2014, DON was found in 82 (100.0% samples with the average content of 2.517 mg/kg (ranged from 0.368 to 11.343 mg/kg. Two samples exceeded maximum level permitted by EU regulations. However, analyzing larger number of samples (163 from 2015 harvest season, DON was present in 51 (31.3% samples in significantly lower concentrations (average of 0.662 mg/kg, ranged from 0.106 to 2.628 mg/kg. None of the samples from 2015 exceeded maximum level permitted by EU regulations. The data on DON presence in Serbian maize were in relation to the different weather conditions that prevailed during the two harvest seasons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172042

  16. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: som...

  17. Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul I. Ansari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON can cause cell death in wheat (Triticum aestivum, but can also reduce the level of cell death caused by heat shock in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures. We show that 10 μg mL−1 DON does not cause cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures, and its ability to retard heat-induced cell death is light dependent. Under dark conditions, it actually promoted heat-induced cell death. Wheat cultivars differ in their ability to resist this toxin, and we investigated if the ability of wheat to mount defense responses was light dependent. We found no evidence that light affected the transcription of defense genes in DON-treated roots of seedlings of two wheat cultivars, namely cultivar CM82036 that is resistant to DON-induced bleaching of spikelet tissue and cultivar Remus that is not. However, DON treatment of roots led to genotype-dependent and light-enhanced defense transcript accumulation in coleoptiles. Wheat transcripts encoding a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL gene (previously associated with Fusarium resistance, non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes-1 (NPR1 and a class III plant peroxidase (POX were DON-upregulated in coleoptiles of wheat cultivar CM82036 but not of cultivar Remus, and DON-upregulation of these transcripts in cultivar CM82036 was light enhanced. Light and genotype-dependent differences in the DON/DON derivative content of coleoptiles were also observed. These results, coupled with previous findings regarding the effect of DON on plants, show that light either directly or indirectly influences the plant defense responses to DON.

  18. Employing immuno-affinity for the analysis of various microbial metabolites of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Hassan, Yousef I; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2018-06-29

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin that is commonly detected in grains infested with Fusarium species. The maximum tolerated levels of DON in the majority of world's countries are restricted to 0.75 mg kg -1 within the human food chain and to less than 1-5 mg kg -1 in animal feed depending on the feed material and/or animal species due to DON's short and long-term adverse effects on human health and animal productivity. The ability to accurately analyze DON and some of its fungal/bacterial metabolites is increasingly gaining a paramount importance in food/feed analysis and research. In this study, we used the immuno-affinity approach to enrich and detect DON and three of its bacterial metabolites, namely 3-epi-DON, 3-keto-DON, and deepoxy-DON (DOM-1). The optimized enrichment step coupled with high performance liquid chromatography can accurately and reproducibly quantify the aforementioned metabolites in feed matrixes (silage extract as an example in this case). It minimizes any background interface and provides a fast and easy-to-operate protocol for the analytical determination of such metabolites. More importantly, the presented data demonstrates the ability of the utilized monoclonal antibody, generated originally to capture DON in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), to cross react with three less/non-toxic DON metabolites. This raises the concerns about the genuine need to account for such cross-reactivity when DON contamination is assessed through an immuno-affinity based analyses using the investigated antibody. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour, instant noodle and biscuits commercialised in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana Palma de; Lamardo, Leda Conceição Antonia; Shundo, Luzia; Silva, Simone Alves da; Navas, Sandra Aparecida; Alaburda, Janete; Ruvieri, Valter; Sabino, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    A total of 134 samples, consisting of 58 wheat flour, 40 instant noodle and 36 biscuits, were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON). The samples were obtained from retail markets of the city of São Paulo during the period 2010-2014. DON was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and immunoaffinity sample clean-up. Method validation followed international guidelines. The LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 µg kg -1 , respectively, considering the three different types of samples analysed. The lowest recovery found in this study was 91.8% with RSD 4.5% for instant noodles. DON was detected in 91.4%, 97.5% and 97.2% of samples wheat flour, instant noodles and biscuits, respectively, resulting in a total of 94.8% with levels ranging from LOD to 1720.0 µg kg -1 .

  20. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed.

  1. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µg.kg-1, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  2. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in brewing barley grains from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, L O; Savi, G D; Carnielli-Queiroz, L; Almeida, F G; Minella, E; Corrêa, B

    2018-03-09

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil. The results showed high levels of DON and ZEN in the analyzed samples, with contamination levels of 94 and 73.6%, respectively. The mean levels of DON and ZEN ranged from 1700 to 7500 μg/kg and from 300 to 630 μg/kg, respectively. Barley samples from regions 1 and 2 presented higher levels of ZEN and DON, respectively, and those from region 4 presented lower levels of both. Co-occurrence of DON and ZEN was seen in the majority of the barley grain samples, and the mycotoxin content was above the maximum levels established by the Brazilian and European regulations.

  3. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-11-12

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  4. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate, DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens, 51%–72% (roosters, and 131%–151% (pullets. In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  5. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  6. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ghareeb

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio, fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  7. Occurrence and risk assessment of population exposed to deoxynivalenol in foods derived from wheat flour in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milena Veronezi; Pante, Giseli Cristina; Romoli, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto; de Souza, Alexandra Perdigão Maia; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Feijó, Adriane Lettnin Roll; Moscardi, Salesia Maria Prodócimo; de Paula, Karina Ruaro; Bando, Erika; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Machinski, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was shown to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. A total of 77.9% of all samples were positive for DON, with concentrations ranging from 73.50 to 2794.63 µg kg -1 . The intake was calculated for the average and 90th percentile of the contamination levels of DON in foods based-wheat for teenagers, adults and elderly in Brazil, and compared with the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Females of all age groups were exposed to DON at higher levels when compared to males in regard of consumption of breads and pastas. Teenagers were the main consumers of foods derived from wheat flour, with maximum probable daily intakes of 1.28 and 1.20 µg kg -1 b.w. day -1 for females and males, respectively. This population is at an increased risk of exposure to DON due to consumption of wheat flour-based foods in Brazil.

  8. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  9. Risk assessment of Deoxynivalenol in Food. An assessment of exposure and effects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Freijer J; Baars AJ; Slob W; CSR; LEO; LBM

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a risk assessment of deoxynivalenol (DON) in food in the Netherlands. Based on monitoring data of DON in wheat and wheat containing food products (sampling period September 1998 - January 2000) and data on the food consumption pattern in the Netherlands we carried out a

  10. Porcine oocytes are most vulnerable to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol during formation of the meiotic spindle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoevers, E.J.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Colenbrander, B.; Roelen, B.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a secondary metabolite and mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species that occurs with a high prevalence in cereals and grains intended for human and animal consumption. Pigs are considered to be the most sensitive animal species and exposure to DON results in reduced

  11. Fate of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside during cereal-based thermal food processing: a review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Kuča, Kamil; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Klímová, Blanka; Cramer, Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most commonly occurring trichothecene in nature, may affect animal and human health through causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastrointestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) as a major plant metabolite of the mycotoxin is another "emerging" food safety issue in recent years. Humans may experience potential health risks by consuming DON-contaminated food products. Thus, it is crucial for human and animal health to study also the degradation of DON and DON-3G during thermal food processing. Baking, boiling, steaming, frying, and extrusion cooking are commonly used during thermal food processing and have promising effects on the reduction of mycotoxins in food. For DON, however, the observed effects of these methods, as reported in numerous studies, are ambiguous and do not present a clear picture with regard to reduction or transformation. This review summarized the influence of thermal processing on the stability of DON and the formation of degradation/conversion products. Besides this, also a release of DON and DON-3G from food matrix as well as the release of DON from DON-3G during processing is discussed. In addition, some conflicting findings as reported from the studies on thermal processing as well as cause-effect relationships of the different thermal procedures are explored. Finally, the potential toxic profiles of DON degradation products are discussed as well when data are available.

  12. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  13. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Top, van den Hester; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on

  14. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  15. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  16. Examining the Transcriptional Response in Wheat Fhb1 Near-Isogenic Lines to Fusarium graminearum Infection and Deoxynivalenol Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Hofstad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available head blight (FHB is a disease caused predominantly by the fungal pathogen that affects wheat and other small-grain cereals and can lead to severe yield loss and reduction in grain quality. Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, accumulate during infection and increase pathogen virulence and decrease grain quality. The locus on wheat chromosome 3BS confers Type II resistance to FHB and resistance to the spread of infection on the spike and has been associated with resistance to DON accumulation. To gain a better genetic understanding of the functional role of and resistance or susceptibility to FHB, we examined DON and ergosterol accumulation, FHB resistance, and the whole-genome transcriptomic response using RNA-seq in a near-isogenic line (NIL pair carrying the resistant and susceptible alleles for during infection and DON treatment. Our results provide a gene expression atlas for the resistant and susceptible wheat– interaction. The DON concentration and transcriptomic results show that the rachis is a key location for conferring Type II resistance. In addition, the wheat transcriptome analysis revealed a set of -responsive genes that may play a role in resistance and a set of DON-responsive genes that may play a role in trichothecene resistance. Transcriptomic results from the pathogen show that the genome responds differently to the host level of resistance. The results of this study extend our understanding of host and pathogen responses in the wheat– interaction.

  17. Intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol is limited by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 in pig jejunum explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gisela Romina; Payros, Delphine; Pinton, Philippe; Dogi, Cecilia Ana; Laffitte, Joëlle; Neves, Manon; González Pereyra, María Laura; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2018-02-01

    Probiotics have been explored to stimulate gut health in weaned pigs, when they started to consume solid diet where mycotoxins could be present. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON) in an ex vivo model. Jejunal explants, obtained from 5-week-old crossbred castrated male piglets, were kept as control, exposed for 3 h to 10 μM DON, incubated for 4 h with 10 9 CFU/mL L. rhamnosus, or pre-incubated 1 h with 10 9 L. rhamnosus and exposed to DON. Histological lesions were observed, para- and transcellular intestinal permeability was measured in Ussing chambers. The expression levels of mRNA encoding six inflammatory cytokines (CCL20, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8 and IL-22) were determined by RT-PCR. The expressions of the phosphorylated MAP kinases p42/p44 and p38 were assessed by immunoblotting. Exposure to DON induced histological changes, significantly increased the expression of CCL20, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-22 and IL-10, increased the intestinal paracellular permeability and activated MAP kinases. Incubation with L. rhamnosus alone did not have any significant effect. By contrast, the pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus reduced all the effects of DON: the histological alterations, the pro-inflammatory response, the paracellular permeability and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Of note, L. rhamnosus did not adsorb DON and only slightly degrade the toxin. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus RC007 is a promising probiotic which, included as feed additive, can decrease the intestinal toxicity of DON.

  18. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (Peffect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  19. Transformation of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in Chinese steamed bread making, as affected by pH, yeast, and steaming time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-07-01

    We hereby report the transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) by spiking targeted mycotoxins to Fusarium mycotoxin-free flour in the process of making Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The impacts of pH, yeast level, and steaming time on the transformation of 3-ADON to DON were investigated. DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Spiked DON was stable throughout the CSB making process. Spiked 3-ADON and 15-ADON were partially deacetylated and transformed to DON during kneading (54.1-60.0% and 59.3-77.5%, respectively), fermentation (64.0-76.9% and 78.2-91.6%, respectively), and steaming (47.2-52.7% and 52.4-61.9%, respectively). The ADONs level increased after steaming compared with their level in the previous step. The pH level and steaming duration significantly (Pyeast did not remarkably (P<0.05) alter the transformation between ADONs and DON. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Adesso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus Interferon-γ (IFN in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6. The inflammatory response induced by NIV and DON involves tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, nitrotyrosine formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS release, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

  1. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Autore, Giuseppina; Quaroni, Andrea; Popolo, Ada; Severino, Lorella; Marzocco, Stefania

    2017-12-11

    Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus Interferon-γ (IFN) in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The inflammatory response induced by NIV and DON involves tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, nitrotyrosine formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern.

  2. Tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity following administration of 14C-labeled deoxynivalenol to White Leghorn hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelusky, D.B.; Hamilton, R.M.; Trenholm, H.L.; Miller, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The disposition of [ 14 C]deoxynivalenol ([ 14 C]DON) administered to hens as either a single oral dose or consumed in spiked feed over a 6-day period was determined by tracing the specific radioactivity of tissues and excreta. Following a single intubated dose (2.2 mg [ 14 C]DON; 2.4 microCi/bird), the toxin was found to be poorly absorbed; peak plasma levels (2-2.5 hr post-treatment) accounted for less than 1% of the administered dose. Maximum tissue residues were measured at 3 hr in all tissues (liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine) except for fat, muscle, and oviduct which occurred at 6 hr postdosing. Among the organs, the highest activities were measured in kidney, liver, and spleen; however, these levels were equal to less than 500 ng DON equivalents/g tissue, and declined quickly. Clearance of radioactivity from tissue had an average half-life of 16.83 +/- 8.2 hr (range 7.7-33.3 hr, depending on the tissue). Elimination of the labeled toxin in excreta occurred rapidly; recovery of radioactivity accounted for 78.6, 92.1, and 98.5% of the dose by 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. In continuously dosed birds fed 2.2 mg unlabeled DON for 6 days followed by 2.2 mg (1.5 microCi) [ 14 C]DON for 6 days, accumulation of radioactivity in tissues did not occur. Maximum residual levels, which occurred in the kidneys, were only 60 ng DON equivalents/g. Estimated level of residues contained in the edible tissues amounted to only 13-16 micrograms DON/1.5 kg hen

  3. Systemic Growth of F. graminearum in Wheat Plants and Related Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae. This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON, a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at

  4. Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium fungi produce toxic substances called mycotoxins, which can cause disease and harmful effects in grains, livestock, and humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin, is one of the Fusarium mycotoxins that is known to cause vomiting in livestock. This study shows the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in feedstuffs (compound feed and feed ingredients between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea. A total of 653 domestic samples were collected at five time points, including 494 compound feed samples and 159 feed ingredient samples. DON contamination levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with pretreatment using an immunoaffinity column (IAC. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ were estimated at 1–10 µg/kg and 3–35 µg/kg, respectively. Two compound feeds (two gestating sow feed samples out of 160 pig feed samples exceeded the European Commission (EC guidance value, while no feed ingredient samples exceeded the EC or South Korean guidance values. There were statistically significant differences in the mean contamination levels of compound feed and feed ingredients that indicated a decreasing trend over time.

  5. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON was  in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg, far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination.

  6. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brera, Carlo; Bertazzoni, Valentina; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Prantera, Elisabetta; De Santis, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg) of deoxynivalenol (DON) was in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg) and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg), far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg) set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination. PMID:24287568

  7. Embryotoxicity Caused by DON-Induced Oxidative Stress Mediated by Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON belongs to the type B group of trichothecenes family, which is composed of sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by Fusarium and other fungi in grain. DON may cause various toxicities, such as cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity as well as teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, we focus on a hypothesis that DON alters the expressions of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by inducing embryotoxicity in C57BL/6 mouse (5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0 mg/kg/day and BeWo cell lines (0 and 50 nM; 3 h, 12 h and 24 h. Our results indicate that DON treatment in mice during pregnancy leads to ROS accumulation in the placenta, which results in embryotoxicity. At the same time Nrf2/HO-1 pathway is up-regulated by ROS to protect placenta cells from oxidative damage. In DON-treated BeWo cells, the level of ROS has time–effect and dose–effect relationships with HO-1 expression. Moderate increase in HO-1 protects the cell from oxidative damage, while excessive increase in HO-1 aggravates the oxidative damage, which is called in some studies the “threshold effect”. Therefore, oxidative stress may be the critical molecular mechanism for DON-induced embryotoxicity. Besides, Nrf2/HO-1 pathway accompanied by the “threshold effect” also plays an important role against DON-induced oxidative damage in this process.

  8. Deoxynivalenol, gut microbiota and immunotoxicity: A potential approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuxiao; Peng, Zhao; Chen, Liangkai; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is the most frequent mycotoxin in grains and grain products. DON contamination in fodder and food is a serious threat for health, since it impairs the immune and gastrointestinal systems of both human and animals. Gut microbiota seems to play a more and more important part in human and animals' health according to related researches. Previous studies implied some associations among gut microbiota, DON and immune system. For example, DON affects immune system as well as the composition and abundance of gut microbiota, and the latter influences immune system as well. In the present short review, we not only provide the available information about the toxic consequences of DON-induced immunotoxicity on different animals and cell lines and discuss its main possible molecule mechanisms, but also summarize research results concerning the role of gut microbiota in DON-induced immunotoxicity and gender differences, with the aim to find some potential therapeutic strategies to tackle DON-induced immunotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotransformation of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Near Isogenic Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Koutnik, Andrea; Maloku, Imer; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of nine different biotransformation products of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) formed in wheat during detoxification of the toxin are characterized by liquid chromatography—high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The detected metabolites suggest that DON is conjugated to endogenous metabolites via two major metabolism routes, namely 1) glucosylation (DON-3-glucoside, DON-di-hexoside, 15-acetyl-DON-3-glucoside, DON-malonylglucoside) and 2) glutathione conjugation (DON-S-glutathione, “DON-2H”-S-glutathione, DON-S-cysteinyl-glycine and DON-S-cysteine). Furthermore, conjugation of DON to a putative sugar alcohol (hexitol) was found. A molar mass balance for the cultivar ‘Remus’ treated with 1 mg DON revealed that under the test conditions approximately 15% of the added DON were transformed into DON-3-glucoside and another 19% were transformed to the remaining eight biotransformation products or irreversibly bound to the plant matrix. Additionally, metabolite abundance was monitored as a function of time for each DON derivative and was established for six DON treated wheat lines (1 mg/ear) differing in resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Fhb1 and/or Qfhs.ifa-5A. All cultivars carrying QTL Fhb1 showed similar metabolism kinetics: Formation of DON-Glc was faster, while DON-GSH production was less efficient compared to cultivars which lacked the resistance QTL Fhb1. Moreover, all wheat lines harboring Fhb1 showed significantly elevated D3G/DON abundance ratios. PMID:25775425

  10. Pathway of deoxynivalenol-induced apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensassi, Fatma; El Golli-Bennour, Emna; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Bouaziz, Chayma; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen

    2009-01-01

    The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), is generally detected in cereal grains and grain-based food products worldwide. Therefore, DON has numerous toxicological effects on animals and humans. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of DON toxicity on human colon carcinoma cells (HT 29). To this aim, we have monitored the effects of DON on (i) cell viability, (ii) Heat shock protein expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage and (iv) cell death signalling pathway. Our results clearly showed that DON treatment inhibits cell proliferation, did not induce Hsp 70 protein expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We have also demonstrated that this toxin induced a DNA fragmentation followed by p53 and caspase-3 activations. Finally, our findings suggested that oxidative damage is not the major contributor to DON toxicity. This mycotoxin induces direct DNA lesions and could be considered by this fact as a genotoxic agent inducing cell death via an apoptotic process.

  11. Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanoglu, E; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2012-01-01

    The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100-250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by using Arrhenius equation. The degradation of DON obeyed Arrhenius law with a regression coefficient of 0.95. A classical bread baking operation was also performed at 250°C for 70 min and the rate of DON degradation in the bread was estimated by using the kinetic data derived from the model study. The crust and crumb temperatures recorded during bread baking were used to calculate the thermal degradation rate constants (k) and partial DON degradations at certain time intervals. Using these data, total degradation at the end of the entire baking process was predicted for both crust and crumb. This DON degradation was consistent with the experimental degradation data, confirming the accuracy of kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model.

  12. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  13. Use of itaconic acid-based polymers for solid-phase extraction of deoxynivalenol and application to pasta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Michelangelo; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Visconti, Angelo; Magan, Naresh; Chianella, Iva; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-02-25

    Molecular modelling and computational design were used to identify itaconic acid (IA) as a functional monomer with high affinity towards deoxynivalenol (DON), a Fusarium-toxin frequently occurring in cereals. IA-based polymers were photochemically synthesised in dimethyl formamide (porogen) using ethylenglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and 1,1'-azo-bis(cyclohexane carbonitrile) as initiator, and the relevant binding interactions with DON in solvents with different polarity were investigated. The performances of the non-imprinted IA-based polymer (blank polymer, BP) and the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) were compared using DON as a template. Both BP and MIP were able to bind about 90% DON either in toluene, water or water containing 5% polyethylene glycol. Non-imprinted polymers with different molar ratios of IA to cross-linker were evaluated as adsorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and pre-concentration of DON from wheat and pasta samples prior to HPLC analysis. Samples were extracted with PBS/0.1M EDTA solution and cleaned up through a cartridge containing blank IA-based polymer. The column was washed with PBS (pH 9.2) and the toxin was eluted with methanol and quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detector (lambda=220nm), using methanol:water:acetic acid (15:85:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Effective removal of matrix interferences was observed only for pasta with DON recoveries higher than 70% (RSD<7%, n=3) at levels close to or higher than EU regulatory limit.

  14. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (Pglutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  15. Stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking as affected by the presence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2018-03-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients. A range of common food additives and ingredients were added to assess possible interference: ascorbic acid (E300), citric acid (E330), sorbic acid (E200), calcium propionate (E282), lecithin (E322), diacetyltartaric acid esters of fatty acid mono- and diglycerides (E472a), calcium phosphate (E341), disodium diphosphate (E450i), xanthan gum (E415), polydextrose (E1200), sorbitol (E420i), sodium bicarbonate (E500i), wheat gluten and malt flour. The DON content was reduced by 40%, and the DON-3-glucoside concentration increased by >100%, after baking for 20 min at 180°C. This confirmed that DON and DON-3-glucoside concentrations can vary during heating, and DON-3-glucoside could even increase after baking. However, DON and DON-3-glucoside are not affected significantly by the presence of the food additives tested.

  16. Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, J; Börjesson, T; Lundstedt, T; Schnürer, J

    2002-02-05

    Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with some kind of off-odour were selected from Swedish granaries. The samples were evaluated with regard to moisture content, fungal contamination, ergosterol content, and levels of ochratoxin A (OA) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Volatile compounds were also analysed using both an electronic nose and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples with normal odour had no detectable ochratoxin A and average DON contents of 16 microg kg(-1) (range 0-80), while samples with off-odour had average OA contents of 76 microg kg(-1) (range 0-934) and DON contents of 69 microg kg(-1) (range 0-857). Data were evaluated by multivariate data analysis using projection methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The results show that it was possible to classify the OA level as below or above the maximum limit of 5 microg kg(-1) cereal grain established by the Swedish National Food Administration, and that the DON level could be estimated using PLS. Samples with OA levels below 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentration of aldehydes (nonanal, 2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, 1-octanol). Samples with OA levels above 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentrations of ketones (2-hexanone, 3-octanone). The GC-MS system predicted OA concentrations with a higher accuracy than the electronic nose, since the GC-MS misclassified only 3 of 37 samples and the electronic nose 7 of 37 samples. No correlation was found between odour and OA level, as samples with pronounced or strong off-odours had OA levels both below and above 5

  17. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  18. MFS Transporters and GABA Metabolism Are Involved in the Self-Defense Against DON in Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinhu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON produced by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, are not only important for plant infection but are also harmful to human and animal health. Trichothecene targets the ribosomal protein Rpl3 that is conserved in eukaryotes. Hence, a self-defense mechanism must exist in DON-producing fungi. It is reported that TRI (trichothecene biosynthesis 101 and TRI12 are two genes responsible for self-defense against trichothecene toxins in Fusarium. In this study, however, we found that simultaneous disruption of TRI101 and TRI12 has no obvious influence on DON resistance upon exogenous DON treatment in F. graminearum, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in self-defense. By using RNA-seq, we identified 253 genes specifically induced in DON-treated cultures compared with samples from cultures treated or untreated with cycloheximide, a commonly used inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. We found that transporter genes are significantly enriched in this group of DON-induced genes. Of those genes, 15 encode major facilitator superfamily transporters likely involved in mycotoxin efflux. Significantly, we found that genes involved in the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, a known inducer of DON production in F. graminearum, are significantly enriched among the DON-induced genes. The GABA biosynthesis gene PROLINE UTILIZATION 2-2 (PUT2-2 is downregulated, while GABA degradation genes are upregulated at least twofold upon treatment with DON, resulting in decreased levels of GABA. Taken together, our results suggest that transporters influencing DON efflux are important for self-defense and that GABA mediates the balance of DON production and self-defense in F. graminearum.

  19. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, N; Audenaert, K; Arroyo-Manzanares, N; De Boevre, M; Van Poucke, C; De Saeger, S; Haesaert, G; Smagghe, G

    2016-12-08

    Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids. This phase II biotransformation mechanism has only been reported in plants. As the DON-3G metabolite was less toxic for aphids than DON, this conversion is considered a detoxification reaction. Remarkably, English grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) which co-occur with the DON producer Fusarium graminearum on wheat during the development of fusarium symptoms, tolerate DON much better and convert DON to DON-3G more efficiently than pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the latter being known to feed on legumes which are no host for F. graminearum. Using a non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometric approach, we detected DON-diglucosides in aphids probably as a result of sequential glucosylation reactions. Data are discussed in the light of an eventual co-evolutionary adaptation of S. avenae to DON.

  20. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography . The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB 1 . DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB 1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB 1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on plasma cytokines and mRNA expression of immune genes in the intestine of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Soodoi, Chimidtseren; Sasgary, Soleman; Strasser, Alois; Böhm, Josef

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the individual and combined effects of dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) and a microbial feed additive on plasma cytokine level and on the expression of immune relevant genes in jejunal tissues of broilers. A total of 40 broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and divided randomly into four groups (10 birds per group). Birds were reared in battery cages from one day old for 5 weeks. The dietary groups were 1) control birds fed basal diet; 2) DON group fed basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/ kg feed; 3) DON + Mycofix group fed basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/ kg feed and supplemented with a commercial feed additive, Mycofix® Select (MS) (2.5 kg/ton of feed); 4) Mycofix group fed basal diet supplemented with MS (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At 35 days, the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) were quantified by ELISA test kits. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, interferon gamma (IFNγ), transforming growth factor beta receptor I (TGFBR1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 1 (NF-κβ1) in jejunum were quantified by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the plasma TNF-α decreased in response to DON, while in combination with MS, the effect of DON was reduced. DON down-regulated the relative gene expression of IL-1β, TGFBR1 and IFN-γ, and addition of MS to the DON contaminated diet compensates these effects on IL-1β, TGFBR1 but not for IFN-γ. Furthermore, supplementation of MS to either DON contaminated or control diet up-regulated the mRNA expression of NF-κβ1. In conclusion, DON has the potential to provoke and modulate immunological reactions of broilers and subsequently could increase their susceptibility to disease. The additive seemed to have almost as much of an effect as DON, albeit on different genes.

  2. Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination

  3. The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the present review, the quantitative impact of dietary aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin concentrations on performance of pigs and broilers is evaluated, with special emphasis on low concentrations of these toxins. Also, responses in performance of pigs and broilers to these three

  4. Rapid Screening Assay for the Detection of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol using Monoclonal Antibody and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalenol (NIV) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp that contaminate mainly cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and maize. These mycotoxins are serious health hazards to human and domestic animals. The study reports a rapid screening method of NIV and DO...

  5. Use of a multifunctional column for the determination of deoxynivalenol in grains, grain products, and processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Oles, Carolyn J; White, Kevin D; Sapp, Chelsea; Trucksess, Mary W

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, belongs to a class of naturally occurring mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. DON, 12, 13-epoxy-3,7 trihydroxytrichothec-9-en-8-one, is one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in agricultural commodities worldwide. A method consisting of extraction, filtration, column cleanup, and RP-HPLC-UV separation and quantitation was validated for the determination of DON in grains (rice and barley), grain products (whole wheat flour, white flour, wheat germ, and wheat bran), and processed foods (bread, breakfast cereals, and pretzels). A 25 g test portion was extracted with 100 mL acetonitrile-water (84 + 16, v/v). After blending for 3 min, the supernatant was applied to a multifunctional column (MycoSep 225). The purified filtrate (2 mL) was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in the mobile phase. The toxins were then subjected to RP-HPLC-UV analysis. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of DON added at levels ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 microg/g for all test matrixes were from 75 to 98%. SD and RSD(r) ranged from 0.7 to 11.6% and 0.9 to 12.7%, respectively. Within-laboratory HorRat values were from 0.1 to 0.7 for all matrixes analyzed. The method was found to meet AOAC method performance criteria for grains, grain products, and processed foods. The identity of DON in naturally contaminated test sample extracts was confirmed by HPLC/MS/MS analysis.

  6. Tissue distribution and elimination of deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A in dietary-exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, Aksel; Høgåsen, Helga R; Rosenlund, Grethe; Ivanova, Lada; Berntssen, Marc H G; Alexander, Jan; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl; Fæste, Christiane Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed standard feed with added 2 or 6 mg kg -1 pure deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.8 or 2.4 mg kg -1 pure ochratoxin A (OTA), or no added toxins for up to 8 weeks. The experiments were performed in duplicate tanks with 25 fish each per diet group, and the feed was given for three 2-h periods per day. After 3, 6 and 8 weeks, 10 fish from each diet group were sampled. In the following hours after the last feeding at 8 weeks, toxin elimination was studied by sampling three fish per diet group at five time points. Analysis of DON and OTA in fish tissues and plasma was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, respectively. DON was distributed to the liver, kidney, plasma, muscle, skin and brain, and the concentrations in liver and muscle increased significantly from 3 to 8 weeks of exposure to the high-DON diet. After the last feeding at 8 weeks, DON concentration in liver reached a maximum at 1 h and decreased thereafter with a half-life (t 1/2 ) of 6.2 h. DON concentration in muscle reached a maximum at 6 h and was then eliminated with a t 1/2  = 16.5 h. OTA was mainly found in liver and kidney, and the concentration in liver decreased significantly from 3 to 8 weeks in the high-OTA group. OTA was eliminated faster than DON from various tissues. By using Norwegian food consumption data and kinetic findings in this study, we predicted the human exposure to DON and OTA from fish products through carryover from the feed. Following a comparison with tolerable daily intakes, we found the risk to human health from the consumption of salmon-fed diets containing maximum recommended levels of these toxins to be negligible.

  7. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON. Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigated the effect of natural substance amygdalin at the selected doses (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 µg/mL in combination with deoxynivalenol (1000 ng/mL on secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs from cyclic pigs. Our results showed that the releasing of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells was affected by amygdalin plus DON addition. The secretion of progesterone by ovarian GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by administration of both compounds in all experimental groups. Similarly, estradiol releasing by GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 increased in experimental groups with amygdalin (10, 100 and 10 000 µg/mL plus DON (1000 ng/mL addition. Amygdalin treatment combined with DON caused increase of steroid hormones release by ovarian granulosa cells. Our findings suggest possible involvement of these natural substances (amygdalin and deoxynivalenol in the regulation process of steroidogenesis. In conclusion, results from this experiment contribute to knowledge about interaction between two different natural compounds and their positive or negative interferences with ovarian functions.

  8. Beyond Ribosomal Binding: The Increased Polarity and Aberrant Molecular Interactions of 3-epi-deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a secondary fungal metabolite and contaminant mycotoxin that is widely detected in wheat and corn products cultivated around the world. Bio-remediation methods have been extensively studied in the past two decades and promising ways to reduce DON-associated toxicities have been reported. Bacterial epimerization of DON at the C3 carbon was recently reported to induce a significant loss in the bio-toxicity of the resulting stereoisomer (3-epi-DON in comparison to the parental compound, DON. In an earlier study, we confirmed the diminished bio-potency of 3-epi-DON using different mammalian cell lines and mouse models and mechanistically attributed it to the reduced binding of 3-epi-DON within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC. In the current study and by inspecting the chromatographic behavior of 3-epi-DON and its molecular interactions with a well-characterized enzyme, Fusarium graminearum Tri101 acetyltransferase, we provide the evidence that the C3 carbon epimerization of DON influences its molecular interactions beyond the abrogated PTC binding.

  9. Deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in bread and biscuits in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dafeng; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Li, Wei; Yu, Lianlong; Zheng, Fengjia; Wang, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, 100 commercial breads and biscuits were investigated for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-Ac-DON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-Ac-DON). The target mycotoxins were determined by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). DON was determined in 95% of the test samples with a mean value of 153.3 µg/kg. Compared with DON, 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON were far less frequently detected, with mean values of 1.14 and 0.37 µg/kg, respectively. The estimated daily intakes of the sum of DON and its derivatives in breads and biscuits were 0.0059 and 0.0313 µg/kg bw/day, respectively, which was within the group provisional tolerable daily intake of 1.0 µg/kg bw/day set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. In the future, systematic monitoring programmes of DON and its derivatives in relevant foodstuffs are still necessary for food safety and human health.

  10. Lateral-flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol with two indicator ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosova, Anna Yu.; Sibanda, Liberty; Dumoulin, Frederic; Lewis, Janet; Duveiller, Etienne; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Saeger, Sarah de

    2008-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay using a colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol (DON). Different parameters, such as the amount of immunoreagents, type of the materials, composition of the blocking solution and of the detector reagent mixture, were investigated to provide the optimum assay performance. The experimental results demonstrated that such a visual test had an indicator range rather than a cut-off value. Thus, tests for DON determination with two different indicator ranges of 250-500 and 1000-2000 μg kg -1 were designed. The method allowed detection of DON at low and high concentration levels, which could be useful for research and practical purposes. The assay applied to spiked wheat and pig feed samples demonstrated accurate and reproducible results. The applicability of the developed lateral-flow test was also confirmed under real field conditions. The test strips prepared in Belgium were sent to Mexico, where they were used for the screening of DON contamination in different bread wheat entries from Fusarium Head Blight inoculated plots. The results were compared with those obtained by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. A poor correlation between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed. Visual results of the dipstick tests were in a good agreement with the results of the LC-MS/MS method. Coupled with a simple and fast sample preparation, this qualitative one-step test based on the visual evaluation of results did not require any equipment. Results could be obtained within 10 min. The described assay format can be used as a simple, rapid, cost-effective and robust on-site screening tool for mycotoxin contamination in different agricultural commodities

  11. Co-Contamination of DON and NIV in Domestic Flour in Japan: Survey, Intake, Reduction and Rapid Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalenol (NIV) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that contaminate mainly cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and maize. These mycotoxins are serious health hazards to humans and domestic animals. In Japan, there have been many reports of DON and NIV ...

  12. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  13. Dual effects exerted in vitro by micromolar concentrations of deoxynivalenol on undifferentiated caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Gina; Mocanu, Mihaela Andreea; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-02-16

    Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37-1.50 μM), relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  14. Dual Effects Exerted in Vitro by Micromolar Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol on Undifferentiated Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Manda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37–1.50 μM, relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  15. DON shares a similar mode of action as the ribotoxic stress inducer anisomycin while TBTO shares ER stress patterns with the ER stress inducer Thapsigargin based on comparative gene expression profiling in Jurkat T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeits, P.C.J.; Katika, M.R.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Loveren, van H.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we studied the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO) on whole genome mRNA expression profiles of human T lymphocyte Jurkat cells. These studies indicated that DON induces ribotoxic stress and both DON and TBTO induced ER stress which resulted into T-cell activation

  16. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Matejova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40 were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225 μg/kg feed; experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964 μg/kg feed. Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05. In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05, and ammonia (P<0.01 was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss to deoxynivalenol.

  17. Tolerance and excretion of the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A by alphitobius diaperinus and hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camenzuli, Louise; Dam, van Ruud; Rijk, de Theo; Andriessen, Rob; Schelt, van Jeroen; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.I.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins,

  18. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to coccidiosis when fed subclinical doses of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins – special emphasis on the immunological response and the mycotoxin interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these ...

  19. Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro screening of 14 adsorbent materials, including some commercial products used to detoxify Fusarium-mycotoxins, were tested in the pH range of 3-8 for deoxynivalenol (DON)- and nivalenol (NIV)-binding ability. Only activated carbon showed to be effective with binding capacities of 35.1 μmol

  20. Effects of deoxynivalenol on content of chloroplast pigments in barley leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, W R; Perkins-Veazie, P; Russo, V M; Collins, J; Seeland, T M

    2010-01-01

    To understand further the role of deoxynivalenol (DON) in development of Fusarium head blight (FHB), we investigated effects of the toxin on uninfected barley tissues. Leaf segments, 1 to 1.2 cm long, partially stripped of epidermis were floated with exposed mesophyll in contact with DON solutions. In initial experiments with the leaf segments incubated in light, DON at 30 to 90 ppm turned portions of stripped tissues white after 48 to 96 h. The bleaching effect was greatly enhanced by addition of 1 to 10 mM Ca(2+), so that DON at 10 to 30 ppm turned virtually all stripped tissues white within 48 h. Content of chlorophylls a and b and of total carotenoid pigment was reduced. Loss of electrolytes and uptake of Evans blue indicated that DON had a toxic effect, damaging plasmalemmas in treated tissues before chloroplasts began to lose pigment. When incubated in the dark, leaf segments also lost electrolytes, indicating DON was toxic although the tissues remained green. Thus, loss of chlorophyll in light was due to photobleaching and was a secondary effect of DON, not required for toxicity. In contrast to bleaching effects, some DON treatments that were not toxic kept tissues green without bleaching or other signs of injury, indicating senescence was delayed compared with slow yellowing of untreated leaf segments. Cycloheximide, which like DON, inhibits protein synthesis, also bleached some tissues and delayed senescence of others. Thus, the effects of DON probably relate to its ability to inhibit protein synthesis. With respect to FHB, the results suggest DON may have multiple roles in host cells of infected head tissues, including delayed senescence in early stages of infection and contributing to bleaching and death of cells in later stages.

