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Sample records for deoxynivalenol don levels

  1. [Determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, barley and corn and its relationship with the levels of total molds, Fusarium spp., colonization percentage and water activity].

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    Moreno Contreras, M C; Martínez Yepez, A J; Raybaudi Martínez, R

    2000-06-01

    Fifty samples of cereals including 30 of wheat (10 of wheat hard red spring), 10 of wheat soft red winter and 10 of wheat durum ámber), 10 of barley and 10 of corn (5 of white corn and 5 of yellow corn) were analyzed to detect and determine by the TLC method, the quantity of deoxynivalenol levels, which is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium species. The aw of samples and the internal and external micoflora and Fusarium spp. levels were also investigated. Results showed that the highest grade of infection (12-80%), and the highest count of total molds (3.9 Log UFC/g) were detected in wheat samples, while the highest levels of Fusarium spp. (2.3 Log UFC/g) were detected in white corn. Deoxynivalenol was found in the wheat and barley samples but not in corn. The wheat red winter soft samples showed the highest levels of deoxynivalenol (3.2 ug/g) which is over the limit levels accepted by the FDA. Correlation was not found among count of total molds, Fusarium spp., infestation grade, aw, and deoxynivalenol levels. These results suggest that it is necessary to exert measures to avoid and to control the importation of contaminated cereals with DON levels higher to those allowed.

  2. Bioprospecting for TRI101 in Fusarium: Searching for a Better Enzyme to Detoxify Deoxynivalenol (DON)

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    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat and barley in the United States. New strategies to mitigate the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous research has shown the value of an enzyme (TRI101) to modify DON and reduce its toxicity. Recent work by...

  3. Hexokinase plays a critical role in deoxynivalenol (DON) production and fungal development in Fusarium graminearum.

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    Zhang, Leigang; Li, Baicun; Zhang, Yu; Jia, Xiaojing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, is a common pathogen on small grain cereals worldwide and produces various trichothecenes [deoxynivalenol (DON) is predominant] during infection. A previous study has revealed that DON production is positively correlated with the occurrence of carbendazim (MBC) resistance. Here, we identified and characterized two putative genes encoding hexokinase in F. graminearum (FgHXK1 and FgHXK2), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in DON biosynthesis. The expression level of hexokinase genes and the production of pyruvate, which is the precursor of DON, were up-regulated in the MBC-resistant strain, indicating that hexokinase genes might be involved in increased DON production. Phylogenetic and comparative analyses indicated that FgHXK1 was the predominant hexokinase gene. Gene disruption showed that ΔFgHXK1 severely affected DON production, indicating that FgHXK1 played a role in the regulation of DON biosynthesis. Morphological characterization showed that ΔFgHXK1 led to inhibited vegetative growth and conidiation. Sensitivity tests to MBC and various stresses indicated that both ΔFgHXK1 and ΔFgHXK2 mutants showed no significant difference from parental strains. Pathogencity assays showed that ΔFgHXK1 mutants lost virulence on wheat head and corn stigma; however, they showed no change in sexual reproduction. The FgHXK1-overexpressing transformants were obtained subsequently. Their pyruvate and DON production was confirmed to be increased, indicating that FgHXK1 positively regulated DON biosynthesis. Although additional defects appeared in overexpression mutants, MBC sensitivity showed no change. All of the results indicated that the transcriptional level of FgHXK1 regulated DON biosynthesis, but showed no direct relationship with MBC resistance.

  4. EVALUATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS’ EFFECTS IN KIDNEY HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF WEANED PIGS, INTOXICATED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL (DON

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    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol is a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the Fusarium genera, which are abundant in various cereal crops and processed grains. In order to protect cell structure within the tissues studied, we tried various experimental variants by incorporating some selenium and boron sources into the combined fodder, and also in mixture with DON with different concentrations. To determine the morphophysiological changes induced by the mycotoxin DON upon kidney histological structure, and also the antioxidants’ effects, we took samples from 9 piglets belonging to three groups: group 1 (fed with fodder added with DON, group 2 (fed with fodder added with selenium and group 3 (fed with fodder added with selenium and DON. At renal parenchyma level, DON determines a series of changes in the renal corpuscles and also in the uriniferous tubes. These changes are represented by glomerular atrophies and nephrocyte epithelial dystrophies. The epithelial dystrophic processes occur in the renal medullar, too, where numerous ectasied capillaries and hemorrhagic areas are present. In the case of groups 2 and 3 consisted of piglets fed with fodder added with selenium, respectively fodder added with DON and selenium, the renal vascular network becomes hypertrophic associated with leukocyte infiltrative processes.

  5. Urinary deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) as biomarkers of DON and ZEA exposure of pigs.

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    Thanner, S; Czeglédi, L; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H E; Berthiller, F; Gutzwiller, A

    2016-05-01

    Four diets contaminated with 1.1 to 5.0 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.4 to 2.4 mg/kg zearalenone (ZEA) were fed to four groups of six growing Large White pigs. Urine samples were collected after 3 to 4 days and again after 6 to 7 days on the diets. On each sampling day, half of the animals were sampled in the morning, after an 8-h fast, and the other half were sampled in the afternoon, after 7 h of ad libitum access to feed. The urinary concentrations of DON, DON-glucuronide, DON-3-sulphate, de-epoxy-DON, as well as of ZEA, ZEA-14-glucuronide, α-zearalenol and α-zearalenol-14-glucuronide, analysed using LC-MS/MS, were used to calculate urinary DON and ZEA equivalent concentrations (DONe and ZEAe). The urinary concentration of DONe (P < 0.001), but not of ZEAe (P = 0.31), was lower in the fasted than that in the fed animals. The urinary DONe/creatinine and ZEAe/creatinine ratios were highly correlated with DON and ZEA intake per kg body weight the day preceding sampling (r = 0.76 and 0.77; P < 0.001). The correlations between DON intake during the 7 h preceding urine sampling in the afternoon and urinary DONe/creatinine ratio (r = 0.88) as well as between mean ZEA intake during 3 days preceding urine sampling and urinary ZEAe/creatinine ratio (r = 0.84) were even higher, reflecting the plasma elimination half-time of several hours for DON and of more than 3 days for ZEA. ZEAe analysed in enzymatically hydrolysed urine using an ELISA kit was highly correlated with the LC-MS/MS data (r = 0.94). The urinary DONe and ZEAe to creatinine ratios, analysed in pooled urine samples of several pigs fed the same diet, can be used to estimate their exposure to DON and ZEA.

  6. Effects of potential detoxifying agents on growth performance and deoxynivalenol (DON) urinary balance characteristics of nursery pigs fed DON-contaminated wheat.

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    Frobose, H L; Stephenson, E W; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate potential detoxifying agents on growth of nursery pigs fed deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diets. Naturally DON-contaminated wheat (6 mg/kg) was used to achieve desired DON levels. In a 21-d study, 238 pigs (13.4 ± 1.8 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Diets were: 1) Positive control (PC; SMB; Samirian Chemicals, Campbell, CA). There were 6 or 7 replicate pens/treatment and 7 pigs/pen. Analyzed DON was decreased by 92% when pelleted with SMB, but otherwise matched formulated levels. Overall, a DON × Product V interaction was observed for ADG ( 0.05) with a tendency for an interaction for ADFI ( 0.10). As anticipated, DON reduced ( 0.001) ADG and ADFI, but the interaction was driven by even poorer growth when Product V was added to NC diets. Pigs fed NC diets had 10% poorer G:F ( 0.001) than PC-fed pigs. Reductions in ADG due to DON were most distinct (50%) during the initial period. Adding SMB to NC diets improved ( 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, and improved ( 0.02) ADG and G:F compared to the PC diet. A urinary balance study was conducted using diets 3 to 5 from Exp. 1 to evaluate Product V and SMB on DON urinary metabolism. A 10 d adaptation was followed by a 7 d collection using 24 barrows in a randomized complete block design. Pigs fed NC + SMB diet had greater urinary DON output ( 0.05) than pigs fed NC + Product V, with NC pigs intermediate. Daily DON excretion was lowest ( 0.05) in the NC + SMB pigs. However, degradation of DON-sulfonate back to the parent DON molecule was observed as pigs fed NC + SMB excreted more DON than they consumed (164% of daily DON intake), greater ( 0.001) than pigs fed the NC (59%) or NC + Product V (48%). Overall, Product V did not alleviate DON effects on growth nor did it reduce DON absorption and excretion. However, hydrothermally processing DON-contaminated diets with 1.0% SMB restored ADFI and improved G:F. Even so, the

  7. Monitoring levels of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Brazilian varieties

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    Cristiano L Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and its intake represents a severe risk to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of DON in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour from two representative locations of south Brazil. Experiments were carried out in Pato Branco (Paraná and Coxilha (Rio Grande do Sul in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Levels of DON were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. This mycotoxin was detected in 97% of samples, ranging from 200 to 4140 u,g kg-1. Only 17% of samples presented DON beyond of the maximum allowed by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency up to the year 2012; even though, Fusarium head blight (FHB epidemics were slight low in the growing season that the study was performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first report showing genetic variability of Brazilian cultivars to DON contamination and some genotypes have potential to be exploited as a source of low accumulation of this toxin.

  8. ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY LOW LEVELS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL IN WEANED PIGLETS

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    DANIELA ELIZA MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Fusarium genus that may contaminate feed and food. In the present study we investigated the effect of low levels of DON on the modulation of performance, hemodynamic parameters, cellular and humoral immune response in weaned pigs. Histological alterations in different organ tissues were also analyzed. Our results showed that a short in vivo exposure (14 days of weanling piglets to 0; 0.5; 1.5 mg/day of DON significantly induced a dose dependent increase of cellular immune response (lymphocytes proliferation and leucocytes numbers. The 0.5 and 1.5 mg/day of DON modulated also the humoral immune response by increasing the immunoglobulin A synthesis with 7.32 % and 37.98 % and by decreasing that of immunoglubulin G with 11.15 % and 36.87 %, respectively when compared with the control. DON produced also alterations in the hemodynamic parameters of intoxicated piglets; the activity of lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased while the activity of L-glutamate, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine significantly decreased. Both doses of the toxin induced microscopic alterations of the internal organ structure. By contrast, ingestion of the contaminated material had no effect on the performance (weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, organ weights, and total serum concentration of cholesterol, calcium, sodium and potassium. Taken together these results suggest that even when present at low level DON can affect blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune response in weaned piglets with a significant importance for the swine health.

  9. The influence of deoxynivalenol (DON on hemoleucogram components at rats

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    Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are considered to be natural substances produced by fungi, infecting cereals and other agricultural products. The study was conducted on 20 male Sprague-Dowley rats which received feed with known concentration of DON. The animals were divided in 4 groups: Group I - control group, group II - 3 mg//Kgc DON, group III - 5 mg/Kgc DON, group IV - 9 mg/Kgc DON. The blood samples were taken and the main components of bloods were analyzed: erythrocytes, platelets, leucocytes, Ht. (hematocrit, Hb. (concentration hemoglobin. Variations of blood parameters give information regarding the influence of DON on functionality of cardiovascular and excretory system. Administration of DON contaminated feeds determined at Sprague-Dowley rats a decrease of erythrocytes and platelets with each increasing dose (p 0.05 were observed regarding the number of leucocytes.

  10. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

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    Constanze Pietsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  11. Effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and feed intake level on the biotransformation and carry-over of deoxynivalenol in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Egmond, H P van; Schothorst, R C; Jekel, A A; Lebzien, P; Schollenberger, M; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Flachowsky, G

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.09 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg dry matter) at different feed intake levels on the biotransformation and carry-over of DON in dairy cows. For this purpose, 14 ruminal

  12. Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows.

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    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Hametner, Christian; Nagl, Veronika; Fiby, Iris; Macheiner, Lukas; Winkler, Janine; Dänicke, Sven; Clark, Erica; Pestka, James J; Berthiller, Franz

    2017-06-21

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i.p. injection; pigs: 74 µg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; cows: 5.2 mg DON/kg dry mass, oral for 13 weeks) revealed additional DON and deepoxy-DON (DOM) glucuronides. To elucidate their structures, DON and DOM were incubated with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Besides the expected DON/DOM-3- and 15-GlcAc, minor amounts of four DON- and four DOM glucuronides were formed. Isolation and enzymatic hydrolysis of four of these compounds yielded iso-DON and iso-DOM, the identities of which were eventually confirmed by NMR. Incubation of iso-DON and iso-DOM with RLM and HLM yielded two main glucuronides for each parent compound, which were isolated and identified as iso-DON/DOM-3-GlcAc and iso-DON/DOM-8-GlcAc by NMR. Iso-DON-3-GlcAc, most likely misidentified as DON-7-GlcAc in the literature, proved to be a major DON metabolite in rats and a minor metabolite in pigs. In addition, iso-DON-8-GlcAc turned out to be one of the major DON metabolites in mice. DOM-3-GlcAc was the dominant DON metabolite in urine of cows and an important DON metabolite in rat urine. Iso-DOM-3-GlcAc was detected in urine of DON-treated rats and cows. Finally, DON-8,15-hemiketal-8-glucuronide, a previously described by-product of DON-3-GlcAc production by RLM, was identified in urine of DON-exposed mice and rats. The discovery of several novel DON-derived glucuronides in animal urine requires adaptation of

  13. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal product supply chain: the deoxynivalenol (DON) case within industrial bread-making technology.

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    Bergamini, E; Catellani, D; Dall'asta, C; Galaverna, G; Dossena, A; Marchelli, R; Suman, M

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins are a relevant problem in the cereal supply chain at a worldwide level, with wheat, maize and barley being the main contaminated crops. Mould growth can happen in the pre-harvest phase and also during transport and storage due to ineffective drying conditions. Among Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) is considered the most important contaminant in wheat due to its widespread occurrence. In the last years the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Commission have frequently expressed opinions on Fusarium toxins, setting limits, regulations and guidelines in order to reduce their levels in raw materials and food commodities. In particular, European legislation (Reg. 1881/2006) sets the maximum limit for DON in flour and bread as 750 and 500 microg kg(-1) respectively. Relatively few studies have taken into account the loss of trichothecenes during processing, focusing on how processing factors may influence their degradation. In particular, the description of DON behaviour during bread-making is very difficult, since complex physico-chemical modifications occur during the transformation of the raw ingredients into the final product. In the present study, we studied how DON concentration may be influenced by modifying bread-making parameters, with a special emphasis on the fermentation and baking stages, starting from a naturally contaminated flour at both pilot and industrial scales. Exploiting the power of a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach to consider the great complexity of the studied system, the obtained model shows satisfying goodness-of-fit and prediction, suggesting that the baking step (time/temperature ranges) is crucial for minimizing native DON level in bread.

  14. Phytic acid protects porcine intestinal epithelial cells from deoxynivalenol (DON) cytotoxicity.

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    Pacheco, Graziela Drociunas; Silva, Caio Abércio da; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of phytic acid (IP(6)) as a possible inhibitor of cellular damage induced by toxic substances such as mycotoxins on a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). We first observed that a dose of 5 mM phytic acid decreases cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of cell monolayer. We next investigate the effect of non-cytotoxic dose of phytic acid on the deoxinivalenol (DON) induced decreased TEER. We showed that treatment with 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM phytic acid restores the decrease in TEER caused by 25 μM DON. In conclusion this study demonstrates that phytic acid decreased the negative effects of deoxynivalenol on the membrane integrity of the IPEC-1 intestinal epithelial cell line.

  15. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

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    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  16. Protien expression profiling of mouse thymoma upon exposure to the tricothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) Implications for its mechanism of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Blokland, M.H.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Loveren, van H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether proteomic analysis of thymoma cells treated with the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) as compared to non-treated (control) cells would reveal differential protein expression, and thus would contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms

  17. Statistical analysis of agronomical factors and weather conditions influencing deoxynivalenol levels in oats in Scandinavia.

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    Lindblad, M; Börjesson, T; Hietaniemi, V; Elen, O

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between weather data and agronomical factors and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in oats was examined with the aim of developing a predictive model. Data were collected from a total of 674 fields during periods of up to 10 years in Finland, Norway and Sweden, and included DON levels in the harvested oats crop, agronomical factors and weather data. The results show that there was a large regional variation in DON levels, with higher levels in one region in Norway compared with other regions in Norway, Finland and Sweden. In this region the median DON level was 1000 ng g⁻¹ and the regulatory limit for human consumption (1750 ng g⁻¹) was exceeded in 28% of the samples. In other regions the median DON levels ranged from 75 to 270 ng g⁻¹, and DON levels exceeded 1750 ng g⁻¹ in 3-8% of the samples. Including more variables than region in a multiple regression model only increased the adjusted coefficient of determination from 0.17 to 0.24, indicating that very little of the variation in DON levels could be explained by weather data or agronomical factors. Thus, it was not possible to predict DON levels based on the variables included in this study. Further studies are needed to solve this problem. Apparently the infection and/or growth of DON producing Fusarium species are promoted in certain regions. One possibility may be to study the species distribution of fungal communities and their changes during the oats cultivation period in more detail.

  18. Presence of deoxynivalenol in maize of Vojvodina

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    Jajić Igor M.; Abramović Biljana F.; Jurić Verica B.; Krstović Saša Z.

    2007-01-01

    By applying previously established optimal conditions for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) by liquid chromatography with DAD detector, in this work, its content was determined in maize samples collected during the past 3 years (2004-2006) from different locations in Vojvodina. Analyzing 103 maize samples in total, the presence of deoxynivalenol was established in 42.7% of the samples. Only 3 samples of maize contained DON in concentrations that exceeded the maximum permitted level (1...

  19. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the lactation diet on the feed intake and fertility of sows.

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    Gutzwiller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    A diet contaminated with 2.8 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg was fed at 6 kg per day to 32 mycotoxin-exposed pluriparous sows (M) during lactation. The 31 control sows (C) received 6 kg of an uncontaminated diet. Although more contaminated diet was refused (P = 0.05), DON exposure had no effect (P > 0.1) on body weight loss of the sows during lactation (M: 27.9 ± 12.3 kg; C: 29.7 ± 10.2 kg), the number of weaned piglets (M: 9.8 ± 1.4; C: 9.7 ± 1.6) and their daily weight gain (M: 266 ± 70 g; C: 272 ± 64 g). Several sows were culled after weaning for reasons unrelated to the experiment. Compared with the remaining 21 C sows, the remaining 26 M sows had an identical interval between weaning and the next farrowing (M: 120 ± 1 days; C: 120 ± 1 days) and a similar litter size (M: 14.5 ± 2.7; C: 14.9 ± 3.0; P > 0.10). The daily intake of 17 mg DON during lactation thus did not affect the reproductive performance of the sows.

  20. Research Advancement on Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Deoxynivalenol (DON)%呕吐毒素(DON)生物合成和降解研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧英; 伍松陵; 孙长坡

    2013-01-01

    Vomitoxin,also known as deoxynivalenol (DON),is a kind of secondary metabolites produced by certain Fusarium species;it is one of the common mycotoxins which polluted the food.With the frequent occurrence of climate disasters domestically,the trend of DON pollution exacerbates,so prevention and treatment of DON contamination are imminent.This peper covers the physical and chemical properties of DON,analysis of the DON biosynthetic pathways based on its chemical structure and genes,and summarizes biodegradation of DON by microorganism,speculates possible sites of degradation,degradation pathways and products.Based on a comprehensive understanding of DON,it aims to inspire to seek safe,efficient and cost effective biodegradation pathways using biotechnology,finally to ensure grain and food safety and protect health of consumers.%呕吐毒素(Vomitoxin),即脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(deoxynivalenol,DON),是镰刀菌产生的次生代谢物质,是污染粮食的主要真菌毒素.随着我国灾害气候的频频发生,DON的污染程度呈现加剧趋势,因此DON污染的控制迫在眉睫.本文阐述了DON的物理化学特性,结合化学结构和基因遗传分析了DON的生物合成途径,并综述了微生物对DON的生物降解研究,推测了DON可能的作用位点、降解途径及降解产物,以此启发利用生物技术,探求安全、高效,低成本的DON生物降解途径,确保粮食和食品安全、保护消费者健康.

  1. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and related metabolites on equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and background occurrence of these toxins in horses.

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    Schumann, Barbara; Winkler, Janine; Mickenautsch, Nicola; Warnken, Tobias; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Both deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and their metabolites are known to modulate immune cells in various species whereby viability and proliferation are influenced. Such effects were rarely examined in horses. Therefore, one aim of the present study was to titrate the inhibitory concentrations of DON, 3-acetyl-DON (3AcDON), de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1), ZEN, and α- and β-zearalenol (ZEL) at which viability and proliferation of equine PBMC were reduced by 50 % (IC50) and 10 % (IC10) in vitro. For evaluation of practical relevance of the in vitro findings, a further aim was to screen horses for the background occurrence of DON, ZEN, and their metabolites in systemic circulation and to relate toxin residues both to the inhibitory toxin concentrations and to hematological and clinical-chemical characteristics.The IC50 (μM) for DON, 3AcDON, β-ZEL, α-ZEL, and ZEN were determined at 3.09, 25.90, 75.44, 97.44, and 98.15 in unstimulated cells, respectively, while in proliferating cells, the corresponding IC50 values were 0.73, 6.89, 45.16, 75.96, and 82.51. Neither viability nor proliferation was influenced by DOM-1 up to a concentration of 100 μM.The in vivo screening (N = 49) revealed the occurrence of ZEN (N = 24), α-ZEL (N = 3), β-ZEL (N = 37), DON, and DOM-1 (N = 2). The detected concentrations were much lower than the corresponding IC50 while the IC10 of DON and β-ZEL for proliferating PBMC corresponded to approximately 26 and 35 ng/mL which might be relevant when contaminated diets are fed.Clinical-chemical and hematological traits were not related to mycotoxin residue levels excepting blood urea nitrogen which was positively correlated to the sum of β-ZEL, α-ZEL, and ZEN concentration. Whether this reflects simply the feeding history of the horses or renal failures giving rise to a prolonged half-life of the toxins needs to be clarified further.

  2. Changes in the Subpopulations of Porcine Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Induced by Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone (ZEN and Deoxynivalenol (DON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dąbrowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone and deoxynivalenol are secondary metabolites of fungi of the genus Fusarium. The presence of mycotoxins in cereals and the resulting contamination of feeds and foods pose health risks for animals and humans. The dangers associated with high doses of mycotoxins have been extensively researched but very little is known about NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level doses or exposure to a combination of mycotoxins (mixed mycotoxicoses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of six-week exposure to NOAEL doses of individual and combined mycotoxins on the subpopulations of CD4+8−, CD4−8+ and CD4+8+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of pigs. The experiment was performed on 72 gilts with average body weight of 25 kg, divided into three experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, administered zearalenone (ZEN, deoxynivalenol (DON and ZEN + DON, respectively, on a daily basis and a control group (C receiving placebo. Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were evaluated by flow cytometry at weekly intervals (experimental days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. A linear increase in the percentage of CD4+8+ lymphocytes was highly correlated with time (r = 0.682 in group C. The correlations and linear increase in the above subpopulation were disrupted in the remaining groups. In group E3, a statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease in CD4+8+ counts was observed in week 5, which could point to a transient depletion of regulatory mechanisms of immune responses. The noted results also suggest that in mixed mycotoxicosis, ZEN and DON exerted stronger immunomodulatory effects.

  3. Changes in the Subpopulations of Porcine Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Induced by Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Michał; Obremski, Kazimierz; Gajęcka, Magdalena; Gajęcki, Maciej Tadeusz; Zielonka, Łukasz

    2016-04-27

    Zearalenone and deoxynivalenol are secondary metabolites of fungi of the genus Fusarium. The presence of mycotoxins in cereals and the resulting contamination of feeds and foods pose health risks for animals and humans. The dangers associated with high doses of mycotoxins have been extensively researched but very little is known about NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) doses or exposure to a combination of mycotoxins (mixed mycotoxicoses). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of six-week exposure to NOAEL doses of individual and combined mycotoxins on the subpopulations of CD4⁺8(-), CD4(-)8⁺ and CD4⁺8⁺ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of pigs. The experiment was performed on 72 gilts with average body weight of 25 kg, divided into three experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, administered zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ZEN + DON, respectively, on a daily basis) and a control group (C) receiving placebo. Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were evaluated by flow cytometry at weekly intervals (experimental days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42). A linear increase in the percentage of CD4⁺8⁺ lymphocytes was highly correlated with time (r = 0.682) in group C. The correlations and linear increase in the above subpopulation were disrupted in the remaining groups. In group E3, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in CD4⁺8⁺ counts was observed in week 5, which could point to a transient depletion of regulatory mechanisms of immune responses. The noted results also suggest that in mixed mycotoxicosis, ZEN and DON exerted stronger immunomodulatory effects.

  4. The Fusarium toxin zearalenone and deoxynivalenol affect murine splenic antioxidant functions, interferon levels, and T-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z H; Deng, H D; Wang, Y C; Deng, J L; Zuo, Z C; Wang, Y; Peng, X; Cui, H M; Fang, J; Yu, S M; Shen, L H; Hu, Y C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the Fusarium toxin zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) on splenic antioxidant functions, IFN levels, and T-cell subsets in mice. Herein, 360 mice were assigned to nine groups for a 12-day study. Mice were administered an intraperitoneal injection for 4 consecutive days with different concentrations of ZEA alone, DON alone, or ZEA+DON. Spleen and blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 5, 8, and 12. Mice in each of the experimental groups showed dysreglated splenic antioxidant functions, IFN levels, and T-cell subset frequencies, suggesting that the immune system had been affected. The ZEA+DON-treated groups, especially the group that received a higher concentration of ZEA+DON (Group D2Z2), showed more obvious effects on the dysregulation of splenic antioxidant functions, IFN levels, and T-cell subsets. This finding suggested that DON and ZEA exerted synergistic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-anthesis moisture increased Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol levels in North Carolina winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Christina; Patton-Ozkurt, Jennifer; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Perugini, Leandro

    2009-04-01

    ABSTRACT Current models for forecasting Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in wheat are based on weather near anthesis, and breeding for resistance to FHB pathogens often relies on irrigation before and shortly after anthesis to encourage disease development. The effects of post-anthesis environmental conditions on FHB are poorly understood. We performed a field experiment at Kinston, NC, to explore the effects of increasing duration of post-anthesis moisture on disease incidence, disease severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK), percent infected kernels, and DON. The experiment had a split-plot design, and one trial was conducted in each of two successive years. Main plots consisted of post-anthesis mist durations of 0, 10, 20, or 30 days. Subplots were of eight cultivars in the first year and seven in the second year, two being susceptible to FHB and the remainder each with varying degrees of apparent type I and type II resistance. Plots were inoculated by spraying Fusarium graminearum macroconidia at mid-anthesis. Averaging across years and cultivars, 10 or 20 days of post-anthesis mist had the same effect (P > or = 0.198) and were associated with an approximately fourfold increase in mean disease incidence and eightfold increase in disease severity compared with 0 days of mist (P < or = 0.0002). In both years, mean FDK percentages at 0 and 10 days post-anthesis mist were the same and significantly lower than FDK percentages under 20 or 30 days of post-anthesis mist. Mist duration had a significant effect on percent kernels infected with Fusarium spp. as detected by a selective medium assay of 2007 samples. Averaging across all cultivars, in both years, DON levels increased significantly for 10 days compared with 0 days of mist, and increased again with 20 days of mist (P < or = 0.04). This is the first investigation to show that extended post-flowering moisture can have a significant enhancing effect on FHB, FDK, DON, and percent