  1. Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bannert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19 or a control diet (CON, n = 22. Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05. LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO2 overall (p < 0.05, but reduced pCO2 only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01, but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01, indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05. DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic.

  2. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  3. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whitten, Douglas A. [Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Ming [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chan, Christina [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wilkerson, Curtis G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  4. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xiao; Whitten, Douglas A.; Wu, Ming; Chan, Christina; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  5. SURVEY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL, DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL, AND T2 TOXIN IN POPCORN HYBRIDS PLANTED IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO AND IN POPCORN COMMERCIALIZED IN THE CITY OF CAMPINAS, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Adriana de Queiroz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, and T2 toxin (T2 in popcorn was investigated in 90 samples, belonging to 2 commercial and 28 experimental hybrids planted at experimental stations of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas at the locations of Campinas, Mococa, and Capão Bonito, and in 15 samples of popcorn, 9 branded and 6 unbranded, acquired from commercial outlets in the city of Campinas, SP. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector combined with an alumina:carbon cleanup column. The detection limits were 30ng/g for DON, 50ng/g for DAS, and 40ng/g for T2. Five samples were contaminated with DON, four of them commercial and one from an experimental cultivar. The level of contamination in the commercial samples ranged from 30 to 40ng/g. The sample from the experimental cultivar contained 770ng/g DON. DAS and T2 were not detected in any of the popcorn samples analyzed.

  6. Co-administration of amygdalin and deoxynivalenol disrupted regulatory proteins linked to proliferation of porcine ovarian cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON represents one of the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, causing economic and health impacts. On the other hand, amygdalin has been demonstrated to possess both prophylactic and curative properties, thus it has been used as a traditional drug because of its wide range of medicinal benefits, including curing or preventing cancer, relieving fever, suppressing cough, and quenching thirst. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate potential effects of natural product amygdalin combined with mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the key regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis in porcine ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated for 24h with amygdalin (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg.mL-1 combined with deoxynivalenol (1 μg.mL-1, while the control group remained untreated. The presence of proliferative (cyclin B1, PCNA and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells after amygdalin treatment (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg.mL-1 combined with deoxynivalneol (1 μg.mL-1 was detected by immunocytochemistry. The presence of proliferative (cyclin B1, PCNA and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells was detected by immunocytochemistry. Co-administration of amygdalin plus DON significantly (p <0.05 increased the number of granulosa cells containing cyclin B1 and PCNA at all tested concetrations, when compared to control. However, percentage of granulosa cells containing major apoptotic marker caspase-3 did not differ after co-administration of amygdalin and DON. In summary, results form this in vitro study indicate that co-exposure of amygdalin and deoxynivalenol  may act to stimulate proliferation-associated peptides in porcine ovarian granulosa cells, and thus alter cell proliferation and normal follicular development.

  7. Review of mechanisms of deoxynivalenol-induced anorexia: The role of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao; Chen, Liangkai; Xiao, Jie; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang; Liu, Jinping; Yang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important mycotoxins in cereal-based foods or other food productions, produced by Fusarium species. Because of the high occurrence of DON in food combined with vast consumption of cereals and grain worldwide, the DON-contaminated food is a very harmful factor for human and animal health. DON has been reported to induce anorexia at lower or chronic doses in animal models. However, further researches for DON-induced anorexia are limited. Previous publications demonstrated a close link between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, two kinds of gut microbiota, with weight loss and the effect of low administration of DON on neurotransmitters in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and pons/medulla. These data are similar to other studies, which show selective 5HT α receptor agonists apparently causing hyperphagia whereas 5HT 1β agonists appear to induce anorexia. Thus, the neurochemical effects of lower DON exposure can be as a result of peripheral toxicological events such as emesis, which overwhelmed its more subtle feed refusal activity. Besides, changes in the microbiota have an impact on stress-related behaviors like anxiety and depression, which can lead to weight loss through decreased feed intake. Gut dysbiosis is also associated with brain dysfunction and with behavioral changes. These conclusions illustrate as well a potential explanation for DON-induced anorexia.In this review, we summarize information about DON-induced anorexia from previous studies and provide our opinion for future investigations that could establish a link between gut microbiota, neurotransmitters, anorexia and weight loss under the DON exposure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Purified deoxynivalenol or feed restriction reduces mortality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with experimental bacterial coldwater disease but biologically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol do not impair the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerse, I A; Hooft, J M; Bureau, D P; Hayes, M A; Lumsden, J S

    2015-09-01

    Diets containing deoxynivalenol (DON) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) for 4 weeks followed by experimental infection (intraperitoneal) with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (4.1 × 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] mL(-1) ). Mortality of rainbow trout fed either 6.4 mg kg(-1) DON or trout pair-fed the control diet was significantly reduced (P trout fed the control diet to apparent satiation (trout were fed one of three experimental diets; a control diet, a diet produced with corn naturally contaminated with DON (3.3 mg kg(-1) DON) or a diet containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ); however, these fish were not experimentally infected. The presence of DON resulted in significant reduction (P trout fed diets containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 35 day post-exposure compared with controls. The antimicrobial activity of DON was examined by subjecting F. psychrophilum in vitro to serial dilutions of the chemical. Complete inhibition occurred at a concentration of 75 mg L(-1) DON, but no effect was observed below this concentration (0-30 mg L(-1) ). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exposure of consumers to deoxynivalenol from consumption of white bread in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ámbrus, A; Szeitznė-Szabó, M; Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szabó, I J

    2011-02-01

    In view of the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals, a study was initiated to assess the exposure of the Hungarian adult population. Consumption data for 1360 individuals, based on a 3-day questionnaire, indicated that white bread accounted for the major intake of cereal-based products. Various cereal products were analysed for 16 mycotoxins by a LC/MS/MS multi-toxin method with LOD of 16 µg kg⁻¹ and LOQ of 50 µg kg⁻¹. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was most frequently detected, but no acetyl-deoxynivalenol was present in detectable concentrations. Consumer exposure was calculated with standard Monte Carlo probabilistic modelling and point estimates, taking into account bread consumption and DON contamination in independently taken wheat flour and wheat grain samples. Over 55% of cases the DON intake were below 15% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg/(kg bw)/day. However, in 5-15% of cases, the intake from bread consumption alone exceeded the PMTDI. Wheat grain data led to the higher percentage. Intakes estimated from both data sets were at or below the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 8 µg/(kg bw)/day in 99.94-99.97% of cases.

  10. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    toxin may again be released after hydrolysis in the digestive tracts of animals and humans. Today, our knowledge of the occurrence of these compounds in cereal grains is limited. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of DON, deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...

  11. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Girardet

    Full Text Available Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  12. Ocorrência de desoxinivalenol em trigo nacional e importado utilizado no Brasil Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in national and imported wheat used in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Calori-Domingues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose, também conhecida como giberela é uma doença importante, causada principalmente pelo fungo Fusarium graminearum, que afeta de forma generalizada as regiões produtoras de trigo do Brasil e dos principais países do qual o produto é importado. Além dos danos diretos causados pela doença, os grãos infectados podem ser tóxicos para o homem e animais devido à presença de micotoxinas especialmente o desoxinivalenol (DON. A contaminação com DON foi avaliada em 100 amostras de trigo, sendo 50 de trigo nacional (provenientes dos Estados de São Paulo, Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul e 50 de trigo importado (Argentina e Paraguai. As amostras foram coletadas durante o período de maio a dezembro de 2005 de empresas que normalmente comercializam ou processam trigo e foram analisadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Os resultados indicaram que, do total de amostras avaliadas, 94% do trigo nacional e 88% do trigo importado apresentaram-se positivas quanto a presença de DON. Os níveis médios de contaminação com DON do trigo nacional (332 µg.kg- 1 foram maiores (p Fusarium Head Blight or scab is an important disease mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum that occurs in Brazil and the world's wheat-growing areas. Moreover, there are direct damages caused by this disease and the infected kernels may be toxic for humans and animals due to the presence of mycotoxins (e.g deoxynivalenol - DON. DON contamination was evaluated in a total of 100 wheat samples, and 50 were from national production (São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states and 50 were imported (Argentina and Paraguay. The samples were collected during the period of May to December, 2005 from companies that normally commercialize or process wheat and are analyzed by a thin layer of chromatography. Ninety-four percent of national wheat samples and 88% of the imported samples were DON contaminated. The mean level of the national wheat samples (332 µg.kg -1 was higher

  13. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin cell proliferation and inflammation via MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Sakshi; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P.; Dwivedi, Premendra D.; Pandey, Haushila P.; Das, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Several toxicological manifestations of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, are well documented; however, dermal toxicity is not yet explored. The effect of topical application of DON to mice was studied using markers of skin proliferation, inflammation and tumor promotion. Single topical application of DON (84–672 nmol/mouse) significantly enhanced dermal hyperplasia and skin edema. DON (336 and 672 nmol) caused significant enhancement in [ 3 H]-thymidine uptake in DNA along with increased myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, suggesting tissue inflammation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, DON (168 nmol) caused enhanced expression of RAS, and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs. DON exposure also showed activation of transcription factors, c-fos, c-jun and NF-κB along with phosphorylation of IkBα. Enhanced phosphorylation of NF-κB by DON caused over expression of target proteins, COX-2, cyclin D1 and iNOS in skin. Though a single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly application of DON (84 and 168 nmol) showed no tumorigenesis after 24 weeks, however, histopathological studies suggested hyperplasia of the epidermis and hypertrophy of hair follicles. Interestingly, intestine was also found to be affected as enlarged Peyer's patches were observed, suggesting inflammatory effects which were supported by elevation of inflammatory cytokines after 24 weeks of topical application of DON. These results suggest that DON induced cell proliferation in mouse skin is through the activation of MAPK signaling pathway involving transcription factors NFκB and AP-1, further leading to transcriptional activation of downstream target proteins c-fos, c-jun, cyclin D1, iNOS and COX-2 which might be responsible for its inflammatory potential. - Highlights: • Topical application of DON enhanced epidermal inflammation and cell proliferation. • DON follows PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling cascade, with activation of AP-1 and NF

  14. Otimização de metodologia para derivação de desoxinivalenol através de planejamento experimental Optimization of the methodology for deoxynivalenol derivatization by experimental planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize the derivatization reaction for determining deoxynivalenol (DON by gas chromatography employing an experimental planning procedure. The factors were: temperature, reaction time, catalyst and trifluoroacetic anhydride concentration. The relative peak areas were used to evaluated the effects. The best conditions for DON derivatization were 200 µL TFAA and 18 mg sodium bicarbonate for 6 min at 74 ºC for 7 to 21 µg of DON. Under these conditions, the detection limit was 1.4 µg of DON.

  15. Protective Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Deoxynivalenol-Induced Injury of Porcine Macrophage via Attenuating p38 MAPK Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Xue-Dong; Wu, Jin-E

    2017-05-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced injury in porcine alveolar macrophage cells (PAMCs) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis, ELISA, qRT-PCR, and western blot were performed to assess whether S. boulardii could prevent DON-induced injury by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signal pathway. The results showed that pretreatment with 8 μM DON could decrease the viability of PAMC and significantly increase the apoptosis rate of PAMC, whereas S. boulardii could rescue apoptotic PAMC cells induced by DON. Further experiments revealed that S. boulardii effectively reversed DON-induced cytotoxicity via downregulating the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-lβ. In addition, S. boulardii significantly alleviated DON-induced phosphorylation and mRNA expression of p38 and further increased the expression of apoptosis regulation genes Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 and inhibited the activation of Bax. Our results suggest that S. boulardii could suppress DON-induced p38 MAPK pathway activation and reduce the expression of downstream inflammatory cytokines, as well as promote the expression of anti-apoptotic genes to inhibit apoptosis induced by DON in PAMC.

  16. Climate change increases deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Madsen, M S

    2012-01-01

    will be earlier in the season because of climate change effects, about 1 to 2 weeks. Deoxynivalenol contamination was found to increase in most of the study region, with an increase of the original concentrations by up to 3 times. The study results may inform governmental and industrial risk managers to underpin...... decision-making and planning processes in north-western Europe. On the local level, deoxynivalenol contamination should be closely monitored to pick out wheat batches with excess levels at the right time. Using predictive models on a more local scale could be helpful to assist other monitoring measures...... to safeguard food safety in the wheat supply chain....

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imourana Alassane-Kpembi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have the potential for improving the enteric health of piglets, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the administration of yeast counteracts the DON-induced intestinal alterations. Using a pig jejunum explant model, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to decipher the early response of the small intestine to the deleterious effects of DON after administration of S. cerevisiae boulardii strain CNCM I-1079. Compared to the control condition, no differentially expressed gene (DE was observed after treatment by yeast only. By contrast, 3619 probes—corresponding to 2771 genes—were differentially expressed following exposure to DON, and 32 signaling pathways were identified from the IPA software functional analysis of the set of DE genes. When the intestinal explants were treated with S. cerevisiae boulardii prior to DON exposure, the number of DE genes decreased by half (1718 probes corresponding to 1384 genes. Prototypical inflammation signaling pathways triggered by DON, including NF-κB and p38 MAPK, were reversed, although the yeast demonstrated limited efficacy toward some other pathways. S. cerevisiae boulardii also restored the lipid metabolism signaling pathway, and reversed the down-regulation of the antioxidant action of vitamin C signaling pathway. The latter effect could reduce the burden of DON-induced oxidative stress. Altogether, the results show that S. cerevisiae boulardii reduces the DON-induced alteration of intestinal transcriptome, and point to new mechanisms for the healing of tissue injury by yeast.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Pinton, Philippe; Hupé, Jean-François; Neves, Manon; Lippi, Yannick; Combes, Sylvie; Castex, Mathieu; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2018-05-15

    Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae , have the potential for improving the enteric health of piglets, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the administration of yeast counteracts the DON-induced intestinal alterations. Using a pig jejunum explant model, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to decipher the early response of the small intestine to the deleterious effects of DON after administration of S. cerevisiae boulardii strain CNCM I-1079. Compared to the control condition, no differentially expressed gene (DE) was observed after treatment by yeast only. By contrast, 3619 probes-corresponding to 2771 genes-were differentially expressed following exposure to DON, and 32 signaling pathways were identified from the IPA software functional analysis of the set of DE genes. When the intestinal explants were treated with S. cerevisiae boulardii prior to DON exposure, the number of DE genes decreased by half (1718 probes corresponding to 1384 genes). Prototypical inflammation signaling pathways triggered by DON, including NF-κB and p38 MAPK, were reversed, although the yeast demonstrated limited efficacy toward some other pathways. S. cerevisiae boulardii also restored the lipid metabolism signaling pathway, and reversed the down-regulation of the antioxidant action of vitamin C signaling pathway. The latter effect could reduce the burden of DON-induced oxidative stress. Altogether, the results show that S. cerevisiae boulardii reduces the DON-induced alteration of intestinal transcriptome, and point to new mechanisms for the healing of tissue injury by yeast.

  19. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abysique

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

  20. Explaining combinatorial effects of mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in mice with urinary metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Blaženović, Ivana; Cui, Fangchao; Gholami, Morteza; Sun, Jiadi; Habimana, Jean; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2018-02-28

    Urine metabolic profiling of mice was conducted utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the combinatory effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the metabolism of the mice. Experiments were conducted by means of five-week-old mice which were individually exposed to 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN and the mixture of DON and ZEN (2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The intragastric administration was applied for three weeks and urine samples were collected for metabolic analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to data matrix processing along with respective pathway analysis by MetaMapp and CytoScape. The results showed that the combined DON and ZEN administration resulted in lower significant changes, compared to the individual mycotoxin treated groups verified by heatmap. Metabolic pathways network mapping indicated that the combined mycotoxins treated groups showed a little effect on the metabolites in most pathways, especially in glucose metabolism and its downstream amino acid metabolism. In glucose metabolism, the content of galactose, mannitol, galactonic acid, myo-inositol, tagatose was drastically down-regulated. Furthermore, the organic acids, pyruvate, and amino acids metabolism displayed the same phenomenon. In conclusion, the combined DON/ZEN administration might lead to an "antagonistic effect" in mice metabolism.

  1. The fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol can inhibit plant apoptosis-like programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Diamond

    Full Text Available The Fusarium genus of fungi is responsible for commercially devastating crop diseases and the contamination of cereals with harmful mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins aid infection, establishment, and spread of the fungus within the host plant. We investigated the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the viability of Arabidopsis cells. Although it is known to trigger apoptosis in animal cells, DON treatment at low concentrations surprisingly did not kill these cells. On the contrary, we found that DON inhibited apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD in Arabidopsis cells subjected to abiotic stress treatment in a manner independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. This suggested that Fusarium may utilise mycotoxins to suppress plant apoptosis-like PCD. To test this, we infected Arabidopsis cells with a wild type and a DON-minus mutant strain of F. graminearum and found that only the DON producing strain could inhibit death induced by heat treatment. These results indicate that mycotoxins may be capable of disarming plant apoptosis-like PCD and thereby suggest a novel way that some fungi can influence plant cell fate.

  2. Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are More Sensitive to Deoxynivalenol Than Those Derived from Poultry and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Novak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins, contaminating cereals and cereal-derived products. Its derivative deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 is produced by certain bacteria, which either occur naturally or are supplemented in feed additive. DON-induced impairments in protein synthesis are particularly problematic for highly proliferating immune cells. This study provides the first comparison of the effects of DON and DOM-1 on the concanavalin A-induced proliferation of porcine, chicken, and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Therefore, isolated PBMCs were treated with DON (0.01–3.37 µM and DOM-1 (1.39–357 µM separately, and proliferation was measured using a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU assay. Although pigs are considered highly sensitive to DON, the present study revealed a substantially higher sensitivity of bovine (IC50 = 0.314 µM PBMCs compared to chicken (IC50 = 0.691 µM and porcine (IC50 = 0.693 µM PBMCs. Analyses on the proliferation of bovine T-cell subsets showed that all major subsets, namely, CD4+, CD8β+, and γδ T cells, were affected to a similar extent. In contrast, DOM-1 did not affect bovine PBMCs, but reduced the proliferation of chicken and porcine PBMCs at the highest tested concentration (357 µM. Results confirm the necessity of feed additives containing DON-to-DOM-1-transforming bacteria and highlights species-specific differences in the DON sensitivity of immune cells.

  3. Deoxynivalenol-mimic nanobody isolated from a naïve phage display nanobody library and its application in immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Bhunia, Arun K; Tu, Zhui; Chen, Bo; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-08-05

    In this study, using mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) as a model hapten, we developed a nanobody-based environmental friendly immunoassay for sensitive detection of DON. Two nanobodies (N-28 and N-31) which bind to anti-DON monoclonal antibody (MAb) were isolated from a naive phage display library. These nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and mycotoxin-free products and can be served as coating antigen mimetics in heterologous immunoassay. The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of the immunoassay developed with N-28 and N-31 was 8.77 ± 0.41 ng mL(-1) and 19.97 ± 0.84 ng mL(-1), respectively, which were 18- and 8-fold more sensitive than the conventional coating antigen (DON-BSA) based immunoassay. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of antigen mimicry by nanobody, the 3D structure of "nanobody (N-28) - anti-DON MAb" complex was presented and verified by molecular modeling and alanine-scanning mutagenesis. The results showed that hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction formed between Thr 102 - Ser 106 of N-28 and CDR H3 residues of anti-DON antibody may contribute to their binding. This novel concept of enhancing sensitivity of immunoassay for DON based on nanobody may provide potential applications in a general method for immunoassay of various food chemical contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Clark, Erica S; Pestka, James J

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15-120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.

  5. Risk Assessment of Deoxynivalenol by Revisiting Its Bioavailability in Pig and Rat Models to Establish Which Is More Suitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jimmy Saint-Cyr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its toxic properties, high stability, and prevalence, the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON in the food chain is a major threat to food safety and therefore a health risk for both humans and animals. In this study, experiments were carried out with sows and female rats to examine the kinetics of DON after intravenous and oral administration at 100 µg/kg of body weight. After intravenous administration of DON in pigs, a two-compartment model with rapid initial distribution (0.030 ± 0.019 h followed by a slower terminal elimination phase (1.53 ± 0.54 h was fitted to the concentration profile of DON in pig plasma. In rats, a short elimination half-life (0.46 h and a clearance of 2.59 L/h/kg were estimated by sparse sampling non-compartmental analysis. Following oral exposure, DON was rapidly absorbed and reached maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax of 42.07 ± 8.48 and 10.44 ± 5.87 µg/L plasma after (tmax 1.44 ± 0.52 and 0.17 h in pigs and rats, respectively. The mean bioavailability of DON was 70.5% ± 25.6% for pigs and 47.3% for rats. In the framework of DON risk assessment, these two animal models could be useful in an exposure scenario in two different ways because of their different bioavailability.

  6. Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Gastric Inhibitory Peptide in Anorexia Induction Following Oral Exposure to the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui; Wu, Wen-Da; Lu, Xi; Zhang, Jie; He, Cheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Bin

    2017-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a Type B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, frequently contaminates cereal staples, such as wheat, barley and corn. DON threatens animal and human health by suppressing food intake and impairing growth. While anorexia induction in mice exposed to DON has been linked to the elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin and peptide YY3-36 in plasma, the effects of DON on the release of other satiety hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), have not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of GLP-1 and GIP in DON-induced anorexia. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, the elevation of plasma GLP-1 and GIP concentrations markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON. Pretreatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Exendin9-39 induced a dose-dependent attenuation of both GLP-1- and DON-induced anorexia. In contrast, the GIP receptor antagonist Pro3GIP induced a dose-dependent attenuation of both GIP- and DON-induced anorexia. Taken together, these results suggest that GLP-1 and GIP play instrumental roles in anorexia induction following oral exposure to DON, and the effect of GLP-1 is more potent and long-acting than that of GIP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Fungal Deoxynivalenol-Induced Enterocyte Distress Is Attenuated by Adulterated Adlay: In Vitro Evidences for Mucoactive Counteraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Du

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON, the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury. In particular, adlay suppressed DON-induced pro-inflammatory signals such as mitogen-activated kinase transduction and the epidermal growth factor receptor-linked pathway. In addition to regulation of pro-inflammatory responses, adlay treatment interfered with DON-induced disruption of the epithelial barrier. Mechanistically, adlay could boost the activation of protein kinase C (PKC and cytosolic translocation of human antigen R (HuR protein, which played critical roles in the epithelial restitution, resulting in protection against disruption of enterocyte barrier integrity. Notably, DON abrogated the Ras homolog gene family member A GTPase-mediated actin cytoskeletal network, which was diminished by adlay treatment in PKC and HuR-dependent ways. Taken together, this study provides evidences for adlay-based attenuation of trichothecene-induced gut distress, implicating potential use of a new gut protector against enteropathogenic insults in diets.

  8. The Individual and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 on Primary Hepatocytes of Cyprinus Carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Hua; Fan, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ying; Huang, Chao-Ying; Wang, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Hai-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are important food-borne mycotoxins that have been implicated in animal and human health. In this study, individual and combinative effects of AFB1 and DON were tested in primary hepatocytes of Cyprinus carpio. The results indicated that the combinative effects of AFB1 and DON (0.01 μg/mL AFB1 and 0.25 μg/mL DON; 0.02 μg/mL AFB1 and 0.25 μg/mL DON; 0.02 μg/mL AFB1 and 0.5 μg/mL DON) were higher than that of individual mycotoxin (P < 0.05). The activity of AST, ALT and LDH in cell supernatant was higher than that of control group (P < 0.05) when the mycotoxins were exposed to primary hepatocytes for 4 h. The decreased cell number was observed in tested group by inverted light microscopy. The mitochondrial swelling, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and a lot of lipid droplets were observed in primary hepatocytes by transmission electron microscope. Therefore, this combination was classified as an additive response of the two mycotoxins. PMID:21152299

  9. Subchronic exposure to deoxynivalenol exerts slight effect on the immune system and liver morphology of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Kachlek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most common grain contaminant worldwide, deoxynivalenol is of high importance despite its low toxicity compared to other trichothecene mycotoxins. Data on the effects of deoxynivalenol in rabbits are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary deoxynivalenol fed at a high level (10 mg/kg of feed on the productive performance, blood indices, immunological variables, histopathological changes, and genotoxicity in rabbits. Forty-eight Pannon White rabbits were exposed to contaminated diets for three weeks. Despite its high concentration, deoxynivalenol did not affect the feed intake, body weight, and body weight gain. Liver and kidney function was not affected, as shown by the clinical chemistry indices. Conversely, in two rabbits the toxin caused mild fibrosis of the liver, without degenerative changes of the hepatocytes. No genotoxicity could be observed either. Gut cytokines and the phagocytic activity of the macrophages did not differ significantly. The percentage of neutrophils was significantly lower, whereas that of eosinophils was significantly higher in the toxin-fed group. Deoxynivalenol did not cause significant changes in gut and villus morphology. In 4 out of the 6 deoxynivalenol-treated animals, the ratio of lymphoblast proliferation and simultaneous apoptosis shifted towards apoptosis in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. In the central part of the lymphoid follicles of the spleen, lymphocyte depletion and follicular atrophy could be detected. It can be concluded that rabbits are less sensitive to deoxynivalenol, but the findings confirm that this Fusarium toxin is capable of modulating the immune response.

  10. DON-induced changes in bone homeostasis in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.

  11. Protective capabilities of silymarin and inulin nanoparticles against hepatic oxidative stress, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Deoxynivalenol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; El-Nekeety, Aziza A; Salman, Asmaa S; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Mehaya, Fathy M; Hassan, Nabila S

    2018-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin that frequently contaminates cereal and cereal-based food and induces liver injury. This study evaluated the protective role of silymarin nanoparticles (SILNPs) and inulin nanoparticles (INNPs) against DON-induced liver injury in rats. Eleven groups of rats were treated orally for 3 weeks as follows: the control group, DON-treated group (5 mg/kg b.w.); INNPs-treated groups at low (LD) or high (HD) dose (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w.); SILPNs-treated group (50 mg/kg b.w.); SILNPs plus INNPs(LD) or INNPs(HD)-treated groups; INNPs(LD) or INNPs(HD) plus DON-treated groups and DON plus SILNPs and INNPs(LD) or INNPs(HD)-treated groups. Blood and tissue samples were collected for different analyses. The results revealed that the practical sizes were 200 and 98 nm for SILNPs and INNPs respectively. DON increased liver enzymes activity, lipid profile, serum cytokines, number and percentage of chromosomal aberration, DNA fragmentation and comet score. It disturbed the oxidative stress markers, down regulated gene expression and induced histological changes in the liver tissue. Treatment with DON and SILNPs and/or INNPs at the two tested doses improved all the tested parameters and SILNPs plus INNPs(HD) normalized most of these parameters in DON-treated animals. SILNPs and INNPs could be promising candidates as hepatoprotective against DON or other hepatotoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Zahidul; Gray, Jennifer S.; Pestka, James J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 and IL-1β intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38 + cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14 + monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response

  13. Production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in the presence of different disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hrubošová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to examine the effect of different disinfectants on production trichothecenes (especially of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol. Lipophilicity, chemical structure, the presence of bioactive groups and functional groups in their structure modifies biological activity and toxic potency of trichothecenes. For this reason, limits have been established designating maximum levels of mycotoxins in cereals while maintaining proper growing practices. Appropriate nutritive media were prepared with different concentration of tested disinfectants (Desanal A  plus, ProCura spray and Guaa-Pool and were inoculated using  Fusarium strains. The density of  Fusarium was 105 spores per mililitre. Nutrient media was cultivated at 15 °C and 25 °C for seven days. The strains of Fusarium graminearum CCM F-683 and Fusarium species (isolated from barley produced quantities of deoxynivalenol. Fusarium poae CCM F-584 and Fusarium species (isolated from malthouse air produced quantities of T-2 toxin. Desanal A plus prevented Fusarium growth and production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol at the concentration 10%. It is an alkaline disinfectant on the basis of active chlorine and the surfactant that contains ˂5% of NaClO. ProCura spray at the concentration 0.6% proved to be very effective. This disinfectant contains 35% of propan-1-ol and 25% of propan-2-ol.  Guaa-Pool at the concentration 0.004% proved to be very effective. It is a polymeric disinfectant with anion surface-acting agent and it contains ˂0.9% of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and ˂0.2% of alkyl (C12-C16 dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Lower contentration of  disinfectants that  not prevented growth of Fusarium caused higher production  of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol. The contents of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using commercially produced kits (Agra Quant® Deoxynivalenol Test kit and Agra Quant® T-2 toxin

  14. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a foodborne mycotoxin found in grain-based foods, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although induction of anorexia has been described as a hallmark of DON-induced toxicity in many animal species, the mechanistic basis for this adverse effect is not fully understood. The purpose of this research was to determine the role of two proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in DON-induced anorexia. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, DON-induced anorectic response occurred at 1 hr and lasted up to 6 hr. Similar anorectic effects were observed following acute administration of exogenous TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral exposure to DON at 5 mg/kg bw stimulated splenic and hepatic mRNA and plasma protein elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β that corresponded to anorexia induction. Pretreatment with the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) antagonist R-7050 dose-dependently attenuated both TNF-α- and DON-induced anorexia. While, the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist IL-1RA dose-dependently attenuated both IL-1β- and DON-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results suggest that both TNF-α and IL-1β play contributory role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to DON.

  15. Effects of oral deoxynivalenol exposure on immune-related parameters in lymphoid organs and serum of mice vaccinated with porcine parvovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Kook; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Joon-Hyung; Shin, Hyo-Sook; Son, Seong-Wan; Yeo, Young-Keun; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2013-08-01

    Mice were exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) via drinking water at a concentration of 2 mg/L for 36 days. On day 8 of treatment, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (PPV) was injected intraperitoneally. The relative and absolute weight of the spleen was significantly decreased in the DON-treated group (DON). Antibody titers to parvovirus in serum were 47.9 ± 2.4 in the vaccination group (Vac), but 15.2 ± 6.5 in the group treated with DON and vaccine (DON + Vac). The IgA and IgG was not different in the DON, Vac an,d DON + Vac groups. IgM was significantly lower only in the DON + Vac group. However IgE was significantly increased in the Vac and DON + Vac group, but no change was observed between the Vac and DON + Vac groups. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and Rantes in serum, and IL-1α in mesenteric lymph node and MIP-1β in spleen were significantly increased by DON treatment compared to control. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and Rantes in thymus, of IL-2 in spleen, and of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1 in mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly decreased in mice compared to those in the Vac group, while concentrations of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-9, IL-13,G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP-1α and TNF-α were significantly increased in serum compared to the Vac group. In conclusion, the results presented here indicate that exposure to DON at 2.0 mg/L via drinking water can disrupt the immune response in vaccinated mice by modulating cytokines and chemokines involved in their immune response to infectious disease.

  16. An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Hu, Jiayu; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yao, Kang; Yin, Yulong; Li, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (Pglutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (Pglutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (Pglutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

  17. ASSESSING THE POSSIBLE INTERACTION BETWEEN CARDUUS MARIANUS AND DIETARY DEOXYNIVALENOL ON CAECAL MICROBIOTA AND FERMENTATION OF GROWING RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Kachlek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of feed with mycotoxins is a common problem encountered in animal farming. Mycotoxin exposure can affect adversely the health of animals. In rabbits caecal fermentation is an essential digestive process being indication of physiological alterations. Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most frequent contaminants of grains which affect the growth of monogastric animals. Data about dietary DON and its effect in rabbits are scarce. Medicinal plants are often used as feed additives to enhance the performance of the animals. Carduus marianus (milk thistle is known for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects (among others but no data are available about the effect on rabbit caecum. Considering the aforementioned, the aim of this study was to assess the possible interactive effect of Carduus marianus and DON on the caecum of growing rabbits. 75 Pannon White rabbits were reared for six weeks from 35 (after weaning till 77 days of age. Rabbits received the following diets: control (C, control with DON (CT, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% (H1, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% and DON (H1T, control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% (H2 and control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% and DON (H2T. On slaughter, caecum was collected for the analysis of total volatile fatty acids (VFA and the microbiota of the caecum, pH of the caecum was also recorded. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration or individual VFA. Number of aerobic bacteria significantly differed among toxin and non-toxin groups. DON affected adversely the number of aerobic bacteria. An interactive effect of DON and Carduus marianus on E.coli number was observed. There was no effect on total or individual VFA amounts.

  18. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the contamination of Danish cereals and cereal products with Fusarium toxins is limited and the last survey is from 1984/1985. In the present study, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZON) was investigated in. our of common...... wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190. our samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all......)). Contents of NIV, HT-2 toxin and ZON in samples of wheat and rye were generally low, and even in positive samples the contents were close to the detection limit of the methods. The T-2 toxin was detected in only a few of the wheat samples and in low amounts. However, the toxin was found in about 50...

  19. Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Miroslav I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON, EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.

  20. Impact of Climate Change Effects on Contamination of Cereal Grains with Deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; van Asselt, E D; Madsen, M S

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to aggravate feed and food safety problems of crops; however, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate impacts of climate change effects on deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat and maize grown in the Netherlands by 2040. Quantitative modelling...... the impacts of climate change effects on food safety, and of considering both direct and indirect effects when assessing climate change impacts on crops and related food safety hazards....... two different global and regional climate model combinations were used. A weather generator was applied for downscaling climate data to local conditions. Crop phenology models and prediction models for DON contamination used, each for winter wheat and grain maize. Results showed that flowering...

  1. EFFECT OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PARAMETERS OF PORCINE BLOOD IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Zbyňovská

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important and the most common Fusarium mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON. It occurs predominantly in grains such as wheat, barley, and maize and less often in oats, rice, rye, sorghum and triticale. It has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DON on some haematological (red blood cells - RBC, white blood cells - WBC, platelets - PLT, haemoglobin - HGB, packed cell volume - PCV and lymphocyte - LYM, biochemical (cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, calcium and phosphorus and anti- and pro-oxidants parameters (superoxide dismutase - SOD, glutathione peroxidase - GPx and ROS – reactive oxygen species in porcine blood in vitro. Significantly decreased content of total protein in the group with dose of 1000 ng.l-1 DON was observed compared with the control group. In other groups (E1 with 10 ng.l-1 DON and E2 with 100 ng.l-1 slightly lower values were measures in comparison with the control group. PLT significantly decreased in the experimental group E3 when compared with E1, E2, and the control group. Concentration of GPx in porcine blood significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in E1 against the control group. Concentration of SOD significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group E2 in comparison with E1 group. The highest value of ROS was in E2 group. Other parameters were not influenced by The most important and the most common Fusarium mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON. It occurs predominantly in grains such as wheat, barley, and maize and less often in oats, rice, rye, sorghum and triticale. It has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DON on some haematological (red blood cells - RBC, white blood cells - WBC, platelets - PLT, haemoglobin - HGB, packed cell volume - PCV and lymphocyte - LYM, biochemical

  2. Chemical composition and deoxynivalenol in wheat of Central- Southern Paraná: nitrogen fertilization in top dressing associated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Montagner Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agricultural management practices on the quality of grain was evaluated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. BRS Tangará from the South Central region of Paraná State (Ponta Grossa in the crop years of 2010 and 2011. The field trial was carried out in succession with soybean (2010 and corn (2011. The treatments included inoculation of seeds with Azospirillum brasilense and increasing levels of nitrogen application in top dressing (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1. The experimental design was in randomized block, factorial 2 x 5 (inoculation x N levels, with four replications. The parameters evaluated were water activity, moisture, protein, and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparison of means by Tukey’s test (p<0.05 and regression for nitrogen levels. The inoculation of seeds with A. brasilense increased the protein content in grain in 2010 (+1.6%; 16.9 g 100g-1 and 2011 (+1.7%, 15.7 g 100g-1, independently of the nitrogen level (p<0.01. Levels of nitrogen in 2010 presented a positive linear response with protein content, increasing by 14.2% using non-inoculated seeds (p<0.01, R2=0.955 and 14.4% for those inoculated with A. brasilense (p<0.01, R2=0.906. However, in 2011 a quadratic response was observed between nitrogen levels and protein content (p<0.01, R2=0.99, with stabilization or reduction in protein content using high levels of nitrogen (?120 kg ha-1. The contamination by DON was greater using high levels of nitrogen (3574 ?g kg-1, 120 kg ha-1; non-inoculated seeds in 2011, with a quadratic response between nitrogen levels and contamination of grains (p<0.05, R2=0.772. Furthermore, 37.5% of the samples presented contamination by DON higher than the maximum tolerated limit established by Brazilian legislation (2000 ?g kg-1; whole-wheat grain. The data demonstrates that proper management of nitrogen enhances intrinsic effects arising from plant breeding.

  3. Production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in the presence of different disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Hrubošová; Jarmila Vytřasová; Iveta Brožková

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of different disinfectants on production trichothecenes (especially of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol). Lipophilicity, chemical structure, the presence of bioactive groups and functional groups in their structure modifies biological activity and toxic potency of trichothecenes. For this reason, limits have been established designating maximum levels of mycotoxins in cereals while maintaining proper growing practices. Appropriate nutr...