  6. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and

  7. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and deoxyn

  8. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  9. A Nutritional Approach for the Management of Deoxynivalenol (DON Toxicity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Growing Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Zentek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that DON has negative effects on the active transport of some nutrients in the small intestine of chickens. The plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural components could be high. The present study investigated the effects of DON on the presence or absence of dietary inulin on the electrophysiological response of the gut to glucose. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with isolated jejunal epithelia at the age of 35 days. Electrophysiology of the epithelia was recorded and the changes of the short-circuit current (Isc were determined. The addition of Dglucose on the luminal side of the isolated mucosa increased (P 0.05. However, in the dietary inulin supplemented group in both jejunum and colon, the addition of glucose after preincubation of tissues with DON increased the Isc, suggesting that the dietary inulin supplementation of the broilers regulated and improved the glucose absorption in the presence of DON and kept it at normal levels.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON): New mechanistic insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katika, Madhumohan R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Hendriksen, Peter J.M. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Shao, Jia [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad, E-mail: ad.peijnenburg@wur.nl [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is a commonly encountered type-B trichothecene mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species predominantly found in cereals and grains. DON is known to exert toxic effects on the gastrointestinal, reproductive and neuroendocrine systems, and particularly on the immune system. Depending on dose and exposure time, it can either stimulate or suppress immune function. The main objective of this study was to obtain a deeper insight into DON-induced effects on lymphoid cells. For this, we exposed the human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to various concentrations of DON for various times and examined gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis. Jurkat cells were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 μM DON for 3, 6 and 24 h. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicated that DON affects various processes in these cells: It upregulates genes involved in ribosome structure and function, RNA/protein synthesis and processing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium-mediated signaling, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, the NFAT and NF-κB/TNF-α pathways, T cell activation and apoptosis. The effects of DON on the expression of genes involved in ER stress, NFAT activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Other biochemical experiments confirmed that DON activates calcium-dependent proteins such as calcineurin and M-calpain that are known to be involved in T cell activation and apoptosis. Induction of T cell activation was also confirmed by demonstrating that DON activates NFATC1 and induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. For the gene expression profiling of PBMCs, cells were exposed to 2 and 4 μM DON for 6 and 24 h. Comparison of the Jurkat microarray data with those obtained with PBMCs showed that most of the processes affected by DON in the Jurkat cell line were also affected in the PBMCs. -- Highlights: ► The human T cell line Jurkat and human

  11. Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZON content in corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods and they have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures (190°C reduce fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of temperature (200 and 220 °C and time (15 and 20 min on the detoxification of corn flour deliberately contaminated with DON and ZON. After processing at 200°C for 15 min, an average of 12% and after 20 min an average of 15% of DON was lost. At 200°C ZON content was reduced by 22% (after 15 min and by 27% (after 20 min. Higher temperature (220°C did not significantly affect further reduction of DON or ZON content. The process was only partially effective in both cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

  12. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated wheat to laying hens and roosters of different genetic background on the reproductive performance and health of the newly hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Beineke, Andreas; Hermeyer, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    A total of 216 23-week-old laying hens from two different genetic backgrounds (half of the birds were Lohmann brown [LB] and [LSL] hens, respectively) and 24 adult roosters were assigned to a feeding trial to study the effect of increasing concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the diet (0, 5, 10 mg/kg) on the reproductive performance of hens and roosters, and the health of the newly hatched chicks. Hatchability was adversely affected by the presence of DON in LB hens' diet, while the hatchability of the LSL chicks was significantly higher than LB chicks. An interaction effect between DON in the hens' diet and the breed was noticed on fertility, as the fertility was decreased in the eggs of LB hens receiving 10 mg/kg DON in their diet and increased in the eggs of LSL hens fed 10 mg/kg DON. Moreover, spleen relative weight was significantly decreased in the chicks hatched from eggs of hens fed contaminated diets, while gizzard relative weight was significantly decreased in LB chicks with 10 mg/kg DON in their diet compared with the control group. On the other hand, the chicks' haematology and organ histopathology were not affected by the dietary treatment. Additionally, the presence of DON in the roosters' diet had no effect on fertility (the percentage of fertile eggs of all laid eggs). Consequently, the current results indicate a negative impact of DON in LB hens' diet on fertility and hatchability, indicating that the breed of the hens seems to be an additional factor influencing the effect of DON on reproductive performance of the laying hens.

  13. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, In-Hye; Do, Woo-Hyun; Nam, Woo-Seon; Li, Hua; Jang, Han-Sub; Lee, Chan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early) feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds. PMID:24366207

  14. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  15. [Occurrence of Fusarium strains and their mycotoxins in corn silage. 7. Formation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in a silage corn plot artificially inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and the effect of silaging on the stability of the DON formed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepom, P; Knabe, O; Baath, H

    1990-10-01

    The formation of deoxynivalenol in a maize plot inoculated with Fusarium culmorum was studied over a growing season. Already three weeks after inoculation 4.9 mg/kg of DON were measured in the infected ears. The toxin concentration increased continuously up to harvest after eight weeks to a value of 261 mg/kg. Ensilage experiments in laboratory scale silos have shown that the DON content of naturally contaminated corn-cob-mix was not reduced during the ensilage process. It was concluded that infection of maize plants by toxin-producing Fusarium species followed by DON production in the field seems to be the most probable way of contamination of maize silage with this mycotoxin.

  16. Phytic acid protects porcine intestinal epithelial cells from deoxynivalenol (DON) cytotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Graziela Drociunas; Silva,Caio Abércio da; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of phytic acid (IP(6)) as a possible inhibitor of cellular damage induced by toxic substances such as mycotoxins on a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). We first observed that a dose of 5 mM phytic acid decreases cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of cell monolayer. We next investigate the effect of non-cytotoxic dose of phytic acid on the deoxinivalenol (DON) induced decreased TEER. We showed th...

  17. The toxicological impacts of the Fusarium mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol, in poultry flocks with special reference to immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha; Ghareeb, Khaled; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-04-29

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common Fusarium toxin in poultry feed. Chickens are more resistant to the adverse impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) compared to other species. In general, the acute form of DON mycotoxicosis rarely occurs in poultry flocks under normal conditions. However, if diets contain low levels of DON (less than 5 mg DON/kg diet), lower productivity, impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases can occur. The molecular mechanism of action of DON has not been completely understood. A significant influence of DON in chickens is the impairment of immunological functions. It was known that low doses of DON elevated the serum IgA levels and affected both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in animals. DON is shown to suppress the antibody response to infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV) and to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in broilers (10 mg DON/kg feed) and laying hens (3.5 to 14 mg of DON/kg feed), respectively. Moreover, DON (10 mg DON/kg feed) decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the plasma of broilers. DON can severely affect the immune system and, due to its negative impact on performance and productivity, can eventually result in high economic losses to poultry producers. The present review highlights the impacts of DON intoxication on cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, gut immunity, immune organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chickens.

  18. The Toxicological Impacts of the Fusarium Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol, in Poultry Flocks with Special Reference to Immunotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a common Fusarium toxin in poultry feed. Chickens are more resistant to the adverse impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON compared to other species. In general, the acute form of DON mycotoxicosis rarely occurs in poultry flocks under normal conditions. However, if diets contain low levels of DON (less than 5 mg DON/kg diet, lower productivity, impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases can occur. The molecular mechanism of action of DON has not been completely understood. A significant influence of DON in chickens is the impairment of immunological functions. It was known that low doses of DON elevated the serum IgA levels and affected both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in animals. DON is shown to suppress the antibody response to infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV and to Newcastle disease virus (NDV in broilers (10 mg DON/kg feed and laying hens (3.5 to 14 mg of DON/kg feed, respectively. Moreover, DON (10 mg DON/kg feed decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in the plasma of broilers. DON can severely affect the immune system and, due to its negative impact on performance and productivity, can eventually result in high economic losses to poultry producers. The present review highlights the impacts of DON intoxication on cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, gut immunity, immune organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chickens.

  19. The AreA transcription factor mediates the regulation of deoxynivalenol (DON) synthesis by ammonium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Jiang, Cong; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum, is harmful to humans and animals. Because different nitrogen sources are known to have opposite effects on DON production, in this study, we characterized the regulatory mechanisms of the AREA transcription factor in trichothecene biosynthesis. The ΔareA mutant showed significantly reduced vegetative growth and DON production in cultures inoculated with hyphae. Suppression of TRI gene expression and DON production by ammonium were diminished in the ΔareA mutant. The deletion of AREA also affected the stimulatory effects of arginine on DON biosynthesis. The AreA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion complemented the ΔareA mutant, and its localization to the nucleus was enhanced under nitrogen starvation conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the conserved predicted protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site S874 was important for AreA function, indicating that AreA may be a downstream target of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-PKA pathway, which is known to regulate DON production. We also showed that AreA interacted with Tri10 in co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction of AreA with Tri10 is probably related to its role in the regulation of TRI gene expression. Interestingly, the ΔareA mutant showed significantly reduced PKA activity and expression of all three predicted ammonium permease (MEP) genes, in particular MEP1, under low ammonium conditions. Taken together, our results show that AREA is involved in the regulation of DON production by ammonium suppression and the cAMP-PKA pathway. The AreA transcription factor may interact with Tri10 and control the expression and up-regulation of MEP genes.

  20. A Nutritional Approach for the Management of Deoxynivalenol (DON) Toxicity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Growing Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha; Ghareeb, Khaled; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that DON has negative effects on the active transport of some nutrients in the small intestine of chickens. The plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural components could be high. The present study investigated the effects of DON on the presence or absence of dietary inulin on the electrophysiological response of the gut to glucose. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with isolated jejunal epithelia at the age of 35 days. Electrophysiology of the epithelia was recorded and the changes of the short-circuit current (Isc) were determined. The addition of d-glucose on the luminal side of the isolated mucosa increased (P 0.05). However, in the dietary inulin supplemented group in both jejunum and colon, the addition of glucose after preincubation of tissues with DON increased the Isc, suggesting that the dietary inulin supplementation of the broilers regulated and improved the glucose absorption in the presence of DON and kept it at normal levels. PMID:19330089

  1. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Liz; Hardie, Laura; Williams, Courtney; White, Kay; Liu, Yunru; De Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; Moretti, Georgio; Greetham, Stephanie; Brera, Carlo; Papageorgiou, Maria; Thatcher, Natalie J; Rigby, Alan; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2017-06-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed) were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI) of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day).

  2. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day.

  3. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and its major conjugate, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, in beer and some brewing intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelanska, Marta; Hajslova, Jana; Zachariasova, Milena; Malachova, Alexandra; Kalachova, Kamila; Poustka, Jan; Fiala, Jaromir; Scott, Peter M; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf

    2009-04-22

    Since deoxynivalenol (DON), the main representative of Fusarium toxic secondary metabolites, is a relatively common natural contaminant in barley, its traces can be detected in many commercial beers. Our previous study reporting for the first time the occurrence of relatively high levels of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) in malt and beer prepared from relatively "clean" barley (semiscale experimental conditions) induced a follow-up investigation focused on this DON conjugate in commercial beers. The current survey involving in total 176 beers, representing different brands, and collected at various markets, has documented a ubiquitous occurrence of DON-3-Glc in this product. Its levels even exceeded that of free DON in some samples; the highest level found was 37 microg/L. In addition to glucosylated DON, its acetylated forms (ADONs) were also common contaminants in most of the beers. Generally, stronger beers (higher alcohol content) tended to contain higher levels of DON and its conjugates. No distinct relationship between the contamination of malt and beer was observed in samples collected from several breweries. Attention was also paid to comparison of data on malts obtained by LC-MS/MS and ELISA DON-dedicated kits. The latter provided apparently higher levels of DON, the most distinct difference being observed for malts processed at higher temperatures (caramel and roasted malts). The nature of this phenomenon has not yet been explained; in addition to cross-reacting species, other factors, such as the higher content of dark pigment, can also be the cause.

  4. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  5. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels.

  6. Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancova, K; Hajslova, J; Poustka, J; Krplova, A; Zachariasova, M; Dostalek, P; Sachambula, L

    2008-06-01

    The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

  7. Deoxynivalenol in commercial beer - screening for the toxin with an indirect competitive ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, L; Böhm-Schrami, M; Vogel, H; Donhauser, S

    1993-09-01

    Antibodies specific for deoxynivalenol (DON) were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a deoxynivalenol-hemiglutaryl-HSA conjugate. The antibody showed cross-reactivity with DON, 15a-acetyl-DON (15-Ac DON), and 3a-acotyl-DON (3-Ac DON) of 100%, 216%, and 260%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed against 20 further trichothecenes of the A-, B-, and C-type. An indirect competitive ELISA procedure was set up for the detection of DON in liquid matrices occurring in the brewing process, Including beer. ELISA was sensitive down to 3.8 ng/mL. Detection limit for DON in tenfold diluted beer was 50 ppb. Recovery of the toxin in spiked beer was 45%, 77%, and 83% at toxin levels of 50; 500; and 1,000 ppb, respectively. ELISA results corresponded quite well with HPLC data. 196 commercial beers from several German breweries, including 36 gushing-positive samples, were assayed for DON. Screening revealed toxin levels from not detectable to 569 ppb. 69% of the gushing beers had marked levels of DON. 37% of the gushing-negative beer samples contained DON in detectable amounts with a maximum content of 172 ppb. Wheat beers had significantly higher DON-contents than beers derived from barley. Concentration of the toxin was significantly higher in gushing beers than in nongushing beers from both cereal sources.

  8. TRANFSER OF FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS AND ?MASKED? DEOXYNIVALENOL (DEOXYNIVALENOL-3-GLUCOSIDE) FROM FIELD BARLEY THROUGH MALT TO BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Lancova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Krplova, Alexandra; Zachariasova, Milena; Dostálek, Pavel; Sachambula, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The fate of 5 Fusarium toxins- deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON)- during the malting and brewing processes was investigated. In addition to these ?free? mycotoxins, also occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was, to our knowledge, for the first time, monitored in beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley,...

  9. Rapid methods for deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elisabeth; Curtui, Valeriu; Seidler, Caroline; Dietrich, Richard; Usleber, Ewald; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2004-10-10

    Method development for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes in recent years was driven by the analytical necessities arising from its widespread (and increasing) occurrence in foods and feeds. This has resulted in the establishment of guideline levels for animal feed, tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for humans, and most importantly, in the prospect of low-tolerance levels for these toxins in foods in the near future. In order to ensure reliable determination of the toxin content at the tolerance levels, routine analytical methods must have detection limits of less than the tolerance level. This paper intends to give an overview of current analytical developments of rapid testing for deoxynivalenol and other trichothecene mycotoxins, with a special focus on antibody-based techniques. This includes high-throughput instrumental analysis for the laboratory environment, as well as rapid visual tests for on-site testing. The applicability of rapid tests within an integrated detection system for mycotoxins in foods is discussed.

  10. Statement on the risks for public health related to a possible increase of the maximum level of deoxynivalenol for certain semi-processed cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to a possible increase of the maximum level (ML of deoxynivalenol (DON for certain semi-processed cereal products from 750 µg/kg to 1000 µg/kg. For this statement, EFSA relied on existing occurrence data on DON in food collected between 2007 and 2012 and reported by 21 European countries. Due to the lack of appropriate occurrence data from pre-market monitoring, the impact of increasing the ML was estimated using a simulation approach, resulting in an expected increase in mean levels of the respective food products by a factor of 1.14-1.16. Based on median chronic exposure in several age classes, the percentage of consumers exceeding the group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI of 1 μg/kg body weight (b.w. for the sum of DON and its 3- and 15-acetyl-derivatives, established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA in 2010, is approximately 2-fold higher with the suggested increased ML than with the current ML. Several acute exposure scenarios resulted in exceedance of the group acute reference dose (ARfD of 8 µg/kg b.w. established by JECFA with up to 25.9 % of the consumption days above the group ARfD. The EFSA Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain notes that the group health based guidance values (HBGVs include 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON. The exposure from the acetyl-derivatives has not been covered in this statement, since the acetyl-derivatives are not included in the current or suggested increased ML and because only few occurrence data are available. An increase of the DON ML can be expected to be associated with an increase of the levels of DON and Ac-DONs, and can therefore increase the exposure and consequently the exceedances of the group HBGVs.

  11. Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Liz; Hardie, Laura; Williams, Courtney; White, Kay; Liu, Yunru; De Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; Moretti, Georgio; Greetham, Stephanie; Brera, Carlo; Rigby, Alan; Atkin, Stephen; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels of total DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in pregnant human urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days from 42 volunteers and associated food consumption was recorded for the 24 h prior to the sample. Spearman’s rho non-parametric test for correlation was used to assess the data. Levels of DON did not differ significantly between day 1 (mean 29.7 ng/mL urine or 40.1 ng DON/mg creatinine) and day 2 (mean 28.7 ng/mL urine or 38.8 ng DON/mg creatinine ng/mL/day) urine samples. The only significant positive correlation was found between total ng DON/mg creatinine and parity (rho = 0.307, n = 42, p < 0.005 two-tailed) and total ng DON/mg creatinine with baked goods on day 1 (rho = 0.532, n = 42, p < 0.0005 two-tailed). This study provides data on the DON levels in pregnancy in this suburban population and reassurance that those levels are within acceptable limits. PMID:27792137

  12. Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels of total DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in pregnant human urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days from 42 volunteers and associated food consumption was recorded for the 24 h prior to the sample. Spearman’s rho non-parametric test for correlation was used to assess the data. Levels of DON did not differ significantly between day 1 (mean 29.7 ng/mL urine or 40.1 ng DON/mg creatinine and day 2 (mean 28.7 ng/mL urine or 38.8 ng DON/mg creatinine ng/mL/day urine samples. The only significant positive correlation was found between total ng DON/mg creatinine and parity (rho = 0.307, n = 42, p < 0.005 two-tailed and total ng DON/mg creatinine with baked goods on day 1 (rho = 0.532, n = 42, p < 0.0005 two-tailed. This study provides data on the DON levels in pregnancy in this suburban population and reassurance that those levels are within acceptable limits.

  13. Survey of deoxynivalenol and its conjugates deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in 374 beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Malachova, Alexandra; Schwartz, Heidi; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Malted cereal grains are among the basic ingredients and hence mycotoxin contamination might occur. Previous studies reported the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), as well as of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in beer. In the present survey, 374 beer samples from 38 countries with a focus on Austrian (156) and German (64) beers were analysed for the presence of D3G, DON and 3ADON. Beers were assigned to the following six categories: pale (217), wheat (46), dark (47), bock (20), nonalcoholic beers (19) and shandies (25). In total, 348 and 289 beers (93 and 77%, respectively) contained D3G and DON at the levels above the limit of detection, whereas 3ADON was not detected in any of the samples. Average concentrations of all beers were 6.9 µg L(-1) for D3G and 8.4 µg L(-1) in the case of DON. Nonalcoholic beers and shandies showed the lowest contaminations, 1.5 and 3.2 µg L(-1) for D3G and 2.7 and 4.4 µg L(-1) for DON, respectively. In bock beers characterised by a higher gravity, a significant trichothecene load of 14.8 µg L(-1) D3G and 12.4 µg L(-1) DON was found. The highest contamination (81 µg L(-1) D3G, 89 µg L(-1) DON) was detected in a pale beer from Austria, underlining the importance of this study for food safety. The molar D3G to DON ratio ranged between 0.11 and 1.25 and was 0.56 on average. Concluding, the average contamination of beer is not of toxicological concern for moderate beer drinkers. However, in the case of heavy beer drinkers, beer consumption may considerably contribute to the overall intake of DON, which might even lead to exceeding the maximum tolerable limits established for this Fusarium toxin.

  14. Individual and combined effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Ren, Zhihua; Gao, Shuang; Chen, Yun; Yang, Yanyi; Yang, Dan; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Wang, Ya; Shen, Liuhong

    2015-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate the individual and combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on mouse kidney. A total of 360 female mice were divided into nine groups. Each group received intraperitoneal injection of solvent (control), DON, ZEA, or DON+ZEA four times for 12d. Results showed that ZEA and/or DON increased the apoptosis rate in the kidney, as well as the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. DON and/or ZEA also induced renal oxidative stress as indicated by increased malondialdehyde concentration and nitric oxide level and reduced superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and hydroxyl radical inhibiting capacity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent. This study reports that DON and/or ZEA induced apoptosis, dysfunction, and oxidative stress in mouse kidney. Furthermore, the combination of DON+ZEA exhibited a sub-additive nephrotoxic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan shahhosseiny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  16. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generotti, Silvia; Cirlini, Martina; Malachova, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Berthiller, Franz; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Suman, Michele

    2015-07-24

    In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range.

  17. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  18. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  19. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    toxin may again be released after hydrolysis in the digestive tracts of animals and humans. Today, our knowledge of the occurrence of these compounds in cereal grains is limited. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of DON, deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside...... % of the DON concentration. The DON-3-glucoside levels in both the naturally and in the artificially grain inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below...

  20. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kushiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.

  1. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

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    Li Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group, 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group. After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1, glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2 and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1 were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  2. Role of fungicides, application of nozzle types, and the resistance level of wheat varieties in the control of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterházy, Akos; Tóth, Beáta; Varga, Monika; Bartók, Tibor; Szabó-Hevér, Agnes; Farády, László; Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs

    2011-11-01

    Fungicide application is a key factor in the control of mycotoxin contamination in the harvested wheat grain. However, the practical results are often disappointing. In 2000-2004, 2006-2008 and 2007 and 2008, three experiments were made to test the efficacy of fungicide control on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat and to find ways to improve control of the disease and toxin contamination. In a testing system we have used for 20 years, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + prothioconazole fungicides regularly reduced symptoms by about 80% with a correlating reduction in toxin contamination. Averages across the years normally show a correlation of r = 0.90 or higher. The stability differences (measured by the stability index) between the poorest and the best fungicides are about 10 or more times, differing slightly in mycotoxin accumulation, FHB index (severity) and Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK). The weak fungicides, like carbendazim, were effective only when no epidemic occurred or epidemic severity was at a very low level. Similar fungicide effects were seen on wheat cultivars which varied in FHB resistance. In this study, we found three fold differences in susceptibility to FHB between highly susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars when treated with fungicides. In the moderately resistant cultivars, about 50% of the fungicide treatments lowered the DON level below the regulatory limit. In the most susceptible cultivars, all fungicides failed to reduce mycotoxin levels low enough for grain acceptance, in spite of the fact that disease was significantly reduced. The results correlated well with the results of the large-scale field tests of fungicide application at the time of natural infection. The Turbo FloodJet nozzle reduced FHB incidence and DON contamination when compared to the TeeJet XR nozzle. Overall, the data suggest that significant decreases in FHB incidence and deoxynivalenol contamination in field situations are possible with proper fungicide

  3. Role of Fungicides, Application of Nozzle Types, and the Resistance Level of Wheat Varieties in the Control of Fusarium Head Blight and Deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Lehoczki-Krsjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungicide application is a key factor in the control of mycotoxin contamination in the harvested wheat grain. However, the practical results are often disappointing. In 2000–2004, 2006–2008 and 2007 and 2008, three experiments were made to test the efficacy of fungicide control on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB in wheat and to find ways to improve control of the disease and toxin contamination. In a testing system we have used for 20 years, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + prothioconazole fungicides regularly reduced symptoms by about 80% with a correlating reduction in toxin contamination. Averages across the years normally show a correlation of r = 0.90 or higher. The stability differences (measured by the stability index between the poorest and the best fungicides are about 10 or more times, differing slightly in mycotoxin accumulation, FHB index (severity and Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK. The weak fungicides, like carbendazim, were effective only when no epidemic occurred or epidemic severity was at a very low level. Similar fungicide effects were seen on wheat cultivars which varied in FHB resistance. In this study, we found three fold differences in susceptibility to FHB between highly susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars when treated with fungicides. In the moderately resistant cultivars, about 50% of the fungicide treatments lowered the DON level below the regulatory limit. In the most susceptible cultivars, all fungicides failed to reduce mycotoxin levels low enough for grain acceptance, in spite of the fact that disease was significantly reduced. The results correlated well with the results of the large-scale field tests of fungicide application at the time of natural infection. The Turbo FloodJet nozzle reduced FHB incidence and DON contamination when compared to the TeeJet XR nozzle. Overall, the data suggest that significant decreases in FHB incidence and deoxynivalenol contamination in field situations are possible with

  4. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  5. Deoxynivalenol transport across the human placental barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Vikström, Anna C; Turner, Paul; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2011-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly detected mycotoxin contaminant of cereal crops and cereal based food products in temperate regions of the world. DON causes adverse health effects in animals, passes through to the foetus and causes foetal abnormalities in animals. Biomonitoring for DON has revealed frequent human exposure. This study reports on DON transfer across the human placenta. Firstly, in vitro studies with the BeWo b30 clone were used as a rapid screening model showing transfer of DON through a stable confluent cell monolayer. Five term placentas were then used to study DON transfer with the ex vivo dual perfusion model. The concentration of DON on the foetal side after 4h was about 21% of that on the maternal side at t=0. These results support the data from the BeWo monolayer model in respect to the transport rate of DON, and are consistent with our hypothesis of foetal exposure to DON during pregnancy.

  6. Anorexic action of deoxynivalenol in hypothalamus and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Misa; Momonaka, Yuka; Yokose, Chihiro; Tadaishi, Miki; Shimizu, Makoto; Yamane, Takumi; Oishi, Yuichi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    Although deoxynivalenol (DON) suppresses food intake and subsequent weight gain, its contribution to anorexia mechanisms has not been fully clarified. Thus, we investigated the anorexic actions of DON in the hypothalamus and intestine, both organs related to appetite. When female B6C3F1 mice were orally exposed to different doses of DON, a drastic anorexic action was observed at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) from 0 to 3 h after administration. Exposure to DON (12.5 mg/kg bw) for 3 h significantly increased the hypothalamic mRNA levels of anorexic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and its downstream targets, including melanocortin 4 receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and tyrosine kinase receptor B; at the same time, orexigenic hormones were not affected. In addition, exposure to DON significantly elevated the hypothalamic mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) and activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an upstream factor of POMC. These results suggest that DON-induced proinflammatory cytokines increased the POMC level via NF-κB activation. Moreover, exposure to DON significantly enhanced the gastrointestinal mRNA levels of anorexic cholecystokinin (CCK) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 channel (TRPA1), a possible target of DON; these findings suggest that DON induced anorexic action by increasing CCK production via TRPA1. Taken together, these results suggest that DON induces anorexic POMC, perhaps via NF-κB activation, by increasing proinflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and brings about CCK production, possibly through increasing intestinal TRPA1 expression, leading to anorexic actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1.