  4. Deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and enniatins: the major mycotoxins found in cereal-based products on the Czech market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachova, Alexandra; Dzuman, Zbynek; Veprikova, Zdenka; Vaclavikova, Marta; Zachariasova, Milena; Hajslova, Jana

    2011-12-28

    Fusarium toxins, Alternaria toxins, and ergot alkaloids represent common groups of mycotoxins that can be found in cereals grown under temperate climatic conditions. Because most of them are chemically and thermally stable, these toxic fungal secondary metabolites might be transferred from grains into the final products. To get information on the commensurate contamination of various cereal-based products collected from the Czech retail market in 2010, the occurrence of "traditional" mycotoxins such as groups of A and B trichothecenes and zearalenone, less routinely determined Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and altenuene), ergot alkaloids (ergosine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, and ergocornine) and "emerging" mycotoxins (enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 and beauvericin) were monitored. In a total 116 samples derived from white flour and mixed flour, breakfast cereals, snacks, and flour, only trichothecenes A and B and enniatins were found. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 75% of samples with concentrations ranging from 13 to 594 μg/kg, but its masked form, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside, has an even higher incidence of 80% of samples, and concentrations ranging between 5 and 72 μg/kg were detected. Nivalenol was found only in three samples at levels of 30 μg/kg. For enniatins, all of the samples investigated were contaminated with at least one of four target enniatins. Enniatin A was detected in 97% of samples (concentration range of 20-2532 μg/kg) followed by enniatin B with an incidence in 91% of the samples (concentration range of 13-941 μg/kg) and enniatin B1 with an incidence of 80% in the samples tested (concentration range of 8-785 μg/kg). Enniatin A1 was found only in 44% of samples at levels ranging between 8 and 851 μg/kg.

  5. HuR/ELAVL1 RNA binding protein modulates interleukin-8 induction by muco-active ribotoxin deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seong Hwan; Moon, Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    HuR/Elav-like RNA binding protein 1 (ELAVL1) positively regulates mRNA stability of AU-rich elements (ARE)-containing transcript such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ribotoxic stresses can trigger the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by enhancing mRNA stability and the transcriptional activity. We investigated the effects of ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on HuR translocation and its involvement in the regulation of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA stability. Exposure to the muco-active DON induced nuclear export of both endogenous and exogenous HuR RNA binding protein in human intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the interference with HuR protein production suppressed ribotoxic DON-induced IL-8 secretion and its mRNA stability. Cytoplasmic HuR protein interacted with IL-8 mRNA and the complex stabilization was due to the presence of 3'-untranslated region of the transcript. Partly in terms of IL-8-modulating transcription factors, HuR protein was demonstrated to be positively and negatively associated with DON-induced early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), respectively. HuR was a critical mechanistic link between ribotoxic stress and the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and may have a broader functional significance with regard to mucosal insults since ribotoxic stress responses are also produced upon interactions with the diverse environment of gut.

  6. Chronic Exposure to Deoxynivalenol Has No Influence on the Oral Bioavailability of Fumonisin B1 in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Devreese, Mathias; Van Immerseel, Filip; De Baere, Siegrid; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-01-01

    Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are common contaminants of feed. Fumonisins (FBs) in general have a very limited oral bioavailability in healthy animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to DON impairs the intestinal barrier function and integrity, by affecting the intestinal surface area and function of the tight junctions. This might influence the oral bioavailability of FB1, and possibly lead to altered toxicity of this mycotoxin. A toxicokinetic study was performed with two groups of 6 broiler chickens, which were all administered an oral bolus of 2.5 mg FBs/kg BW after three-week exposure to either uncontaminated feed (group 1) or feed contaminated with 3.12 mg DON/kg feed (group 2). No significant differences in toxicokinetic parameters of FB1 could be demonstrated between the groups. Also, no increased or decreased body exposure to FB1 was observed, since the relative oral bioavailability of FB1 after chronic DON exposure was 92.2%. PMID:25690690

  7. Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Szabó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background and (2 Methods: A 14-day in vivo, multitoxic (pure mycotoxins rat experiment was conducted with zearalenone (ZEA; 15 μg/animal/day, deoxynivalenol (DON; 30 μg/animal/day and fumonisin B1 (FB1; 150 μg/animal/day, as individual mycotoxins, binary (FD, FZ and DZ and ternary combinations (FDZ, via gavage in 1 mL water boluses. (3 Results: Body weight was unaffected, while liver (ZEA↑ vs. DON and kidney weight (ZEA↑ vs. FDZ increased. Hepatocellular membrane lipid fatty acids (FAs referred to ceramide synthesis disturbance (C20:0, C22:0, and decreased unsaturation (C22:5 n3 and unsat. index, mainly induced by DON and to a lesser extent by ZEA. The DON-FB1 interaction was additive on C20:0 in liver lipids. In renal phospholipids, ZEA had the strongest effect on the FA profile, affecting the saturated (C18:0 and many n6 FAs; ZEA was in an antagonistic relationship with FB1 (C18:0 or DON (C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9. Hepatic oxidative stress was the most expressed in FD (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, while the nephrotoxic effect was further supported by lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde in the DON treatment. (4 Conclusions: In vivo study results refer to multiple mycotoxin interactions on membrane FAs, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation compounds, needing further testing.

  8. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenda [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); He, Kaiyu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berthiller, Franz [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria); Adam, Gerhard [Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko [Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan); Watanabe, Maiko [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Krantis, Anthony [Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada); Durst, Tony [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada); Zhang, Haibin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  9. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  10. Application on Gold Nanoparticles-Dotted 4-Nitrophenylazo Graphene in a Label-Free Impedimetric Deoxynivalenol Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Edozie Sunday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a new concept to construct a label-free electrochemical inhibition-based immunosensor for the detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON in cereal samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of tris(bipyridine ruthenium (II chloride was used as a marker enhanced with gold nanoparticles-dotted 4-nitrophenylazo functionalized graphene (AuNp/G/PhNO2 nanocatalyst mediated in Nafion on a glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized conditions, the formation of immunocomplexes inhibited electron flow and increased the charge transfer resistance of the sensing interface linearly. The change in impedance was proportional to DON concentrations in the range of 6–30 ng/mL with a sensitivity and detection limit of 32.14 ΩL/ng and 0.3 µg/mL, respectively, which compares favorably with the ELISA result. The proposed sensor had a stability of 80.3%, good precision and selectivity in DON standard solution containing different interfering agents, indicating promising application prospect for this strategy in designing impedimetric, electrochemiluminescent, voltammetric or amperometric sensors.

  11. Deoxynivalenol as a new factor in the persistence of intestinal inflammatory diseases: an emerging hypothesis through possible modulation of Th17-mediated response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Cano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species which is commonly found in temperate regions worldwide as a natural contaminant of cereals. It is of great concern not only in terms of economic losses but also in terms of animal and public health. The digestive tract is the first and main target of this food contaminant and it represents a major site of immune tolerance. A finely tuned cross-talk between the innate and the adaptive immune systems ensures the homeostatic equilibrium between the mucosal immune system and commensal microorganisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of DON on the intestinal immune response. METHODOLOGY: Non-transformed intestinal porcine epithelial cells IPEC-1 and porcine jejunal explants were used to investigate the effect of DON on the intestinal immune response and the modulation of naive T cells differentiation. Transcriptomic proteomic and flow cytometry analysis were performed. RESULTS: DON induced a pro-inflammatory response with a significant increase of expression of mRNA encoding for IL-8, IL-1α and IL-1β, TNF-α in all used models. Additionally, DON significantly induced the expression of genes involved in the differentiation of Th17 cells (STAT3, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1β at the expenses of the pathway of regulatory T cells (Treg (FoxP3, RALDH1. DON also induced genes related to the pathogenic Th17 cells subset such as IL-23A, IL-22 and IL-21 and not genes related to the regulatory Th17 cells (rTh17 such as TGF-β and IL-10. CONCLUSION: DON triggered multiple immune modulatory effects which could be associated with an increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  12. The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure and ultrastructure of the large intestine in the pig. The study was performed on 36 immature gilts of mixed breed (White Polish Big × Polish White Earhanging, which were divided into four groups administrated per os with ZEN at 40 µg/kg BW, DON at 12 µg/kg BW, a mixture of ZEN (40 µg/kg BW and DON (12 µg/kg BW or a placebo. The pigs were killed by intravenous overdose of pentobarbital after one, three, and six weeks of treatment. The cecum, ascending and descending colon samples were prepared for light and electron microscopy. Administration of toxins did not influence the architecture of the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. ZEN and ZEN + DON significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the cecum and descending colon. The mycotoxins changed the number of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the large intestine, which usually increased in number. However, this effect differed between the intestine segments and toxins. Mycotoxins induced some changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium. They did not affect the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the intestinal barrier permeability. The obtained results indicate that mycotoxins especially ZEN may influence the defense mechanisms of the large intestine.

  13. Degradação de deoxinivalenol (DON) e a atividade da enzima peroxidase durante fermentação submersa

    OpenAIRE

    Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Kupski, Larine; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate deoxynivalenol degradation by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae in a submerged fermentation system and to correlate it to the activity of oxydo-reductase enzymes. The submerged medium consisted of sterile distilled water contaminated with 50 μg of DON and 4 × 10(6) spore.mL-1 inoculum of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae species, respectively in each experiment. Sampling was performed every 24 hours for monitoring the peroxidase specific activity, and ever...

  14. Survey of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 in Instant Noodles and Bread Consumed in Thailand by Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralatnet, Sasithorn; Poapolathep, Saranya; Giorgi, Mario; Imsilp, Kanjana; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-07-01

    One hundred wheat product samples (50 instant noodle samples and 50 bread samples) were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in these products was analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The limit of quantification values of DON and AFB1 in the instant noodles and bread were 2 and 1 ng g(-1), respectively. The survey found that DON was quantifiable in 40% of collected samples, in 2% of noodles (0.089 μg g(-1)), and in 78% of breads (0.004 to 0.331 μg g(-1)). AFB1 was below the limit of quantification of the method in all of the tested samples. The results suggest that the risk of DON exposure via noodles and breads is very low in urban areas of Thailand. No risk can be attributable to AFB1 exposure in the same food matrices, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these data.

  15. Effects of Adding Clostridium sp. WJ06 on Intestinal Morphology and Microbial Diversity of Growing Pigs Fed with Natural Deoxynivalenol Contaminated Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FuChang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant. Growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal morphology, and the intestinal flora of bacteria and fungi were examined. The results showed that after consuming a DON-contaminated diet, the growth performance of the pigs decreased significantly (p < 0.05, the relative organ weight of the liver and kidney increased significantly (p < 0.05, and the integrity of the intestinal barrier was also impaired, though the toxic effects of the contaminated diets on growing pigs were relieved after adding Clostridium sp. WJ06. The data from MiSeq sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 gene suggested that the abundance of intestinal flora was significantly different across the three treatments. In conclusion, the application of Clostridium sp. WJ06 can reduce the toxic effects of DON and adjust the intestinal microecosystem of growing pigs.

  16. Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Surface Plasmon Resonance and Biolayer Interferometry for Screening of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat and Wheat Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sanders

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A sample preparation method was developed for the screening of deoxynivalenol (DON in wheat and wheat dust. Extraction was carried out with water and was successful due to the polar character of DON. For detection, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was compared to the sensor-based techniques of surface plasmon resonance (SPR and biolayer interferometry (BLI in terms of sensitivity, affinity and matrix effect. The matrix effects from wheat and wheat dust using SPR were too high to further use this screenings method. The preferred ELISA and BLI methods were validated according to the criteria established in Commission Regulation 519/2014/EC and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. A small survey was executed on 16 wheat lots and their corresponding dust samples using the validated ELISA method. A linear correlation (r = 0.889 was found for the DON concentration in dust versus the DON concentration in wheat (LOD wheat: 233 μg/kg, LOD wheat dust: 458 μg/kg.

  17. A novel colloidal gold labeled antigen for the detection of Deoxynivalenol using an immunochromatographic assay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu; Liu, Renrong; Zhu, Lixin; Chen, Zhenzhen

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an immunochromatographic assay card was developed for the detection of DON in feed and cereals using a novel colloidal gold labeling method. For the colloidal gold immunochromatographic rapid detection (GICD) card, a monoclonal antibody DON-mAb and a goat anti-chicken IgY were drawn on NC membrane as the test line (T line) and the control line (C line) respectively. A gold labeled DON-CBSA conjugate and a gold labeled chicken IgY were sprayed onto the conjugate pad. The GICD card has cut-off levels of 50ng/mL for DON, which is invulnerable to matrix interference, and applicable to a wide range of samples. The GICD detecting results of feed and grain samples were compared with the results of ELISA testing, which showed good consistency.

  18. Role of cholecystokinin in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the 8-ketotrichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, and nivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Pan, Xiao; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J

    2014-04-01

    Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX), and (5) nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY₃₋₃₆ (PYY₃₋₃₆), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY₃₋₃₆ concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY₃₋₃₆ was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON, or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY₃₋₃₆ might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response.

  19. Effects of deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed on the gene expression profiles in the kidneys of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. Kidney samples were collected after treatment, and RNA-seq was used to investigate the effects on immune-related genes and gene networks. Results A total of 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened (120 upregulated and 66 downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the immune response, and cellular and metabolic processes were significantly controlled by these DEGs. The inflammatory stimulation might be an effect of the following enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis found related to immune and disease responses: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, tuberculosis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and chemical carcinogenesis. The effects of DON and ZEN on genome-wide expression were assessed, and it was found that the DEGs associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9, CXCL10, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4, proliferation (insulin like growth factor binding protein 4, IgG heavy chain, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, cytochrome P450 1A1, ATP-binding cassette sub-family 8, and other immune response networks (lysozyme, complement component 4 binding protein alpha, oligoadenylate synthetase 2, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-9, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase

  20. Modification of a deoxynivalenol-antigen-mimicking nanobody to improve immunoassay sensitivity by site-saturation mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A nanobody (N-28) which can act as a deoxynivalenol (DON) antigen has been generated, and its residues Thr102-Ser106 were identified to bind with anti-DON monoclonal antibody by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Site-saturation mutagenesis was used to analyze the plasticity of five residues and to improve the sensitivity of the N-28-based immunoassay. After mutagenesis, three mutants were selected by phage immunoassay and were sequenced. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of the immunoassay based on mutants N-28-T102Y, N-28-V103L, and N-28-Y105F were 24.49 ± 1.0, 51.83 ± 2.5, and 35.65 ± 1.6 ng/mL, respectively, showing the assay was, respectively, 3.2, 1.5, and 2.2 times more sensitive than the wild-type-based assay. The best mutant, N-28-T102Y, was used to develop a competitive phage ELISA to detect DON in cereals with high specificity and accuracy. In addition, the structural properties of N-28-T102Y and N-28 were investigated, revealing that the affinity of N-28-T102Y decreased because of increased steric hindrance with the large side chain. The lower-binding-affinity antigen mimetic may contribute to the improvement of the sensitivity of competitive immunoassays. These results demonstrate that nanobodies would be a favorable tool for engineering. Moreover, our results have laid a solid foundation for site-saturation mutagenesis of antigen-mimicking nanobodies to improve immunoassay sensitivity for small molecules.

  1. Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Camenzuli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON, ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.

  2. Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzuli, Louise; Van Dam, Ruud; de Rijk, Theo; Andriessen, Rob; Van Schelt, Jeroen; Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J. (Ine)

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required. PMID:29495278

  3. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Hansen, Jeff A; Kim, Yong B; De Souza, Anna L P; Middleton, Teena F; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-07-17

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  4. Comparative studies about fungal colonization and deoxynivalenol translocation in barley plants inoculated at the base with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pecoraro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium crown rot (FCR, an important disease of wheat and barley, is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum and F. pseudograminearum, which are also responsible for mycotoxin production. This is the first comparative investigation of their colonization on barley plants after stem base inoculation. At plant maturity, FCR symptoms were visually evaluated, fungal biomass was quantified by Real-Time quantitative PCR and deoxynivalenol (DON was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the inoculated strains caused the typical FCR necrotic symptoms. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that F. graminearum and F. culmorum were present in the head tissues, while F. pseudograminearum colonized only up to the area including the second node of the stem. Conversely, DON was detected up to the head for all the three species. This study shows that, as already demonstrated in previous research for wheat, DON may be detected up to the head as a consequence of stem base infection by the three FCR agents

  5. Relationship between environmental factors, dry matter loss and mycotoxin levels in stored wheat and maize infected with Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Kalliopi; Sulyok, Michael; Magan, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between storage environmental factors (water activity (a(w)) (0.89-0.97) and temperature (15°C-30°C)), colonisation of wheat and maize by Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides respectively and the dry matter losses (DMLs) caused and quantified by contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUMs) during storage. Fungal growth was assessed by the amount of CO(2) produced under different interacting conditions of a(w) and temperature. DMLs were quantified using the cumulative CO(2) data, and these were shown to increase as temperature and a(w) increased. The amount of DON, ZEA (wheat for human consumption) and FUMs (feed maize) produced was significantly affected by the storage conditions. The three toxins however showed different patterns of production. Optimum for DON was at the wettest conditions (0.97a(w)) and the highest temperature assessed (30°C), whereas for ZEA this shifted to 25°C. FUMs were produced in higher amounts in maize at 30°C and 0.97a(w); however, at intermediate a(w) levels (0.955a(w)), the highest production occurred at 25°C followed by 20°C. Polynomial models were developed for the effect of the storage factors on DMLs and toxin production. DMLs under different environmental conditions were significantly correlated with DON and FUMs. DON contamination was above the EU limits in at least 80% of the wheat samples with DMLs >1%, whereas at least 70% of the same samples contained ZEA above the respective EU legislative limits. Similarly, at least 75% of the maize samples with DMLs ≥ 0.9% exceeded the EU limits for the sum of FUMs in feed. These results show that it may be possible to use temporal CO(2) production during storage of grains as an indicator of the level of contamination of the grain with mycotoxins.

  6. Don Quijote y Hamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúdovik B. Osterc

    2002-12-01

    Hamlet está loco, es un alucinado que duda de sus propios sentidos. Para él existe sólo un lado negro de la existencia, su único objeto es llegar más pronto al descubrimiento del crimen. Es egocentrico, ne cree en nada, eternamente mira en su interior, se alimenta en su desprecio de sí mismo y su sufrimiento es mucho más doloroso.que aquel de Don Quijote. Don Quijote, al contrario, cree en el hombre y su futuro. Su ideal es implantar por la fuerza, la verdad, el bien y la justicia en la tierra. Para servir a su ideal, está dispuesto a sufrir todas las posibles privaciones. Representa la fe en la verdad. Es ridículo y quizás el más cómico tipo disenado jamás por un literato. Hamlet es el hijo del rey muerte, mientras que Don Quijote está pobre. Se hace los enemigos imaginarios y lucha contra ellos, mientras que Hamlet no cree en las ilusiones (siempre duda, y tampoco no combatiría si supiera que son sinónimos de opresores. Continua con la examinación de la actitud del pueblo o sus representantes hacia Don Quijote y Hamlet y viceversa. Polonia es el representante de las multitudes populares ante Hamlet, Sancho lo es ante su senor. El primero es de sano pensamiento y al mismo tiempo un viejo charalatán. Para él Hamlet no es tanto un loco como un nino y le parece inútil para la sociedad. Sancho Pansa está persuadido de que su senor está loco, pero le está leal hasta la muerte. Don Quijote simpatiza profundamente con el pueblo, pero la única persona con la que se entiende verdaderamente es Sancho Pansa (uno no puede vivir sin otro. La actitud de Hamlet es completamente diferente, él desprecia las multitudes populares, porque también desprecia a sí mismo. social: el tedio, el hastío, el descontento de la vida, desorientación espiritual y la eclipse de la fe, miéntras que Don Quijote encarna el mundo libre, bien estar y la felicidad de los seres humanos. Por eso y porque es un ideal el más humano, generoso, noble y elevado, el autor del

  7. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  8. Mimesis in Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle von der Walde

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Frente a argumentos tomados de las poéticas neoaristotélicas que esgrime el canónigo para condenar los libros de caballerías, don Quijote pretende mostrar con su propio ejemplo, que ese tipo de lecturas no llevan a la locura ni al abandono de sí mismo, sino que, por el contrario, sacan lo mejor de la naturaleza de un individuo y lo hacen mejor persona. Este es el único tipo de imitación que Platón acepta en la República, pues más que un remedo o una suplantación, implica emulación. Este escrito se propone mirar, a partir del diálogo con el canónigo de Toledo (I, 49-50, cómo en sus conductas miméticas desde el comienzo de la obra, don Quijote entiende la imitación como emulación; en consecuencia se intenta demostrar que el efecto de la literatura en el caballero manchego parece ser el tipo de mimesis que Platón acepta en el libro III de la República.Abstract:Don Quijote demonstrates with the example of his own life the error made by the Canon of Toledo when the latter uses the arguments of the neo-Aristotelian poets to condemn the novels of chivalric romance. Quijote tries to show that reading the chivalric romances leads to neither madness nor the abandonment of the self, but, on the contrary, brings out the best in a person’s nature, and makes one a better person. This is the only type of imitation that Plato accepts in the Republic, because, unlike the mere copying of a person, or the substitution of one person for another, it implies a type of emulation. Starting with the dialogue of the Canon of Toledo (I, 49-50, this paper shows how, in his mimetic behavior, Don Quijote understands imitation as emulation. As a result, the paper shows that the effect of literature on the gentleman from La Mancha is the type of mimesis of which Plato approves in book III of the Republic.

  9. Don Isidoro Laverde Amaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Narváez

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available A la calidad sustantiva de los polígrafos, -estirpe de los Vergara, Eduardo Posada, Gustavo Arboleda, Otero Muñoz, Samper Ortega, Gómez Restrepo para nombrar solo algunos de los que "nos han precedido con la señal de la fe", como dice el sacro ritual, y en el servicio de las Letras patrias- pertenece con mérito eximio el prócer de la bibliografía colombiana, don Isidoro Laverde Amaya.

  10. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins-Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J

    2016-07-27

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  11. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D.; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  12. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Grenier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisins (FB are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen. At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency, and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In

  13. Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, J E; Naustvoll, L-J; Friocourt, Y; Mengelers, M J B; Christensen, J H

    2012-01-01

    toxins are uncertain. Climate change will also have indirect effects on toxin contamination, which may be equally important. For example, the frequency of cropping of wheat and maize in north Europe was projected to increase under climate change, which will also increase the risk of contamination of the grains with deoxynivalenol. Risk managers are encouraged to consider the entire range of the predictions of climate change effects on food safety hazards, rather than median or average values only. Furthermore, it is recommended to closely monitor levels of mycotoxins and marine biotoxins in the future, in particular related to risky situations associated with favourable climatic conditions for toxin producing organisms. In particular, it is important to pay attention to the continuity of collecting the right data, and the availability and accessibility of databases. On a European level, it is important to stress the need for harmonisation of terminology and data collection.

  14. Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzini, Juan; Roncallo, Pablo; Cantoro, Renata; Chiotta, Maria; Yerkovich, Nadia; Palacios, Sofia; Echenique, Viviana; Torres, Adriana; Ramírez, María; Karlovsky, Petr; Chulze, Sofia

    2018-02-20

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of Bacillus velezensis RC 218, F. graminearum and their co-inoculation on the production of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in wheat spikes at different periods of time under greenhouse conditions, and to evaluate the effect of B. velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces albidoflavus RC 87B on FHB disease incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol accumulation on Triticum turgidum L. var. durum under field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions the production of JA was induced after F. graminearum inoculation at 48 and 72 h, but JA levels were reduced in the co-inoculated treatments. No differences in JA or SA levels were observed between the B. velezensis treatment and the water control. In the spikes inoculated with F. graminearum, SA production was induced early (12 h), as it was shown for initial FHB basal resistance, while JA was induced at a later stage (48 h), revealing different defense strategies at different stages of infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen F. graminearum. Both B. velezensis RC 218 and S. albidoflavus RC 87B effectively reduced FHB incidence (up to 30%), severity (up to 25%) and deoxynivalenol accumulation (up to 51%) on durum wheat under field conditions.

  15. Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Palazzini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of Bacillus velezensis RC 218, F. graminearum and their co-inoculation on the production of salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA in wheat spikes at different periods of time under greenhouse conditions, and to evaluate the effect of B. velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces albidoflavus RC 87B on FHB disease incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol accumulation on Triticum turgidum L. var. durum under field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions the production of JA was induced after F. graminearum inoculation at 48 and 72 h, but JA levels were reduced in the co-inoculated treatments. No differences in JA or SA levels were observed between the B. velezensis treatment and the water control. In the spikes inoculated with F. graminearum, SA production was induced early (12 h, as it was shown for initial FHB basal resistance, while JA was induced at a later stage (48 h, revealing different defense strategies at different stages of infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen F. graminearum. Both B. velezensis RC 218 and S. albidoflavus RC 87B effectively reduced FHB incidence (up to 30%, severity (up to 25% and deoxynivalenol accumulation (up to 51% on durum wheat under field conditions.

  16. Microbial correlates of Fusarium biomass and deoxynivalenol content in individual wheat seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipulating the microbiome of wheat seeds and heads may contribute to control of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation in grain, which creates a food safety hazard. With the aim of identifying novel management targets, we looked for correlations between Fusarium biomass or deoxynivalenol ...

  17. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m (99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma-scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation.

  18. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V. [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Assam (India); Department of Life Sciences, Defense Research Development and Organization, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  19. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  20. Transcript profiling of the phytotoxic response of wheat to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Doohan, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    .) Remus is susceptible to DON; the toxin causes premature bleaching of spikelets and inhibits root growth. This study used custom-made wheat cDNA arrays to analyse the effect of DON on the transcriptome of heads of the toxin-sensitive wheat cv. Remus at both 4 and 24 h post-toxin treatment. DON...

  1. Hypo-responsiveness of interleukin-8 production in human embryonic epithelial intestine 407 cells independent of NF-κB pathway: New lessons from endotoxin and ribotoxic deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Yuseok; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Mucosal epithelium senses external toxic insults and transmits the danger signals into the epithelial cells in order to activate a broad range of inflammatory responses. However, pre-exposure to the commensal endotoxins can induce inflammatory tolerance and maintain the homeostasis without excessive immune responses. We recently reported that ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives elicited the pro-inflammatory response as the mucosal insults in human epithelial cells. Taking the knowledge into consideration, we tested the hypothesis that endotoxin pre-exposure can attenuate ribotoxin-induced epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) production via a tolerance mechanism. Pre-exposure to endotoxin repressed IL-8 release and its gene expression. However, inflammatory tolerance was not mediated by the attenuated NF-κB activation which has been generally recognized as the major mediator of LPS-mediated toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. Instead, pre-exposure to endotoxin was observed to trigger the delayed induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) which contributed to the diminished IL-8 production in the human epithelial cells. Moreover, endogenous PPAR-γ agonist suppressed toxicant-mediated interleukin-8 production and IL-8 mRNA stability. Taken together, endotoxin induced hypo-production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in the human epithelial cells, which was associated with the delayed activation of PPAR-γ expression by pre-existing endotoxin

  2. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwart, Marian; Suchowilska, Elżbieta; Kandler, Wolfang; Sulyok, Michael; Wachowska, Urszula; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%), number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8%) and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%). T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its 3-β-D-glucoside (D3G) than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  3. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wiwart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%, number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8% and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%. T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  4. Now You See It, Now You Don't: Understanding High Conflict and High Ambiguity as Core Policy Dimensions through Field-Level Leaders' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialik, Gadi; Gibton, Dan; Dror, Yuval

    2018-01-01

    The study's target is to analyze how field-level coalition leaders, namely, the founding principals of Israeli specialized schools, perceive a "high-ambiguity and high-conflict" symbolic educational policy that apparently opposes the basic values that underlie the foundation of specialized schools. Based on an analysis of qualitative…

  5. "Now I see it, now I don't": Determining Threshold Levels of Facial Emotion Recognition for Use in Patient Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Isabelle; Gfrörer, Regina I; Piguet, Olivier; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc

    2015-08-01

    The importance of including measures of emotion processing, such as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER), as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is being increasingly recognized. In clinical settings, FER tests need to be sensitive, short, and easy to administer, given the limited time available and patient limitations. Current tests, however, commonly use stimuli that either display prototypical emotions, bearing the risk of ceiling effects and unequal task difficulty, or are cognitively too demanding and time-consuming. To overcome these limitations in FER testing in patient populations, we aimed to define FER threshold levels for the six basic emotions in healthy individuals. Forty-nine healthy individuals between 52 and 79 years of age were asked to identify the six basic emotions at different intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and 125% of the prototypical emotion). Analyses uncovered differing threshold levels across emotions and sex of facial stimuli, ranging from 50% up to 100% intensities. Using these findings as "healthy population benchmarks", we propose to apply these threshold levels to clinical populations either as facial emotion recognition or intensity rating tasks. As part of any comprehensive social cognition test battery, this approach should allow for a rapid and sensitive assessment of potential FER deficits.

  6. Trouble Don't Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Even as a child, Pearsall questioned social injustice and prejudice. In her own community in Ohio and, as she grew, all over the world, she saw social inequities she could neither understand nor accept. Her novel "Trouble Don't Last," takes place during the era of the Underground Railroad. The chapter included here pulls us in…

  7. Kulturel liminalitet i Don Quixote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fastrup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i og i kontrast til nogle af hovedlinierne i den nyere litteratur om Don Quixote søger artiklen tilbage til de mere specifikke og lokale historiske forhold, som er romanens baggrund, bl.a. til Cervantes' »algierske erfaring« med tyrkisk fangenskab. Artiklen forsøger at kombinere ...

  8. [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chongyu; Lü, Chen; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Huilan; Ding, Tao

    2012-11-01

    A method was established for the determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in grain and its products based on solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was firstly extracted by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). The extract was then cleaned-up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x4. 6 mm, 2.6 microm) with a gradient elution using 0.3% per hundred ammonia solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was performed under electrospray negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N= 3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 20 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg, respectively. A good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved for the target compound over the range of 20-1000 pg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels (50, 100, 500 microg/kg) in the blank matrices such as flour, barley, soybean, rice, cornmeal, cassava and wheat, were varied from 75.6% to 111.0% with the relative standard deviations no more than 13. 0%. The method is accurate, efficient, sensitive and practical. The cost of pretreatment is obviously reduced by replacing immunoaffinity columns and Mycosep columns with HLB columns which have the same purification effect.

  9. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimized and validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendi, Adriana; Irakli, Maria N; Papageorgiou, Maria D

    2016-04-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate analytical method was optimized and developed for the determination of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins in cereals intended for human consumption using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection and a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection. A response surface methodology, using a fractional central composite design, was carried out for optimization of the water percentage at the beginning of the run (X1, 80-90%), the level of acetonitrile at the end of gradient system (X2, 10-20%) with the water percentage fixed at 60%, and the flow rate (X3, 0.8-1.2 mL/min). The studied responses were the chromatographic peak area, the resolution factor and the time of analysis. Optimal chromatographic conditions were: X1 = 80%, X2 = 10%, and X3 = 1 mL/min. Following a double sample extraction with water and a mixture of methanol/water, mycotoxins were rapidly purified by an optimized solid-phase extraction protocol. The optimized method was further validated with respect to linearity (R(2) >0.9991), sensitivity, precision, and recovery (90-112%). The application to 23 commercial cereal samples from Greece showed contamination levels below the legally set limits, except for one maize sample. The main advantages of the developed method are the simplicity of operation and the low cost. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Don Germán

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  12. [Don Quijote, a lucid mad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fernández, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 50-year-old hidalgo who believed to be transformed into a knight-errant named Don Quijote is a megalomaniac systematized delusion of transformation of the self, a delusion of metamorphosis in reference to the patient's own identity. The outward projection of this syndrome produces some delusional misidentifications of others, things and animals and include elements of a persecutory delusion which increase the grandiosity of the self. At the same time the hidalgo was maniac with a pathway of bipolar disorder. The phenomenon of donquijotismo is described as the defence of wasted causes and Sancho Panza as an illiterate Sócrates.

  13. Don Germán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  14. Hotel Don Pepe. Marbella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Población, Eleuterio

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This splendid building, located at «Las Merinas», is a new source of interest in the beautiful Costa del Sol. It has been made with the most modern materials and techniques. It has an outstanding view over the sea and it has seven standardized floor levels occupied by single rooms, whilst other parts of the building are taken up with small apartments. The recreation zone includes a bar, swimming pools for children and adults, and a cabaret. The ground floor has a main entrance hall, reception offices, shopping corridor, great hall, tea room, and bar. The second floor has a breakfast room, connecting two banqueting halls, hairdresser's, sauna baths, gymnasium, administrative offices, and the manager's flat. The services zone comprises the kitchen, a dining room for various members of the senior staff, post office, laundry, and other standard facilities. The celler serves as a general store and also as wine storage. This hotel has a most impressive functional aspect, and sets a new standard of comfort and luxury for the benefit of tourists who visit this fashionable and picturesque part of the Mediterranean coast.Este espléndido edificio, situado en la finca «Las Merinas», es un atractivo más de la bellísima Costa del Sol malagueña. Se ha instalado de acuerdo con los más modernos materiales y técnicas, disfrutando de bellas vistas hacia el mar, y dispone de: un bloque con siete plantas-tipo de habitaciones, otro de apartamentos auxiliares de pequeña altura, y la zona de recreo, con bar, piscinas para niños, nadadores y saltos, y sala de fiestas. La planta baja aloja: el acceso principal, recepción, conserjería, galería comercial, gran hall, salón de té, bar, etc. La entreplanta comprende: el comedor de desayunos, en conexión con dos comedores para banquetes; peluquerías, sauna, gimnasio, administración y vivienda del director, aparte de la zona de servicios, con cocina, comedores varios de jefes, personal, correos, lavander

  15. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, in sweet potato root tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M. [Kagawa Univ., Miki (Japan); Yoshizawa, T.

    1990-12-15

    Sweet potato root tissues were used as an experimental model system for metabolism of trichothecenes in plants. {sup 14}C-Labeledeoxynivalenol was rapidly metabolized in the root tissues, most of the administered deoxynivalenol having disappeared by day 2. The half-life of the toxin in the root tissues was estimated to be less than 5hr. By reverse-phase HPLC and TLC, it was demonstrated that the toxin was converted to at least three metabolites in the root tissues. The relationships between the parent toxin and the three metabolites are discussed on the basis of the time course of the metabolic transformation of the toxin in the root tissues. (author)

  16. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  17. Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum Growth and Deoxynivalenol Production in Wheat Kernels with Bacterial Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the main causal pathogen affecting small-grain cereals, and it produces deoxynivalenol, a kind of mycotoxin, which displays a wide range of toxic effects in human and animals. Bacterial strains isolated from peanut shells were investigated for their activities against F. graminearum by dual-culture plate and tip-culture assays. Among them, twenty strains exhibited potent inhibition to the growth of F. graminearum, and the inhibition rates ranged from 41.41% to 54.55% in dual-culture plate assay and 92.70% to 100% in tip-culture assay. Furthermore, eighteen strains reduced the production of deoxynivalenol by 16.69% to 90.30% in the wheat kernels assay. Finally, the strains with the strongest inhibitory activity were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical methods and also 16S rDNA and gyrA gene analysis as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The current study highlights the potential application of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites in the prevention of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in wheat kernels. As a biological strategy, it might avoid safety problems and nutrition loss which always caused by physical and chemical strategies.

  18. “Is that right?” – Don Favareau, Don Corleone & the semiotics of friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    A chapter commenting specifically on John Poinsot's "Tractatus de Signis", John Deely's interpretation of Poinsot's mentioning of "friendship" as an example of a triadic relation, Don Favareau's contribution to the biosemiotic community, and Don Corleone as a symbol of a different kind of "friend......A chapter commenting specifically on John Poinsot's "Tractatus de Signis", John Deely's interpretation of Poinsot's mentioning of "friendship" as an example of a triadic relation, Don Favareau's contribution to the biosemiotic community, and Don Corleone as a symbol of a different kind...... of "friendship", and generally on the philosophy of friendship....

  19. Don Zhuanu otdajutsja tolko po ljubvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eestisse tuleb külla Roman Viktjuki Teater, 1. nov. mängitakse Vene Kultuurikeskuses Jean Genet' "Toatüdrukuid" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk), 23. nov. etendatakse Eric-Emmanuel Scmitti "Don Juani viimast armastust" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk)

  20. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share ... Drug Interactions: What You Should Know More in Special Features Page Last Updated: 12/17/2015 Note: ...

  1. Don\\'t Ask, Don\\'t Tell: Ethical Issues Concerning Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent procedures and requirements must be clearly established and communicated. The learning and proficiency practices should be restricted to the staff that can truly benefit from the experience. The practice of 'don't ask, don't tell' is not an option. South African Journal of Family Practice Vol. 50 (4) 2008: pp.