  8. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  9. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years o

  10. Nucleophilic Addition of Thiols to Deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Ana; Uhlig, Silvio; Solhaug, Anita; Rise, Frode; Wilkins, Alistair L; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-09-02

    Conjugation of deoxynivalenol (DON) with sulfur compounds is recognized as a significant reaction pathway, and putative DON-glutathione (DON-GSH) conjugates have been reported in planta. To understand and control the reaction of trichothecenes with biologically important thiols, we studied the reaction of DON, T-2 tetraol, and de-epoxy-DON with a range of model thiols. Reaction conditions were optimized for DON with 2-mercaptoethanol. Major reaction products were identified using HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that thiols react reversibly with the double bond (Michael addition) and irreversibly with the epoxide group in trichothecenes. These reactions occurred at different rates, and multiple isomers were produced including diconjugated forms. LC-MS analyses indicated that glutathione and cysteine reacted with DON in a similar manner to the model thiols. In contrast to DON, none of the tested mercaptoethanol adducts displayed toxicity in human monocytes or induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages.

  11. Cross-reactivity of some commercially available DON and ZEN immunoaffinity columns to DON and ZEN conjugated forms and metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Versilovskis, Aleksandrs; Huybrecht, Bart; Tangni, Emmanuel K; Luc, Pussemier; De Saeger, Sarah; Callebaut, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Seven commercially available deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) immunoaffinity columns (IACs) were tested for cross-reactivity to conjugated forms (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, DON-3-glucoside, DON-3-glucuronide, ZEN-glucosides, ZEN-glucuronide) and metabolites (de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol) and nivalenol (NIV), using a semi-quantitative multi-mycotoxin ultra performance liquid chromatography ? tandem ...

  12. Diagnostic opportunities for evaluation of the exposure of dairy cows to the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN): reliability of blood plasma, bile and follicular fluid as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J; Kersten, S; Meyer, U; Stinshoff, H; Locher, L; Rehage, J; Wrenzycki, C; Engelhardt, U H; Dänicke, S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the usefulness of follicular fluid (FF) in relation to blood plasma and bile as indicators of exposure of dairy cows to ZEN, DON and their metabolites, a dose-response study was performed with 30 dairy cows. The cows, 10 in each group (named CON; FUS-50, FUS-100), received a diet with three different concentrations of Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize. Thereby, the following dietary concentration were reached: CON (0.02 mg ZEN and 0.07 mg DON, per kg dry matter, DM), FUS-50 (0.33 mg ZEN and 2.62 mg DON, per kg DM) and FUS-100 (0.66 mg ZEN and 5.24 mg DON, per kg DM). ZEN, DON and de-epoxy-DON (de-DON) were detected in FF. Based on the linear regression between toxin concentration in plasma and FF, it seems that about 50% (m = 0.5) of ZEN present in plasma is present in FF while an increase of 1 ng/ml DON or de-DON in plasma is paralleled by an increase of 1.5 ng/ml DON or 1.1 ng/ml de-DON in FF. ZEN, DON and their metabolites, except zearalenone (ZAN), were also detected in bile. Contrary to DON and de-DON, ZEN and its metabolites were accumulated in bile so that the concentration of ZEN and metabolites was much higher than for DON and de-DON. The main compound was β-zearalenol (β-ZEL). The biliary ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-ZEL concentration correlated linearly with each other with an uncertainty of <15% (r(2) ≥ 0.86), whereas the ratio between ZEN: α-ZEL: β-ZEL was about 1.5:1:11. With the help of established linear relationship between toxin intake and toxin concentration, bile could be used as diagnostic indicator to assess the exposure of cows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Murine Anorectic Response to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin Is Sex-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin, a common trichothecene mycotoxin found in cereal foods, dysregulates immune function and maintenance of energy balance. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences are similarly evident in DON’s anorectic responses in mice. A bioassay for feed refusal, previously developed by our lab, was used to compare acute i.p. exposures of 1 and 5 mg/kg bw DON in C57BL6 mice. Greater anorectic responses were seen in male than female mice. Male mice had higher organ and plasma concentrations of DON upon acute exposure than their female counterparts. A significant increase in IL-6 plasma levels was also observed in males while cholecystokinin response was higher in females. When effects of sex on food intake and body weight changes were compared after subchronic dietary exposure to 1, 2.5, and 10 ppm DON, males were found again to be more sensitive. Demonstration of male predilection to DON-induced changes in food intake and weight gain might an important consideration in future risk assessment of DON and other trichothecenes.

  14. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Deoxynivalenol and Wheat Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shao, Huili; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Ren; Li, Yongfu; Li, Yanan; Luo, Yingpeng; Chen, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, which is found in a wide range of agricultural products, especially in wheat, barley, oat and corn. In this study, the distribution of DON in the wheat kernel and the effect of exposure time to ozone on DON detoxification were investigated. A high concentration of toxin was found in the outer part of the kernel, and DON was injected from the outside to the inside. The degradation rates of DON were 26.40%, 39.16%, and 53.48% after the samples were exposed to 75 mg/L ozone for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively. The effect of ozonation on wheat flour quality and nutrition was also evaluated. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in protein content, fatty acid value, amino acid content, starch content, carbonyl and carboxyl content, and swelling power of ozone-treated samples. Moreover, the ozone-treated samples exhibited higher tenacity and whiteness, as well as lower extensibility and yellowness. This finding indicated that ozone treatment can simultaneously reduce DON levels and improve flour quality.

  15. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Zentek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment: (1 control diet; (2 diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3 diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01 shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05 the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were not altered (P > 0.05 in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1 were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum. Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large

  16. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  17. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  18. Using enzymes and microorganisms to modify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium graminearum that contaminates staple crops such as wheat, barley, and maize when they are infected with this fungus. New strategies are needed to mitigate DON. We screened for microbes that could grow in the presence o...

  19. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erica S; Flannery, Brenna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M; Pestka, James J

    2015-10-19

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  20. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erica S.; Flannery, Brenna M.; Gardner, Elizabeth M.; Pestka, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes. PMID:26492270

  1. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Philippe; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Del Rio, Juan-Carlos; Moreno, Carolina; Marin, Daniela E; Ferrier, Laurent; Bracarense, Ana-Paula; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2009-05-15

    'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we investigated the effects of DON on the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated that, in intestinal epithelial cell lines from porcine (IPEC-1) or human (Caco-2) origin, DON decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increases in a time and dose-dependent manner the paracellular permeability to 4 kDa dextran and to pathogenic Escherichia coli across intestinal cell monolayers. In pig explants treated with DON, we also observed an increased permeability of intestinal tissue. These alterations of barrier function were associated with a specific reduction in the expression of claudins, which was also seen in vivo in the jejunum of piglets exposed to DON-contaminated feed. In conclusion, DON alters claudin expression and decreases the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health.

  2. The fate of deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A during the breadmaking process, effects of sourdough use and bran content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A; Marín, S; Morales, H; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2014-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based products such as bread. Due to the increasing interest in the beneficial effects of dietary bran, bran bread has attained high consumption. Usually, the higher mycotoxin concentrations in cereals are found in the external layers of the grain (bran), leading to higher concentration of DON and OTA in breads with added bran. Moreover, the use of sourdough in breadmaking is increasing, but no studies about its effect in the mycotoxins content exist. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of concentration of these mycotoxins during the breadmaking process including the following factors: two initial mycotoxin concentrations in the initial mix of ingredients, four different bran contents, and use of sourdough. OTA was confirmed to be quite stable during the breadmaking process, regardless of the assayed factors. DON concentration during breadmaking was not significantly affected by bran content of bread. However, it was significantly affected by kneading and fermentation steps in opposite way depending on sourdough use and flour contamination level: if DON reduction occurs during fermentation, this leads to a safer situation, but the possible increase in DON should be considered with care, as it can compensate the expected dilution effect by recipe. Finally, the results on deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), although preliminar, suggest an increase of this toxin during fermentation, but mainly during baking.

  3. Isolation of deoxynivalenol-transforming bacteria from the chicken intestines using the approach of PCR-DGGE guided microbial selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiu-Zhen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON, has been an ongoing problem for Canada and many other countries. Mycotoxin contamination creates food safety risks, reduces grain market values, threatens livestock industries, and limits agricultural produce exports. DON is a secondary metabolite produced by some Fusarium species of fungi. To date, there is a lack of effective and economical methods to significantly reduce the levels of trichothecene mycotoxins in food and feed, including the efforts to breed Fusarium pathogen-resistant crops and chemical/physical treatments to remove the mycotoxins. Biological approaches, such as the use of microorganisms to convert the toxins to non- or less toxic compounds, have become a preferred choice recently due to their high specificity, efficacy, and environmental soundness. However, such approaches are often limited by the availability of microbial agents with the ability to detoxify the mycotoxins. In the present study, an approach with PCR-DGGE guided microbial selection was developed and used to isolate DON -transforming bacteria from chicken intestines, which resulted in the successful isolation of several bacterial isolates that demonstrated the function to transform DON to its de-epoxy form, deepoxy-4-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1, a product much less toxic than DON. Results The use of conventional microbiological selection strategies guided by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bacterial profiles for isolating DON-transforming bacteria has significantly increased the efficiency of the bacterial selection. Ten isolates were identified and isolated from chicken intestines. They were all able to transform DON to DOM-1. Most isolates were potent in transforming DON and the activity was stable during subculturing. Sequence data of partial 16S rRNA genes indicate that the ten isolates belong to four different bacterial groups

  4. The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health: Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177–1,466 μg/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations. PMID:27997572

  5. Genotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens fed low-protein feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Dadak, A; Gille, L; Staniek, K; Hess, M; Böhm, J

    2012-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens

  6. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  7. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine and in feces. The results indicate that deepoxydation in the present study hardly occurred in the distal segments of the digestive tract, assuming that the complete de-epoxydation occurs in the proximal small intestine where the majority of the parent toxin is absorbed. In conclusion, diets with DON contamination below levels that induce a negative impact on

  8. Moisture effects on the prediction performance of a single kernel near-infrared deoxynivalenol calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of moisture content variation on the accuracy of single kernel deoxynivalenol (DON) prediction by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated. Sample moisture content (MC) considerably affected accuracy of the current NIR DON calibration by underestimating or over estimating DON at high...

  9. The effects of deoxynivalenol on gene expression in the murine thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, S.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Loveren, van H.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and is often detected in grains. Because of its high abundance, there has been a large interest in the effects of DON in animals and humans. DON is known to be immunosuppressive at high concentrations and immunostimulatory at l

  10. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: som...

  11. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (Penteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  12. Deoxynivalenol and its conjugates in beer: a critical assessment of data obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariasova, Milena; Hajslova, Jana; Kostelanska, Marta; Poustka, Jan; Krplova, Alexandra; Cuhra, Petr; Hochel, Igor

    2008-09-05

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are often employed for the control of deoxynivalenol (DON) in barley and other intermediates involved in beer production chain. Because of the occurrence of high levels of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) in malt and beer that have been reported for the first time in our earlier study, research focused on the accuracy of DON determination by immunoassays in cereal-based matrices has been initiated. DON-3-Glc was strongly cross-reacting in all examined commercial ELISA test kits (Ridascreen) DON (R-Biopharm), Veratox 5/5 DON) (Neogen Corporation), Deoxynivalenol EIA (Euro-Diagnostica), and AgraQuant) DON Assay 0.25/5.0 Test Kit (Romer Labs). The highest overestimation in beer analysis, up to 1000%, when taking the DON content determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a reference method, was obtained by AgraQuant assay. Besides of DON-3-Glc and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADONs), also other, not known yet, matrix components contributed to false positive results. Similar phenomenon, although in a lesser extent due to lower content of these substances, was observed for using ELISA in the analysis of wheat. The relationship between a way of sample handling and DON overestimation was demonstrated; higher ELISA response was measured in an aqueous extract compared to that prepared by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). Most of cross-reacting co-extracts were removed by MycoSep# 226 cartridge, what leads us to the hypothesis on the presence of currently unknown cross-reactive species.

  13. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed. PMID:23325300

  14. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour, instant noodle and biscuits commercialised in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana Palma de; Lamardo, Leda Conceição Antonia; Shundo, Luzia; Silva, Simone Alves da; Navas, Sandra Aparecida; Alaburda, Janete; Ruvieri, Valter; Sabino, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    A total of 134 samples, consisting of 58 wheat flour, 40 instant noodle and 36 biscuits, were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON). The samples were obtained from retail markets of the city of São Paulo during the period 2010-2014. DON was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and immunoaffinity sample clean-up. Method validation followed international guidelines. The LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 µg kg(-1), respectively, considering the three different types of samples analysed. The lowest recovery found in this study was 91.8% with RSD 4.5% for instant noodles. DON was detected in 91.4%, 97.5% and 97.2% of samples wheat flour, instant noodles and biscuits, respectively, resulting in a total of 94.8% with levels ranging from LOD to 1720.0 µg kg(-1).

  15. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed.