  2. Guidelines : the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. METHODS: The authors built consensus by an iterative

  3. Buscando a don Claudio Moyano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES En el primer número de esta revista digital "Cabás", Antonio Montero Alcalde hizo un pormenorizado y útil análisis de la llamada Ley Moyano, la Ley de Instrucción Pública promulgada en 1857; la importancia de este texto legal en el desarrollo de la educación en España a lo largo de más de un siglo ha sido puesta de relieve en multitud de estudios históricos referidos a la época contemporánea. Nacido en una pequeña población zamorana el día 30 de octubre de 1809, la vida pública de don Claudio Moyano Samaniego, el firmante de la ley que lleva su nombre, se desarrolló básicamente en la corte madrileña; no obstante, rastrear en el entorno de su tierra natal algunos aspectos y circunstancias de su persona puede tener interés para completar la figura de una personalidad tan citada por su obra como desconocida por su vida. Y, al menos, sirve como curioso entretenimiento de un impenitente viajero a la búsqueda de huellas históricas de las escuelas de otros tiempos y de los hombres dedicados a ellas.

  4. Don't pay taxes, save your money!

    OpenAIRE

    Bradáč, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Don't Pay Taxes, Save Your Money!" focuses on the impact of the existence of tax havens on private and public sector. On the theoretical level, it shows the attractivity of tax havens for sufficiently large firms that can afford to pay costs of tax planning and profit manipulations. On the empirical level, it shows that tax havens are really the most successful jurisdictions in attracting foreign investors. In the end, two models of tax competition are introduced in order to ...

  5. Annual variation of deoxynivalenol in Danish wheat flour 1998-2003 and estimated daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Petersen, Annette; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani

    2007-01-01

    of precipitation around flowering time, i.e. from the end of June to the beginning of July covering weeks 25 - 27. The lowest average levels were found in samples from the 2001 harvest, where weeks 25 - 27 were dry compared with other harvest years. The highest value ( 705 mu gkg(-1)) was obtained in a flour...... and the retail market in Denmark. Contamination levels varied considerably from year-to-year with the highest concentrations occurring in samples from the 2002 harvest with mean and median concentrations of 255 and 300 mu gkg(-1), respectively. Compared to other harvest years, 2002 had the highest amount...... sample from the 2002 harvest, but none of the tested samples exceeded the maximum limit of 750 mu g kg(-1), which has been recently introduced by the European Commission for DON in flour used as raw materials in food products. Calculation of chronic or usual intake by a deterministic approach showed...

  6. The Fusarium graminearum Histone Acetyltransferases Are Important for Morphogenesis, DON Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjiu Kong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although HAT genes have been studied in many fungi, few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized four putative HATs (FgGCN5, FgRTT109, FgSAS2, FgSAS3 in the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. We replaced the genes and all mutant strains showed reduced growth of F. graminearum. The ΔFgSAS3 and ΔFgGCN5 mutant increased sensitivity to oxidative and osmotic stresses. Additionally, ΔFgSAS3 showed reduced conidia sporulation and perithecium formation. Mutant ΔFgGCN5 was unable to generate any conidia and lost its ability to form perithecia. Our data showed also that FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 are pathogenicity factors required for infecting wheat heads as well as tomato fruits. Importantly, almost no Deoxynivalenol (DON was produced either in ΔFgSAS3 or ΔFgGCN5 mutants, which was consistent with a significant downregulation of TRI genes expression. Furthermore, we discovered for the first time that FgSAS3 is indispensable for the acetylation of histone site H3K4, while FgGCN5 is essential for the acetylation of H3K9, H3K18, and H3K27. H3K14 can be completely acetylated when FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 were both present. The RNA-seq analyses of the two mutant strains provide insight into their functions in development and metabolism. Results from this study clarify the functional divergence of HATs in F. graminearum, and may provide novel targeted strategies to control secondary metabolite expression and infections of F. graminearum.

  7. Genio y figura de don Alfonso Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre varias, escojo esta: por sobria y conmovida a un tiempo. La escribió Juan Fernández Figueroa para su revista " Indice", de Madrid. Nos parece ver a don Alfonso en el rellano de la escalera -al fondo, sus libros; más allá, toda su vida, noble y pura- nos parece verle por última vez, inclinado ya sobre la baranda de la muerte. Tiene la calidad y el dinamismo de unos cuantos dibujos rápidos, nerviosos, esta imagen última de don Alfonso Reyes.

  8. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Christopher L; Edgell, Luke R

    2013-01-01

    We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN's 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act.

  9. Guidelines: the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. The authors built consensus by an iterative process. Do's and Don'ts were proposed based on authors' individual teaching experience and awareness of the literature, and the amalgamated set of guidelines were then refined by all authors and the evidence was summarized for each guideline. Don't Knows were identified as being important questions to this international group of educators which if answered would change practice. The criteria for inclusion of evidence for these guidelines were not those of a systematic review, so indicators of strength of these recommendations were developed which combine the evidence with the authors' consensus. A set of 32 Do and Don't guidelines with the important Don't Knows was compiled along with a summary of the evidence for each. These are divided into guidelines for the individual clinical supervisor giving feedback to their trainee (recommendations about both the process and the content of feedback) and guidelines for the learning culture (what elements of learning culture support the exchange of meaningful feedback, and what elements constrain it?) Feedback is not easy to get right, but it is essential to learning in medicine, and there is a wealth of evidence supporting the Do's and warning against the Don'ts. Further research into the critical Don't Knows of feedback is required. A new definition is offered: Helpful feedback is a supportive conversation that clarifies the trainee's awareness of their developing competencies, enhances their self-efficacy for making progress, challenges them to set objectives for improvement, and facilitates their development of strategies to enable that improvement to occur.

  10. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take ... worth the squeeze…especially when combining grapefruit with medicines. While it can be part of a balanced ...

  11. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take ... more than fifty prescription and over-the-counter drugs known to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...

  12. Don Quijote en Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer a Cervantes y su obra.- Descubrir otros países y artistas.- Conocer al personaje de Don Quijote.- Familiarizarse con los personajes principales.- Relacionar la pintura y la literatura.- Desarrollar habilidades manuales y artísticas.- Potenciar la creatividad.

  13. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  14. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't ...

  15. Dewey or Don't We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Devona J.

    2013-01-01

    "Dewey or don't we?" is the question that hundreds, if not thousands, of school librarians across the country are currently asking themselves. Do they throw out what is old but trusted for new organizational systems, or do they continue using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system and make changes and adjustments to the…

  16. Cervantes and the Lirical Poetry: Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Romo Feito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the lyrical poems included in the first and the second part of Don Quixote. The different classes of poems are studied attending to its narrative context. But the poetry is also studied by relating it with metrical and aesthetical categories: Realism, Parody, Manierism…

  17. Bioanalysis of 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) in plasma and brain by ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jesse; Potter, Michelle C.; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine is an abundant amino acid that plays pivotal roles in cell growth, cell metabolism and neurotransmission. Dysregulation of glutamine-utilizing pathways has been associated with pathological conditions such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine (DON) is a reactive glutamine analog that inhibits enzymes affecting glutamine metabolism such as glutaminase, 2-N-amidotransferase, L-asparaginase and several enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine de novo synthesis. As a result, DON is actively used in preclinical models of cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Moreover, there have been several clinical trials using DON to treat a variety of cancers. Considerations of dose and exposure are especially important with DON treatment due to its narrow therapeutic window and significant side effects. Consequently, a robust quantification bioassay is of interest. DON is a polar unstable molecule which has made quantification challenging. Here we report on the characterization of a bioanalytical method to quantify DON in tissue samples involving DON derivatization with 3N HCl in butanol. The derivatized product is lipophilic and stable. Detection of this analyte by mass spectrometry is fast, specific and can be used to quantify DON in plasma and brain tissue with a limit of detection in the low nanomolar level. PMID:25584882

  18. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  19. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  20. Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports KidsHealth / For Parents / Fitness for Kids Who Don' ... look for something new. Still Shopping for a Sport Some kids haven't found the right sport. ...

  1. Reading "Las Meninas": An Ekphrastic Approach to Teaching "Don Quijote"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuno, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Reading and teaching "Don Quijote" present multiple challenges to twenty-first century students and instructors who are culturally and historically distanced from the seventeenth century. With "Las Meninas" serving as a visual lexicon for cuing correlative themes and events in "Don Quijote", the instructor, through an ekphrastic, interdisciplinary…

  2. Don Quixote og romangenren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Sofie

    Through the centuries Cervantes' Don Quixote (1605/1615) has delighted readers, inspired artists, and helped form our perception of early modern Spain. Moreover, it has played a major part in the development and theoretisation of one of the modern world's most central artistic forms: the novel. Don...

  3. DAYA ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SENGGANI (Melastoma affine D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Trisharyanti Dian Kusumowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma affine D. Don had some activities such as anthelmintic, antibacteria, antiinfiammation, antifungal, and antitumor. The aims of this research was determine antibacteria activity of ethanolic extract of Melastoma affine D. Don. The antimicrobial activity was tested by solid dilution method to get Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC. The compounds in Melastoma affine D. Don was analyzed by tube test method and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC with chloroform : methanol : formic acid (8,5:1,5:0,5 as mobile phase and silica gel GF254 as stationary phase. The result showed ethanolic extract of Melastoma affine D. Don contains alkaloid, polyphenol, fiavonoid, saponin, and essential oil. The MIC of Senggani against Staphylococcus aureus was 2% and 3% against Escherichia coli and the extract could not inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli multiresistant until concentration 7% extract ethanol. Keywords: Melastoma affine D. Don, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli

  4. Effects of ambient and elevated CO2 on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants, and secondary metabolites of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G Don. grown under three different soil N levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aradhana; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2015-03-01

    Catharanthus roseus L. plants were grown under ambient (375 ± 30 ppm) and elevated (560 ± 25 ppm) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 at different rates of N supply (without supplemental N, 0 kg N ha(-1); recommended N, 50 kg N ha(-1); and double recommended N, 100 kg N ha(-1)) in open top chambers under field condition. Elevated CO2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic efficiency, and organic carbon content in leaves at recommended (RN) and double recommended N (DRN), while significantly decreased total nitrogen content in without supplemental N (WSN). Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were declined, while glutathione reductase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were stimulated under elevated CO2. However, the responses of the above enzymes were modified with different rates of N supply. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced superoxide production rate, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in RN and DRN. Compared with ambient, total alkaloids content increased maximally at recommended level of N, while total phenolics in WSN under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 stimulated growth of plants by increasing plant height and numbers of branches and leaves, and the magnitude of increment were maximum in DRN. The study suggests that elevated CO2 has positively affected plants by increasing growth and alkaloids production and reducing the level of oxidative stress. However, the positive effects of elevated CO2 were comparatively lesser in plants grown under limited N availability than in moderate and higher N availability. Furthermore, the excess N supply in DRN has stimulated the growth but not the alkaloids production under elevated CO2.

  5. The occurrence of Fusarium toxins (zearalenone, DON, fumonisin, and T2) in some food commodities and feedstuffs in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, I; Al-Arfe, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2010-01-15

    The presence of four Fusarium toxins (namely, zearalenone, Don, fuminosin, and T2) was studied in 129 food commodities and feedstuff samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the percentages of wheat samples contaminated with T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone were : 33%, 31%, 11.6% and 12.5% for each toxin, respectively. Concentrations of these toxins in the contaminated samples fell in the range of 81 - 350, 330 - 1330, 270 - 420 and 42-67 {mu}g kg-1 for each toxin respectively. Barely samples showed higher percentages of contamination with those toxins amounting to 75.9%, 83.3%, 75% and 83.3% with concentrations ranging between 89-145, 270 - 1230, 650 - 3450 and 42-102 {mu}g kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Percentages of contaminated bran samples were 80% for T2 and 100% for each of fumonisin, Don and zearalenone. Concentrations of T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in bran samples ranged between 81-322 , 510 - 1670 , 280 - 750 and 42-81 {mu}g kg-1, respectively. All four tested toxins were present in corn samples. Levels of T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in corn samples were in the range of 112-426 , 730 - 1820, 590 - 1080 and 63-112 {mu}g kg-1, respectively. Similarly, 100% of examined soya seed cake samples were found contaminated with various levels of the four assayed toxins, with levels of contamination ranging between 98-142 , 1340 - 2220 , 330 - 800 and 93-114 {mu}g kg-1, for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. All cotton seed cake samples were contaminated with the four tested toxins with contamination levels ranging between 94 - 142, 1120 - 1920, 280 - 1340 and 56 - 132 {mu}g kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Only 87% of the composite pelletted feed samples were contaminated with zearalenone, but all of theme were contaminated with various levels of the other three tested toxins. (author)

  6. The occurrence of Fusarium toxins (zearalenone, DON, fumonisin, and T2) in some food commodities and feedstuffs in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Al-Arfe, M.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of four Fusarium toxins (namely, zearalenone, Don, fuminosin, and T2) was studied in 129 food commodities and feedstuff samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the percentages of wheat samples contaminated with T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone were : 33%, 31%, 11.6% and 12.5% for each toxin, respectively. Concentrations of these toxins in the contaminated samples fell in the range of 81 - 350, 330 - 1330, 270 - 420 and 42-67 μg kg-1 for each toxin respectively. Barely samples showed higher percentages of contamination with those toxins amounting to 75.9%, 83.3%, 75% and 83.3% with concentrations ranging between 89-145, 270 - 1230, 650 - 3450 and 42-102 μg kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Percentages of contaminated bran samples were 80% for T2 and 100% for each of fumonisin, Don and zearalenone. Concentrations of T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in bran samples ranged between 81-322 , 510 - 1670 , 280 - 750 and 42-81 μg kg-1, respectively. All four tested toxins were present in corn samples. Levels of T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in corn samples were in the range of 112-426 , 730 - 1820, 590 - 1080 and 63-112 μg kg-1, respectively. Similarly, 100% of examined soya seed cake samples were found contaminated with various levels of the four assayed toxins, with levels of contamination ranging between 98-142 , 1340 - 2220 , 330 - 800 and 93-114 μg kg-1, for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. All cotton seed cake samples were contaminated with the four tested toxins with contamination levels ranging between 94 - 142, 1120 - 1920, 280 - 1340 and 56 - 132 μg kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Only 87% of the composite pelletted feed samples were contaminated with zearalenone, but all of theme were contaminated with various levels of the other three tested toxins. (author)

  7. Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewaters from animal feedlots and storage lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) transport from animal agriculture to surface waters can lead to eutrophication and dissolved oxygen depletion. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is mineralized by bacteria while bioavailable DON (ABDON) is utilized by bacteria and/or algae. This stu...

  8. The President's pleasant surprise: how LGBT advocates ended Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the role of LGBT advocates in repealing the military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy in the U.S. Congress. It draws on the author's direct involvement with that effort as well as personal interviews and media evidence to consider the contributions of the Obama Administration, members of Congress, the media, and individuals and pressure groups in the repeal process. It argues that repeal succeeded not because of the effective implementation of a White House plan but because the pressure of LGBT advocates ultimately shattered several key obstacles including inadequate messaging and dysfunction and inertia among both politicians and interest groups in Washington. The article offers insight into the role of public pressure in forwarding social change.

  9. Don Joaquin García Monge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rodríguez Garavito

    1958-11-01

    Full Text Available Los conocimos personalmente y tratamos de cerca en su amada ciudad de San José de Costa Rica. Casi diariamente íbamos por su casa. Una mansión grande, de vastos y sonoros corredores, arcones antiguos, libros apilados por doquier. Don Joaquín mantenía el timón de El Repertorio Americano, una de las más nobles publicaciones intelectuales del Continente. Dialogábamos con él sobre temas de mucha entidad, mientras la noche caía lentamente sobre este dulce país de porcelana tan grato a las veladas antiguas, aquellas donde se puede oír el latido del corazón como en el poema chino.

  10. Don quijote, Christelike geloof en natuurwetenskap 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P.P. Lötter

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The story about Don Qulchote and the windmills is used in this article as an analogy to typify the debates that have taken place in history between natural science and representatives of Christian religion. The analogy is tested on debates that took place around Galileo. Darwin, Newton, Cuvier and the Big Bang theory. The analogy matches these debates quite well and this Is explained by the view that scientific claims to knowledge, and claims to knowledge based on Christian faith, belong to different categories and are thus not concurrents for the same truth. Gilbert Ryle's criticism on Descartes' mind-body dualism is used here to strengthen this argument. The article is concluded by pointing out in what ways one can engage in a meaningful debate on the nature of the relationship between science and Christian religion.

  11. We don't need another hero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaracco, J L

    2001-09-01

    Everybody loves the stories of heroes like Martin Luther King, Jr., Mother Teresa, and Gandhi. But the heroic model of moral leadership usually doesn't work in the corporate world. Modesty and restraint are largely responsible for the achievements of the most effective moral leaders in business. The author, a specialist in business ethics, says the quiet leaders he has studied follow four basic rules in meeting ethical challenges and making decisions. The rules constitute an important resource for executives who want to encourage the development of such leaders among their middle managers. The first rule is "Put things off till tomorrow." The passage of time allows turbulent waters to calm and lets leaders' moral instincts emerge. "Pick your battles" means that quiet leaders don't waste political capital on fights they can't win; they save it for occasions when they really want to fight. "Bend the rules, don't break them" sounds easier than it is--bending the rules in order to resolve a complicated situation requires imagination, discipline, restraint, flexibility, and entrepreneurship. The fourth rule, "Find a compromise," reflects the author's finding that quiet leaders try not to see situations as polarized tests of ethical principles. These individuals work hard to craft compromises that are "good enough"--responsible and workable enough--to satisfy themselves, their companies, and their customers. The vast majority of difficult problems are solved through the consistent striving of people working far from the limelight. Their quiet approach to leadership doesn't inspire, thrill, or provide story lines for uplifting TV shows. But the unglamorous efforts of quiet leaders make a tremendous difference every day in the corporate world.

  12. Don't Panic! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Don't Panic! Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Phobias and other anxiety disorders affect millions of Americans. ...

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Don't Be Misled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Minorities Don't Be Fooled By Health Fraud Scams Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments Products ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Will 3552 Don Quixote escape from the Solar System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Siregar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid 1983 SA, well known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs which is the most probable candidate for the cometary origin, or otherwise as Jupiter-Family-Comets (JFCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 3552 Don Quixote to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 100 hypothetical asteroids generated by cloning 3552 Don Quixote. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (220 kyr relative to the Solar System life time (10 Gyr, the asteroid 3552 Don Quixote gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System. Probability of ejection within the 220 kyr time scale is 50%.

  15. The Rhetoric of Madness in Kathy Acker’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the rhetorical experimentation of Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, starting from a theoretical concept central in the author’s thought: her search for a “language of the body”. A brief introduction to Kathy Acker’s plagiaristic poetics frames her narrative strategies between postmodern rewriting and pastiche. It shows the way in which her Don Quixote transposes the representative scheme of the chivalric quest into the contemporary value system with the aim of questioning Cervantes’ text as one of the canonical works of the Western literary tradition. The following section deepens three focal concepts of Acker’s theoretical works – body, madness, and norm – illuminating the connections between her rhetorical experimentation and the works by Luce Irigaray and Judith Butler. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how these concepts in Acker's rewriting of Don Quixote are strictly related to paradox, which she uses in order to actualize a “language of the body”: in the passage from the former novel to the postmodern work, madness has become the device which, from the semantic level to the rhetorical one, expresses Acker’s idea of language of the body, as an alternative and in contrast to the canonical language of the logos.

  16. Don Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. El Fundador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro López Pardo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Discurso pronunciado por el Doctor Alvaro López Pardo Presidente de la Academia de Historia de Bogotá, al Consejo de Bogotá el día 6 de agosto de 1988. Sesión especial de los 450 años.

    Por el año de 1578, caminaba lentamente por las polvorientas calles del poblado de Mariquita, un anciano, casi octogenario, que mostraba en su piel huellas de un enfermedad que se decía era la de San Lázaro.

    Las gentes lo miraban pasar con una mezcla de respeto y de piedad. En su mirada, un tanto vaga, se podían apreciar destellos de la que fuera una recia personalidad. Esta pobre figura era nadie menos que el Mariscal Don Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.

    En esta población ardiente y lejana, cargado de deudas, sin techo propio, iba a morir el gran señor, el Gran Capitán, el Gran Aventurero que fundara ésta nuestra noble y muy leal Santa Fe de Bogotá, cuyos 450 años celebramos en este día.

    Parece increíble que en aquella época y con una agitada vida, Don Gonzalo hubiera llegado a tan avanzada edad, es muestra de la fuerza de una raza y del templo de su espíritu, que se sobreponía a todas las adversidades y contratiempos.

    ¿Qué recuerdos vendrían a la mente de este anciano cuando, sentado en una pobre silla de vaqueta, contempla el azul cielo del trópico? ¿Quizá su infancia en España, en Córdoba, donde naciera o en la imponente Granada de los moros, recuperada hacía unos años por la Reina Isabel. Viendo los jardines de la Alhambra, el Generalife y al fondo el blanco perpetuo de la Sierra Nevada. O vendría a su mente el paso del fúnebre cortejo de Felipe el Hermoso y su lunática viuda Doña Juana?

    Sería tal vez el periodo de su juventud, oyendo las aventuras de Cortés en la Conquista de México, en medio de una Europa convulsionada y con España como centro de la misma. O quizás cuando estudiaba leyes en Salamanca y se metía en pleitos que no siempre ganaba y como

  17. [Spanish neuroscience in times of Don Quixote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, Antonio; Mikola, Yvett; Almendral-Doncel, Raquel; Campos-Bueno, Javier

    2016-02-16

    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published his immortal work Don Quixote of La Mancha in a time of crisis and decadence in Spain that occurred during the transition between the 16th and 17th centuries. In 2016 we commemorate the fourth centenary of the death of our distinguished man of letters, and thus in this article we analyse the status of Hispanic neuroscience, both in the Quixote itself and in other works by the most significant contemporary writers of that time. Despite the adverse historical circumstances, the shift from the Renaissance to the Baroque periods, in the Crown of Castile, was a flourishing period for literature (Spanish Golden Age) and other Hispanic arts (painting, sculpture, architecture and music), as well as bearing witness to a prodigious creativity in the field of neuroscience, including the field of natural philosophy. In his book Antoniana Margarita the physician Gomez Pereira laid the foundations for brain mechanism and the concept of conditioned reflexes several decades ahead of his time. The apothecary Miguel Sabuco also anticipated the concept of neurotransmission centuries ahead of his time in his New Philosophy. The physician Juan Huarte de San Juan was the founder of neuropsychology and experimental psychology, and his Examination of Men's Wits has been one of the most influential and widely translated scientific texts of all times. Its concepts are clearly reflected in Cervantes' Quixote. This analysis of Cervantes' work within the cultural setting of the book is intended as a homage to the immortal figure of our 'Prince of Wits' in the fourth centenary of his death.

  18. Viajando con Don Quijote en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilíe Rojas-López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Don Quixote has ridden with us for a long time now, and as if his fight against windmills were not enough, Don Quixote still has many more difficult situations to combat in the present times. Will the Knight of the Sad Figure accomplish this new deed? It is our challenge to find an answer to this inquiry. For this purpose, the author of this essay inserts the Knight of the Sad Figure in XXI century society. The author transforms the values, costumes and points of view of the times of the literary piece and establishes a series of relationships between the literary text, the main character and several current daily life situations. Don Quixote will certainly continue his fight against all the conditions we encounter nowadays. There is no doubt, then, that this knight still lives among us.

  19. Dostoyevski and Don Quijote: Poetics and Aesthetics of a Delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Djermanovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky’s body of work (1821-1881 one can find more than thirty references to Don Quixote; while some of them allude to the novel of Don Quixote itself, other ones refer to Cervantes’ hero as an archetypal figure. Since decades ago, the Russian literary criticism has been interested in the Russian quixotism – including Dostoevsky’s work – and important studies on this subject have been published recently. This study follows Dostoevsky’s references on La Mancha’s Knight as an independent figure of Cervantes’ novel, and the different symbolism Don Quixote’s figure has had in both Russian people and Russian intelligentsia.

  20. Distributed Observer Network (DON), Version 3.0, User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Rebecca A.; Conroy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Distributed Observer Network (DON) is a data presentation tool developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to distribute and publish simulation results. Leveraging the display capabilities inherent in modern gaming technology, DON places users in a fully navigable 3-D environment containing graphical models and allows the users to observe how those models evolve and interact over time in a given scenario. Each scenario is driven with data that has been generated by authoritative NASA simulation tools and exported in accordance with a published data interface specification. This decoupling of the data from the source tool enables DON to faithfully display a simulator's results and ensure that every simulation stakeholder will view the exact same information every time.

  1. Science and Fiction. On Don Quijote’s Epistemological Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Schmelzer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to analyze the representation of scientific knowledge in Cervantes’ Quixote, focusing on various passages that underline the scientific expertise of don Quixote himself. It is shown that the novel contains a subtle critique of science, based on an epistemological skepticism with regard to the arbitrariness of our world concepts. The characterization of don Quixote as a man of science even permits deducting that he suffers from a ‘double mental damage’, caused by the lecture of both books of cavalry and science. Cervantes thus would consider science to be fiction, a very modern point of view.

  2. Pia Petersen sous le signe de don Quichotte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bautista Naranjo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This interview has been motivated by the Cervantean intertextuality of Pia Petersen’s (a French-speaking Danish author last novel, Le Chien de don Quichotte (2012. Departing from the values that the writer attributes to Cervantes’ work, I try to establish a connection with a specific critical trend in order to test, later on, to which extent this approach is used by the author to create a series of characters placed under the sign of don Quixote. Finally, I evaluate her novel’s relation with contemporary reality.

  3. Fuel elements assembling for the DON project exponential experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R. de

    1966-01-01

    It is described the fuel unit used in the DON exponential experience, the manufacturing installments and tools as well as the stages in the fabrication.These 74 elements contain each 19 cartridges loaded with synterized urania, uranium carbide and indium, gold, and manganese probes. They were arranged in calandria-like tubes and the process-tube. This last one containing a cooling liquid simulating the reactor organic. Besides being used in the DON reactor exponential experience they were used in critic essays by the substitution method in the French reactor AQUILON II. (Author) 6 refs

  4. On Both Sides of the Atlantic: Re-Visioning Don Juan and Don Quixote in Modern Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Karen Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzes contemporary literature and film based on two of the most universal characters in Spanish literature, Don Juan and Don Quixote, in both Spain and Hispanic America. Although both characters have undergone re-visioning from work to work through the centuries, it is the aim of this work to present the most salient characteristics of both archetypes in modern times only. The focus of this study is on works by well-known writers from Hispanic America and contemporary writers in ...

  5. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.: Apache-plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Fallugia contains a single species - Apache-plume, F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. - found throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs mostly on coarse soils on benches and especially along washes and canyons in both warm and cool desert shrub communities and up into the pinyon-juniper vegetation type. It is a sprawling, much-...

  6. IDEA: An Interdisciplinary Unit Comparing "Don Quixote" to "Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an idea for teaching language through content-based instruction in which a high school Spanish class studying a shortened abridged version of Cervantes'"Don Quixote" and an English class reading Shakespeare's "Hamlet," did a simple comparative analysis of the two texts. (Author/VWL)

  7. Why Don't All Professors Use Computers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David Eli

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the adoption of computer technology at universities and examines reasons why some professors don't use computers. Topics discussed include computer applications, including artificial intelligence, social science research, statistical analysis, and cooperative research; appropriateness of the technology for the task; the Computer Aptitude…

  8. "Don Kihotõ" nazõvajut lutshshih / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2003-01-01

    Lõppenud festivali FIPRESCI auhinna sai türgi film "Kauge" ("Uzak") : režissöör Nuri Bilge Ceylan. Rahvusvaheline filmiklubide föderatsioon (FICC) andis oma auhinna Don Quijote Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmile "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije") ja eriauhinna hiinlase Chen Kaige filmile "Üheskoos" ("Han ni zai ylki")

  9. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  10. 77 FR 64973 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14367-001] Don W. Gilbert...: Original Minor License. b. Project No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W...(a)-825(r). (2006). h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro...

  11. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The Discoveries and Achievements of Modern Historiography of the Don Cossacks in the Second Half of the XIX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg E. Chuikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the current historiography of the Don Cossacks in the second half of the XIX century, there is described the traditional and the alternative concepts advanced by historians after 2000 year. The article analyses the main studies on this chronological period, their advantages and disadvantages. It is shown that many of the events and reforms are not sufficiently understood so far. The authors note that the increase in the number of specialists on Don history of 1860–1890 should be considered the major trend in the development of modern historiography of this period, and it is hoped that the range of the studied issues will only expand in the future, and the level and number of publications revealing new facts and offering new concepts will continue to grow.

  13. Simultaneous and rapid determination of deoxynivalenol and its acetylate derivatives in wheat flour and rice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Bai-Fen; Cai, Zeng-Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple and reliable method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detection has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in wheat flour and rice, especially focusing on the optimization of sample extraction, cleanup, and chromatographic separation conditions. Sample pretreatment consisted of a first step using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe based extraction procedure and a subsequent cleanup step based on solid-phase extraction. The method was extensively validated in wheat flour and rice, obtaining satisfactory analytical performance with good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.999), acceptable recoveries (80.0-104.4%), and repeatability (RSDs 1.3-10.7%). The limits of detection (21.7-57.4 μg/kg) and quantitation (72.3-191.4 μg/kg) for deoxynivalenols were lower than those usually permitted by various countries' legislation in these food matrices. The method was applied to 34 wheat and rice samples. The results were further compared with results of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in B-Genome Specific UDP-Glucosyl Transferases Associated with Fusarium Head Blight Resistance and Reduced Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Wheat Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pallavi; Gangola, Manu P; Huang, Chen; Kutcher, H Randy; Ganeshan, Seedhabadee; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2018-01-01

    An in vitro spike culture method was optimized to evaluate Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and used to screen a population of ethyl methane sulfonate treated spike culture-derived variants (SCDV). Of the 134 SCDV evaluated, the disease severity score of 47 of the variants was ≤30%. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) genes, TaUGT-2B, TaUGT-3B, and TaUGT-EST, differed between AC Nanda (an FHB-susceptible wheat variety) and Sumai-3 (an FHB-resistant wheat cultivar). SNP at 450 and 1,558 bp from the translation initiation site in TaUGT-2B and TaUGT-3B, respectively were negatively correlated with FHB severity in the SCDV population, whereas the SNP in TaUGT-EST was not associated with FHB severity. Fusarium graminearum strain M7-07-1 induced early expression of TaUGT-2B and TaUGT-3B in FHB-resistant SCDV lines, which were associated with deoxynivalenol accumulation and reduced FHB disease progression. At 8 days after inoculation, deoxynivalenol concentration varied from 767 ppm in FHB-resistant variants to 2,576 ppm in FHB-susceptible variants. The FHB-resistant SCDV identified can be used as new sources of FHB resistance in wheat improvement programs.

  15. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  16. CDC Vital Signs–Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  17. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.

  18. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... active ingredient, grapefruit can reduce the effectiveness of a drug or worse, create potentially dangerous drug levels in the body. Grapefruit can interfere with transporters ...

  19. To the Spanish Young People: Don Quixote Dreyfussard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramírez Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.

  20. Don Quixote an Celia: the desire to live other lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Fraga Fernández-Cuevas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the parallelisms between Don Quixote and Elena Fortun’s novels Celia. First, it enumerates the various activities that prove the author’s interest in Cervantes and his work, as well as the possible intervention of her mentor, Maria Martinez Sierra, in the genesis of the child’s character. Both novels, of dialogical nature, share an episodic structure articulated by a weak storyline. Its protagonists are animated by the desire to live the lives of the characters of their favorite readings. They confuse fantasy and reality causing situations whose results are almost always adverse. If Don Quixote dies back to the reason, so will Celia, the girl, with her entry into adulthood by resigning her fantasies, which will be taken up by new generations of children.

  1. Don Carlos: Variations of Tragic from Schiller to Verdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vittorini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1867 Giuseppe Verdi makes a grand opéra out of the dramatic poem Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien (1787 by Friedrich von Schiller. The workshop of Don Carlos lasts twenty years, from 1866 to 1886, when Verdi (reopens and closes several other workshops (Simon Boccanegra, La forza del destino, Aida, Requiem, Otello, creating a porous work in progress, whose analysis keeps giving us surprises. The libretto by Joseph Méry et Camille Du Locle, under the supervision of the composer, is a palimpsest where, under the official text referable to the common historical nucleus and its best known literary versions, some hidden or deleted heterogeneous texts appear, in a supranational, multilinguistic, intercultural and intertextual dimension, not always stirring along the road of a locatable derivation, of a voluntary imitation, but sometimes taking the shape of an unpredictable dissemination.

  2. Don Quijote in Nineteenth-Century English Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Garrido Ardila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to light a group of Cervantine English literary works hitherto unknown to present-day Cervantes studies: seven theatrical adaptations of Don Quixote (two anonymous ones in addition to those by Charles Dibdin, Joseph Moser, G. A. Macfarren, C. A. Maltby and P. Milton, a comedy with a Quixotic title (by George Dance, and five Quixotic fictions (two anonymous, in addition to those by Lily Spender, Maurice Hewlett and A. T. Quiller-Couch. Three of these plays, had been noted by Leopoldo Rius in 1899 (Moser, Macfarren, Maltby; the other four are presented for the first time here. In order to chart a fuller and more complete history of Don Quixote on the English stage, this article provides relevant information on those seven plays. An examination of these works reinforces the previous theses that underscore the essentially comical nature of Quixotic plays in nineteenth-century England, a fact of relevance in the study of the English reception of Don Quixote in the course of that century.

  3. Mineral characterisation of Don Pao rare earth deposit in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XuanBen, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Don Pao Rare Earth Deposit was discovered in 1959 in Phon Tho district, about 450km North-West of Hanoi capital. Geological work was conducted between 1959-95, resulting in 60 ore bodies of various sizes being identified. The ore bodies are irregularly shaped nests, lenses and veins hosted in the shear zone, at the margin of a Paeleogene aged syenite massif. The mineral composition of Don Pao Deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 50 minerals. Among them, basnaesite, parisite, fluorite and barite are the main constituent minerals of the ore. All the minerals were identified by the modern methods of mineralogical studies. Based on the constituent mineral ratios, four ore types have been distinguished in the deposit: 1. Rare earth ore containing over 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 2. Rare Earth-Barite ore containing 0.5 to 30 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 3. Rare Earth-Barite-Fluorite ore containing 1 to 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 4. Rare Earth bearing Fluorite ore containing 1 to 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . According to the benefication test, the ores in Don Pao can be enriched to a concentrate of 60 percent of RE 2 O 3 with a recover of 75 percent

  4. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... worse, create potentially dangerous drug levels in the body. Grapefruit can interfere with transporters in the intestine ... your digestive system. This can result in the body absorbing too much of the drug, which can ...

  5. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

  6. The myth of the warrior: martial masculinity and the end of Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsep, L Michael

    2013-01-01

    The image of the male warrior still dominates military culture, to the exclusion of women and homosexuals. Complicating the picture is a technological revolution that promises to widen the current gap between the myth and reality of the modern warrior even further. Nonetheless, despite long arguing that homosexuals were a direct threat to military culture and effectiveness, the Pentagon has largely treated the end of Don't Ask, Don't Tell as a policy matter. The difficulties still experienced by women in the armed services 40 years after they were first incorporated in significant numbers indicates that this response will be insufficient to address the deeper cultural issues. Gender issues implicate deeply held beliefs and values that persist even in the face of years of official admonishment and denial. Unless the military begins to transparently bridge the gap between the myth and reality of the modern warrior, military service without discrimination based on sexual orientation will remain an unachieved goal.

  7. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  8. Don't Tie Me Down!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Norma; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Authors provide guidelines for a program utilizing learning stations designed to motivate, stimulate, and guide affective and cognitive education at higher levels of thinking for academically gifted students. This approach to enrichment is defined, and the role of the teacher as facilitator is considered. (SBH)

  9. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to ... worse, create potentially dangerous drug levels in the body. Grapefruit can interfere with transporters in the intestine ...

  10. Don Quichotte, un don quichotte ? Déprogrammation d’un stéréotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuenca-Godbert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En réaction à la publication de la suite apocryphe de Don Quichotte de la Manche, Cervantès utilise dans sa seconde partie les ressorts narratifs de la stéréotypie littéraire pour montrer à quel point son personnage diffère de ce qu'en a fait Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuateur peu respectueux de sa personne et de son personnage. Le refus de voir en don Quichotte un simple stéréotype du chevalier errant chimérique est particulièrement manifeste dans la série d'aventures se déroulant au château des ducs, où don Quichotte, par sa renommée littéraire littéralement reconnue, est traité en chevalier par des personnages manipulateurs de situations, qui visent à produire chez lui des réactions programmées pour s’en amuser. Il apparaît alors que le simple agrégat d'ingrédients propres au stéréotype littéraire chevaleresque finit par ne pas produire l'issue escomptée.En la Segunda parte del Quijote, Cervantes reacciona ante la publicación de la de Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuador poco respetuoso con la persona del autor primigenio y su personaje. Recurriendo a los procedimientos narrativos de la estereotipia literaria deja bien claro qué diferente resulta ser el personaje original respecto al del continuador. La negativa de ver a don Quijote como un mero estereotipo del caballero andante loco se pone particularmente de manifiesto en la serie de aventuras que transcurren en el palacio de los duques. Allí, los personajes reconocen literalmente la fama literaria de don Quijote. Generan, desde situaciones ficticias, tipos de tratamiento que se dispensarían a un verdadero caballero andante. Como resultado, se desencadena una serie de reacciones programadas con las que pretenden divertirse. Sin embargo, queda claro que la mera acumulación de ingredientes propios del estereotipo literario caballeresco no produce el resultado esperado.

  11. Please Don't Make Me Draw!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    of manual rich picture practise into software proved dif?cult, we decided to follow a user-centered approach, design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated the design of our prototype...... on programmers' perspective on their practise. At a more general level we realized how modern object-oriented development methodologies, such as agile methods, are informed by design, and sometimes assume design skills that programmers do not have or do not value. An important lesson to consider carefully...

  12. Phase-change related epigenetic and physiological changes in Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    DNA methylation and polyamine levels were analysed before and after Pinus radiata D. Don. phase change in order to identify possible molecular and physiological phase markers. Juvenile individuals (without reproductive ability) were characterised by a degree of DNA methylation of 30-35% and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates greater than 1, while mature trees (with reproductive ability) had 60% 5-methylcytosine and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates of less than 1. Results obtained with trees that attained reproductive capacity during the experimental period confirmed that changes in the degree of DNA methylation and polyamine concentrations found among juvenile and mature states come about immediately after the phase change. We suggest that both indicators may be associated with the loss of morphogenic ability during ageing, particularly after phase change, through a number of molecular interactions, which are subsequently discussed.

  13. A Novel Source of DOC and DON to Watershed Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    A source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) to soils and groundwater is that emanating from decomposing mammals. Although there is an increase in human donor facilities (body farms) in the USA and in mass mortality events (MME) worldwide, this injection of DOC and DON into watershed soils has received little attention. Studies at two human donor facilities in Texas, USA have revealed that the purge fluid associated with decomposition is extremely high in DOC and DON and migrates down the soil profile. Two studies were carried out 1) The southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility on an Alfisol with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 331 mm hr-1 and 83% sand and 2) the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) on Mollisols with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 3.6-9.7 mm hr-1 and 28-33% sand. The numbers of days since donors were laid in the environment ranged from 219-680 d at STAFS and 306-960 d at FACTS. Purge can occur between 5 and 30 d dependent on the time of year the body is placed and the resultant phenomenon is termed cadaver decomposition island (CDI). Soil cores were taken at 5 cm increments to a depth of 30 cm in the sandy soil and 15 cm in the clayey/rocky soil. In the sandy soils, DOC concentrations were significantly higher in all the CDI soils when compared to control soils at depths of 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm and ranged from 121.7 µg g-1 (30 cm) to 167.6 µg g-1 (15 cm) in control soils and 461.9 µg g-1 (30 cm) to 660.4 µg g-1 (15 cm) in CDI soils, representing a three- to four-fold increase in DOC relative to control soils. DON in all CDI soils was not significantly higher than control soils until 30 cm depth and ranged from 9.9-32.3 µg g-1 in CDI soils and 121.7 µg g-1 in control soil, representing a two- to seven-fold increase in DON relative to control soils. DOC concentrations in control soils at the FARF site at 15 cm ranged 215-365 µg g-1 while in the CDI soils DOC was higher (range: 270

  14. Don Quijote en Brasil: de la mitología a las historietas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Almeida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una pequeña reflexión sobre el libro El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, de Miguel de Cervantes, publicada en 1605. Esta obra ha sido considerada como una de las mejores novelas de todos los tiempos. En ella podemos transitar de lo popular a lo erudito. Esta narrativa está llena de antítesis y metáforas barrocas que contienen desde los refranes populares hasta la erudición de los mitos griegos, así como de la locura y jocosidad de Don Quijote y también de la mediocridad y lucidez de Sancho Panza.

  15. Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduraru, D N; Nica, A; Carsote, M; Valea, A

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. This is a narrative review. Results. The "do's" for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) are the following: it represents the "gold standard" for secretor and non-secretor adrenal tumors and the first line therapy for CS with an improvement of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities; the success rate depending on the adequate patients' selection and the surgeon's skills. The "don'ts" are large (>6-8 centimeters), locally invasive, malignant tumors requiring open adrenalectomy (OA). Robotic adrenalectomy is a new alternative for LA, with similar safety and conversion rate and lower pain drugs use. The "don'ts" are the following: lack of randomized controlled studies including oncologic outcome, different availability at surgical centers. Related to the sub-types of CS, the "do's" are the following: adrenal adenomas which are cured by LA, while adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) requires adrenalectomy as first line therapy and adjuvant mitotane therapy; synchronous bilateral adrenalectomy (SBA) is useful for Cushing's disease (only cases refractory to pituitary targeted therapy), for ectopic Cushing's syndrome (cases with unknown or inoperable primary site), and for bilateral cortisol producing adenomas. The less established aspects are the following: criteria of skilled surgeon to approach ACC; the timing of surgery in subclinical CS; the need for adrenal vein catheterization (which is not available in many centers) to avoid unnecessary SBA. Conclusion. Adrenalectomy for CS is a dynamic domain; LA overstepped the former OA area. The future will improve the knowledge related to RA while the cutting edge is represented by a specific frame of intervention in SCS, children and pregnant women. Abbreviations: ACC = adrenocortical carcinoma, ACTH = Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, CD = Cushing's disease, CS

  16. Digitaalisen markkinointiviestinnän suunnittelu Facebookissa: Ravintola Don Corleone

    OpenAIRE

    Dondych, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää viestintäsuunnitelma ravintolalle Don Corleone digi-taalisesta markkinointiviestinnästä Facebookissa. Työn tarkoituksena oli tehostaa ravintolan mark-kinointiviestintää Facebookissa, mikä johtaisi asiakkaiden lisääntymiseen ja sitä kautta liiketoimin-nan kasvuun. Sosiaalisen median palveluista viestintäkanavaksi valittiin Facebook toimeksiantajan toiveesta sekä Facebookin suuren suosion ja soveltuvuuden vuoksi. Facebookissa on valmiiksi pal-jon eri...

  17. Aspectos literarios de la obra de don Joan de Castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available Capítulo XIV Voces castizas que no figuran en el diccionario de la academia (I Con el título de Dos mil quinientas voces castizas y bien autorizadas que piden lugar en nuestro léxico, publicó don Francisco Rodríguez Marín un interesante libro en Madrid, 1922. El erudito comentador del Quijote estudió cuidadosamente los autores españoles de los siglos XV, XVI y XVII.

  18. Signs of revision in Don Quixote, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pontón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides new evidences in favour of the hypothesis that Cervantes, after finishing Don Quixote, Part II, partially revised the original, introducing some significant changes and additions, mainly in the last chapters. The analysis of some narrative inconsistencies, that cannot be interpreted as mere mistakes but as significant textual traces, reveals a process of re-elaboration –a process that affects at least four sections of the novel. Most of the evidence gathered here suggests that this revision is closely linked to Avellaneda’s continuation, in the sense that Cervantes tried to challenge the apocriphal Quixote making last-time interventions in his own text.

  19. Don Favareau and the Road to Biosemiotic Transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Don Favareau has been a dynamic contributor to the development of biosemiotics its organization, not only with his seminal book: Essential Readings in Biosemiotic: Anthology and Commentary from 2010, where he edited all his colleagues’ writings creating the history of biosemiotics. He has assumed...... the role of the modest and benevolent interdisciplinary integrator through his pervasive kindness and openness to all serious initiatives. Always he is considering where a specific contribution could fit in to the overall development of biosemiotics and pondering how a change in the foundation of science...

  20. Don, Betty and Jackie Kennedy: On Mad Men and Periodisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that we watch Mad Men and think it represents a period? Flashes of patterned wallpaper, whiskey neat, babies born that are never mentioned, contact lining for kitchen drawers, Ayn Rand, polaroids, skinny ties, Hilton hotels, Walter Cronkite, and a time when Don Draper can ask ‘What do women want?’ and dry old Roger Sterling can reply ‘Who Cares?’ This essay explores the embrace of period detail in Mad Men finding it to be both loving and fetishistic, and belonging, like all period film, to the politics of the present.

  1. The Generation of 1898 and Cervantes : The invention of Don Quixote as a national symbol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.; Achiri, N.; Baraibar, A.; Schmelzer, F.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Don Quixote became a Spanish national symbol thanks to the authors the Generation of 1898, such as Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín and Francisco Navarra Ledesma, who published their new interpretations during the 1905 commemoration of the publication of Cervantes', The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of

  2. Le Don De Corps En Cote D\\'ivoire | Broalet | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Le don de corps qui permet de se procurer le matériel anatomique de dissection que constitue le cadavre humain n\\'existe pas en Afrique noire et notamment en Cote d\\' Ivoire. Objectif Recueillir des informations sur le don de corps à Abidjan. Méthode Les auteurs rapportent les informations recueillies au cours ...

  3. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  4. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14367-001] Don W. Gilbert... No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 2705, 2708.] h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and...

  5. Vivisection au ralenti: Don DeLillo’s Point Omega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda BONTILĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading a Don DeLillo is like walking on glass, that is, you need hold your breath so that nothing could deter you from focusing on the mission, if you want to keep safe and mostly sound. The writer’s latest novel, Point Omega (2010, is no exception in that its author engages once more in the exercise of stripping away all surfaces so as to let us see into the terror of what he calls “makeshift reality”—his characters’ and ours. The claims I advance and substantiate in the essay, refer to (1 how a fluid chronology sustained by framing devices adds to the understanding of the construct of a novel/film in progress; (2 how the shifting narrative perspective ensures a vivisectionist’s look into the body of life/death/world. Don DeLillo’s novel is another terrifying X-ray of war/life/death as agonizing nothingness which literature in its ‘late-phase’ is meant to cure.

  6. «Red Ritualism» in the Territory of Don Oblast in 1923-1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabunshchikova Liudmila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The birth, development and extinction peculiarities of the “Red Ritualism” (new traditions and rituals of Soviet Russia in the territory of Don Oblast in 1923–1924 are considered in this article on the basis of the regional periodicals of 1920. The Soviet Government was interested in new ritualism from the first revolution years till the beginning of 1930 and in the period of the Khrushchev Thaw (the end of the 1950 — the beginning of the 1960 . The article is devoted to the investigation of theses processes at the regional level in the first half-year of the 1920. The struggle with survives of time was on of the most evident areas of the anti-religious activity of the Goverment in the fi rst half-year of the 1920 th. After the company of church values confiscation the Government stroke an ideological blow at the way of life — they created “civil funeral”, “red marriage” and “octyabriny” (a name-day, the soviet ritual as an alternative of christening. In the Don region theses rituals appeared in 1923. “The red christening” was the most popular, “the civil funeral” was the least one. These processes were mostly spread in the cities and in a less degree in the villages. While in the whole country in 1925 the interest toward the “red ritualism” reached the peak, in the Donskaya oblast it was fading away. The author in this work uses the archive materials that were not published previously. The article will be useful for the specialists and other people interested in the given subject.

  7. Studies on phytosterol content of Parkia roxburgii G. Don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJADJAT TISNADJAJA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedawung (Parkia roxburgii G. Don. is one of plants that originally could be found in almost all parts of Java Island. Due to lack of attention, at present situation this plant could be categorized as an endangered species. This plant species distributed widely in Africa. In several African countries, this plant has an important position either as food resource or alternative medicine. In Indonesia, traditionally kedawung tree often use as medicine, especially as part of “jamu gendong” formulation. This work was focused on the study of phytosterol content and it distribution. The research result show that almost all parts of kedawung tree have a significant content of phytosterol, which is dominated by beta-sitosterol. The highest beta-sitosterol content was founded in the stem of leaf (35.24% (w/w and pod (29.67% (w/w.

  8. Don Giovanni Goes to Prison: Teaching Opera behind Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Polzonetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching opera in prison presents challenges, such as limits imposed on printed and recorded material to study it, or the audio-visual technology in the classroom space, yet, no other experience can be so inspiring and rewarding for everybody involved. This essay focuses on teaching opera, in particular Mozart’s Don Giovanni, to imprisoned students in America. It addresses pedagogical challenges on how to teach opera in prison and advocates for the need to leave the ivory tower of academia and engage in social action. If opera is still perceived as an elitist art form, it is because it is artificially kept that way by being practiced, taught, studied, and promoted only among an exclusive sector of our population.

  9. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  10. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  11. Mission Analysis for the Don Quijote Phase-A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Juan L.; Sanchez, Mariano; Cornara, Stefania; Carnelli, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The Don Quijote Phase-A study is a definition study funded by ESA and devoted to the analysis of the possibilities to deflect a Near Earth Object (NEO) in the range of 300-800 m diameter. DEIMOS Space S.L. and EADS Astrium have teamed up within this study to form one of the three consortia that have analyzed these aspects for ESA. Target asteroids for the mission are 1989 ML, 2002 AT4 and Apophis. This paper presents the mission analysis activities within the consortium providing: low-thrust interplanetary rendezvous Orbiter trajectories to the target asteroids, ballistic interplanetary trajectories for the Impactor, Orbiter arrival description at the asteroids, Orbiter stable orbits characterization at the asteroid, deflection determination by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) as well as the mission timelines and overall mission scenarios.

  12. Volatiles of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljković, Sanja Ćavar; Šolić, Marija Edita; Maksimović, Milka

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don is a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae. It is rich in oil that is used for different medicinal purposes and in fragrance industry. Volatile profile of four populations of H. italicum, collected from natural habitat in Dalmatia (Croatia), was analysed by capillary GC-MS. Sample from BraČ Island had α-trans-bergamotene (10.2%) and β-acoradiene (10.1%) as the majors, whereas sample collected on Biokovo Mt. was rich in neryl acetate (8.1%). β-Acoradiene was also the main constituent of sample collected near Tijarica, whereas rosifoliol (8.5%) was the most abundant constituent in sample collected near Makarska. Presented results show the influence of environmental conditions on chemical differentiation of the volatiles of H. italicum from Croatia.

  13. Scientific Communication for Positive Action: Do's and Don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquini, A.; Wood, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazard presentations often highlight disasters that may ensue from natural processes when mitigation or preparedness actions are not taken. Examples include images of raging fires, collapsed buildings, and flooded urban areas. Research has shown that this makes presentations more interesting and more memorable. Such images are the stock and trade of disaster reporting by the media. Unfortunately, it may also trigger avoidance and denial in the audience, resulting in preparedness reduction; the opposite effect of what may have been intended by the speaker. Recent social research has provided insight into a better approach. The theory of communicating actionable risk posits that people will take action against hazards when they know what to do, think it would work, and know someone who did it. This approach was recently applied in an intervention designed to motivate earthquake-resistant construction in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Social theory further suggests that a tendency towards action is strengthened by hearing a consistent message over time, and by providing the audience with an appropriate opportunity to seek out relevant information. This presentation shows how, by taking this transdisciplinary step, scientists can make small changes in their hazard communication, thereby acting as positive influencers of change. A summary of "do's" and "don'ts" is given for reference. 1. Show examples of what to do. 2. Show effectiveness of actions. 3. Give sense of knowing someone who did it. 4. Deliver consistent message, repeatedly. 5. Give opportunity for more information. DON'T: 1. Make the disaster the star. 2. Contradict other communications.

  14. Proteomic profiling of proteins associated with the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Ting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration of rooting competence is important for rejuvenation in Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl and is achieved by repeatedly grafting Sequoia shoots after 16 and 30 years of cultivation in vitro. Results Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis revealed three proteins that differentially accumulated in different rejuvenation stages, including oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2, glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (RNP, and a thaumatin-like protein. OEE2 was found to be phosphorylated and a phosphopeptide (YEDNFDGNSNVSVMVpTPpTDK was identified. Specifically, the protein levels of OEE2 increased as a result of grafting and displayed a higher abundance in plants during the juvenile and rejuvenated stages. Additionally, SsOEE2 displayed the highest expression levels in Sequoia shoots during the juvenile stage and less expression during the adult stage. The expression levels also steadily increased during grafting. Conclusion Our results indicate a positive correlation between the gene and protein expression patterns of SsOEE2 and the rejuvenation process, suggesting that this gene is involved in the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens.

  15. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2014-01-01

    a number of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter transcripts were highly frequent in the ZEA-induced library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis predicted that all transcripts with similarity to ABC transporters could be ascribed to only 2 ABC transporters genes, and phylogenetic analysis...... of the predicted ABC transporters suggested that they belong to group G (pleiotropic drug transporters) of the fungal ABC transporter gene family. This is the first report suggesting involvement of ABC transporters in ZEA tolerance. Expression patterns of a selected set of DON- and ZEA-induced genes were validated...... and ZEA in the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea. Whilst metabolic readjustment is potentially the key to withstanding DON, the fungus produces ZHD101 to detoxify ZEA and ABC transporters to transport ZEA or its degradation products out from the fungal cell....

  16. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation: Genome sequencing and secondary metabolite cluster profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzini, Juan M; Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Chulze, Sofía N

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions. The genome sequencing allowed us to accurately determine the taxonomy of the strain using a phylogenomic approach, which places it in the Bacillus velezensis clade. In addition, the draft genome allowed us to use bioinformatics to mine the genome for potential metabolites. The genome mining allowed us to identify 9 active secondary metabolites conserved by all B. velezensis strains and one additional secondary metabolite, the lantibiotic ericin, which is unique to this strain. This study represents the first confirmed production of ericin by a B. velezensis strain. The genome also allowed us to do a comparative genomics with its closest relatives and compare the secondary metabolite production of the publically available B. velezensis genomes. The results showed that the diversity in secondary metabolites of strains in the B. velezensis clade is driven by strains making different antibacterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Gibberella ear rot of maize (Zea mays) in Nepal: distribution of the mycotoxins nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in naturally and experimentally infected maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Anne E; Busman, Mark; Manandhar, Gyanu; Jarosz, Andrew M; Manandhar, Hira K; Proctor, Robert H

    2008-07-09

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage Gibberella zeae) causes ear rot of maize (Zea mays) and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol (1) or 4-deoxynivalenol (2), depending on diversity of the fungal population for the 4-oxygenase gene (TRI13). To determine the importance of 1 and 2 in maize ear rot, a survey of naturally contaminated maize in Nepal was combined with experiments in the field and in a plant growth room. In the survey, 1 contamination was 4-fold more frequent than 2 contamination and 1-producers (TRI13) were isolated more than twice as frequently as 2-producers (Psi TRI13). In maize ear rot experiments, genetically diverse 1-producers and 2-producers caused ear rot and trichothecene contamination. Among strains with the same genetic background, however, 1-producers caused less ear rot and trichothecene contamination than did 2-producers. The high frequency of 1 contamination and the high virulence of many 1-producers are of concern because maize is a staple food of rural populations in Nepal and because 1 has proven to be more toxic than 2 to animals.

  18. Don Bates: the medical historian as educator, activist, and historian of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George

    2009-01-01

    The author outlines the academic and extra-academic career of Don Bates as a physician-historian, political activist, and creator of the interdisciplinary Department of Social Studies of Medicine at McGill University.

  19. Don't make me think: a common sense approach to Web usability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krug, Steve

    2006-01-01

    .... To ensure that your sites provide that experience, this guide from usability guru Krug distills his years of on-the-job experience into a practical primer on the do's and don'ts of good Web design...

  20. Have a Baby or Young Child With a Cold? Most Don't Need Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Most Young Children With a Cough or Cold Don' ... cold? It depends on the child’s age. Although most colds in children don’t have serious complications, ...

  1. ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????-??-???? // Advantages and disadvantages of franchise business opportunities in Rostov-on-don

    OpenAIRE

    Bugayan, S.A.; Filimonenko, I.

    2013-01-01

    ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????-??-???? ?? ??????? ????????? ????, ????????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????. In this article are considered main cons and pros of franchise business opportunities in Rostov-on-Don, using different businesses as an example,efficiency of this type of business and its future possibilities.

  2. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: A Costly and Wasteful Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    quietly decriminalized homosexuality in a sex crimes reform bill. In 1992, a set of “Basic Laws” similar to the US Bill of Rights was passed which...United States with representative samples from different races, sexes , social and education levels, ages from three to ninety, and various religions...in military efficacy, as it would in the efficacy of any group of people working together toward a common goal. Certainly, one would think, if

  3. Buy, don't build -- What does that mean for a software developer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, T.; Rahi, M.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-01-01

    The buzz phrase of the 1990's for the petroleum software industry has become ''buy, don't build.'' For an end user in an oil company, this generally means acquiring application software rather than developing it internally. The concept of buy, don't build can also apply for a software developer. Purchasing software toolkit components can expedite the development of an application as well as reduce future support requirements

  4. Mixing regime as a key factor to determine DON formation in drinking water biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changqing; Li, Shuai; Gong, Song; Yuan, Shoujun; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can act as precursor of nitrogenous disinfection by-products formed during chlorination disinfection. The performances of biological fluidized bed (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and bio-ceramic filters (plug flow reactor, PFR) were compared in this study to investigate the influence of mixing regime on DON formation in drinking water treatment. In the shared influent, DON ranged from 0.71mgL(-1) to 1.20mgL(-1). The two biological fluidized bed reactors, named BFB1 (mechanical stirring) and BFB2 (air agitation), contained 0.12 and 0.19mgL(-1) DON in their effluents, respectively. Meanwhile, the bio-ceramic reactors, labeled as BCF1 (no aeration) and BCF2 (with aeration), had 1.02 and 0.81mgL(-1) DON in their effluents, respectively. Comparative results showed that the CSTR mixing regime significantly reduced DON formation. This particular reduction was further investigated in this study. The viable/total microbial biomass was determined with propidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) and qPCR, respectively. The results of the investigation demonstrated that the microbes in BFB2 had higher viability than those in BCF2. The viable bacteria decreased more sharply than the total bacteria along the media depth in BCF2, and DON in BCF2 accumulated in the deeper media. These phenomena suggested that mixing regime determined DON formation by influencing the distribution of viable, total biomass, and ratio of viable biomass to total biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Science 101: Why Don't Spiders Stick to Their Own Webs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article explains why spiders don't stick to their webs. Spiders don't get stuck in their own webs (and they aren't immune to their own glue) because they use a combination of sticky and nonsticky threads (different glands for producing those), and the glue is in droplets that the spider can avoid but the prey can't. The spider's nervous…

  6. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors.

  7. Fuel elements assembling for the DON project exponential experience; Montaje de los elementos combustibles para la experiencia exponencial del proyecto DON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anca Abati, R de

    1966-07-01

    It is described the fuel unit used in the DON exponential experience, the manufacturing installments and tools as well as the stages in the fabrication.These 74 elements contain each 19 cartridges loaded with synterized urania, uranium carbide and indium, gold, and manganese probes. They were arranged in calandria-like tubes and the process-tube. This last one containing a cooling liquid simulating the reactor organic. Besides being used in the DON reactor exponential experience they were used in critic essays by the substitution method in the French reactor AQUILON II. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) losses from nested artificially drained lowland catchments with contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Kahle, Petra; Lennartz, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Artificial drainage is a common practice to improve moisture and aeration conditions of agricultural land. It shortens the residence time of water in the soil and may therefore contribute to the degradation of peatlands as well as to the still elevated level of diffuse pollution of surface water bodies, particularly if flow anomalies like preferential flow cause a further acceleration of water and solute fluxes. Especially in the case of nitrate, artificially drained sub-catchments are found to control the catchment-scale nitrate losses. However, it is frequently found that nitrate losses and nitrogen field balances do not match. At the same time, organic fertilizers are commonly applied and, especially in lowland catchments, organic soils have been drained for agricultural use. Thus, the question arises whether dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms an important component of the nitrogen losses from artificially drained catchments. However, in contrast to nitrate and even to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), this component is frequently overlooked, especially in nested catchment studies with different soil types and variable land use. Here, we will present data from a hierarchical water quantity and quality measurement programme in the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). The monitoring programme in the pleistocene lowland catchment comprises automatic sampling stations at a collector drain outlet (4.2 ha catchment), at a ditch draining arable land on mineral soils (179 ha), at a ditch mainly draining grassland on organic soils (85 ha) and at a brook with a small rural catchment (15.5 km²) of mixed land use and soil types. At all sampling stations, daily to weekly composite samples were taken, while the discharge and the meteorological data were recorded continuously. Water samples were analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen and total nitrogen. We will compare two years: 2006/07 was a very wet year (P = 934 mm) with a high summer

  9. Authority as paradox: the transformations of Don Quijote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Beatriz

    2006-12-01

    The author's contention is that the analysand's temporary attribution of authority to the analyst is inherent in the analytic situation; this is seen as a transitional and paradoxical form of authority pertaining neither to internal nor external reality, but dwelling in the analytic third. The author proposes a conceptualization of psychoanalytic authority as a form of aesthetic authority according to Gadamer's definitions. While the scientific and hermeneutic codes for the understanding of authority in psychoanalysis assume that the main issue at stake is the delimitation of the objectivity or the subjectivity of the analyst's knowledge, this aesthetic perspective centres on the analysand's attribution of a claim of truth to analytic interpretations, and on the experience of recognition. The experience of recognition of a possible truth is particular and context-bound, as well as self-transformational. A reading of three episodes from Cervantes's The history of Don Quixote de la Mancha illuminates the transitional and paradoxical character of aesthetic authority within a transformational dialogue. These episodes are read as dramatizations of different positions vis-à-vis the paradoxical authority that characterizes transformational dialogues.

  10. Simulating and Simulated Characters, Entangled in Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Pérez de León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the keys for understanding the ruling universe is the nature of the interconnected duality that governs it. It is neither completely monistic, neither absolutely nihilistic, according to the principle of the Platonic symploke (the Sophist 251, 255. The validity of the entanglement between “not everything are monisms” and the fact that reality is not completely “nihilist” will be used as a logic tool to understand the alternation in the understanding of the conclusions of the existences of several of the protagonists of the Quixote. On the one hand, it is the strange case of the suicidal shepherd Grisóstomo, in desperation for his loved Marcela, which is studied in the context of a similar case, the death of Anselmo in The Tale of Ill-advised Curiosity. On the other hand it is the case of the exemplary archetypical death of Don Quixote and his revival in Alonso Quijano “the good”, which presents a similar case of (misunderstanding of the symploke principle. In conclusion, the ontological tragedy arising from not understanding or questioning the Platonic principle of the symploke will contribute to explain the attachment, identification, and nature of the entanglement between reality and fiction in selected cervantine characters. This will be achieved by focusing in both their self-awareness as creative beings and their more or less voluntary inclusion in, or exclusion from, their own simulated realities.

  11. You Don't Look Like a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antonio Carlos Fontes

    2017-12-01

    "You don't look like a physicist!" "Sorry, this bus only goes to the university, Sir." "Where are you going, sir?" "So, you are a university professor? But a substitute one, aren't you?" "OK, you're a professor, but do you do research?" As a person of color teaching physics in Brazil, those are some comments that I usually hear. They are consequences of stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination, which are related but different ideas. Stereotypes indicate expectations and beliefs about an individual or a group, prejudice denotes feelings, and discrimination expresses behaviors. People are likely to be astonished whenever a Black person says that he or she is a physicist. This paper aims to raise awareness of the underrepresentation of Black physics professors and researchers in Brazil and how the lack of quality high school physics education impacts Black and poor students in Brazil. Finally, some considerations on how physics education can assist minority students in overcoming social barriers that contribute to their underrepresentation are presented.

  12. Hombres. Don Tomás Rueda Vargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletin Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Quince años hizo el 25 de julio que desapareció de entre nosotros don Tomás Rueda Vargas. Su nombre, ejemplar por muchos conceptos, viene siempre nimbado de las virtudes cardinales que conformaron su tarea y su vida. Escritor nato,  sabía manejar el idioma con singular pericia sin caer en  rebuscamientos  ni  en  gongorismos. Su  pensamiento era diáfano por  lo cual no se  perdía en  el laberinto de  las palabras.   Apenas éstas eran  el dócil  instrumento para su dialéctica, para ese  generoso razo­  namiento intelectual que constituía el  Alfa  y el Omega   de  su diario batallar.

  13. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs. © FASEB.

  14. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  15. The Authors of the Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Kalenić Ramšak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Even today literary criticism still considers the novel Don Quixote the first modern European novel because it fundamentally changes both the concept of literary creation and the findings regarding literary reception. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published the first part of his chivalric novel in 1605 in Madrid with the title El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha. He published the second part, titled El ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha, ten years later (i.e., in 1615, again in Madrid. Why did Cervantes change the title in the second part of his novel and thus transform Don Quixote the hidalgo ‘nobleman’ into Don Quixote the caballero ‘knight, nobleman, horseman’? In Spanish literature of Cervantes’ time, writers often borrowed texts from one another, wrote sequels to them, and reworked them into humorous poems, jocular one-act plays, or unusual parodies. The Baroque concept of imitation was not understood as plagiarism, but rather as a positive approach to creativity. One of Cervantes’ most enthusiastic imitators was Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. He hated Cervantes, but loved Don Quixote so much that he wrote a sequel to it in the form of a chivalric novel. In 1614, Avellaneda published his novel titled Segundo tomo del ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (The Second Part of the Ingenious Hidalgo of La Mancha in Tarragona. Who is hidden behind the name Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda? To date, literary history has not been able to establish with certainty who the author of this “second part” was; this work represents the greatest literary mystery of all time in Spanish literature. In the 1960s a theory developed among Cervantes experts that for now seems to be the most convincing in determining Avellaneda’s true identity. In his article “ El Quijote y los libros” (Don Quixote and Books of 1969, Martín de Riquer presented the first well-founded hypothesis claiming that the writer Alonso Fern

  16. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) profile during backwashing cycle of drinking water biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Gu, Li; Yu, Xin; Yu, Guozhong; Zhang, Huining; Xu, Jinli

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation was made in this study on the variation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) during a whole backwashing cycle of the biofiltration for drinking water treatment. In such a cycle, the normalized DON concentration (C(effluent)/C(influent)) was decreased from 0.98 to 0.90 in the first 1.5h, and then gradually increased to about 1.5 in the following 8h. Finally, it remained stable until the end of this 24-hour cycle. This clearly 3-stage profile of DON could be explained by three aspects as follows: (1) the impact of the backwashing on the biomass and the microbial activity; (2) the release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during the biofiltration; (3) the competition between heterotrophic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria. All the facts supported that more DON was generated during later part of the backwashing cycle. The significance of the conclusion is that the shorter backwashing intervals between backwashing for the drinking water biofilter should further decrease the DON concentration in effluent of biofilter. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumption as Sign in Don DeLillo’s Cosmopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyede Fateme Mirbabazade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the foremost American postmodern authors, Don DeLillo tends to focus on construction of postmodern subject’s consciousness through media, technology and consumption. Nevertheless, despite many affinities between Baudrillard and DeLillo, many researches which have been done on his works have failed to theoretically analyze them from Baudrillardian perspective. Although there is affinity between Baudrillard and DeLillo, there is dissimilarity as well. While Baudrillard believes that that there is no escape for individual from the ideology of the system, DeLillo claims that there is hope for change and revolution for the individuals by their action in society, particularly by the means of art, to be more  than a cog in the machine of ideology of system. Baudrillard, as one of the most influential postmodern theorists, defines consumption as organized control of sign and one of the many ways any subject is assimilated in any given society. For Baudrillard the logic of consumption is based on social differentiation. By the logic of social differentiation, individuals distinguish themselves and obtain social prestige and standing through the purchase and use of consumer goods. In his theorization about the concept of need and value, Baudrillard finds Marx’s logics of use value (utility and functionality and exchange value (economic value inadequate to include the whole function of an object and adds the logic of sign value. Baudrillard asserts that in consumption economic exchange value (money is transformed into sign exchange value (prestige, etc.; yet this functioning is maintained by the use value. The only way out of this dilemma, Baudrillard claims, is to return to symbolic exchange which is neither a conception nor an agency, but an act of exchange and a social relation and the only approach to real human communication and understanding. Therefore this research attempts to highlights those affinities in DeLillo’s first post-9

  18. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish S Zalke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

  19. Empathy Levels of University Students Who Do and Not Do Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Tülin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the empathy levels of university students who do sports and who don't do sports in terms of different variables. For this purpose, 200 Sports Faculty students who do sports at least four days a week for two hours and 200 students from other faculties who don't do sports participated in the study. In the…

  20. Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    During combine harvesting of 5 various cereal crops (rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, corn) 24 samples of grain and 24 samples of settled grain dust were collected on farms located in the Lublin province of eastern Poland. The samples were examined for the concentration of total microfungi, Fusarium species, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and ochratoxin A (OTA). Microfungi able to grow on malt agar were present in 79.2% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 1.0-801.3x10(3) cfu/g and 1.5-12440.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. The concentration of microfungi in grain dust samples was significantly greater than in grain samples (pgrain samples and from 58.3% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.1-375.0x10(3) cfu/g and 4.0-7,700.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. They were found in all samples of grain and grain dust from rye, barley and corn, but only in 0-16.7% of samples of grain and grain dust from oats and buckwheat. DON was found in 79.2% of grain samples and in 100% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.001-0.18 microg/g and 0.006-0.283 microg/g, respectively. NIV was detected in 62.5% of grain samples and in 94.4% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.004-0.502 microg/g and 0.005-0.339 microg/g, respectively. OTA was detected in 58.3% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.00039- 0.00195 microg/g and 0.00036-0.00285 microg/g, respectively. The concentrations of DON, total fusariotoxins (DON+NIV) and OTA were significantly greater in grain dust samples than in grain samples (pgrain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentrations of DON (pgrain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentration of total fusariotoxins (pgrain dust collected from 5 various cereals on farms in eastern Poland was not large, the persistent presence of these mycotoxins in over 90% of examined samples poses a potential health risk of chronic respiratory

  1. Don Quijote: de la prosa cervantina al teatro contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazi, Veronica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of six of the most recent and outstanding dramatisations (1999-2015 of Cervantes’s Don Quijote, such as Aventuras de Don Quijote, DQ. Don Quijote en Barcelona, El caballero de la triste figura, En un lugar de Manhattan, Elogio de la locura and En un lugar del Quijote. The analysis covers the main features of such adaptations: metanarration, metadrama, doubling of the narrative structure using other artistic languages (music, plastic arts, dance, etc., new technologies, genre hybridisation, transmediality, etc. The original text message, actualised and re-expressed by these modernisations, stands out as an atemporal one: the plays examined demonstrate its effectiveness in contemporary society and, according to the perspective of social theater, stimulate the reflection on them.

  2. Pemodelan Enterprise Architecture Sistem Informasi Akademik SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang Dengan Framework Zachman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alfonsa Chintia Dea Prananingrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang belum dapat memanfaatkan teknologi komputer secara optimal karena masih menggunakan cara manual dalam pengelolaan berbagai macam data akademik sehingga memberikan masalah seperti lambatnya dalam pembuatan laporan yang menyulitkan kepala sekolah dalam pengambilan keputusan. Oleh sebab itu, SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang membutuhkan Sistem Informasi Akademik untuk memberikan kemudahan dalam mengelola berbagai macam data akademik secara terintegrasi serta memberikan layanan yang lebih baik kepada siswanya. Sebuah model architecture enterprise Sistem Informasi Akademik dibutuhkan agar meminimalisir kegagalan ketika menerapkan sistem tersebut sekaligus dapat berjalan sesuai kebutuhan di SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang. Metode analisis dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Framework Zachman yang memberikan pondasi dalam membantu menyediakan struktur dasar organisasi sehingga dapat mendukung perancangan dan pengembangan sistem informasi suatu organisasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa blueprint (cetak biru pemodelan Sistem Informasi Akademik. Kata kunci— sistem informasi akademik, architecture enterprise, framework zachman, bluprint

  3. Don Quixote and Roque Guinart against the way of life of the influential people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Roger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The apocryphal Second part of don Quixote altered many of the purposes of Cervantes. He changed the destination of his hero. As observed by don Quixote when visiting a printinghouse, its publication took place in Barcelona. The author gave prominence to a town as in picaresque novels. However, he did not modify his attitude towards the behaviour of the influential people, in keeping with Erasmus’ concept of stupidity. Surely, Cervantes reaffirmed his approach to the golden age through the presence of Roque Guinart, the only historical character who appears in the novel. This paper examines how the influential people behave in front of don Quixote, and how his performance is similar to that of Roque Guinart.

  4. The creator of the term 'anancasm' was Hungarian: Guyla Donáth (1849-1944).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Holger

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable confusion in the field of research on the history of psychiatry as to who created the term anancasm. This article seeks to clarify that the term was coined by the Hungarian psychiatrist Gyula Donáth, who was born in Baja, on the Danube, and worked mainly in Budapest. Donáth's publications reveal that his predominant sphere of interest and research was neurology and psychiatry. A number of his publications deal with epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorders. After a period of intensive research, during which he spent some time in Berlin at the clinic of neuroscientist Carl Westphal, Donáth proposed the term 'anancasm' in 1895 to describe compulsive mental processes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of genetic toxicity of 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rohan M; Dakoulas, Emily W; Miller, Ken E; Terse, Pramod S

    2017-09-01

    DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine), a glutamine antagonist, was demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer properties. The study was performed to characterize its in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity potential. DON was tested in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) and Escherichia coli tester strain (WP2 uvrA) with and without S9 and also with reductive S9. In addition, DON was tested for the chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with or without S9 to evaluate the clastogenic potential. Furthermore, DON was also evaluated for its in vivo clastogenic activity by detecting micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) cells in bone marrow collected from the male mice dosed intravenously with 500, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg at 24 and 48-h post-dose. The Ames mutagenicity assay showed no positive mutagenic responses. However, the in vitro chromosome aberration assay demonstrated dose dependent statistically positive increase in structural aberrations at 4 and 20-h exposure without S9 and also at 4-h exposure with S9. The in vivo micronucleus assay also revealed a statistically positive response for micronucleus formation at 500, 100 and 10 mg/kg at 24 and 48-h post-dose. Thus, DON appears to be negative in the Ames test but positive in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay and in the in vivo micronucleus assay. In conclusion, the results indicate DON is a genotoxic compound with a plausible epigenetic mechanism.