  16. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µg.kg-1, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  17. Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by deoxynivalenol in the porcine intestinal IPEC-J2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Aschenbach, J R; Zentek, J

    2012-08-01

    The digestive tract is a target for the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a major cereal grain contaminant of animal and public health concern. Toxic effects of DON range from diarrhoea, vomiting and gastrointestinal inflammation to necrosis of several tissues. Following ingestion of contaminated food or feed, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to a high concentration of ingested DON, potentially affecting intestinal functions. Pigs are considered to be the species most sensitive to DON toxicity. However, only few studies directly evaluated DON effects on porcine intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, we used the porcine intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2) to assess short-term effects of DON on functional characteristics of the intestinal epithelial cells. The cytotoxic effect of DON on IPEC-J2 cells was evaluated by measuring the count of living cells and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the culture media at a DON concentration range from 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 μm. We demonstrated that DON at concentrations of 2.5 and 10 μm decreased significantly (p < 0.001) the cell count in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 10 μm, DON caused cell damage, including rounding of cells, autolysis and cell loss from the monolayer. The mycotoxin, DON, increased LDH release into the culture medium compared with the control value. The alterations of LDH showed a good agreement with the decrease in cell count. Deoxynivalenol decreased the l-lactate concentration in the fluid supernatant of IPEC-J2 cells at 2.5 μm (p < 0.05) with a maximal effect at 10 μm of DON. To determine whether the altered lactate production may be linked to alterations of energy balance, we measured cellular ATP levels in IPEC-J2 cells. A significant decrease in ATP levels was seen at 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. It could be demonstrated that DON has a distinct cytotoxic effect on IPEC-J2 cells.

  18. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  19. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate, DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens, 51%–72% (roosters, and 131%–151% (pullets. In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  20. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA and deoxynivalenol (DON, naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented with DON caused no effect on growth or survival rate of the shrimp. However, shrimps fed DON feed diet with 1,000 ppb showed significantly higher growth performance. No significant difference in total haemocyte counts (THC was found in shrimp fed mycotoxins-supplemented feed. Feeding high level of OTA (1,000 ppb caused a decrease in phenoloxidase (PO activity. Although no histopathological change was observed, decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels in shrimp fed OTA or DON indicated that mycotoxin may impair the functioning of hepatopancreatic cells. Since no adverse effect occurred with the highest levels of OTA and DON (1,000 and 2,000 ppb, respectively on haemolymph parameters and no residue was detected at the completion of the 8-week feeding period, it can be concluded that shrimp feeds occasionally contaminated with OTA or DON have no negative impact on the shrimp culture industry.

  1. Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Denis Troadec; Julien Roux; Lourdes Mounien; Michel Dallaporta; Marion S Bonnet

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), mainly produced by Fusarium fungi, and also commonly called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is one of the most abundant trichothecenes which contaminate cereals consumed by farm animals and humans. The extent of cereal contamination is strongly associated with rainfall and moisture at the time of flowering and with grain storage conditions. DON consumption may result in intoxication, the severity of which is dose-dependent and may lead to different symptoms i...

  2. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  3. Relationships among deoxynivalenol, ergosterol and Fusarium exoantigens in Canadian hard and soft wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, D; Gan, Z; Clear, R M; Gilbert, J; Marquardt, R R

    1998-12-22

    Soluble extracellular components (exoantigens) from cultures of Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides were used to produce antisera from chickens for an indirect enzyme immunoassay. This immunoassay was used to estimate Fusarium exoantigen levels in 40 samples of fusarium head blight-infected hard red spring wheat from Manitoba, and in 50 samples of infected soft white winter wheat from Ontario. These wheat samples were also assayed for deoxynivalenol (DON), the predominant Fusarium mycotoxin, and for ergosterol, a metabolite reflecting fungal biomass. Using F. sporotrichioides antisera, the linear correlations between exoantigen level and DON content for the hard and soft wheats had coefficients of 0.80 and 0.76, respectively. With the same antisera, linear correlations between exoantigen level and total ergosterol concentration for the hard and soft wheats had coefficients of 0.66 and 0.81, respectively.

  4. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P H; Nielsen, K F; Ghorbani, F; Spliid, N H; Nielsen, G C; Jørgensen, L N

    2012-08-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) can occur in cereals conjugated to glucose and probably also to other sugars. These conjugates, which are often referred to as "masked mycotoxins", will not be detected with routine analytical techniques. Furthermore, it is suspected that the parent toxin may again be released after hydrolysis in the digestive tracts of animals and humans. Today, our knowledge of the occurrence of these compounds in cereal grains is limited. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of DON, deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize silage (n = 10). The samples were collected from the harvest years 2006-2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37 % of the DON concentration. The DON-3-glucoside levels in both the naturally and in the artificially grain inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below the detection limit of the method. This argues for the importance of taking DON-3-glucoside into account in the ongoing discussion within the European Community concerning exposure re-evaluations for setting changed values for the tolerable intake for DON. Our results indicate that, in the naturally contaminated grains and in the Fusarium infested cereal grains (winter and spring wheat, oat, triticale), the concentration level of DON-3-glucoside is positively

  5. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  6. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Shahbazi; Naser Safaeie; Amir Mousavi; Forough Sanjarian; Mahsa Karimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB), is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON). Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over...

  7. Risk assessment of deoxynivalenol in food: Concentration limits, exposure and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, M.N.; Freijer, J.; Baars, B.J.; Fiolet, D.C.M.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Slob, W.

    2002-01-01

    The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), is produced world-wide by the Fusarium genus in different cereal crops. We derived a provisional TDI of 1.1 mug/kg body weight (bw) and proposed a concentration limit of 129 mug DON/kg wheat based on this TDI and a high wheat consumption of children. In the perio

  8. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Het mycotoxine deoxynivalenol (DON), dat geproduceerd wordt door schimmels van het geslacht Fusarium, kan in verschillende graansoorten aanwezig zijn. Om concentratielimieten te berekenen voor DON in tarwe en tarwe-bevattende producten is een voorlopige TDI afgeleid van 1,1 4g per kg lichaamsgew

  9. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  10. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Giménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  11. Effects of bread making and wheat germ addition on the natural deoxynivalenol content in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-21

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  12. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ovando-Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection.

  13. Impact of Deoxynivalenol on the Intestinal Microflora of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly reduced the animal weight gain during the first week of the experiment, but had a moderate effect on cultivable bacteria in the pig intestine. By contrast, changes in the intestinal microflora were observed by Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP in DON-exposed animals, suggesting an impact of this toxin on the dynamics of intestinal bacteria communities.

  14. Opposite effects of two trichothecene mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol, on the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β in HL60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kushiro, Masayo

    2012-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the toxicities of the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol, their effects on the secretion of anti-hematopoietic chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β in human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60 were investigated. Exposure to deoxynivalenol for 24h significantly induced the secretion of chemokines. The induction of these chemokines may account for the leukopenia after exposure to trichothecene mycotoxins. Treatment with nivalenol decreased the secretion of these chemokines. Our finding that deoxynivalenol induces the secretion of these chemokines, whereas nivalenol has the opposite effect, clearly indicates that the toxicity mechanisms of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol differ.

  15. Natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in wheat from Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Xu, Jianhong; Liu, Xin; Yin, Xianchao; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-08-15

    A three-year (2010-2012) survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat from several regions of Jiangsu province, China, which are heavily impacted by Fusarium head blight. A total of 180 wheat samples were obtained from the infected fields that spread 21 counties. DON and ZEN levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). DON was found in 74.4% of samples at levels ranging from 14.52 to 41157.13 μg/kg (mean 488.02 μg/kg), while ZEN was found in 12.8% of samples at levels ranging from 10.13 to 3048.88 μg/kg (mean 73.04 μg/kg). In years and regions of higher rainfall, DON and ZEN levels were higher in samples. These results are necessary to take a vigilant attitude to prevent human intake of trichothecenes and protect human's health from the risk of exposure to these toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  17. CONTRIBUTION OF PRIMARY SPIKES VS TILLERS TO TOTAL DEOXYNIVALENOL IN HARVESTED GRAIN OF WHEAT AND BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of higher number of tillers is desirable for higher grain yield in both wheat and barley; tillers have delayed physiological development. Studies addressing the contribution of secondary tillers in final DON concentration for wheat and barley are limited. This project aims to improve our understanding of the relationship between FHB symptoms and DON concentration by examining the contribution of primary spikes and secondary tillers as it relates to the final DON concentration. Experiments, established as split-split plot design with five replications, was be conducted in South Dakota with moderately resistant and susceptible cultivars of each spring wheat, winter wheat and barley. Two inoculation time treatments was applied; at the anthesis of primary spikes (Feekes 10.5 and at anthesis of tillers (Feekes 11.2. Primary spikes (inoculated at Feekes 10.5 and tillers (inoculated at Feekes 11.2 were harvested separately, analyzed for visually scabby kernels and deoxynivalenol following standard protocols. Levels of DON were statistically higher in main heads of barley and spring wheat in each cultivar compared to its tillers. In winter wheat, though there was higher DON level in tillers than main heads in each cultivar, it was not statistically different. Based upon our result, it is suggested that cultivars with high tillers number should be selected in breeding programs to develop cultivars with high yield and low DON. Similarly, planting density of wheat and barley can be adjusted such that it will result in higher numbers of tillers, increasing tillers proportion that might lower DON concentration in final harvest.

  18. From the Gut to the Brain: Journey and Pathophysiological Effects of the Food-Associated Trichothecene Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Maresca

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In addition to native toxins, food also contains a large amount of plant and fungal derivatives of DON, including acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON), glucoside-DON (D3G), and potentially animal derivatives such as gluc...

  19. Protective role of selenium in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Zuo, Zhicai; Zhao, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhuo; Peng, Guangneng; Cao, Suizhong; Hu, Yanchun; Yu, Shumin; Zhong, Zhijun; Deng, Junliang; Ren, Zhihua

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of selenium (Se) on antioxidant enzymes of piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). We measured cell viability, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that DON exposure increased the concentrations of LDH, MDA, and H2O2 in all experimental groups in a dose-dependent manner, while the concentrations of other antioxidant enzymes were decreased. In Se-pretreated DON-exposed cells, damage to antioxidant enzymes was reduced, especially in the lower-dose DON groups over longer exposure times. These results may indicate that in piglet splenic lymphocytes, Se can alleviate DON-induced damage to antioxidant enzymes by improving glutathione peroxidase activity. Se may function as a potential antioxidative agent to alleviate DON-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of activated carbon and Egyptian montmorillonite in the protection against deoxynivalenol-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; El-Kady, Ahmed A; Hassan, Aziza M; Abd El-Moneim, Omaima M; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to prepare and characterize activated carbon (AC) and to evaluate its protective effect against deoxynivalenol (DON) toxicity in rats compared to Egyptian montmorillonite (EM). AC was prepared using a single-step chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The resulted AC has a high surface area and a high total pore volume. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 10) and treated for 3 weeks as follow: the control group, the groups fed AC or EM-supplemented diet (0.5% w/w), the group treated orally with DON (5 mg/kg b.w.) and the groups fed AC or EM-supplemented diet and treated with DON. Blood and liver samples were collected for different analyses. Treatment with DON increased liver function enzymes, lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor α, DNA fragmentation, decreased hepatic glutathione content, up regulating mRNA Fas and TNF-α genes expression and increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow. Co-treatment of DON plus AC or EM succeeded to normalize the levels of the biochemical parameters, reduced the cytotoxicity of bone marrow and ameliorated the hepatic genotoxicity. Moreover, AC was more effective than EM and has a high affinity to adsorb DON and to reduce its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

  1. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  2. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal product supply chain: the DON case within industrial bread-making technology

    OpenAIRE

    BERGAMINI, Elena; Catellani, Dante; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; Dossena, Arnaldo; Marchelli, Rosangela; Suman, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium mycotoxins are a relevant problem in the cereal supply chain at a worldwide level, being wheat, maize and barley the main contaminated crops; mould growth could happen in the pre-harvest phase and also during transport and storage due to ineffective drying conditions. Among Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) is considered the most important contaminant in wheat, due to its wide-spread occurrence. In the last years the European Food Safety Authority and the Euro...

  3. Assessment of deoxynivalenol exposure among Bangladeshi and German adults by a biomarker-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent mycotoxin contaminant in cereal crops worldwide and can cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. Since DON contamination in Bangladeshi food is unexplored, we conducted a biomonitoring study to assess DON exposure in the Bangladeshi population and compare it with that of German adults. In total 214 urines were collected, n=164 in Bangladesh and n=50 in Germany. In Bangladesh rural and urban residents of Rajshahi district provided urines in two seasons (n=69 in summer, n=95 in winter, with 62 participants enrolled in both periods). Urinary DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1 were measured by a previously validated sensitive LC-MS/MS method. In Bangladeshi urines, DON was detectable in 27% (range 0.16-1.78ng/mL) in summer and 31% (range 0.16-1.21ng/mL) in winter season. There was no significant difference at the mean DON level between season (summer 0.17±0.25ng/mL and winter 0.16±0.18ng/mL) and region (rural or urban residents). The metabolite DOM-1 was not detected in any urine from Bangladesh. In contrast, DON and DOM-1 were detected in 100% (range 0.16-38.44ng/mL) and 40% (range 0.10-0.73ng/mL), respectively, of the German urines. The mean DON level in German urines (9.02±6.84ng/mL) was about 53-fold higher than that found in Bangladeshi samples. This indicates a low and high dietary DON exposure among the adult population in Bangladesh and Germany, respectively. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON then served to calculate the daily mycotoxin intake in both cohorts: the mean DON intake in Bangladesh being 6ng/kg b.w., and in Germany a mean of 268 and maximum intake of 975ng/kg b.w., values lower than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 1μg/kg b.w. set by the WHO/JECFA.