  6. RICKETS AT THE MEDICI COURT OF FLORENCE: THE CASE OF DON FILIPPINO (1577-1582).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Maura; Giuffra, Valentina; Fattori, Silvia; Vitiello, Angelica; Caramella, Davide; Giustini, Davide; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Among the children found in the crypt of the Grand Duke Giangastone in S. Lorenzo Basilica (Florence), the skeletal remains of a 5-year-old child still wearing his fine high social status clothing were recovered. This child of the Medici family was identified as Don Filippino (1577-1582), son of the Grand Duke Francesco I (1541-1587) and Giovanna from Austria (1547 - 1578). The prince showed several pathological deformities of the cranial and post-cranial skeleton, including enlargement of the cranium, thinning of the cranial vault bones (craniotabes), platybasia and marked bending of femora, tibiae and fibulae. Differential diagnosis suggests that Don Filippino was affected by rickets. The occurrence of this metabolic disease related to vitamin D deficiency in a Renaissance high social class individual can be explained by the practice of very prolonged breast-feeding, up until two years of age. Maternal milk contains insufficient vitamin D ratios and retarded weaning severely exposes children to a higher risk of developing rickets, especially if dietary habits are combined with inadequate exposure to sunlight. Historical sources describe Don Filippino as frail and sickly, with frequent illnesses and persistent slight fevers, and it can be supposed that the child was frequently confined indoors, especially in the cold season. Integration of osteoarchaeological evidence with historical documentation suggests that bone lesions observed in the skeletal remains of Don Filippino are compatible with a diagnosis of rickets, caused by the custom of prolonged breast-feeding associated with inadequate sunlight exposure to sunlight. Historical sources describe Don Filippino as frail and sickly, with frequent illnesses and persistent slight fevers, and it can be supposed that the child was frequently confined indoors, especially in the cold season. Integration of osteoarchaeological evidence with historical documentation suggests that bone lesions observed in the skeletal

  7. La reciprocidad y el don no son la misma cosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gabriel Abduca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El autor se propone mostrar por qué la noción de reciprocidad, aunque ha sido muchas veces tomada como sinónimo del fenómeno de intercambios de dones, corresponde a diversas situaciones sociales, por lo cual tiene poca utilidad descriptiva y explicativa. Examina algunos hitos de la historia antropológica, mostrando que más que un concepto, 'reciprocidad' es un palimpsesto sobre el cual, de Durkheim a Polanyi, se han ido escribiendo variadas nociones. En cambio, sugiere una definición de don más estricta, cercana a las ideas de Mauss y acorde con los avances de la etnografía y la teoría contemporánea. Sugiere distinguir entre circuitos cerrados de dones, donde circulan bienes de consumo final, y circuitos abiertos, donde los dones que circulan condensan el conjunto de las relaciones sociales.O objetivo deste texto é mostrar que a expressão 'reciprocidade', ainda foi considerada como sinônimo de 'câmbio de domes', é outra coisa. O autor sugere um breve esquema de alguns marcos do desenvolvimento da noção de 'reciprocidade' em a teoria antropológica, mostrando que o sentido dela expressão foi mudando até assemelhar um palimpsesto com múltiplas rescritas, no processo que vá de Durkheim a Polanyi. Defende um conceito de dom próximo às idéias de Mauss e a certos avances dela etnografia contemporânea e a teoria social. Distingue deus tipos de circuitos de circulação de domes: fechados, onde circulam bens de consumação direita, e apertos, onde circulam certo tipo de bens que condensam o conjunto das relações sociais.The aim of this text is to show how the notion of 'reciprocity', although have been considered a synonymous of gift exchange, veils different social situations. A brief survey of the history of the use of the word shows how 'reciprocity', from Durkheim to Polanyi, seems as a palimpsest of various notions. Although, he essays a defense of a concept of 'gift' related to the Maussian texts, and closer to some

  8. Un curioso coleccionista del siglo XVII: don Manuel de Porras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agulló y Cobo, Mercedes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Art collecting - an avocation almost exclusive to royalty in Spain - has not had representatives among those who did not belong to the high nobility, not even among artists themselves. In many cases, the word "collection" has been applied to what in reality were mere lists of patrimonial properties. For all of the above, it is especially noteworthy to encounter someone who neither belonged to an elevated class nor was a painter, but who managed to unite, at great personal sacrifice, an important art collection. Manuel de Porras owned interesting and a relatively large number of paintings, sculptures and prints, some of them extremely valuable. As a good collector, in order to avoid the dispersion of these works, he donated them to the Shod Trinitarians in Madrid and the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri in Alcalá, but unfortunately, in spite of his good intentions, nothing has survived.

    El coleccionismo —afición casi exclusiva de Reyes en España— no ha tenido representantes entre personas que no pertenecieran a la alta nobleza, ni entre los propios artistas. En muchos casos lo que se ha venido llamando colecciones son sólo relación de bienes patrimoniales. Por ello, resulta más llamativo encontrar alguien que, sin pertenecer a una clase elevada ni ser artista, lograra reunir —aun a costa de grandes sacrificios que le llevaron al extremo de ser enterrado de limosna— una tan importante colección de obras de arte como el personaje objeto de este artículo: Manuel de Porras, quien contaba con un interesante y elevado (para un particular sin títulos número de pinturas y esculturas, y un importantísimo número de dibujos y estampas, algunas valiosísimas y de alto precio. Desgraciadamente, aunque lo donó —como buen coleccionista, para evitar su dispersión— a los Trinitarios calzados de Madrid y al Oratorio de San Felipe Neri de Alcalá, nada de ello ha llegado a nuestros días.

  9. Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Naustvoll, L-J

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect food and feed safety, including the occurrence of natural toxins in primary crop and seafood production; however, to date, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the impact of climate change effects on mycotoxin contamination of cereal...... on food safety hazards, rather than median or average values only. Furthermore, it is recommended to closely monitor levels of mycotoxins and marine biotoxins in the future, in particular related to risky situations associated with favourable climatic conditions for toxin producing organisms...

  10. The I Don't Know Option in the Vocabulary Size Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluates guessing behaviors in a vocabulary size test (VST) and examines whether including an "I don't know" in a VST may have an impact on the results of the test. One-hundred-fifty first-year students at a university in China took part in the study. They were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group took a…

  11. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    .... Date and Time of Meeting: Tuesday, April 17, 2012. 9 a.m.-5 p.m. b. Place: Holiday Inn, Sacramento-Capitol Plaza, 300 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, 916-446-0100. c. FERC Contact: Stephen Bowler, Don... technical conference would be an all day meeting in Sacramento, California on April 17, 2012. The notice...

  12. Tiffany Diamonds and Classical Music as Influences on the Performance of "Don Juan in Hell".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jim

    This paper analyzes Paul Gregory's 1951 production of "Don Juan in Hell," now considered to be a seminal work in the development of professional and educational readers theatre. The paper contends that the production, which presented a nondramatic work without the usual emphasis on design and spectacle, forced a reexamination of the role…

  13. Spendere meno, spendere meglio: una proposta panottica di J.-C. Guédon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available J.-C. Guédon ha commentato la nostra campagna di crowdsourcing in merito alle spese delle biblioteche sulla mailing list Nexa. Offriamo, qui di seguito, la versione italiana delle sue osservazioni – che presuppongono un mondo accademico molto diverso da quello impostoci...

  14. Dr. S. Donald (Don) Stookey (1915-2014): Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George H.

    2016-07-01

    Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform and Fotoceram, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics, which was contested and affirmed in court. Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass, capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass. In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even in his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes. Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Introduction

  15. What Catholic Educators Can Learn from the Radical Christianity and Critical Pedagogy of Don Lorenzo Milani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Michael; Mayo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores some of the ideas expressed in or associated with the work of Don Lorenzo Milani and the School of Barbiana and discusses them in the light of the teachings of the gospels. It draws out the implications of these ideas for a critical education in the Christian spirit. The focus throughout is on Christian education for social…

  16. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  17. DON JUAN: THE DISCOURSE OF SEDUCTION AS AN EXERCISE OF POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Stankevičiūtė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The figure of Don Juan that emerged in Spanish baroque synthesised several important cultural issues related to the phenomenon of seduction, a subject of great social controversy since the very beginning of the Christian era. The present article analyses one of the fundamental parts of the universal appeal of the Don Juan figure – the discourse of seduction, considering it from the social and cultural point of view. The traditional discussion of the subject focuses on the contents of the discourse whereas the present article emphasises the implications rather than the contents, grounding its arguments on Jean Baudrillard’s theory of seduction, which claims that it is the signs and the play of signs that are important in seduction, not their meanings. The seduction discourse is seen as a means to exercise power on the women that Don Juan deals with as well as on the audience who gets involved into the discourse creation process. The article concludes with a claim that Don Juan is a figure of social domination, and his discourse is a means to achieve it.

  18. Why I don't kill myself : [poems] / Paul-Eerik Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Paul-Eerik, 1942-

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 262. Sisu: Why I don't kill myself ; The sky stoops over the earth ; Clinging ; Crooning. Orig.: Miks ma end ära ei tapa ; "Taevas on kummargil üle maa..." ; Kinni hoidmas ; Poolüminal

  19. Dr. S. Donald (Don Stookey: (1915-2014: Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite®, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform® and Fotoceram®, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram™ products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics which was contested and affirmed in court.Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass.In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even In his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario, and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes.

  20. Birds of a Feather Don't Always Flock Together : User Problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds of a Feather Don't Always Flock Together : User Problems in Identifying ... for Advanced Learners and Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary) revealed a lack ... This paper is based on 14 of these phrasemes, which appear in one or more of ... Five strategies are presented to help learners with their dictionary searches.

  1. Il don giovanni tenorio di carlo goldoni. Alle origini di un mito moderno

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By transforming the protagonist's religious impiety into sexual incontinence, Goldoni draws a link between Molière's drama (1665) and the version set to music by Mozart in 1787. An analysis of the text with a focus on the reception and adaptation by Goldoni of the early plays reveals the centrality of his Don Giovanni in the ...

  2. "Boys Don't Cry," a Movie Review: Implications for Counseling Persons Who Are Transgendered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jinnelle Veronique

    2010-01-01

    People who fall under the umbrella of transgender belong to one of the most marginalized groups within society. Many who do not pass within the gender binary categories imposed by social norms experience discrimination and marginalization. In this article, the author discusses the film "Boys Don't Cry" and introduces the reader to the varieties of…

  3. The E-learning Cabaret: do's and don'ts in E-Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2006). The E-Learning Cabaret: do's and don'ts in E-Learning Design. Book of Abstracts, 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning & Teaching, Online Educa Berlin (pp. 169-171). November, 29-December, 1, 2006, Berlin, Germany: ICWE-GmbH.

  4. What We Don't Understand, We Explain to Each Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, David

    2015-01-01

    "What we don't understand, we explain to each other" was Robert Oppenheimer's 1948 description of theoretical physics as a profession. Because the phrase connects research, teaching, and learning, it seemed the right approach for the talk I gave to the AAPT [American Association of Physics Teachers] on receiving the 2013 J.D. Jackson…

  5. Transient identification system with noising data and 'don't know' response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio C. de A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In the last years, many different approaches based on neural network (NN) has been proposed for transient identification in nuclear power plants (NPP). Some of them focus the dynamic identification using recurrent neural networks however, they are not able to deal with unrecognized transients. Other kind of solution uses competitive learning in order to allow the 'don't know' response. In this case dynamic, dynamic features are not well represented. This work presents a new approach for neural network based transient identification which allows either dynamic identification and 'don't know'response. Such approach uses two multilayer neural networks trained with backpropagation algorithm. The first one is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, a short set (in a movable time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The other one is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method a NPP transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noising data in other to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method, a NPP transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noising data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. (author)

  6. Interleukin-6-deficient mice refractory to IgA dysregulation but not anorexia induction by vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, J J; Zhou, H R

    2000-07-01

    Dietary exposure to the trichothecene vomitoxin (VT) causes feed refusal and elevates IgA production in the mouse. Based on the observations that IL-6 can cause anorexia and promote IgA production and that gene expression of this cytokine is increased in vivo and ex vivo on VT exposure, we hypothesized that IL-6 is an essential cytokine in VT-induced feed refusal and IgA dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of dietary VT on feed intake, weight gain, serum IgA levels and kidney mesangial IgA deposition in an IL-6-"knockout" mouse (B6129-IL6(tmi Kopf)) were compared to those in both a corresponding "wildtype" (B6129F2) and a previously characterized "sentinel" strain (B6C3F1) that possess the intact gene for this cytokine. IL-6 deficiency did not alter the capacity of VT to cause feed refusal or impair weight gain. VT-fed B6129F2 and B6C3F1 mice had significantly higher serum IgA concentrations than did their corresponding controls fed clean diet, whereas significant differences were not observed between IL-6 KO mice fed VT or control diets. Kidneys taken from VT-fed wild-type and sentinel mice had significantly increased mesangial IgA deposition as compared to controls. While slight increases in mesangial IgA were observed in VT-fed IL-6 KO mice, mean fluorescence intensities were significantly less than that found in the corresponding wild-type and sentinel strains. IL-6 KO mice appeared to be less prone to the development of microscopic haematuria following VT exposure than were the corresponding wild-type and sentinel strains. In total, the results suggested that IL-6-deficient mice were refractory to VT-induced dysregulation of IgA production and development of IgA nephropathy, whereas chronic VT-mediated nutritional effects related to feed intake and weight gain were unaffected.

  7. L’utilité de la théorie du don The utility of gift theory Utilidad de la teoría del don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Alter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Alter explique l’utilité et l’actualité de la théorie de Marcel Mauss pour penser la coopération en entreprise et l’engagement au travail. Il revient sur ses qualités heuristiques et sa portée critique nécessaires à mobiliser pour donner des clefs de compréhension et d’action au monde du travail. À cette contribution répond celle d’Alain Caillé, « Le paradigme du don face aux nouvelles réalités du monde du travail. Quelques remarques »Norbert Alter explains here the utility and topicality of Marcel Mauss’ theory in an analysis touching both on cooperation within a business structure and on people’s commitment to work. He reviews the heuristic qualities and critical scope that must be mobilised to create ways of understanding and acting within the work world. Alain Caillé responds to this contribution with his own article entitled, “ The gift paradigm facing new realities in the work world. Comments” (Le paradigme du don face aux nouvelles réalités du monde du travail. Quelques remarques.Norbert Alter explica la utilidad y la actualidad de la teoría de Marcel Mauss para pensar la cooperación en la empresa y el compromiso en el trabajo. Desde una nueva perspectiva, aborda las cualidades heurísticas de esa teoría y su alcance crítico, que es necesario movilizar para contar con claves de comprensión y de acción en el mundo laboral. A su contribución, Alain Caillé responde con el artículo “El paradigma del don frente a las nuevas realidades del mundo laboral. Algunas observaciones”.

  8. Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and Hang onto Your Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inside NIDCD Newsletter » Spring 2006 Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and ... in the skeet event, would never fire a gun without them. Likewise, Dave Henderson, a nationally recognized ...

  9. “I don't use a condom (with my regular partner) because I know that I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I don't use a condom (with my regular partner) because I know that I'm faithful, but with everyone else I do”: The cultural and socioeconomic determinants of sexual partner concurrency in young South Africans.

  10. The first theatrical adaptations of the Don Quixote and the beginning of Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rivero Iglesias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the first appearances of Don Quixote on German stages. The goal is to illustrate how these theatrical performances determine the reception of Cervantes’ work in 17th century Germany. The first performances in Heidelberg (1613 and Dessau (1614 display an interpretation of Don Quixote, which intensifies the grotesque dimension of Cervantes’ original. Its satire is transformed into a satire of Spain in a context determined by political and religious animosity between Catholics and Protestants. The first German translation inherited this conception of Cervantes’ work. This conception would acquire new shades until middle of the 18th century, when the alteration of historical coordinates and the rise of individuality and genius thoroughly transformed its interpretation.

  11. Operatic films: a comparative study of Don Giovanni by Joseph Losey and Juan by Kasper Holten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel VILLANUEVA BENITO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From an artistic point of view, the adaptation of an opera to the cinema, traditionally has been considered a complex and controversial process. Don Giovanni, of W.A. Mozart is one of the operas that more audiovisual versions has generated during the centuries XX and XXI, although very few films have finally been taken to the screen. This paper is focused on comparing the audiovisual versions Don Giovanni, by Joseph Losey (1979, and Juan by Kasper Holten (2010. Through a quantitative and qualitative methodology based on content analysis, this research reflects on the degree of intervention exercised by the language and audiovisual format used in the process of reinterpretation of the pre-existing operatic text.

  12. ["Is it an animal inside? "Melanie Klein's unpublished Don Juan Paper (1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Klein had been asked to contribute an article to the birthday number of the International Journal for Jones. The author outlines how she hurriedly wrote a text about Don Juan which, however, was rejected by the editor. Essential parts of it are presented in German translation. The manuscript is discussed in the context of Klein's published work as well as of the relevant contemporary literature. In Klein's view, Don Juan's genitality is determined by oral impulses and fears. By his manic acting out he attempts to ward off a depressive break-down. The paper ends with some reflections about why Klein--ontrary to her intention--failed to revise her manuscript for later publication.

  13. Don Quijote, doña Rodríguez y los duques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zimic

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Al llegar Don Quijote al palacio de los duques y "viéndose tratar del mesmo modo que él había leído se trataban Ios tales caballeros en Ios pasados siglos ... , aquél fue el primer día que de todo en todo conoció y creyó ser caballero andante verdadero y no fantastíco" (1378. Comprensiblemente, esta afirmacion ha causado gran perplejidad entre los lectores de todas las épocas: "Luego, antes ¿no lo había creído?" . La cuestión se complica mucho más, poco después de estos eufóricos momentos, al confesar Don Quijote a la duquesa: "Dios sabe si hay Dulcinea o no en el mundo, o si es fantástica ono es fantástica ...

  14. Detection of calmodulin binding protein at 170 KDA in BALB, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selinfreund, R.; Lin, P.H.; Marrone, B.; Wharton, W.

    1987-01-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) has been shown to bind to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (170 kDa) and is phosphorylated in a EGF dependent manner in the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. In the present study, they report 125 I-CAM binding to a 170 kDa protein detected in cell membrane vesicles of Balb/3T3, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells. Purified plasma membranes from these cells were resolved via electrophoresis (without heat denaturation) and electroblotted onto nictrocellulose paper. Upon hybridizing against 125 I-CAM, a distinct autoradiographic band occurred at 170 kDa for all the cells lines under study. The binding of CAM is specific and can be displaced with the addition of excess unlabeled CAM. The result suggest that 125 I-CAM may bind to the 170 kDa EGF receptor in BALB, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells

  15. Bauhinia Pottsii G. Don Var Pottsii, Koleksi Dari Kalimantan Yang Ditemukan Kembali

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Inggit Puji; Magandhi, Mahat; Suratman, Maman; Maulida, Risa

    2012-01-01

    Bauhinia is one of the largest genus in Caesalpiniaceae family and distributed in all tropical area. One among 300 species of Bauhinia is Bauhinia pottsii G. Don. This species is distributed from Southern Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Malay Peninsular, Borneo, Sumatra, Jawa, Bali and Lesser Sunda islands. It was recorded that one specimen was originated from East Kalimantan and collected in 1925. During exploration in Kampung Temula, Kecamatan Nyuatan, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, East Kalimantan,...

  16. Mujeres españolas de la conquista en don Joan de Castellanos (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available La participación de la mujer española en la conquista de América es un tema que apenas comienza a ser tratado con la profundidad que merece. A principios del siglo don Cesáreo Fernández Duro publicó una breve disertación sobre ' 'La mujer española en Indias".

  17. Punctuation in the text of the Golden Age and in Don Quijote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arellano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the punctuation in Golden Age texts, in particular in Don Quixote. The author analyzes the discrepancies between theory and practice of the printers, the features of the punctuation in manuscripts, and the absence of a general system, due in part to the absence of a unique and precise system in Spanish. The article provides numerous examples of Golden Age text and of the Quixote.

  18. Department of the Navy (DON) Additive Manufacturing (AM) Implementation Plan V2.0 (2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-04

    aligned to advance AM of explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics and structures.  Makerspaces deployed throughout the warfighter and civilian communities...to conduct broad AM familiarization training and STEM activities 2. Introduce new makerspaces into DON to expand access and education of AM...technologies 3. Ensure makerspaces become a vital part of workforce training by developing communication plan to inform leadership of current and future

  19. Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. ex G. Don (Rubiaceae, a New Record to the Flora of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. ex G. Don, a species of Rubiaceae, was found recently in Taiwan. It represents a new record for the flora of Taiwan, and a range extension of the species to the northeast. The present study provides the species description, illustrations, and SEM micrographs of seeds and pollen grains. Furthermore, a comparison of diagnostic characters between this species and a related species, H. tenelliflora Bl. is made.

  20. Detsibill : Meie Mees kui ANTI. White Label : Don Erikson. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Don Erikson "Israel Mix", Congotronics 2 "Buzz'n'rumble from the urb'n'jungle", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine maitse", Nirvana "Silver, The best of the Box", Singer Vinger "Eesti Kullafond", Bullet Train To Vegas "We Put Scissors Where Our Mouths Are", Ludachris "Disturbing tha peace", "Soul Satisfaction 5", The Kurt Webber's Pink Band "Café Regatt", Patrizio Buanne "The Italian", Eminem "Curtain Call"

  1. Los centenarios: El bibliotecario don Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available Se cumplió en este mes de abril el segundo centenario del nacimiento de don Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez. Con tal motivo, su memoria fue honrada con la celebración del Día del Bibliotecario, una magnífica iniciativa que, como dijo alguien, debe convertirse en una tradición cultural de Colombia.

  2. Don E. Detmer and the American Medical Informatics Association: An Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Bates, David W.; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Greenwood, Karen; Safran, Charles; Steen, Elaine B.; Tang, Paul C.; Williamson, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Don E. Detmer has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) for the past five years, helping to set a course for the organization and demonstrating remarkable leadership as AMIA has evolved into a vibrant and influential professional association. On the occasion of Dr. Detmer's retirement, we fondly reflect on his professional life and his many contributions to biomedical informatics and, more generally, to health care in the U.S. and globally. PMID:19574463

  3. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, Maria I; Karsulovic C, Jose T.; Leon G, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author)

  4. Inflatable Emergency Equipment I: Evaluation of Individual Inflatable Aviation Life Preserver Donning Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    have to do so in the water. Shortly thereafter, the Survival Research Unit at CAMI devel- oped a prototype life preserver, with a primary goal of...calculate the various donning function times, as defined below. These were entered into IBM SPSS ® version 21 for statistical analysis. “TSO Test Time...inflation tubes, manual inflation triggering devices with pull tabs and CO2 cartridges, and designed to be reversible. The experimental life preserver

  5. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  6. "Don't know" responses to risk perception measures: implications for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Hay, Jennifer L; Orom, Heather; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Drake, Bettina F

    2013-02-01

    Risk perceptions are legitimate targets for behavioral interventions because they can motivate medical decisions and health behaviors. However, some survey respondents may not know (or may not indicate) their risk perceptions. The scope of "don't know" (DK) responding is unknown. Examine the prevalence and correlates of responding DK to items assessing perceived risk of colorectal cancer. Two nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional surveys (2005 National Health Interview Survey [NHIS]; 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey [HINTS]), and one primary care clinic-based survey comprised of individuals from low-income communities. Analyses included 31,202 (NHIS), 1,937 (HINTS), and 769 (clinic) individuals. Five items assessed perceived risk of colorectal cancer. Four of the items differed in format and/or response scale: comparative risk (NHIS, HINTS); absolute risk (HINTS, clinic), and "likelihood" and "chance" response scales (clinic). Only the clinic-based survey included an explicit DK response option. "Don't know" responding was 6.9% (NHIS), 7.5% (HINTS-comparative), and 8.7% (HINTS-absolute). "Don't know" responding was 49.1% and 69.3% for the "chance" and "likely" response options (clinic). Correlates of DK responding were characteristics generally associated with disparities (e.g., low education), but the pattern of results varied among samples, question formats, and response scales. The surveys were developed independently and employed different methodologies and items. Consequently, the results were not directly comparable. There may be multiple explanations for differences in the magnitude and characteristics of DK responding. "Don't know" responding is more prevalent in populations affected by health disparities. Either not assessing or not analyzing DK responses could further disenfranchise these populations and negatively affect the validity of research and the efficacy of interventions seeking to eliminate health disparities.

  7. La parodia como marco estructural en Don Quijote y Los viajes de Gulliver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Muñoz Corcuera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Los viajes de Gulliver, de Jonathan Swift, es una de las obras más conocidas de la literatura universal. Sin embargo, su recepción actual, al menos en España, se produce sobre todo por medio de adaptaciones en las que no se puede apreciar el calado de la obra literaria original. En este estudio se pretende profundizar en el análisis de Los viajes de Gulliver a través de una comparación con Don Quijote, enfocándose en los recursos paródicos: mientras Don Quijote parodia los libros de caballerías, Los viajes de Gulliver parodia los libros de viajes. El principal objetivo de esta comparación no será tanto demostrar una influencia de la obra de Cervantes sobre la de Swift, sino, más bien, iluminar algunos aspectos de Los viajes de Gulliver. Gulliver´s Travels, of Jonathan Swift, is one of the most well-known works in world literature. However, its actual reception, at least in Spain, it´s produced mostly through adaptations in which it´s impossible to appreciate the profundity of the original literary work. In this article, I intend to dig deeply into the analysis of Gulliver´s Travels through a comparison with Don Quixote, focusing on the parodic resources: while Don Quixote parodies the books of chivalry, Gulliver´s Travels parodies travel books. The main goal of this comparison will not be to prove some influence of Cervantes´ work in Swift´s work, but to illuminate some aspects of Gulliver´s Travels.

  8. Reflections on Don Juan and on the utility of the unhappy love affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Ernest

    2011-12-01

    Based on an unusual clinical experience of a teenage boy in child psychotherapy, two conclusions are proposed: (1) that the extremely unhappy, early love affairs that occur in most men's lives serve a valuable function in helping them separate from their mothers sufficiently to be able to realistically relate to appropriate marriage partners, and (2) that some Don Juans start new relationships in order to break them off, rather than the reverse.

  9. The voice of Cervantes «creator» in Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Sevilla Arroyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is identifying the genuine voice of the Cervantes creator in the multiple choir of fictitious intermediaries involved in the authorship and the story of Don Quijote (reporter, editor, translator, Cide Hamete, supernarrator, readers, etc. trying, at the same time, to gauging the sense and the scope of their interventions. It happens that Miguel de Cervantes keeps to himself a novelistic role radically different depending on whether it is about the «story of story» or the «story itself»: refering to the first one, the author is out of the cast, delegating the reconstruction of Don Quixote’s legend in multiple fictional masks always comically manipulated; on the other hand, when it is the turn to the novelistic design of the chivalrous adventures of Don Quixote and Sancho, the voice of Cervantes creator comes to the forefront in order to take on, —as the «final author»— all narrative responsibility with absolute omniscience and solemnity. The resulting Quijote can only be explained from the intersection of both attitudes: the risible story of the most solemn/serious and magnificent novelistic bet never tried out..

  10. A neural model for transient identification in dynamic processes with 'don't know' response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio C. de A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an approach for neural network based transient identification which allows either dynamic identification or a 'don't know' response. The approach uses two 'jump' multilayer neural networks (NN) trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The 'jump' network is used because it is useful to dealing with very complex patterns, which is the case of the space of the state variables during some abnormal events. The first one is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, as input, a short set (in a moving time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The other one is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide a 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method, a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor (PWR), was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noisy data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. Another important point studied in this work is that the system has shown to be independent of a trigger signal which indicates the beginning of the transient, thus making it robust in relation to this limitation

  11. Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalskyy, V; Henebry, G M, E-mail: geoffrey.henebry@sdstate.ed [Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence (GIScCE), South Dakota State University, 1021 Medary Avenue, Wecota Hall 506B, Brookings, SD 57007-3510 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

  12. El don: entre las prácticas intersticiales y el solidarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIÁN SCRIBANO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca hacer evidente al solidarismo como la "pérdida del don", conforme expuesto por Mauss, en el contexto de la situación colonial, de los procesos de expansión capitalista en la actualidad. Como objeto de análisis y mediación hermenéutica, hemos seleccionado a la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE como una forma del solidarismo cuyas prácticas llevan a un conjunto de situaciones que pueden describirse como pornográficas. Para lograr el objetivo explicitado, hemos seguido la siguiente estrategia argumentativa: a se sintetizan algunas pocas coordenadas de carácter teóricos que permitan entender la centralidad del don y se explicita nuestra idea de solidarismo, b se realiza un triple análisis: de la conceptualización de la RSE y de las experiencias de RSE de algunas corporaciones internacionales en Argentina; y c se exponen nuestras ideas sobre prácticas intersticiales en tanto hiatos que quiebran a la economía política de la moral como una totalidad que demanda la "pérdida" de todo tipo de don.

  13. Hubungan antara Aktivitas Fisik Terhadap Memori Kerja Murid SMA Don Bosco III Bekasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Clarissa Junaidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Memori kerja merupakan bagian dari memori jangka pendek yang berperan penting dalam membantu proses pembelajaran dan dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas fisik, memori kerja yang rendah akan menimbulkan kesulitan untuk menerima informasi baru serta penurunan prestasi belajar. Tujuan. Mengetahui pengaruh aktivitas fisik terhadap kapasitas memori kerja murid SMA Don Bosco III. Metode. Penelitian metode analitik dengan pendekatan potong lintang pada 113 murid SMA Don Bosco III, Bekasi, pada 18 – 20 Juli 2016. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner demografi, kuesioner skrining gangguan mental dan penyakit kronis, Physical Acitivity Questionnaire of Adolescent (PAQ-A dan Operation Span (O-SPAN. Analisis data dengan univariat dan bivariat menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman. Hasil. Terdapat 113 murid SMA Don Bosco III dengan kisaran usia 14 – 17 tahun, usia terbanyak 15 tahun (47.8%, laki-laki 61,1%, murid kelas X 44.2%. Mayoritas responden memiliki aktivitas fisik “kurang baik” dan rerata memori kerja 6,16. Analisis Spearman menunjukkan terdapat hubungan bermakna (p<0,05 antara aktivitas fisik terhadap memori kerja dengan korelasi positif lemah (r=0,384. Kesimpulan. Terdapat korelasi positif antara aktivitas fisik dan memori kerja, aktivitas fisik yang semakin tinggi cenderung akan meningkatkan memori kerja.

  14. Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalskyy, V; Henebry, G M

    2009-01-01

    The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

  15. The silent Don Juan. The concepts of love and art in the works of Max Frisch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Virant

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the novel Stiller and in the play Don Juan, both published in the early 1950s, Frisch already focuses on the problem of identity as one of his major themes, but it is not yet situated in a political context as, for example, in the play Andorra. In these works, the identity-problem is situated in the domain of intimate relationships and artistic creativity, offering the possibility to discuss Frisch’s concepts of art and love, which unfold through Frisch’s treatment of the traditional literary figure of Don Juan and his hubris. Frisch’s Stiller and Don Juan do not believe in God; but their frame of mind stays the same, while the position of God and his attributes are assigned to love, art and geometry. Although both literary figures in the course of events realize that this substitution is a mistake, they are unable to alter their concepts of love and art. Instead of altering the concepts, they rather resign in silence, while Max Frisch continues to search for alternatives in reflecting on the process of fictionalization and in developing innovative narrative and dramatic structures.

  16. de "subirnos al tiempo". La economía del "don"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl García Durán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo resume las ideas contenidas en el libro -aún inédito- De la miseria de la economía a la plenitud de la fraternidad; o la economía del "don" como alternativa al capitalismo y la economía de mercado. En él se plantean alternativas radicales al capitalismo; particularmente, se ubica al "don" como camino de pensamiento y acción. Se documentan las proposiciones teóricas y aportes de la economía política, la antropología, la historia, para construir la manera en que el don podría contribuir a una reorganización social basada en nuevos-viejos principios. Se interrogan diversas experiencias histórico-antropológicas y su prefiguración actual en un nuevo modelo ético-político-ecológico que abarca las dimensiones local y global.

  17. Students Don't Understand Democracy? Look to Journalism Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that journalism and communications instruction at the secondary level should not focus on production techniques, but rather should serve as a laboratory for citizenship training, helping to prepare young people to be more informed and effective citizens. (SR)

  18. Information Technology Portfolio Management and the Real Options Method (ROM): Managing the Risks of IT Investments in the Department of the Navy (DON)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    .... This research draws upon ITPM implementation strategies currently employed by the DON and provides recommendations for managing the inherent risk in IT investments, specifically the application...

  19. The do's and don'ts of arginine supplementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to meet the body's nutritional needs for energy, protein and micronutrients. ... inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and therefore the use of arginine in this ... smooth muscle cell proliferation12 and controlling vascular oxidative stress and the ... reduced arginine levels in sepsis that reflect the specific changes in arginine ...

  20. Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Hunt, Josephine; Perrin, Irene

    2004-01-01

    A number of mycotoxins of the class of trichothecenes are produced by a variety of Fusarium fungi commonly found on cereals. Unfavourable weather conditions may lead to a high level of Fusarium infections in crops such as wheat and correspondingly high trichothecene contents. The ILSI Europe...

  1. Cervantes, Lizardi, and the Literary Construction of The Mexican Rogue in Don Catrín de la fachenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the socio-economic legacies and critique of nation-building found in the work of Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi (1776-1827. In the nineteenth century, the Latin American elite struggled to disassociate itself from a suffocating colonial machine; they sought their own identity, and writing became a way to express their frustration. As in other parts of Latin America, Mexican intellectuals protested fossilisation via Cervantes’s Don Quijote. Using the Spanish author’s text as a blueprint, Lizardi’s Don Catrín de la fachenda depicted a turbulent society that was in the process of abandoning a decaying colonial order. Don Quijote’s characters engaged in power struggles and were involved in a variety of forms of social antagonism. Lizardi juxtaposed and superimposed these on an American geographical and socio-economic space where there was much dissension around the nation’s direction. The social and economic rules of Mexico (and Latin America today can be said to be already present in the social exchanges in Don Catrín. It was in this context that Don Quijote was “Mexicanised” by Lizardi and thereby made to participate in local reflections on liberty, patriotism, capitalism, and citizenship. Cervantes’s text thus took on a socio-political meaning in the narrative of Latin America’s past and present.

  2. De la risa a carcajadas al mal ejemplo quijotesco en la novela del XVIII. Don Quijote de la Manchuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapita Jurado Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Don Quixote rapidly became a huge success. It was translated into several languages and reworked into genres with a festive and theatrical nature. In Spain, during the seventeenth century, its comic side was exploited, which provoked liberating laughter that, in France, led to its association with the satire genre. In the eighteenth century, the novel was considered a minor genre, of no educational value. The century began with a fierce controversy over the meaning of Cervantes’ work, since according to Rapin, some readers would have seen a mockery of the Spanish nobility in the insane gentleman. However, during the eighteenth century the first steps were taken to reappraise Don Quixote due to its acceptance as a classic by the Spanish Royal Academy in 1780. The Academy considered Don Quixote a mocking and didactic hero, a bad example to be avoided. Yet, the work was an important step in the construction of a new genre, the novel. Don Quijote de la Manchuela, by Donato de Arenzana (1767, reflects an attentive reading of Cervantes’ Don Quixote, and special attention to the neoclassical cannon. Therefore it can provide useful information about writers’ interests, in the preromantic eighteenth century.

  3. Don Quijote de la Mancha: Reflexiones en torno a las relaciones cine-literatura Don Quijote de la Mancha: Reflections about the relationships between cinematography-literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ardila Rojas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de algunos aspectos de la relación cine-literatura, a partir del Don Quijote de La Mancha literario y de algunas versiones cinematográficas y televisivas realizadas en español y en inglés. Inicialmente se presentan problemas teóricos en torno a categorías que suelen serles afines: relato, autor, narración, historia, etc., para involucrar alternativamente fenómenos que, desde el punto de vista de los autores, generan ambigüedades textuales o múltiples interpretaciones en las versiones que se analizan. De este análisis comparativo que parte de los relatos en cuestión se llega finalmente a conclusiones de carácter estético e ideológico sobre los mismos.This article presents an analysis of some aspects of the relationship between cinematography and literature. Starting from the Don Quijote de La Mancha and taking into account some film and television versions developed in Spanish and English. At the beginning, a theoretical problem based on similar types for concepts categorization: author, narration, story, relat, among others will be analyzed. In addition, a connection is made with some authors' concepts in order to avoid textual ambiguity or multiple interpretations in the versions that are analyzed. Through a comparative analysis supported in these stories, it is possible to reach some aesthetic and ideological conclusions about them.