  4. Single and combined effects of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin and a microbial feed additive on lymphocyte DNA damage and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Dadak, Agnes; Hess, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The immune and intestinal epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of DON and/or a microbial feed additive on the DNA damage of blood lymphocytes and on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in broilers. A total of forty 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 birds per group) for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; 3) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg/ton of feed of Mycofix Select; 4) basal diet supplemented with Mycofix Select (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At the end of the feeding trial, blood were collected for measuring the level of lymphocyte DNA damage of blood and the TBARS level was measured in plasma, heart, kidney, duodenum and jejunum. The dietary exposure of DON caused a significant increase (P = 0.001) of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (31.99 ± 0.89%) as indicated in the tail of comet assay. Interestingly addition of Mycofix Select to DON contaminated diet decreased (P = 0.001) the DNA damage (19.82 ± 1.75%) induced by DON. In order to clarify the involvement of lipid peroxidation in the DNA damage of DON, TBARS levels was measured. A significant increase (P = 0.001) in the level of TBARS (23 ± 2 nmol/mg) was observed in the jejunal tissue suggesting that the lipid peroxidation might be involved in the DNA damage. The results indicate that DON is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the chicken intestinal and immune cells and the feed additive have potential ability to prevent DNA damage induced by DON.

  5. The combination of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at permitted feed concentrations causes serious physiological effects in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Yulin; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei; Wang, Genhu; Bi, Yingzuo; Cao, Yongchang

    2008-03-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of the combination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) on pigs. Twenty-four weaning piglets were divided into a control group fed a diet free of mycotoxins and a toxin group fed a diet containing 1 mg/kg DON and 250 microg/kg ZON. The results showed that supplementation of DON and ZON in diets had extensive effects on pigs. More specifically, DON and ZON caused levels of total protein, albumin, and globulin in sera to decrease (p level of anticlassical swine fever antibody titers by 14.8%. Real-time PCR showed that DON and ZON caused the mRNA expression levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, to decrease (p safety measures for these toxins into question. The authors suggest that with the increasing availability of cellular and molecular technologies, it is time to revisit the safety standards for toxins in feeds so as to make feeds safer, providing consumers with safer products.

  6. Transformation of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in Chinese steamed bread making, as affected by pH, yeast, and steaming time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-07-01

    We hereby report the transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) by spiking targeted mycotoxins to Fusarium mycotoxin-free flour in the process of making Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The impacts of pH, yeast level, and steaming time on the transformation of 3-ADON to DON were investigated. DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Spiked DON was stable throughout the CSB making process. Spiked 3-ADON and 15-ADON were partially deacetylated and transformed to DON during kneading (54.1-60.0% and 59.3-77.5%, respectively), fermentation (64.0-76.9% and 78.2-91.6%, respectively), and steaming (47.2-52.7% and 52.4-61.9%, respectively). The ADONs level increased after steaming compared with their level in the previous step. The pH level and steaming duration significantly (Pprocess. Briefly, alkaline conditions and short steaming times favored the deacetylation of 3-ADON. The level of yeast did not remarkably (Ptransformation between ADONs and DON.

  7. Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, Annalisa; Cervellieri, Salvatore; Visconti, Angelo; Pascale, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. PMID:25384107

  8. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Antonissen

    Full Text Available Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001. DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001 and decreased duodenal villus height (P = 0.014 indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P = 0.023. Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  9. Screening survey of deoxynivalenol in beer from the European market by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou-Bouraoui, A; Vrabcheva, T; Valzacchi, S; Stroka, J; Anklam, E

    2004-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) was analysed in 313 beer samples collected from the European retail market using a commercially available immunoassay kit (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA). The incidence rate was about 87%, while most samples (73%) had contamination levels lower than 20 ng m(-1). The contamination ranged between 4.0 and 56.7 ng ml(-1), with an average of 13.5 ng ml(-1). A statistically significant correlation between alcohol levels and DON contamination was found, as well as a significant difference between bottom, top and spontaneous fermenting beers. Twenty-seven beer samples were compared using a second ELISA kit and a good correlation was obtained between the two kits (r = 0.93). Although when compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry the ELISA tended to overestimate the results, a good correlation (r=0.94) between the two methods was observed. Monitoring of DON in beer is important considering that DON production is dependent on the weather and that it can contribute significantly to the tolerable daily intake of DON, especially for frequent beer consumers.

  10. In vivo toxicity assessment of deoxynivalenol-contaminated wheat after ozone degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Ying; Shao, Huili; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Ren; Li, Yongfu; Li, Yanan; Luo, Yingpeng; Zhang, Dongjie; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-01-01

    The effect of ozone on deoxynivalenol (DON) detoxification was investigated. Ozone treatment could significantly reduce the levels of DON in wheat; 53% of DON in wheat was decomposed with 90 mg l(-1) of ozone at a flow rate of 15 l min(-1) for 4 h. The safety of DON-contaminated wheats (DCWs) untreated/treated by ozone was also evaluated. Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were divided into a standard diet group and five experimental diet groups for a 51-day orally administration experiment. In the experiment, no remarkable changes in the general appearance of the mice were observed, and all the mice survived until the scheduled necropsy. The results of sub-chronic toxicity indicated that mice fed on DCWs alone had significantly decreased in body weight gain, thymus and spleen weights, ratios of liver, thymus and spleen to body weight, blood indices (red blood cell, haemoglobin, white blood cell), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), while showing a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Histopathological examination indicate that DON elicited some degree of toxicity on the liver, kidney and thymus tissue. Mice fed on DCWs treated by ozone mitigated the adverse effects compared with mice fed on DCWs. All the results suggested that the deleterious effects of DON could be highly reduced by ozone, and ozone itself shows minor toxic effects on animals in this process.

  11. Short-term effects of T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol on lipid peroxidation and the glutathione system in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of a single oral dose of T-2 and HT-2 toxin at 0.15, 0.33 and 1.82 mg kg(-1) body weight, or deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-DON at 0.13, 0.31 and 1.75 mg kg(-1) body weight in common carp. Conjugated dienes and trienes (the early markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated in all DON-treated groups at the 16th hour, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; termination marker) were increased at the highest dose of DON at the 16th and 24th hours. T-2 toxin did not cause changes in these parameters. Glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity showed higher levels at the 16th hour as the effect of both mycotoxins. The expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes (gpx4a and gpx4b) revealed a dual response. Downregulation was observed at the 8th hour, followed by an induction at the 16th hour, at the lowest dose of both mycotoxins. Higher doses revealed long-drawn emergence and an elevation was observed only at the 24th hour. However, at the lowest and highest doses of DON or T-2 toxin the changes in gene expression were delayed, which may be related to the low oxidative stress response, as suggested by the expression profiles of the nrf2, keap1, gpx4a and gpx4b genes.

  12. Susceptibility of Maize to Stalk Rot Caused by Fusarium graminearum Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Al-Haddad, J; Scruggs, A C; Buell, C R; Trail, F

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a destructive pathogen of cereals that can cause stalk rot in maize. Stalk rot results in yield losses due to impaired grain filling, premature senescence, and lodging, which limits production and harvesting of ears. In addition, mycotoxins can make infected tissues unfit for silage. Our objectives were to evaluate the natural variation in stalk rot resistance among maize inbreds, to establish whether deoxynivalenol (DON)- and zearalenone (ZEA)-deficient strains are pathogenic on a panel of diverse inbreds, and to quantify the accumulation of DON in infected stalk tissue. Wild-type F. graminearum and mycotoxin mutants (DON and ZEA) were used to separately inoculate stalks of 9-week-old plants of 20 inbreds in the greenhouse. Plants were evaluated for lesion area at the inoculation point at 0, 2, 14, and 28 days postinoculation and tissues around lesions were sampled to determine the DON content. Regardless of their ability to produce DON or ZEA, all tested F. graminearum strains caused stalk rot; however, significant differences in disease levels were detected. Among the tested inbreds, Mp717 was resistant to all three F. graminearum strains while Mp317 and HP301 were only partially resistant. Accumulation of DON was significantly lower in infected stalks of the resistant and partially resistant inbreds than the susceptible inbreds. Analysis of the 20 inbreds using data from 17 simple-sequence repeats revealed population structure among the individuals; however, there was no association between genetic clustering and stalk rot resistance. These findings are an additional step toward breeding maize inbreds suitable for planting in fields infested with F. graminearum.

  13. DON modification in naturally-contaminated wheat samples using microorganisms isolated from the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum produces the toxic compound deoxynivalenol (DON) that contaminates wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to mitigate DON in the United States. Microbes were isolated from different soil types, and cultured in a mineral salt media using 100 ppm DON as the...

  14. Systemic Growth of F. graminearum in Wheat Plants and Related Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae. This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON, a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at

  15. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brera, Carlo; Bertazzoni, Valentina; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Prantera, Elisabetta; De Santis, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg) of deoxynivalenol (DON) was in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg) and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg), far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg) set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination. PMID:24287568

  16. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON was  in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg, far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination.

  17. Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Qiu, Lijuan; Zhang, Huijie; Sun, Juan; Hu, Xuexu; Wang, Bujun

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Fusarium graminearum strain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimized conditions for DON production were pH 4.91 and an incubation temperature of 23.75 °C for 28 days, while maximal ZEN production required pH 9.00 and an incubation temperature of 15.05 °C for 28 days. The maximum levels of DON and ZEN production were 2811.17 ng/mL and 23789.70 ng/mL, respectively. Considering the total level of DON and ZEN, desirable yields of the mycotoxins were still obtained with medium pH of 6.86, an incubation temperature of 17.76 °C and a time of 28 days. The corresponding experimental values, from the validation experiments, fitted well with these predictions. This suggests that RSM could be used to optimize Fusarium mycotoxin levels, which are further purified for use as potential mycotoxin standards. Furthermore, it shows that acidic pH is a determinant for DON production, while an alkaline environment and lower temperature (approximately 15 °C) are favorable for ZEN accumulation. After extraction, separation and purification processes, the isolated mycotoxins were obtained through a simple purification process, with desirable yields, and acceptable purity. The mycotoxins could be used as potential analytical standards or chemical reagents for routine analysis. PMID:28208576

  18. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  19. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. Wegulo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  20. Factors influencing deoxynivalenol accumulation in small grain cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegulo, Stephen N

    2012-11-06

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  1. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  3. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Erwin ROSENBERG; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior t...

  4. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Lloyd B. Bullerman

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  5. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in poultry feed in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Sherazi, S T H; Bhanger, M I; Nizamani, S M

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen broiler poultry feed samples were analysed over the time period of one year for the co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON). These were determined by GC-MS and ELISA, respectively. LOD values for aflatoxins and DON were 0.5 and 5 µg/kg, respectively. From all investigated 215 poultry feed samples, aflatoxins and DON co-occurred in 100 samples (46%). DON was detected in 114 samples while 100 samples also were positive for aflatoxins. Mean concentrations of positive samples for aflatoxins and DON were 18 and 807 µg/kg, respectively. Twenty-one DON-positive and 42 aflatoxin positive samples were contaminated above the EU maximum legal limits of 1000 µg/kg and 20 µg/kg, respectively. The present study provided useful data on aflatoxin and DON contamination, which may be helpful for future strategies to control contamination and to formulate standards in poultry feeds.

  6. Deoxynivalenol in chicken feed alters the vaccinal immune response and clinical biochemical serum parameters but not the intestinal and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Zebeli, Q; Böhm, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) feeding either alone or in combination with a microbial feed additive (MFA) on the immune response to a viral vaccine and serum clinical chemical parameters. Forty 1-day-old boiler chicks were weighed and randomly divided into four groups, 10 birds in each group: (i) control group fed with basal diet; (ii) DON group fed with basal diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; (iii) DON + MFA group fed with basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed; and (iv) MFA group fed with basal diet supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed. At 35 days of age, birds were slaughtered and blood was collected for investigating the antibody titre against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and clinical chemical parameters. The results showed that DON reduced (p = 0.032) the titre against IBV, decreased (p = 0.005) the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) (4.2 ± 0.5 U/l) compared with control birds (6.4 ± 0.5 U/l), increased (p = 0.002) the serum cholesterol concentration (144 ± 6 mg/dl) compared with their control counterparts (123 ± 5 mg/dl) and increased (p = 0.074) the amount of circulating triglycerides (62.25 ± 7.50 mg/dl) compared with controls (39.55 ± 4.74). These results indicate that dietary DON altered the humoral immune response to viral vaccine and affected the serum clinical biochemistry. However, DON in combination with MFA did not affect serum IBV titre. Taken together, DON in the feed of broilers produced an impairment of the success of IBV vaccine and affected the health of birds.

  7. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Tesch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR in pigs. Barrows (n = 44 were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW. Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001, hyperthermia (p < 0.01, and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001. In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05 and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08 compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  8. Effect of cooking process on the deoxynivalenol content and its subsequent cytotoxicity in wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Park, Bong Joo; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshitugu; Chonan, Takao; Yoshikawa, Kunie; Kumagai, Susumu

    2006-07-01

    The retention of deoxynivalenol in noodles and bread made from naturally-contaminated flour was examined by a chemical analysis (HPLC) and bioassays. The retention level of deoxynivalenol obtained from both assays was reduced by boiling process, although only the bioassays showed it to have been reduced by baking. This study is the first to estimate the exposure to deoxynivalenol from the consumption of the final products of wheat flour in Japan.

  9. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; van den Top, Hester; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Lopez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-12-15

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83-100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).

  10. Transcript profiling of the phytotoxic response of wheat to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Doohan, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin commonly produced by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum during infection of cereal plants, such as wheat and barley. This toxin is a fungal virulence factor that facilitates the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Wheat cultivar (cv...