  4. Don't hate the business, become the business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Cox, Geoff; Pold, Søren Bro

    intersections between business and art become a crucial territory for re-invention and the rewriting of symbolic and cultural codes, generating political actions or social hacks that use a deep level of irony, but also unexpected consequences. The tactics demonstrate the permeability of systems — that these can...... this mean that well-meaning critical strategies of artists and activists are self-defeating? How do we develop disruptive business models that do not simply become new models for business that ultimately follow capitalist logic? We maintain there is nothing wrong with doing business as such.......DON’T HATE THE BUSINESS, BECOME THE BUSINESS The panel investigates some of the interconnections between art, activism and business. “Don’t hate the media, become the media”, was one of the slogans of Indymedia. We are applying this critical hands-on perspective to the business framework...

  5. 77 FR 5481 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its Acetylated Derivatives in Cereals and Cereal-Based Products. Proposed Draft Maximum... on Ochratoxin A in Cocoa. Discussion Paper on Guidance for Risk Management Options in Light of...

  6. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der T.A.J.; Zhang, H.; Diepeningen, A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of

  7. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Theo; Zhang, Hao; Waalwijk, Cees; van Diepeningen, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of

  8. Retrotransposon and gene activation in wheat in response to mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic-associated Fusarium stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Khairul Islam; Walter, Stephanie; Brennan, Josephine M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite inhibition of protein synthesis being its mode of action, the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induced accumulation of transcripts encoding translation elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), class III plant peroxidase (POX), structure specific recognition protein, basic leuci...

  9. Review of Ordering Don't Resuscitate in Iranian Dying Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda

    2018-06-01

    Making decision on not to resuscitate is a confusing, conflicting and complex issue and depends on each country's culture and customs. Therefore, each country needs to take action in accordance with its cultural, ethical, religious and legal contexts to develop guidelines in this regard. Since the majority of Iran's people are Muslims, and in Islam, the human life is considered sacred, based on the values of the community, an Iranian Islamic agenda needs to be developed not taking measures about resuscitation of dying patients. It is necessary to develop an Iranian Islamic guidelines package in order to don't resuscitate in dying patients.

  10. An Analysis of Insults in Don Quixote from the Perspective of Social History of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Usunáriz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily use of insult, slander, in the societies of the Early Modern Age, is also present in the voices of the protagonists of Don Quixote. However, the Ingenious Gentleman and his squire, do not use the insult in the same way. This will depend on the social position of insulted and offender (noble or villain, and the circumstances surrounding it. However, social reality, collected in different court cases, shows that the insult did not respect, in the same way as in the novel, the stratified social structure.

  11. The Knight-errant and their Itinerary. Journey and />Death of Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Rodríguez Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, from the perspective of the hero’s journey topic in the narrative, the wanderings of Don Quixote on the Spanish roads and in the spaces of the chivalric literature. Based on the four narrative sequences that stake out the itinerary in the journey narrative: departure, cruise, meeting, and return, the three departures and the three returns of the knight in the work are reviewed, specially the last return and the relationship that it keeps with his death.

  12. Juan Bautista Avalle Arce y el escrutinio de la librería de Don Quijote

    OpenAIRE

    Nállim, Carlos Orlando

    2000-01-01

    En este trabajo se destacan los aportes de Avalle Arce a la crítica del Quijote que lo convierten en el "cervantista actual por antonomasia". Se señalan sus grandes aciertos: la peculiar tesis del crítico acerca de la relación que se establece entre vida y literatura; la influencia en la vida de Don Quijote no sólo de los libros de caballería sino también de muchos otros que conformaban su abundante biblioteca; la solución que aporta al trillado tema cordura/locura del personaje...

  13. Jasminum extensum Wall. ex G. Don (Oleaceace, a New Record to the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Hong Quang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One rare, poorly known species from India, South China and Thailand - Jasminum extensum Wall. ex G. Don is recently discovered in Vietnam representing a new record to the flora of the country. The plant differs from its closely related species viz. Jasminum pierreanum in having coriaceous leaves and 5–6 primary veins in each side of the mid-rib. Detailed information on taxonomy, types, morphology, habitat, ecology, distribution and studied voucher specimens, as well as illustrations are provided here for species identification.

  14. Don José Joquín Casas : un hombre una época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Azula Barrera

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Debo a las generosas instancias del reverendo padre Félix Restrepo -cuyo tránsito terrenal, concluído al finalizar el año último, se halla constelado de hazañas que reclaman ser esculpidas, como alto relieves, en el propio pedestal de la estatua que la gratitud nacional habrá de levantar a su nombre el honor inmerecido de pronunciar las palabras de rigor, al conmemorar nuestro instituto, en este día del idioma, el primer centenario del nacimiento de don José Joaquín Casas.

  15. Chemical Composition and Possible in Vitro Phytotoxic Activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.

  16. The invisible teenager: Comic book materiality and the amateur films of Don Glut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Yockey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Don Glut, between the ages of 9 and 25, made 41 short amateur films inspired by horror, science fiction, and superhero movies, serials, and comic books. The tactile qualities of comic books as affect-generating objects are instrumental to how Glut confirmed his identity during a time (adolescence in which that identity is particularly unstable. Glut used the popular figure of the teen rebel and his role as a filmmaker in order to negotiate with hegemonic restrictions on his objects of affection, especially comic books.

  17. The Landscape of Cervante´s Don Quixote: Orteguians Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perspectival theory, related to Don Quixote by the many references in the corpus of Ortega, enables further research about the importance of the landscape and the physical description in order to understand the work of Cervantes. Similarly, it should be mentioned its relation with the development of literary theory. Such investigations give an interesting point of view under the framework called travel genre and its tangential contact with Quijote. On the other hand, and because of the publication of Obras Completas by Ortega, we find ourselves with a new order of the writings from the philosopher and an appropriate index for research.

  18. For the Amusement of the Merry Little Subjects: How British Children Met Don Quixote in the Long Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Borham Puyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a masterpiece, Don Quixote has become an easily recognizable myth, sometimes reduced to well-known episodes such as the tilting at windmills or the blanket-tossing of Sancho. These elements are emphasised in editions of this classic for children, highlighting the importance these versions have for the understanding of the widespread popularity of Cervantes’ novel, in general, and of certain scenes, in particular. The present article explores the relationship of the child reader to Don Quixote and provides an overview of how English children might have encountered it in the long eighteenth century (1660-1832. It connects chapbooks, abridgments and children’s books to suggest that children might have been among its earliest readers and to emphasise the intertextual continuum and the richness in the reception of Don Quixote in England, from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.

  19. Gender differences in national assessment of educational progress science items: What does i don't know really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Marcia C.; de Benedictis, Tina; Delucchi, Kevin; Harris, Abigail; Stage, Elizabeth

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress Science Assessment has consistently revealed small gender differences on science content items but not on science inquiry items. This assessment differs from others in that respondents can choose I don't know rather than guessing. This paper examines explanations for the gender differences including (a) differential prior instruction, (b) differential response to uncertainty and use of the I don't know response, (c) differential response to figurally presented items, and (d) different attitudes towards science. Of these possible explanations, the first two received support. Females are more likely to use the I don't know response, especially for items with physical science content or masculine themes such as football. To ameliorate this situation we need more effective science instruction and more gender-neutral assessment items.

  20. What they don't know can hurt us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    1993-01-01

    ''A public information campaign to support a proposed national deep repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste'' is the title of a research and development project funded by the Commission of the European Communities, DG 12. The primary objective of the project is to gain support in Cumbria (UK) for a radioactive waste repository at Sellafield through the dissemination of factual information in various forms accessible to the public. The repository information effort is a joint project of UK Nirex and BNFL. Data collection in survey and interview form will enable changes in support to be measured. Dr Peter Allen of Robens Institute, Surrey, carried out a first wave of local opinion research in June 1992. The present author carried out analysis of this data in comparison with French data, comparison reported below. A second objective is to generate information suitable for detailed consideration by other European Community Member States, through evaluation of the fit between public information needs, and strategies and methods applied by institutions in the United Kingdom and in France. The present researcher is primarily concerned with this second objective. The initiation of an information campaign in the nuclear field, as an example of risk communication, provides a favorable opportunity to examine and evaluate the presuppositions guiding institutional action. (author)

  1. Don Quijote y los eruditos: Sobre una polémica crítica y sus implicaciones metacríticas

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo García, Pedro Javier

    2000-01-01

    [ES]Este trabajo trata sobre Don Quijote y los eruditos: una polémica crítica y sus implicaciones metacríticas. [EN]This paper deals with Don Quixote and scholars: a critical controversy and its implications metacritica.

  2. Don Quijote y los eruditos: Sobre la sátira quijotesca de la pedantería en la literatura francesa del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo García, Pedro Javier

    1998-01-01

    [ES]Este texto trata Don Quijote y los eruditos, una polémica crítica y sus implicaciones metacríticas. [EN]This text is Don Quixote and scholars, a critical controversy and its implications metacritical.

  3. Don Yllán and the Egyptian Sorcerer: Vernacular commonality and literary diversity in medieval Castile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacks, David A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author compares the exemplo of Don Yllán and the Deán de Santiago -no. 11 in Don Juan Manuel's Conde Lucanor (ca. 1335- with an earlier Hebrew analogue found in the Hebrew Mešal Haqadmonī (ca. 1285 of fellow Castilian author Isaac ibn Sahula. A thorough analysis of the rhetorical and narrative style of both versions reveals that the two tales shared a common source in Castilian oral tradition. The appearance of the tale in an earlier Hebrew text from Castile (the only other known version in any language calls into question the originality of Don Juan Manuel's most famous exemplo, suggesting a productive interplay between a common oral tradition in Castilian and coexisting literary traditions in Hebrew and Castilian.

    En este artículo, el autor compara el exemplo de Don Yllán y el Deán de Santiago -n.° 11 en el Conde Lucanor (ca. 1335 de Don Juan Manuel- con una versión anterior en la obra hebrea, Mešal Haqadmonī (ca. 1285 de otro autor castellano, Isaac ibn Sahula. Un análisis cuidadoso del estilo narrativo y retórico de ambas versiones revela que las dos comparten una fuente común en la tradición oral castellana. La aparición del cuento en un texto hebreo anterior de Castilla (la única versión conocida en cualquier otra lengua cuestiona la originalidad literaria del más famoso exemplo de Don Juan Manuel, y sugiere un intercambio productivo entre una tradición oral común castellana y tradiciones literarias hebreas y castellanas coexistentes.

  4. Welcome aboard (but don't change a thing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Eric

    2002-10-01

    Cheryl Hailstrom, the CEO of Lakeland Wonders, a manufacturer of high-quality wooden toys, is the first person outside the Swensen family to hold the top job. But she's not a stranger to this 94-year-old company: She'd been the COO of one of its largest customers and had worked with Lakeland to develop many best-selling products. Wally Swensen IV, the previous CEO, chose Cheryl because she knew how to generate profits and because he believed her energy and enthusiasm could take the company to the next level. Yet here she is, nearing her six-month anniversary, wondering why her expansive vision for the company isn't taking hold. She's tried to lead by example: traveling a pounding schedule to visit customers, setting aggressive project deadlines, and proposing a bonus schedule. She has a plan to reach the board's growth goals--going beyond Lakeland's core upscale market and launching into the midmarket with an exclusive toy contract with a new customer. The problem is that while Cheryl's senior managers are giving her the nod on the surface, they're all really dragging their feet. Some fear that offshore outsourcing will hurt their brand, not to mention make for tricky union negotiations. Others are balking at trying a new design firm. Is Cheryl pushing too much change too quickly? Should she bring in outsiders to speedily adopt the changes she envisions and overhaul Lakeland's corporate culture? Or should she keep trying to work with the current team? Commentators Kathleen Calcidise of Apple Retail Stores; executive coach Debra Benton; Dan Cohen, coauthor of The Heart of Change; and consultant Nina Aversano offer advice in this fictional case study.

  5. La visión fantasiosa/caballeresca de Don Quijote poco representada en la iconografía

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Martín Ezequiel

    2017-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analizará un aspecto un tanto curioso de la representación iconográfica del Quijote. En casi la totalidad de las ediciones de la obra se omite representar la “realidad” percibida por don Quijote, optando por graficar la representación realista de los hechos narrados. En los diferentes modelos iconográficos de las ediciones de la obra este aspecto es común, ya que ante el texto, la decisión habitual de los editores e ilustradores es mostrar a don Quijote como “es” den...

  6. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  7. Libros adquiridos por don Pedro Fermín de Vargas en sus viajes por las Antillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre los papeles relacionados con la vida de Don Pedro Fermín de Vargas, que pueden consultarse en el Archivo General de Indias de Sevilla, hay una carta de él y una lista de libros que envía al Administrador de Correos de la Habana, Don José Fuertes, antiguo amigo suyo, luego su corresponsal y a la  vez espía de sus pasos para aprisionarlo, con el objeto de que se los guardase “en algún rincón de sus casa”.

  8. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  9. Don Quixote, Sweded by Michel Gondry in Be Kind Rewind (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Erin K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of poetic license from Be Kind Rewind (2008, this article argues that Michel Gondry’s film “swedes,” its playful neologism for ersatz remaking of Hollywood and classic films, Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quixote. The feature follows the Sanchification of Jerry (Jack Black, Gondry’s Don Quixote, and Quixotification of Mike (Mos Def, Gondry’s Sancho, as they nostalgically wrong cinematic rights through sweding and try to save their working-class neighbourhood from condemnation and gentrification through community film making. Gondry swedes the Quixote through his engagement with major themes and operations in Cervantes’s classic, including nostalgia, story-telling, conflicts between reality and fantasy, authorship, the grotesque and carnivalesque, (anti-heroes, race and gender-bending, genre, and addressees turned addressers. This article discusses Be Kind Rewind’s relationship to Hollywoodian and Cervantine classics through the theoretical frameworks of Julio Garcia Espinosa’s imperfect cinema and Foucauldian semiotics, respectively. Be Kind Rewind uses and abuses Hollywood stereotypes to re-purpose them for a critique of discriminatory practices. Where casting is concerned and where Michel’s characters diverge from Miguel’s, Be Kind Rewind advances that skin colour is not an arbitrary sign and that race has historical and contemporary meaning in intercultural interactions.

  10. Homenaje a Don Gregorio Marañon en el Centenario de su Nacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina rinde homenaje hoy a un español universal, don Gregorio Marañón y Posadillo (1887-1960 en el primer centenario de su nacimiento. Se asocia a la admiración y al orgullo que este hombre despierta por su inteligencia, su sabiduría y su obra entre sus gentes de España, con el entrañable afecto que su nombre evoca entre nosotros los iberoamericanos que también, a nuestra manera, lo sentimos nuestro.

    Médico, historiador, escritor, humanista, sociólogo y maestro, su espíritu se ensoñoreó por los campos abiertos del saber, descollando con méritos señeros en cada una de estas disciplinas. Y si en el presente siglo su par en la medicina podría ser don Santiago Ramón y Cajal, en las letras don José Ortega y Gassety en las humanidades don Miguel de Unamuno, por su bucear en las aguas profundas y lustrales de la historia su nombre es parangonable con el de españoles eternos con los que equiparó su vida: un Séneca, por su austero interrogar al destino y por el doloroso regustar del destierro (“carere patria intolerabili est”. Un san Isidoro de Sevilla, por su ecumenismo. Un Garcilaso de la Vega, por su poético enamoramiento de Toledo. Un Maimónides, por las enseñanzas de su saber médico y por los discípulos dejados en las más diversas latitudes unido a su excepcional amplitud de criterio -rara flor en la patria de Ignacio de Loyolay de don Felipe 11-; ausencia de ese dogmatismo y fanatismo que el mismo “espejo de los caballeros” hubo de sublimar en las brumas de su locura para ser el arquetipo de lo español y de España. Y un Miguel Servet, en fin, por sus paralelas intuiciones científicas, las de éste en la circulación de la sangre pulmonar, las de don Gregario en la endocrinología, las hormonas y las muy sutiles investigaciones del hasta hace poco coto vedado de la sexología y los estados intersexuales.

    Corresponderá al distinguido representante de la Sociedad

  11. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  12. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  13. When Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don becomes The Gift: variations on the theme of solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Simone

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The fact that these first applications of Mauss's essay should emerge in English- rather than in French-speaking countries raises the question of what the translation of the essay, and notably of the word don as gift, may have to do with this fact. Reading Mauss in translation undoubtedly inspired a seminal approach to interpreting medical and research practices based on bodily giving. This article posits that something may have also been lost: a much broader concept of giving with unquestionable links to the Durkheimian concept of solidarity, which Mauss conceptualizes not only as an obligation but also as a liberty to give.

  14. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don in the Southern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houessou Laurent G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term

  15. 77 FR 23673 - Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable-DON/USDA/DOE/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...--DON/USDA/DOE/ DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... participants in the biofuels supply chain. The purpose of the roundtable meeting is for the federal government... Biofuels Production Project. Questions related to the Special Notices or the pending Broad Agency...

  16. The Emperor Has No Clothes: Teaching about Race and Racism to People Who Don't Want to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Tema Jon

    2010-01-01

    "The Emperor Has No Clothes: Teaching About Race and Racism to People Who Don't Want to Know" is designed to offer both practical and theoretical grounding for leaders and teachers interested in effectively addressing racism as well as other oppressive constructs. The dissertation offers an overview of the role of western culture in maintaining…

  17. Fungsi Bangunan Dokwi Vam dan Kembu Vam Bagi Suku Yali dalam Novel Penguasa-penguasa Bumi Karya Don Richardson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Fatimah Ria Lestari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the function of the building of Dokwi Vam and Kembu Vam contained in the novel-Sovereign Ruler of the Earth works Don Richardson. In general, this novel tells the story of the life of Stan Dale and Yali tribe. Stan Dale is a missionary who served in Papua. He struggled to introduce Christianity to the Yali tribe. This study uses the description of the technical literature. This research resulted in a description of the function of the building of Dokwi Vam and Kembu Vam contained in the novel Lord of-Ruler of the Earth works Don Richardson. Dokwi Vam used as a museum (where the old stuff to worship as they still follow animism, while the Kembu Vam serves as a temple / animism worship in Yali tribe. Penelitian ini membahas tentang fungsi bangunan Dokwi Vam dan Kembu Vam yang terdapat dalam novel Penguasa-Penguasa Bumi karya Don Richardson. Secara umum, novel ini bercerita tentang kehidupan Stan Dale dan suku Yali. Stan Dale adalah seorang missionaris yang melayani di Tanah Papua. Ia berjuang untuk memperkenalkan agama Nasrani kepada suku Yali. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskripsi dengan teknik studi pustaka. Penelitian ini menghasilkan deskripsi tentang fungsi bangunan Dokwi Vam dan Kembu Vam yang terdapat dalam novel Penguasa-Penguasa Bumi karya Don Richardson. Dokwi Vam digunakan sebagai museum (tempat barang-barang kuno untuk penyembahan karena mereka masih menganut kepercayaan animisme, sedangkan Kembu Vam berfungsi sebagai rumah peribadatan/penyembahan dalam kepercayaan animisme suku Yali.

  18. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  19. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  20. Get Thee Away, Knight, Be Gone, Cavalier: English Translations of the Biscayan Squire Episode in "Don Quixote de la Mancha"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes twelve English translations of the Biscayan squire's speech ("Don Quijote de la Mancha", Chapter Eight) published between 1612 and 2000. The solutions found fall into three categories, namely (a) using standard English and risking misrepresenting the style of the original and omitting relevant cultural connotations, (b) using…

  1. Beat the Odds...Why Some Schools With Latino Children Beat the Odds and Others Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the methodology of Jim Collins from his book "Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...and Other's Don't," the authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the Center for the Future of Arizona and the Morrison Institute, found 12 elementary and middle schools in Arizona--schools whose students are mostly Latino and…

  2. Naturally occurrence of Sr and Ca in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr and Ca occurring naturally in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The average concentration of Sr was around 7.5 ppm and the average Ca concentration was about 540 ppm. (author)

  3. Social and Political Activization of the Don Nobility in the Early 20th Century and “Noble Liberalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratolyubova Mariya Viktorovna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarity of the social, economic and legal status of the Don nobility influenced its political alertness and the opposition character of activity. The liberal wing supported the creation of a new world outlook system which was expected to provide the basis for transforming the political system by means of gradual transition to people’s representatives or constitutional form of government. The liberal landowners insisted on the introduction of zemstvo (district council, the solution of the Cossack issue; they strived for liberalization of the military and bureaucratic control of the Cossack troops and demanded the withdrawal of civil government agencies from the competence of the Military department. The liberal nobility actively supported the change of conditions of service for the Cossacks and pressed for easier draft obligation and releasing the Cossack troops from police duties which clashed with the military dignity. The conservative type of liberalism prevailed within the noble class of the DHR that distanced itself from both the left and the right political forces. The liberalism of the Don nobles was also a reflection of social and cultural peculiarities of the Cossacks. The social basis of the Don liberalism differed from the common Russian analogs. As the Cossack class was rather numerous at the Don, and its representatives made up quite an important part of the regional liberal corporation, they influenced its tactics and the political programming considerably.

  4. The experience of strengthening subsidence of the soil under the existing building in the city of Rostov-on-Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopov Albert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Described problem for multi-storey residential development in the city of Rostov-on-Don on collapsible soils. The analysis of the technical and technological peculiarities of solidification under conditions of maintained buildings. Examples of projects of consolidation subsidence of foundation soils of buildings in operation 50–70 years.

  5. Enfermedad y muerte de Don Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La lepra es una enfermedad que se caracteriza por la insidia de su presencia, su lenta evolución y la progresiva incapacidad que en sus víctimas causa.

    Esto y el temor que ha infundido desde tiempos bíblicos, han hecho que ante ella se haya mantenido una actitud ambivalente de negación hasta donde es posible y de rechazo irracional a quien la padece, por temor al contagio.

    Ejemplo de ello es el aura de sagrado misterio que envuelve la leyenda de los padecimientos del Adelantado don Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1509-1579, conquistador del Nuevo Reino de Granada y fundador de Santafé de Bogotá en el año de 1538, muerto a la edad, avanzada para la época, de setenta años.

    No se puede afirmar, en forma definitiva, que el conquistador fuera leproso. Se acepta, acogiendo el argumento de autoridad que tiene el primer historiador médico entre nosotros, don Pedro María Ibáñez, quien escribió en 1884, en las Memorias para la Historia de la Medicina en Santa Fe, que en “1579 falleció en la ciudad de Mariquita, y de mal de lepra o elefancía de los

    Coincide ello con lo que consigna don José María Vergara y Vergara en su Cuadro Cronológico de la Nueva Granada (hoi Estados Unidos de Colombia, desde los cipas hasta nuestros días (se ha conservado la ortografía usada a mediados del siglo XIX, preconizada por don Andrés Bello, estudio publicado en 1866, en que informa que a poco de posesionarse el tercer Presidente del Nuevo Reino, don Lope Díez Aux de Armendáriz: “ocurrió la muerte del adelantado Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada que tuvo lugar en Mariquita el 16 de febrero de 1579, a la edad de ochenta años no cumplidos (sic, i de enfermedad de lepra (…” (2.

    Estos conceptos fueron debatidos por contemporáneos de Vergara y de Ibáñez como el doctor Juan de Dios Carrasquilla aduciendo, entre otros argumentos, que la lepra no fue mencionada por los coetáneos del conquistador. Y que la sífilis, com

  6. "Gathering Facts for the End of the World": Don DeLillo's Archive of Global Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Collins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over his career, Don DeLillo grows to inhabit more complex and critical ideas about politics, capitalism, and strategies for opposition than the remote affect of his earlier work might suggest. As part of this project, he developed an advanced analysis of conditions under the global finance regimes gaining strength in the West. The author's papers at the Harry Ransom Center show that he arrived at this informed position through a program of independent research, his newspaper cuttings from this period vividly demonstrating reflections on the meaning of US global power. Once back in New York, his investment in public intellectual debates on the meaning of "terrorism" led to a characteristic but problematic emphasis on free speech as a political issue. More recently, his work has turned to sophisticated theoretical texts for increasingly subtle ideas about globalization and its opponents.

  7. Don Quijote goes to Hollywood: The rewrite of myth by Charles Chaplin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bautista Naranjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of Charlot, created by Charles Chaplin, rewrites the myth of don Quixote in silent movies. While sharing the roots of the picaresque tradition, they represent a harsh criticism of modernity in all its stages. A distinction has to be made between the plain vaudevillesque humor of Charlot in the brief comic strips from 1914 and its tragi-comical shaping in some short films from 1915 up to Modern Times (1936. Beyond their mere physical aspects and their hilarious exploits, an underlying tragic heroism and idealism lead them to uphold all good causes and to support the wronged ones while they also struggle for survival. Charlot combines the comic with the sublime and, as well as the ingenious hidalgo, his soul becomes gradually fuller, deeper and more human. For all these reasons, this character could be regarded as a “quixote” of the big screen.

  8. Le don gratuit. Le cas d'un établissement public

    OpenAIRE

    Barel , Yvan; Frémeaux , Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Disponible en ligne : http://www.annales.org/gc/2008/gc94/barel.pdf; La logique de la réciprocité est le cadre d'analyse dominant de la relation de travail. La logique du don/contredon s'inscrit dans ce même cadre de référence, en postulant qu'aucune relation d'échange ne peut survivre à une situation d'asymétrie trop forte (MAUSS, 1924). Mais elle ajoute une idée nouvelle en mettant en exergue le " tabou du calcul " (BOURDIEU, 1980) : le désir de contredon n'est pas toujours manifesté, ni mê...

  9. El don del agua, una obligacion moral y un interes de reconocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Quintana Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una discusión teórica en torno al análisis de la naturaleza y el interés de la economía del obsequio, así como el significado que tiene la práctica de donar agua en la sociedad.   Mediante el contraste argumentos y la referenciación de algunos casos empíricos, se concluye que el don del agua es una obligación moral en la esfera interpersonal, con un interés de acceso al reconocimiento social entre grupos humanos marginados del acceso al recurso. 

  10. Haplophyllum linifolium (L. G. Don fil: EAEn arriskuan dagoen landarearen kontserbazioa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Jáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haplophyllum linifolium (L. G. Don fil. Iberiar Penintsulako endemismoa da, Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoko flora mehatxatuaren zerrendan galtzeko arriskuan bezala katalogatzen dena. Ikerketa honen helburuak izan dira, batetik espezie honen hozidura protokoloak lortzea eta, bestetik, espezie horren hazien bideragarritasuna ikustea Tetrazolio Testaren bitartez. Horiek egitea ezinbestekoa zen espezie honen ex situ kontserbaziorako, baita landarearen hazkuntza egiteko ere etorkizunean in situ kontserbazio ekintzak egiteko, kasurako populazio indarketak. Alde batetik, lortutako hazien bideragarritasuna %64koa izan zen. Bestalde, hozidura protokolo egokienak zehaztu ziren, emaitzen analisi estatistikoa eginez R softwarearen bitartez, erregresio binomial logistikoaren ereduan oinarrituz. Lortutako hozidurak %43 eta %45 bitartekoak izan ziren, estratifikazio hotza (4ºC, 60 egun egin ondoren, ikasitako lau baldintzetan: 15ºC, 20ºC, 20/10ºC eta 25ºC, 12/12 ordu argi/iluntasun fotoperiodoekin.

  11. La Locura y el Buen Sentir de Don Quijote de la Mancha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2005-10-01

    La identidad de Alonso Quijano fue trazada borrosamente por Cervantes en la primera parte de su magistral novela. Tan sólo representa la imagen de uno de tantos hidalgos de una aldea española del siglo XVI: un hombre sencillo, bueno por antonomasia, “de complexión recia, seco de carnes, enjuto de rostro, gran madrugador y amigo de la caza”, y un lector fervoroso en sus horas de ocio y hastío que sólo llega a alcanzar con plenitud su identidad absoluta cuando tiene el vigor de transformarse en caballero andante de otros tiempos, en el Caballero de la Triste Figura como le llamó Sancho, en el valiente Caballero de la aventura de los leones, o simplemente en Don Quijote...

  12. A phantom extinction? New insights into extinction dynamics of the Don-hare Lepus tanaiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, S; Knapp, M; Flemmig, J; Hufthammer, A K; Kosintsev, P; Stiller, M; Hofreiter, M

    2010-09-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene transition was accompanied by a worldwide extinction event affecting numerous mammalian species. Several species such as the woolly mammoth and the giant deer survived this extinction wave, only to go extinct a few thousand years later during the Holocene. Another example for such a Holocene extinction is the Don-hare, Lepus tanaiticus, which inhabited the Russian plains during the late glacial. After being slowly replaced by the extant mountain hare (Lepus timidus), it eventually went extinct during the middle Holocene. Here, we report the phylogenetic relationship of L. tanaiticus and L. timidus based on a 339-basepair (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop. Phylogenetic tree- and network reconstructions do not support L. tanaiticus and L. timidus being different species. Rather, we suggest that the two taxa represent different morphotypes of a single species and the extinction of 'L. tanaiticus' represents the disappearance of a local morphotype rather than the extinction of a species.

  13. A propósito de don Andrés Bello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo Canal

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Al meditar en estos días sobre el insigne personaje de quien se conmemora el centenario de su fallecimiento -esto es de don Andrés Bello- al analizar su personalidad, estudiada y elogiada por tan autorizados y eruditos escritor es colombianos y extranjeros, al abrir de nuevo los muchos libros que contien en el variado conjunto de sus obras, se llega al convencimiento de que fue Bello como uno de aquellos grandes y brillantes varones del Renacimiento cuyas amplias facultades les hacían aptos para llegar al conocimiento de múltiples y variadas ramas del saber humano y para profundizar en ellas hasta llegar a constituirse en maestros y guías de las generaciones de su tiempo y de las que les sucedieron.

  14. War as Haiku: The Politics of Don DeLillo’s Late Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Shipe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of 'Underworld' (1997, Don DeLillo’s work has been cast largely in a minor key. In this essay, I will focus on 'Point Omega', the work that I believe most clearly illuminates the political implications of DeLillo’s late style as it tackles the consequences of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. More broadly, I hope to connect 'Point Omega' to the work of DeLillo’s contemporaries that have also speculated on the historical and political implications of the War on Terror. Centering on 'Point Omega', I am interested in how DeLillo has adopted a distinctive narrative form in his most recent fiction that frequently unsettles and complicates the historical narratives that he had established in his earlier work.

  15. Service quality improvement of ground staff at Don Mueang International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittichai Sricharoenpramong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to: 1 evaluate the service quality of the ground staff at Don Mueang International Airport (DMK, 2 compare the ground staff quality service perception of Thai passengers at DMK, and 3 provide guidelines for service quality improvement of the DMK airlines ground staff. A sample size of 400 Thai domestic passengers was accidentally selected at DMK. A questionnaire was used as a research tool for data collection. Five dimensions of service quality were evaluated: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. It was found that the service quality of ground staff was moderate. The highest dimension of service quality realization was tangibles, followed successively by reliability, assurance, empathy, and responsiveness. The passengers' perception of the ground staff's service quality varied by gender and age group. Guidelines were proposed for the improvement of ground staff service quality at DMK based on the findings. Keywords: airport, ground staff, quality of service

  16. Above-ground biomass equations for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Canga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to develop a model for above-ground biomass estimation for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias.Area of study: Asturias (NE of Spain.Material and methods: Different models were fitted for the different above-ground components and weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Finally, all the models were refitted simultaneously by use of Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (NSUR to ensure the additivity of biomass equations.Research highlights: A system of four biomass equations (wood, bark, crown and total biomass was develop, such that the sum of the estimations of the three biomass components is equal to the estimate of total biomass. Total and stem biomass equations explained more than 92% of observed variability, while crown and bark biomass equations explained 77% and 89% respectively.Keywords: radiata pine; plantations; biomass.

  17. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the organizations in the contemporary knowledge economy are organized as professional partnerships as is the case of professional service firms (PSFs). As these firms have grown larger (e. g. Big4: Deloitte, PwC, E&Y, KPMG), the way of organizing is under pressure...... for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...... organization of work, the changing partner and manager roles and basic changes in the HR-model. The dilemma the paper highlights is the tension between a still more centralized and efficiency oriented management and the basic need for development of professional human resources and leadership. The paper sees...

  18. Size, Albedo, and Taxonomy of the Don Quijote Space Mission Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Rendezvous and lander missions are a very effective but very expensive way of investigating Solar-System bodies. The planning, optimization and success of space missions depends crucially on prior remotely-sensed knowledge of target bodies. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), which are mainly fragments of main-belt asteroids, are seen as important goals for investigation by space missions, mainly due to the role their forebears played in planet formation and the evolution of the Solar System, but also for the pragmatic reason that these objects can collide with the Earth with potentially devastating consequences. The European Space Agency is currently planning the Don Quijote mission to a NEA, which includes a rendezvous (and perhaps a lander) spacecraft and an impactor vehicle. The aim is to study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of the impact on its dynamical state, as a first step in considering realistic mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous NEA. Two potential targets have been selected for the mission, the preferred one being (10302) 1989 ML, which is energetically easier to reach and is possibly a scientifically interesting primitive asteroid. However, due to the ambiguity of available spectral data, it is currently not possible to confidently determine the taxonomic type and mineralogy of this object. Crucially, the albedo is uncertain by a factor of 10, which leads to large uncertainties in the size and mass and hence the planned near-surface operations of Don Quijote. Thermal-infrared observations are urgently required for accurate size and albedo determination. These observations, which can only be carried out by Spitzer and would require only a modest amount of observing time, would enable an accurate diameter to be derived for the first time and the resulting albedo would remove the taxonomic ambiguity. The proposed Spitzer observations are critical for effective mission planning and would greatly increase our

  19. Evaluation of the clinical maxim: "If it ain't broke, don't fix it".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell-Duffy, Chris; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Irving, Elizabeth L; Mouat, Graham S V; Elliott, David B

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of patients return to optometric practice dissatisfied with their spectacles. An important question is whether any of these cases are preventable. There are several different clinical maxims that are used to modify the subjective refraction when determining the refractive prescription. These maxims aim to improve patient comfort and adaptation and thereby reduce patient dissatisfaction with new spectacles. They are not based on research evidence, but rather on expert opinion gained from clinical experience. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze a large number of case records of dissatisfied patients to assess the possible usefulness of the prescribing maxim "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." Three hundred eighteen non-tolerance cases from a university-based Canadian optometric clinic were categorized by a focus group of optometrists. Three prescribing categories were defined and comprised cases in which application of the proposed maxim may have prevented the recheck eye examination; a more limited application of the maxim for one working distance may have been appropriate; and finally scenarios in which the maxim did not work in that the practitioner was judged to have initially followed the maxim, yet patient dissatisfaction was still reported. The remaining unallocated records comprised prescribing situations outside the scope of this study. Approximately 32% of non-tolerance cases were judged to have been preventable by use of the proposed maxim. Furthermore, an additional 10% reduction in recheck cases may have been possible by a more liberal interpretation of the maxim. Conversely, 4% of cases were deemed to comprise scenarios in which the maxim was followed yet the patient returned later to report problems with their spectacles. The prescribing maxim "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" appears to have a role in reducing recheck eye examinations and improving patient satisfaction with new spectacles.

  20. El Quijote y el fenómeno del quijotismo (Don Quixote and Quixotism Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ruiz Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Estudia el presente artículo el fenómeno del quijotismo, ingrediente de la razón, y, por tanto, del comportamiento humano. Pero distingue entre el error del quijotismo estático y el sano proceder del dinámico. Para ello se vale del concepto de razón vital de Ortega y Gasset, así como del Quijote. Con respecto al primero, amplía la utilización que de la magna obra podía haber hecho y no hizo el ilustre filósofo. Y sobre el segundo, destaca sus insuficiencias de contenido, por no haber alcanzado el quijotismo dinámico, es decir, porque, queriendo criticar el idealismo desmedido del caballero manchego, termina por proponer otro quijote. De cualquier forma, el artículo señala cómo el irónico fenómeno del quijotismo no es un juego, para lo cual discute ciertas interpretaciones recientes del Quijote.Abstract: This article studies Quixotism phenomenon, ingredient of vital reason, and, consequently, of human behaviour. However, it distinguishes between the mistake of static quixotism and the right conduct of the dynamic one. In order to do so, it makes use of Ortega y Gasset's concept of Vital Reason, and Don Quixote’s as well. Concerning the first one, it highlights the insufficiency of its content since it has not fulfilled the dynamic quixotism, that is to say, because, with the intention to criticize La Mancha’s Knight’s excessive idealism, it ends up proposing other quixotic person. Anyway, this article points out how the ironic quixotism phenomenon is not a game, for which reason it discusses certain Don Quixote’s recent interpretations.

  1. Effets oestrogéniques du macéré aqueux des feuilles de Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz chez la rate ovariectomisée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawadogo l;

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogenic effects of macerated aqueous extracts of the leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz on ovariectomized rat. Estrogenic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda have been evaluated by uterotrophic assay. Ovariectomized mice were used and treated subcutaneously during seven days with 50, 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda and with 100, 200 mg.kg-1 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda plus 25 mg.kg-1 of oestradiol 17-β. Estrogenic activity was analysed by uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein and cholesterol level in uteri horn. Administration of extracts to the doses of 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 exhibits increase of uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein levels and decrease of level of cholesterol in uterine horn. The results suggest that, aqueous extracts of Holarrhena fl oribunda possesses estrogenic type effect. But when 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 of Holarrhena fl oribunda were given alone with 25 mg.kg-1 of estradiol 17-β, the estrogenic effect was slight. These results supposed that H. fl oribunda is a weak phytoestrogen and the aqueous extracts of the leaves behad as partial agonistic

  2. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  3. Diseño del código de convivencia para el Colegio Técnico Salesiano Don Bosco - Kennedy

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Acosta, Andrea Anabel; Puga Reyes, Denis Gicela

    2013-01-01

    The Coexistence’s Code delivered to The Don Bosco Technical Salesian High School, is an instrument that is going to work as moral and ethical framework to govern and regulate relationships between each member of the educational community so that they can achieved institutional objectives presents in Institutional Educational Project. El presente Código de Convivencia entregado al Colegio Técnico Salesiano “Don Bosco” – Kennedy; es un instrumento que funcionara como marco referencial, moral...

  4. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces; Aplicacion de la radiacion gamma en la deteccion de nudos en piezas de madera de Pino Radiata (D.Don)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J R; Dinator, Maria I [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Karsulovic C, Jose T; Leon G, Adolfo [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Tecnologia de la Madera

    1997-12-31

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author). 7 refs.

  5. Mitigation-relevant science with Don Quijote - a European-led mission to a near-Earth asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.; Galvez, A.; Benz, W.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Green, S. F.; Michel, P.; Valsecchi, G.; Paetzold, M.; Haeusler, B.; Carnelli, I.

    The Don Quijote concept includes a rendezvous spacecraft and an impactor vehicle The main aim of the mission is to carry out an experiment to demonstrate the modification of a near-Earth asteroid s orbit in a controlled way as a first step in establishing mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous object In particular the spacecraft would study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of a kinetic impact on its dynamical state It is also expected that some spacecraft resources will be available for more general solar-system science investigations The Don Quijote mission is currently at the phase-A stage during which a number of European consortia of industrial and scientific partners will study its technical feasibility and potential scientific return The basic mission concept current scientific issues and the possibilities for international participation in the mission will be discussed

  6. Don Quixote and the Auditor from México: a disagreement between a knight and a gentleman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Mayer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Don Quixote’s first adventure, the combat with the Basque, and his last one, in which he meets the Auditor, both deal with a «knight»/gentleman who is leaving for the West Indies. The opposite pole of the Manchego knight is the gentleman appointed to the Audience of New Spain, ca. 1600, during Lerma’s Privacy. This lawyer/auditor hears two «cases»: the «strange humor» of the Manchegan, as told by the priest who has found an anonymous manuscript; and the «unnexpected business» of his future son-in-law, who will accompany him to Mexico, heir to a title. The Oidor’s discreet proceedings contrast with Don Quixote’s open proclaims, thus serving as key to a bicostal (Spain/Indies reading of the

  7. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Immunomodulatory Effects of Flavonoids and Scutebarbatines of Scutellaria barbata D. Don in Lewis-Bearing C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory effect has been found to be an important therapeutic measure for immune responses against cancer. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB, an anti-inflammatory and an antitumor Chinese herb, including flavonoids and scutebarbatines on tumor growth and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo. HPLC and LC/MS/MS methods were conducted for the analysis of flavonoids and scutebarbatines in SB. Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice model was established and tumor volume was evaluated by high frequency color ultrasound experiment. ELISA and western blot analysis were performed for the determination of immunomodulatory factors. SB treatment at the dose of 10, 6.67, and 3.33 g crude drug/kg/d significantly inhibited tumor growth of Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice with the inhibition rates of 44.41±5.44%, 33.56±4.85%, and 27.57±4.96%, respectively. More importantly, the spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably by SB treatment. SB could decrease IL-17, IL-10, FOXP3, TGF-β1, RORγt, and IL-6 levels whereas it could increase remarkably IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Our results demonstrated that SB could inhibit tumor growth in vivo through regulating immune function in tumor-bearing mice and suggested that the immunomodulatory function of SB had a potential therapeutic effect in lung cancer.

  8. Measurement of injected Sr in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr injected into the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The Sr injected into the middle of the sapwood of the cedar stem moved upwards easily along the grain. The Sr in the stem moved in a radial direction in the sapwood section (assumed to be through the ray) and there was almost no tangential movement. (author)

  9. Condition and Organization of Everyday Life in the Military Units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts (1942–1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Khlynina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to various aspects of the condition and organization of the everyday life of military units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts in 1942–1943 years. The looks of the questions of food and clothing supplies, ensure domestic needs and recreation. At the base of the article are documents of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, recorded memories participants in the events of that time, published sources.

  10. Preparation and analysis of carbonization products from Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) wood; Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) zai no tanka seiseibutsu no chosei to bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Matsushita, Y.; Sugamoto, K.; Tokuda, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kodama, K.; Nakata, K.; Oda, M.; Yamauchi, H. [Miyazaki Prefectural Institute of Industrial Technology, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    The material balance of carbonization products (wood-gas, wood-vinegar, wood-tar and charcoal) prepared from the sapwood and the heartwood of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) at various temperatures was determined. The evolution of both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide mainly occurred at the carbonization temperature below 600 degree C and that of hydrogen and methane at 600-800 degree C. Total yield of the wood-vinegar and the wood-tar was almost constant at 500-800 degree C. On the other hand, the yield of the charcoal decreased because of the evolution of the wood gas with an increase in carbonization temperature. The wood-vinegars prepared at the temperature over 400 degree C were found to consist of carboxylic acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid, methanol, acetone, furans, alkylphenols, guaiacols, cyclotene and maltol by capillary gas chromatography. Since the constituent varieties and contents of the wood-vinegars prepared at both 400 degree C and 800 degree C were very similar each other, the wood-vinegar of Sugi wood chiefly produced below 400 degree C. FT-IR spectra of the charcoals showed the generation of carbonyl and olefin groups at 300-400 degree C and then the formation of aromatic rings along with the disappearance of carbonyl groups over 600 degree C. The production of radical species in the charcoals carbonized at 300-600 degree C was observed by ESR, on the contrary, the charcoals carbonized over 700 degree C were inactive. The specific surface area and the pore volume of the charcoal of Sugi sapwood increased with an increase in carbonization temperature. The pH of charcoal-dispersed aqueous solution increased with an increase in carbonization temperature. The high adsorptive activity of the charcoal carbonized at 400 degree C for ammonia gas and that at 800 degree C for hydrogen sulfide gas seemed to be dependent on acidic and basic properties of the charcoals, respectively. (author)

  11. Chivalry, Materialism, and the Grotesque in Don Quijote and Alberto Blest Gana’s El ideal de un calavera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses chivalry, materialism, and the grotesque in Alberto Blest Gana’s El ideal de un calavera [The Ideal of a Rogue] (1863 under the light of Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quijote’s part II (1615. It underscores the legacy of Cervantes on the Chilean author especially in his reflections on nation building. Unlike its author, Don Quijote eluded restriction and successfully reached the colonies; once there, author and text became a massive influence on intellectuals in the burgeoning Americas. Blest Gana, for example, created protagonists who were multi-dimensional and imbued with quixotic overtones. Praised by his counterparts, he created work that was finely detailed, with a goal of portraying the nation’s cultural practices at specifics points in history. Deploying techniques inspired by Honore de Balzac (also a reader of Don Quijote, Blest Gana illustrated the colourful aspects of his society. His sharp eye depicted and interpreted nationhood and society through the course of dramatic historical events in El ideal de un calavera by shining a bright light on the political and social enemies who emerged in the historical unravelling of the nation in the 1830s. The resulting kaleidoscope of astute, idealistic and cowardly individuals conveyed subtle yet definite Cervantesque tones.

  12. El arzobispado de Don Gonzalo de Aguilar en Santiago de Compostela (1348-1351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Sánchez, Xosé M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 14th century the prelature of Santiago de Compostela is occupied by Don Gonzalo de Aguilar, archbishop transferred from Sigüenza and whose pontificate is extended between 1348 and 1351, when he is transferred to Toledo. He is a figure that remained until now in the complete darkness of the history of the Compostellan church, disappearing in fact, in many cases, of the historical considerations, that they avoided him or simply they did not have noticed of his figure, extending the bordering prelatures (Peter V and Gómez Manrique until eliminate his one. It responds to the completely absence of sources and mentions in the Compostellan archives; in order to palliate this fact, we resorted to the bibliography of other seats and, specially, to the sources of the Vatican Secret Archive, with whose aid we can form one first, new and relatively complete vision of its reign in Santiago.

    A mediados del siglo XIV ocupa el arzobispado de Santiago de Compostela Don Gonzalo de Aguilar, prelado trasladado desde Sigüenza y cuyo pontificado se extiende entre los años 1348 y 1351, momento en que es promovido a Toledo. Se trata de una figura que permanecía hasta ahora en la completa penumbra de la historia de la iglesia compostelana, hasta el punto de haber desaparecido en muchos casos de las consideraciones históricas, que obviaban o simplemente desconocían su figura, extendiendo las prelaturas limítrofes, las de Pedro V y Gómez Manrique, hasta eliminar la suya. Ello responde a la completa falta de fuentes y menciones existente en los archivos compostelanos. Para paliar este hecho, recurrimos tanto a la bibliografía de otras sedes como, especialmente, a las fuentes del Archivo Secreto Vaticano, con cuya ayuda podemos configurar una primera, novedosa y relativamente completa visión de su gobierno en Santiago.

  13. [Eating habits, physical activity and socioeconomic level in university students of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fernando; Palma, Ximen; Romo, Angela; Escobar, Daniela; Aragú, Bárbara; Espinoza, Luis; McMillan, Norman; Gálvez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    University students are vulnerable to poor nutrition; they don't eat snacks between meals, don't eat breakfast or fast for long hours, prefer fast food and don't exercise. University students is considered the key young adult population group for health promotion and prevention for future generations, so it's crucial identify the current nutritional status and frequency of physical activity. To determine the factors involved in the choice of food and frequency of physical activity in university students. 799 volunteers were evaluated from four universities of the fifth region of Chile. Instrument was applied to determine the level of physical activity and eating habits, KIDMED test to determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet and Adimark instrument to determinate the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Finally, anthropometric evaluation to determinate BMI, fat mass and muscle mass. Physical inactivity is higher in women than in men and that the main reason for not exercising is lack of time and laziness. In both sexes don't read nutrition labels and have a low and average adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The low knowledge of nutrition is the cause of the poor food quality of subjects and there isn't greater motivation to perform physical activity.Socioeconomic status isn't related to eating habits and physical activity. It's necessary to integrate programs regular and permanent healthy lifestyle in all universities. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. El infante don Gabriel y el impresor Ibarra en la obra cumbre del Salustio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaechea Labayen, Juan B.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En la obra conocida como el «Salustio de Ibarra», considerada por especialistas domésticos y foráneos como la mejor impresa en España, convergen circunstancias relevantes debidas a la participación intelectual del infante don Gabriel de Borbón y la eficiencia técnica de Joaquín Ibarra. El autor reivindica la autenticidad de los textos atribuidos al infante contra cierto escepticismo sembrado en razón de la elevada alcurnia de la atribución. Seguidamente, se realiza el análisis de las cualidades técnicas de la impresión, eminentes en una época de esplendor del arte impresorio, y en cuya confección colaboraron los más descollantes artistas del buril de aquel período considerado de triunfo de la estampa ilustrada.

  15. The Presence of Don Quijote in the Beginnings of the Special Education in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez Díaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the presence of the work of Cervantes, “Don Quijote de la Mancha”, in the unique establishments existing in Galicia at the beginning of the 20th century, dedicated to special education. According to this claim, reference is made to two significant anniversaries in the dissemination of the work. The first one corresponds to the commemoration of the third centenary of the birth of the Cuisse. In this Establishment one would organize in the year 1905, in the free School of blind persons and poor children of To Corunna. A very complete festival as appears in the content of the program, which has recovered of the historical municipal file of the above mentioned city. The second event, refers to the presentation of the novel by Cervantes, written in Braille. Quite a challenge for teachers in special schools of the time, as the College of deaf and blind from Santiago de Compostela, the first school for the teaching of these students, which is established in Spain for the purposes of the law of public instruction of 1857, will assume early.

  16. Development and characterization of a green procedure for apigenin extraction from Scutellaria barbata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chiao; Wei, Ming-Chi

    2018-06-30

    This study compared the use of ultrasound-assisted supercritical CO 2 (USC-CO 2 ) extraction to obtain apigenin-rich extracts from Scutellaria barbata D. Don with that of conventional supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) extraction and heat-reflux extraction (HRE), conducted in parallel. This green procedure yielded 20.1% and 31.6% more apigenin than conventional SC-CO 2 extraction and HRE, respectively. Moreover, the extraction time required by the USC-CO 2 procedure, which used milder conditions, was approximately 1.9 times and 2.4 times shorter than that required by conventional SC-CO 2 extraction and HRE, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical solubility of apigenin in the supercritical fluid system was obtained from the USC-CO 2 dynamic extraction curves and was in good agreement with the calculated values for the three empirical density-based models. The second-order kinetics model was further applied to evaluate the kinetics of USC-CO 2 extraction. The results demonstrated that the selected model allowed the evaluation of the extraction rate and extent of USC-CO 2 extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Don Cossack Army Charters of the Mid 18th Century Via the Category of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaylovna Sheptukhina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the language means of modality in the texts of military charters of the mid 18th cent. from the "Mikhailovsky stanitza hetman" archive (State Achieve of Volgograd Region. Military charters used to be major documents of legislation within Don Cossack Host, as being at that time an administrative unit in the territory of Russian Empire. The results of the contextual analysis verify the following facts: the charter texts are mainly characterized by an imperative tone of regulation that is caused by coordination between dominant meanings of a propositional (situational modality of necessity and pragmatic modality of volition, that are thought to be interrelated in utterances. The modal meaning of necessity is marked by the verbal construction with an independent infinitive or the combinations of modal verbs (imet' / possess; nadlezhat' / be to, modal predicatives with a dependent infinitive (dolzhen, nadobno, etc. / must (have to. Modality of volition is presented with a set of lexical units that possess the meanings of ordering, permission, offers, verbal forms that are used as performatives, or point to the status of a subject, etc. The texts under study represent some other modal meanings: possibility (with the words moch' / be able to; mozhno / could / may combined with an infinitive, in subordinate clauses with a particle li (if / wether, etc. in an interrogative clauses. In complex sentences with subordination combinations of various modal meanings are observed.

  18. Don't be such a scientist talking substance in an age of style

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Randy

    2009-01-01

    How to relate scientific information in a way that entertains and enlightens? After twenty years as a marine biologist, a Ph.D. from Harvard, a tenured professorship at the University of New Hampshire, and more than twenty published research papers, why is Dr. Randy Olson telling readers, 'Don't Be Such a Scientist'? The hard-earned advice comes from a fifteen-year career transition to filmmaking, culminating in the acclaimed documentaries "Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus" and "Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy". In his first book, Olson makes clear what those glued to their microscopes and climate models may not recognize: the general public doesn't speak science. For better or worse, most of us rely not on intellect, but on what Olson terms the organs of mass communication: the heart, the gut, and even 'the lower organs'. Why else do some still question the existence of global warming or evolution when the evidence is irrefutable? Drawing on his own hilarious - and at times humiliating...

  19. Nuclear power plant transient diagnostics using artificial neural networks that allow ''don't-know'' classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, Y.; Lin, J.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear power plant's (NPP's) status is usually monitored by a human operator. Any classifier system used to enhance the operator's capability to diagnose a safety-critical system like an NPP should classify a novel transient as ''don't-know'' if it is not contained within its accumulated knowledge base. In particular, the classifier needs some kind of proximity measure between the new data and its training set. Artificial neural networks have been proposed as NPP classifiers, the most popular ones being the multilayered perceptron (MLP) type. However, MLPs do not have a proximity measure, while learning vector quantization, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), and some others do. This proximity measure may also serve as an explanation to the classifier's decision in the way that case-based-reasoning expert systems do. The capability of a PNN network as a classifier is demonstrated using simulator data for the three-loop 436-MW(electric) Westinghouse San Onofre unit 1 pressurized water reactor. A transient's classification history is used in an ''evidence accumulation'' technique to enhance a classifier's accuracy as well as its consistency

  20. Cellular modelling of secondary radial growth in conifer trees: application to Pinus radiata (D. Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Loïc; Demongeot, Jacques; Demongeota, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    The radial growth of conifer trees proceeds from the dynamics of a merismatic tissue called vascular cambium or cambium. Cambium is a thin layer of active proliferating cells. The purpose of this paper was to model the main characteristics of cambial activity and its consecutive radial growth. Cell growth is under the control of the auxin hormone indole-3-acetic. The model is composed of a discrete part, which accounts for cellular proliferation, and a continuous part involving the transport of auxin. Cambium is modeled in a two-dimensional cross-section by a cellular automaton that describes the set of all its constitutive cells. Proliferation is defined as growth and division of cambial cells under neighbouring constraints, which can eliminate some cells from the cambium. The cell-growth rate is determined from auxin concentration, calculated with the continuous model. We studied the integration of each elementary cambial cell activity into the global coherent movement of macroscopic morphogenesis. Cases of normal and abnormal growth of Pinus radiata (D. Don) are modelled. Abnormal growth includes deformed trees where gravity influences auxin transport, producing heterogeneous radial growth. Cross-sectional microscopic views are also provided to validate the model's hypothesis and results.

  1. Performance of a new 3D-only PET scanner - the EXACT3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bailey, D.L.; Miller, M.

    1996-01-01

    Characteristics of currently the highest sensitivity 3D-only PET scanner (CTI/Siemens 966/EXACT3D) have been studied. The device has 48 rings (82cm diameter) of BGO detector elements (4.0 x 4.1 x 30mm, 8 x 8 block) and an axial FOV of 23.4cm. Attenuation correction is carried out with a point source of 137 Cs which moves under hydraulic pressure in a helical tube. Transaxial resolution is 4.7mm 1cm from the centre of the FOV increasing, in the radial direction to 6.3mm and 7.3mm at 10cm and 15cm. At a lower threshold of 350keV, the scatter fraction is 40%. With scatter subtracted, the efficiency (20cm cylinder) is 6.9 x 104 cps/kBq/ml (maximum ring difference of 40); the absolute sensitivity is 5.8%. In the current configuration, the maximum total coincidence event rate is limited to about 3 x 10 6 per sec. The maximum trues rate is about 850kcps (90MBq in the FOV). List mode acquisition has been implemented to maximize temporal resolution and optimize data storage. The more open geometry of this device gives a broader singles FOV. Hence administered doses and/or additional side-shielding need to be carefully considered to optimize noise-equivalent counts

  2. Visual Grading and Structural Properties Assessment of Large Cross-Section Pinus radiata D. Don Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hermoso Prieto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of large cross-section timber for structural purposes has increased in Spain, and knowledge of its properties is strategically necessary. The Spanish visual strength-grading standard UNE 56544 (2011 efficiency applied to large cross-section structural timber was analyzed using a sample of 363 specimens of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don. from the Basque Country and Catalonia, Spain. Different sizes were tested (80 × 120 × 2400 mm3, 150 × 250 × 5600 mm3, 150 × 250 × 4300 mm3, and 200 × 250 × 5000 mm3. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and density were obtained, and characteristic values were determined in order to assign strength class according to European standard EN 338 (2010. Knots and twists were the most relevant singularities for visual strength grading. It was concluded that large cross-section Spanish radiata pine timber was suitable for structures, and it was assigned to the C20 strength class.

  3. 60 years of CERN at UNESCO | Don't miss the webcast! | 1 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Don't miss the live webcast of the commemoration ceremony, marking the signature of the CERN Convention. The ceremony will be held at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris on 1 July, from 10 a.m.   To watch the webcast, please visit: http://webcast.web.cern.ch/webcast/ from 10 a.m. Programme 10 a.m. - 11 a.m.: Opening of Ceremony by Maciej Nalecz, Director of the Division of Science Policy and Capacity Building, UNESCO   Address by Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO   Address by Rolf Heuer, Director-General of CERN   Video clip “CERN: 60 years of science for peace”   Address by Agnieszka Zalewska, President of the CERN Council   Hommage à François de Rose, un des pères fondateurs du CERN, par sa fille Laurence Rousselot   CERN as seen by a young phycisist, Claire Lee (ATLAS Collaboration) 11 a.m. - 12 p.m.: Roundtable discussion on “Science for...

  4. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Salacia crassifolia (mart. Ex. Schult. G. Don. evaluated by Ames test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult. G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+ in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05, suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05, demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it’s possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.

  5. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  6. The Nazarov Complex of the Lower Don: on Zoroastrianism of the Khazar Ethnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Ilyukov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the early medieval antiquities of the Lower Don basin, two funerary complexes are of interest. One was accidentally discovered in 1914 in the Cossack village Nazarov, and the other – near the settlement Bolshaya Orlovka in 1972. Based upon the Byzantine solidities, found in their inventory, they date from the first half of the 8th century. Two iron lamps in the form of bowls on a high leg were found in these funerary complexes along with a diverse and prestigious inventory. In addition to them, two iron composite altars of different sizes were found in the Bolshaya Orlovka. In the early medieval burial mound near the Brusyana village in the Volga region a solidcast iron lamp-altar was found, consisting of a bowl in the form of a concave disc on a long leg, which was welded in the center of a hexagonal bowl with low straight sides and a flat bottom. Short legs are located at its three corners. Typologically Brusian discovery was later then those of the Nazarov and the Bolshaya Orlovka. It unites the altar, consisting of threebowls with low straight bows and a flat bottom, with a lamp. Short legs are located at its three corners of the bowls. These were specific bowls that were used to carry fire during rituals of steppe nomads who had close cultural contacts with the fire worshipers of Sasanid Iran, whose population professed Zoroastrianism.

  7. DOC and DON Dynamics along the Bagmati Drainage Network in Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, M. P.; McDowell, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    We studied organic matter dynamics and inorganic chemistry of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu valley, Nepal, to understand the influence of human and geochemical processes on chemical loads along the drainage system. Population density appears to be the most fundamental control on the chemistry of surface waters within the Bagmati drainage system. DOC concentration increases 10-fold with distance downstream (from 2.38 to 23.95 mg/L) and shows a strong relationship with human population density. The composition of river water (nutrients, Cl) suggests that sewage effluent to the river has a major effect on water quality. Concentrations were highest during summer, and lowest during the winter monsoon season. In contrast to DOC, DON concentration shows surprisingly little variation, and tends to decrease in concentration with distance downstream. Ammonium contributes almost all nitrogen in the total dissolved nitrogen fraction and the concentration of nitrate is negligible, probably due to rapid denitrification within the stream channel under relatively low-oxygen conditions. Decreases in sulfate along the stream channel may also be due to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide due to the heavy organic matter loading. Water quality is unacceptable for any use and the whole ecosystem is severely affected within the urban areas. Based on a comparison of downstream and upstream water quality, it appears that human activities along the Bagmati, principally inputs of human sewage, are largely responsible for the changes in surface water chemistry within Kathmandu valley.

  8. Analysis of the Gaia RVS Region in ESPaDOnS Spectra of Asteroseismic Calibration Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesa, Oana; Huber, Daniel; Gaidos, Eric

    2018-01-01

    While surface gravity can be measured from asteroseismology, asteroseismology cannot be applied to every star. Surface gravity is a critical stellar parameter because it can be used to calculate the radii of stars, which is important in the characterization of host stars of exoplanets. Here we present spectroscopic observations from ESPaDOnS on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope of 172 benchmark “gold standard” stars observed by the NASA Kepler Mission for which densities and surface gravities have been precisely measured using asteroseismology. The goal is to discover an empirical correlation between the equivalent width of the spectral lines in the infrared Ca II triplet region (from 8470 to 8710 angstroms) against surface gravity and other stellar parameters, such as effective temperature and metallicity. The Mg I line at 8736 angstroms has the best potential to be an indicator of surface gravity so far out of the spectral lines in this region with equivalent width increasing slightly as a function of surface gravity; however, degeneracies with effective temperature and metallicity need to be explored further. If a true indicator for surface gravity can be found, then it can to be applied to the R~11000 Gaia radial velocity spectra, which will be released for millions of stars over the coming years.

  9. Shattering Man’s Fundamental Assumptions in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim Adnan Hashim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses effects of traumatic events such as the September 11 attacks on victims’ fundamental assumptions. These beliefs or assumptions provide individuals with expectations about the world and their sense of self-worth. Thus, they ground people’s sense of security, stability, and orientation. The September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. were very tragic for Americans because this fundamentally changed their understandings about many aspects in life. The attacks led many individuals to build new kind of beliefs and assumptions about themselves and the world. Many writers have written about the human ordeals that followed this incident. Don DeLillo’s Falling Man reflects the traumatic repercussions of this disaster on Americans’ fundamental assumptions. The objective of this study is to examine the novel from the traumatic perspective that has afflicted the victims’ fundamental understandings of the world and the self. Individuals’ fundamental understandings could be changed or modified due to exposure to certain types of events like war, terrorism, political violence or even the sense of alienation. The Assumptive World theory of Ronnie Janoff-Bulman will be used as a framework to study the traumatic experience of the characters in Falling Man. The significance of the study lies in providing a new perception to the field of trauma that can help trauma victims to adopt alternative assumptions or reshape their previous ones to heal from traumatic effects.

  10. Don Draper Thinks Your Ad Is Cliché: Fairy Tale Iconography in TV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Wittwer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When examining the history of fairy tale iconography in advertising, folklore scholar Donald Haase’s fairy tale encyclopedia compared the Pied Piper of Hamelin to a symbol of advertising who could “play his pipe ever so sweetly and the consumers following him without resisting his charming and manipulative music.” In contrast, a 2012 episode of Mad Men, advertising luminary Don Draper shoots down a shoe commercial pitch featuring Cinderella, calling the idea “cliché”. The temptation for advertisers to rely on fairy tale figures and iconography continues today and many ignore Don’s aversion for cliché because it still gets the job done. However, there are some ads featuring fairy tales which avoid cliché and are truly innovative for their time. I’ll examine how, and for whom, these fairy tale figures have been adapted decade by decade in order to examine popular culture’s commercialized and hypnotic relationship with fairy tales in the most direct format available: television commercials.

  11. "Don't know" answers concerning somatic disease status should not be regarded as "no" responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumeister, Harald

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to patients' self-reported somatic diseases some researchers transformed “don't know (DK” responses into “no” responses. The present study examines the appropriateness of this procedure. Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS, which assessed both self-reported diseases and physician-diagnosed diseases (N = 7124. Prevalence rates of persons’ DK responses and the corresponding prevalences of physicians’ diagnoses were calculated for persons with hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, heart failure, asthma, chronic bronchitis, thyroid disease, diabetes, cancer, gout, arthrosis, arthritis and osteoporosis. Correlates of physicians' diagnosed diseases of DK cases are reported. Results: Between 1.6% and 9.8% of the participants responded with DK to the question of whether they have the disease. In 3.7% to 29.5% of DK cases, the physicians did regard the respective disease as being present. With regard to persons who responded with DK, the probability of a physicians' diagnosis was increased in the case of increased age and a higher number of somatic comorbidities. Conclusion: The procedure of transforming DK responses into “no” answers does not appear to be recommendable.

  12. Evaluation of Chitosan and Cellulosic Polymers as Binding Adsorbent Materials to Prevent Aflatoxin B1, Fumonisin B1, Ochratoxin, Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol, and Zearalenone Mycotoxicoses Through an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Model for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Solís-Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary toxic metabolites that are produced by fungi representing threats to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Chitosan (CHI, and three cellulosic polymers (HPMC, CMC, and MCC, on six mycotoxins (AFB1; FUB1; OTA; T-2; DON; and, ZEA using an in vitro digestive model for poultry. The adsorbent capacity of the materials in the supernatant of each compartment was evaluated by a non-competitive chemiluminescent assay. Control groups with no adsorbent material had an adsorption value of 0.00% against all six mycotoxins that were evaluated. All four materials tested showed significant (p < 0.05 binding activity against all of the mycotoxins when compared with the control non-treated group. However HPMC, CMC, and MCC showed better adsorbent capacity when compared with CHI.

  13. Regulation of metabolic products and gene expression in Fusarium asiaticum by agmatine addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tadahiro; Kim, Young-Kyung; Yoshioka, Hifumi; Iwahashi, Yumiko

    2013-05-01

    The metabolic products resulting from the cultivation of F. asiaticum in agmatine were identified using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. Glyoxylic acid was detected from fungal cultures grown in agmatine, while it was absent in control cells. The abundance of other metabolic products of the glycolytic pathway also increased because of agmatine; however, there was no increase in the amounts of pyruvic acid or metabolites from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Moreover, gene expression levels within Fusarium asiaticum exposed to agmatine were analyzed by DNA microarray. Changes in gene expression levels directed the changes in metabolic products. Our results suggest that acetyl coenzyme A, which is a starting substrate for the biosynthesis of deoxynivalenol (DON), was simultaneously produced by activated β-oxidation. Furthermore, the content of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) was increased in the agmatine addition culture medium. GABA can be synthesized from agmatine through putrescine and might influence the regulation of DON-related genes.

  14. The fungal myosin I is essential for Fusarium toxisome formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium spp. To date, relatively few studies have addressed how mycotoxin biosynthesis occurs in fungal cells. Here we found that myosin I governs translation of DON bi...

  15. FUNGAL AND MICOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN MIXED FEEDS: EVALUATING RISK IN CATTLE INTENSIVE REARING OPERATIONS (FEEDLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaglieri LR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is the fourth global beef producer. Exposure to mycotoxins through contaminated feed is a major hazard for ruminants. In the present study we assess mycobiota, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, fumonisin B1 (FB1, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA levels in total mixed rations (TMRs during two consecutive years. Total fungal counts were evaluated and fungal species were identified. Also, ability of A. flavus isolates to produce AFB1 in vitro was tested. Natural contamination with AFB1 and FB1 was quantified by HPLC. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were analysed by immunochromatography and thinlayer chromatogra- phy (TLC, respectively. Fungal counts varied from not detectable (ND to 2.10 x 108 CFU g-1. The prevalent genera were Aspergillus spp (60 % and Fusarium spp (66.7 %, respectively The prevalent species was Aspergillus fumigatus. 50 % of A. flavus strains produced 75 to 112.5 μg g-1 AFB1. 46 % of 2007 samples were contaminated with 4 to 10 μg kg-1 AFB1. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 33.3 % of the samples (≥ 1. 25 μg g-1. Fumonisin B1 and ZEA were not detected. This study can be useful to estimate the mycotoxicological risk of cattle TMRs in this region and to compare results with studies from other beef-producing countries.

  16. La sombra del arcediano. El linaje oculto de don Lorenzo Galíndez de Carvajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar CUART MONER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: D. Lorenzo Galíndez de Carvajal fue un personaje destacado en la Corte de los Reyes Católicos y Carlos V, además de cronista real. Sin embargo, para alcanzar esta posición tuvo que manipular sus orígenes familiares, siendo como era hijo de un arcediano de Coria y de una moza de servicio en una posada. Las manipulaciones de don Lorenzo tuvieron el éxito apetecido, sin embargo, treinta años después de su muerte, las informaciones realizadas sobre un nieto suyo que quería ingresar en el Colegio Mayor de Oviedo, en Salamanca, sacaron a la luz toda la estrategia familiar que tuvo que poner en marcha su ilustre abuelo para alcanzar la posición a la que llegó.ABSTRACT: D. Lorenzo Galíndez de Carvajal was one of the most influential courtiers at the Catholic King's court. He, too, was one of their chroniclers, but he had to forge his familiar origins in order to hold his job. He was an illegitimate son; his father was an archdeacon in Coria and his mother a maidservant. D. Lorenzo Galíndez de Carvajal succeeded in hiding his origins and his descendants became related to nobility by marriage. Howeyer all his grandfather's impostures and the ways followed by aristocracy to manipulate its origins were discovered when one of his grandsons tried to be admitted to the Oviedo College about the middle of the XVIth century.

  17. Don Delillo’s Point Omega; Ecstasy and Inertia in a Hyperreal World: A Baudrillardian Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Yegane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a Baudrillardian reading of Don Delillo’s Point Omega in the framework of Baudrillard’s definition of the contemporary world as ‘hyperreal’ and also his twin concepts of ‘ecstasy and inertia’. According to Baudrillard, the contemporary time is the hyperreal era in which subjects do not have access to ‘real’ primarily because they are supplied with the ‘simulations’ first and then with the ‘real’ entity and probably never confronted with the ‘real’ itself through media, advertisements, and virtual world. Thus, the perception they have from incidents, objects, places and even other people is ‘hyperreal’; edited, censored, beautified and exaggerated versions of reality; more real than real. In this study Point Omega will be examined as Delillo’s ‘hyperreal’ version of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho since the movie is screened in the course of the novel and despite the similarities between the novel and the movie they end contrastingly. Symbolically ‘real’ is not found in the novel due to ‘Mobius spiraling negativity’ which is one of the features of Baudrillard’s definition of ‘hyperreal’ age. Baudrillard believes in the triumph of objects over subjects. While the object’s world is perpetually cultivating frenziedly, objects and technologies begin to dominate the stupefied subjects consequently he states when the objects are moving toward their ‘ecstasy’, the subjects are stricken in ‘inertia’. This supremacy of objects and technologies will be displayed in Point Omega regarding Richard Elster’s inert behavior and reaching the ‘omega point’ that Teilhard de Chardin envisions for human race is rendered impossible due to Elster’s destiny in the framework of Baudrillard’s concept of evolution.

  18. Climate as possible reproductive barrier in Pinus radiata (D. Don interspecific hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannél Ham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, interspecific hybridisation with Pinus radiata D. Don had limited success. The effect of environmental conditions and position of pollination bags in the tree were investigated as possible hybridisation barriers. The study was conducted in a P. radiata seed orchard in the Southern Cape (South Africa. Field data were compared to the climatic conditions at natural and commercial provenances of seven Mesoamerican Pinus species identified as possible hybrid partners. In vitro pollen studies were used to confirm whether interspecific crosses with P. radiata might be feasible within predefined climatic parameters. The temperature ranges for both top and northern side of P. radiata pine trees in the seed orchard was similar to the natural distribution of P. radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. and P. taeda L. in the USA. Results suggested that pollen of P. elliottii and P. taeda might be more suited to result in the successful pollination of P. radiata than the other Mesoamerican pine species tested in this study.  Furthermore, the combination of minimum temperature and precipitation also showed a closer correlation to successful hybridisation with P. radiata for both P. elliotii and P. taeda. However, pollen tube elongation studies did not support these results, suggesting that mean temperature might not be the only determining factor of hybridisation success. Three circadian temperature models that mimic natural conditions were developed for Karatara and Sabie (Tweefontein, Witklip and Spitskop.  These models will be tested in future in vitro studies to further evaluate temperature fluctuations between day and night regimes as a possible reproductive barrier limiting hybridisation success between P. radiata and other Mesoamerican pine species.

  19. Supercritical Extraction of Scopoletin from Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Stela; Rajić, Marina; Bilić, Blanka; Molnar, Maja

    2016-09-01

    The increasing popularity of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don) and its products, particularly in the cosmetic industry, is evident nowadays. This plant is a source of coumarins, especially scopoletin, which are highly soluble in supercritical CO2 . The objective of this study was to perform the supercritical CO2 extraction process of Helichrysum italicum flowers at different values of pressure and temperature and to optimise the extraction process using response surface methodology in terms of obtaining the highest extraction yield and yield of extracted scopoletin. Extraction was performed in a supercritical extraction system under different extraction conditions of pressure and temperature determined by central composite rotatable design. The mass of flowers in the extractor of 40 g, extraction time of 90 min and CO2 mass flow rate of 1.94 kg/h were kept constant during experiments. Antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay method. Scopoletin concentration was determined by HPLC. Changes in extraction conditions affect the extracting results remarkably. The greatest extraction yield (6.31%) and the highest yield of scopoletin (1.933 mg/100 g) were obtained under extraction conditions of 20 MPa and 40°C. Extracts have also proven to possess antioxidant activity (44.0-58.1% DPPH scavenging activity) influenced by both temperature and pressure applied within the investigated parameters. The extraction conditions, especially pressure, exhibited significant influence on the extraction yield as well as the yield of extracted scopoletin and antioxidant activity of extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Rhododendron molle G. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng; Sun, Xiaobo; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Chang; He, Lisi; Chen, Shangping; Su, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) approach has become a widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. The selection of an optimal reference gene is a prerequisite for the accurate normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR. The present study constitutes the first systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in Rhododendron molle G. Don. Eleven candidate reference genes in different tissues and flowers at different developmental stages of R. molle were assessed using the following three software packages: GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results showed that EF1- α (elongation factor 1-alpha), 18S (18s ribosomal RNA), and RPL3 (ribosomal protein L3) were the most stable reference genes in developing rhododendron flowers and, thus, in all of the tested samples, while tublin ( TUB ) was the least stable. ACT5 (actin), RPL3 , 18S , and EF1- α were found to be the top four choices for different tissues, whereas TUB was not found to favor qRT-PCR normalization in these tissues. Three stable reference genes are recommended for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in R. molle . Furthermore, the expression profiles of RmPSY (phytoene synthase) and RmPDS (phytoene dehydrogenase) were assessed using EF1- α, 18S , ACT5 , RPL3 , and their combination as internals. Similar trends were found, but these trends varied when the least stable reference gene TUB was used. The results further prove that it is necessary to validate the stability of reference genes prior to their use for normalization under different experimental conditions. This study provides useful information for reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in gene studies of R. molle .