  11. Development of a generic PCR detection of deoxynivalenol- and nivalenol-chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.P.; Wu, A.B.; Zhao, C.S.; Scholten, O.E.; Löffler, H.J.M.; Liao, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the intergenic sequences of Tri5¿Tri6 genes involved in the mycotoxin pathways of Fusarium species, a generic PCR assay was developed to detect a 300 bp fragment of deoxynivalenol (DON)-chemotypes and a 360 bp sequence of nivalenol (NIV)- chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum. Mycotoxin

  12. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the contamination of Danish cereals and cereal products with Fusarium toxins is limited and the last survey is from 1984/1985. In the present study, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZON) was investigated in. our of common...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Citrobacter freundii Strain A47, Resistant to the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Lepp, Dion; Pauls, K. P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter freundii strain A47 with a length of 4,878,242 bp, which contains 4,357 putative protein coding genes, including 270 unique genes. This work is expected to assist in obtaining novel gene(s) that code for deoxynivalenol (DON) de-epoxidation enzyme(s). PMID:28302773

  14. Estimation of cost-effective methods for dectection of deoxynivalenol in wheat at collector intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different methods to determine deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, being non-instrumental assays (dipsticks), instrumental chemical analytical methods, predictive models, and their combinations, at collector intake. A Monte Carlo simulation model enc

  15. Mycoflora and deoxynivalenol in whole wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Tibola, Casiane S; Scussel, Vildes M

    2014-01-01

    The fungal species Fusarium graminearum is related to deoxynivalenol (DON) formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate mycoflora and DON occurrence in 53 whole wheat grain samples collected in Southern Brazil during the 2012 crop. Wheat grains showed adequate values of water activity ranging from 0.48 to 0.72, within the required limits of moisture content, ranging from 9.1% to 13.9%. In addition, low counts of fungal colonies, ranging from 10 to 8.2 × 10(2), were found. For Fusarium genera, there was predominance of Fusarium verticillioides (34%) and F graminearum (30.2%). For Aspergillus species, 37.7% of Aspergillus flavus was determined. Regarding the Penicillium species, Penicillium digitatum (49%) was the most found species. DON was detected in 47.2% (25 out of 53) of the samples analysed, with levels ranging from 243.7 to 2281.3 µg kg(-1) (mean: 641.9 µg kg(-1)).

  16. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin tumor initiation: Elucidation of molecular mechanisms in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sakshi; Tewari, Prachi; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Pandey, Haushila P; Das, Mukul

    2016-11-01

    Among food contaminants, mycotoxins are toxic to both human and animal health. Our prior studies suggest that Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, behaves as a tumor promoter by inducing edema, hyperplasia, ODC activity and activation of MAPK's in mouse skin. In this study, topical application of DON, 336 and 672 nmol significantly enhanced ROS levels, DNA damage and apoptosis with concomitant downregulation of Ki-67, cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK2) thereby resulting in tumor initiation in mouse skin. Further, the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation by DON (0.42-3.37 nmol/ml) in HaCaT keratinocytes, revealed (i) enhanced ROS generation with cell cycle phase arrest in G0/G1 phase, (ii) increase in levels of 8-OxoG (6-24 hr) and γH2AX protein, (iii) significant enhancement in oxidative stress marker enzymes LPO, GSH, GR with concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes catalase, GPx, GST, SOD and mitochondrial membrane potential after DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (iv) suppression of Nrf2 translocation to nucleus, enhanced phosphorylation with subsequent activation ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPK's following DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (v) overexpression of c-jun, c-fos proteins, upregulation of Bax along with downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins, (vi) increase in cytochrome-c, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase levels leads to apoptosis. Pretreatment of superoxide dismutase, mannitol and ethanol to HaCaT cells resulted in significant reduction in ROS levels and apoptosis indicating the role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in DON induced apoptosis as an early event and skin tumor initiation as a late event.

  17. Deoxynivalenol-producing ability of Fusarium culmorum strains and their impact on infecting barley in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekkour, Amine; Toumatia, Omrane; Meklat, Atika; Verheecke, Carol; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence

    2015-06-01

    The cereal-pathogenic Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith), causal agent of various blights and rot diseases, is considered as a chronic fungus of economic concern worldwide including North African countries such as Algeria. This pathogen produces a wide range of mycotoxins, amongst which the type B-trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). In addition to its acute and chronic side effects in livestock and humans, DON is believed to play a determinant role in the pathogenesis toward Triticeae. However, regardless its significant occurrence and impact, little is known about trichothecenes-producing ability of F. culmorum infecting cereals in Algeria. The PCR assay based on Tri genes of 12 F. culmorum strains (designated Fc1-Fc12), which were recovered from several cropping areas of North Algeria, revealed their trichothecenes-producing ability with 3-AcDON genotype. The molecular prediction was confirmed by HPLC analysis. All strains were able to produce the toxin at detectable levels. Strains Fc1 and Fc12 were the highest producers of this mycotoxin with 220 and 230 µg g(-1), respectively. The evaluation of pathogenic ability of strains through a barley infesting experiment exhibited the significant disease impact of most strains. Significant correlation between the DON-producing ability of strains and the increase in both disease severity (r = 0.88, P = 0.05) and disease occurrence (r = 0.70, P = 0.05) was observed. Chemotyping of F. culmorum isolates and evaluation of their pathogenic ability are reported for the first time for isolates from Algeria, and highlights the important potential of F. culmorum to contaminate cultivated cereal with DON trichothecenes.

  18. Evaluation on levels and conversion profiles of DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON during bread making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigated the changes and conversion profiles of DON, its conjugations 3-ADON, and 15-ADON during bread making process, by spiking targeted mycotoxin standards to Fusarium mycotoxins-free wheat flour. No significant (p bread crust. Regarding ADONs, decreases of 20-40% for 3-ADON and 28-60% for 15-ADON were found during fermentation stage, and further losses of ADONs were observed after proofing process. Although ADONs levels gained an increase after baking. This study demonstrated that ADONs were converted to DON, while no ADONs were detectable in DON spiked samples during bread making process. The mechanism that ADONs could be converted into DON is unclear so far.

  19. Wheat safety in relation to presence and content of deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurić Verica B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point is a concept which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards, significant for food safety. It is applicable to the entire food chain, "from farm to table". Prevention of a food borne mycotoxin contamination of commodities is the most rational and cost-effective method for preventing adverse effects of fungal metabolites on human and animal health. Deoxynivalenol (DON belongs to the group of mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species, which can damage several vital organs, or demonstrate immunotoxic effect, when ingested in small amounts for a longer period of time. Of particular concern is exposure of children to this mycotoxin through cereals, which are believed to lead to reduced weight gain and decreased liver weights. For that reason, we tried to present HACCP concept for preventing wheat contamination with deoxynivalenol. To be able to apply this system, hazards must be identified and risks assessed, and for that purpose a real picture of area (region in which preventive measures shall be applied, need to be established. According to the results of the study conducted in the laboratory at our department, DON contaminated wheat samples in the region of Vojvodina accounted for 41,6% in 2004 and 2005, whereas amounts of deoxynivalenol ranged from 57 to 1840 μg/kg.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the barley-deoxynivalenol interaction: evidence for a role of glutathione in deoxynivalenol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Stephanie A; Boddu, Jayanand; Berthiller, Franz; Hametner, Christian; Stupar, Robert M; Adam, Gerhard; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2010-07-01

    Trichothecenes are a major group of toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium graminearum. Trichothecenes inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and are toxicologically relevant mycotoxins for humans and animals. Because they promote plant disease, the role of host responses to trichothecene accumulation is considered to be an important aspect of plant defense and resistance to fungal infection. Our overall objective was to examine the barley response to application of the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). We found that DON is diluted by movement from the application site to acropetal and basipetal florets. A susceptible barley genotype converted DON to DON-3-O-glucoside, indicating that UDP-glucosyltransferases capable of detoxifying DON must exist in barley. RNA profiling of DON-treated barley spikes revealed strong upregulation of gene transcripts encoding ABC transporters, UDP-glucosyltransferases, cytochrome P450s, and glutathione-S-transferases. We noted that transcripts encoding cysteine synthases were dramatically induced by DON, and that toxin-sensitive yeast on glutathione- or cysteine-supplemented media or carrying a gene that encodes a cysteine biosynthetic enzyme exhibit DON resistance, suggesting that preventing glutathione depletion by increasing cysteine supply could play a role in ameliorating the impact of DON. Evidence for nonenzymatic formation of DON-glutathione adducts in vitro was found using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, indicating that the formation of DON-glutathione conjugates in vivo may reduce the impact of trichothecenes. Our results indicate that barley exhibits multiple defense mechanisms against trichothecenes.

  1. Effect of prothioconazole-based fungicides on Fusarium head blight, grain yield and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of triazole-based treatments on Fusarium head blight (FHB, grain yields and the accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON in harvested wheat kernels was evaluated by means of twenty multi-site field experiments performed during five consecutive growing seasons (from 2004‒2005 to 2008‒2009 in Italy. Fungicide treatments were carried out on different cultivars of common wheat (cv. Serio, Blasco, Genio and Savio and durum wheat (cv. Orobel, Saragolla, San Carlo, Levante, Duilio, Karur and Derrik after artificial inoculation with a mixture of toxigenic Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum strains. The application of fungicides containing prothioconazole (Proline® or Prosaro® at the beginning of anthesis (BBCH 61 resulted in a consistent reduction of FHB disease severity (by between 39 and 93% and DON levels in wheat kernels (by between 40 and 91% and increased wheat yields (from 0.4 to 5.6 t ha-1, average 2.2 t ha-1, as compared to the untreated/inoculated control. Fungicides containing tebuconazole (Folicur® SE and cyproconazole plus prochloraz (Tiptor® Xcell showed a reduced effectiveness compared with prothioconazole-based treatments. All fungicide treatments were more effective in reducing DON and increasing grain yields of common wheat than durum wheat. Results showed that the application of fungicides containing prothioconazole at the beginning of anthesis provided a strong reduction of FHB disease, allowing both an increase in grain yields and a considerable reduction of DON content in wheat kernels.

  2. THE EFFECT OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON RABBIT SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Medveďová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro study the effects of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the motility parameters of rabbit spermatozoa were investigated. The spermatozoa motility was evaluated using CASA assay. Different concentrations of DON in the ejaculate was divided into four experimental group: 0 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL and 1000 ng/mL. Significant differences have not been detected between control group and experimental groups after the detailed analysis of certain motility parameters – total motile spermatozoa (%, progressively motile spermatozoa (%, average path distance (DAP, µm, average path velocity (VAP, µm/s and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH, µm. Observed data suggested that further experiments are needed to be done because of a lack of the evidence toxinogenic effects of mycotoxin DON during its constant detection in feed and food.

  3. Bioprospecting for Trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases in the fungal genus Fusarium yields functional enzymes that vary in their Aaility to modify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of small grains, such as wheat and barley, in the United States. New strategies to mitigate the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. TRI101 and TRI201 are trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases that are able to mod...

  4. 饲料中脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇毒素含量及其对畜禽的影响%The Deoxynivalenol Toxin Content of Feed and the Effect of DON in Livestock and Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋竹英; 李丽立

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol(DON) is also called vomitoxin which is a kind of trichothecenes, mainly by fusarium graminearum produced. It's widely exist in corn, wheat, rice, and soybean meal feed and raw materials, to human and livestock health hazard is very serious. This article reviewed the DON toxin content of several commonly used feed and the effect of DON on livestock and poultry.%脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇是一种单端孢霉烯族毒素,主要由禾谷镰刀菌产生。广泛地存在于玉米、小麦、水稻、豆饼等饲料原料中,对人畜健康危害十分严重。文章综述了常用饲料中DON毒素含量的情况以及饲料中DON对畜禽的影响。

  5. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, Clémence; Bonnet, Marion S; Jdir, Rajae; Sadoud, Medhi; Thirion, Sylvie; Tardivel, Catherine; Roux, Julien; Lebrun, Bruno; Wanaverbecq, Nicolas; Mounien, Lourdes; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis

    2011-01-01

    Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  6. Rapid screening of wheat bran contaminated by deoxynivalenol mycotoxin using Raman spectroscopy: a preliminary experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; De Girolamo, A.; Lippolis, V.; Pascale, M.

    2016-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spectroscopic data allowed to distinguish two classes of contamination, with DON below and above 400 μg/kg, respectively. Only one highly contaminated sample was misclassified. This preliminary result demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the non-destructive and rapid analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  7. The Food Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Exacerbates the Genotoxicity of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Payros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of human beings from developed countries are colonized by Escherichia coli strains producing colibactin, a genotoxin suspected to be associated with the development of colorectal cancers. Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent mycotoxin that contaminates staple food—especially cereal products—in Europe and North America. This study investigates the effect of the food contaminant DON on the genotoxicity of the E. coli strains producing colibactin. In vitro, intestinal epithelial cells were coexposed to DON and E. coli producing colibactin. In vivo, newborn rats colonized at birth with E. coli producing colibactin were fed a DON-contaminated diet. Intestinal DNA damage was estimated by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX. DON exacerbates the genotoxicity of the E. coli producing colibactin in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Although DON had no effect on the composition of the gut microbiota, and especially on the number of E. coli, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed in intestinal epithelial cells of animals colonized by E. coli strains producing colibactin and coexposed to DON compared to animals colonized with E. coli strains unable to produce colibactin or animals exposed only to DON. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the genotoxicity of E. coli strains producing colibactin, increasingly present in the microbiota of asymptomatic human beings, is modulated by the presence of DON in the diet. This raises questions about the synergism between food contaminants and gut microbiota with regard to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  8. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (Pglutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  9. The Food Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Exacerbates the Genotoxicity of Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Delphine; Martin, Patricia; Secher, Thomas; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. L.; Boury, Michèle; Laffitte, Joelle; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT An increasing number of human beings from developed countries are colonized by Escherichia coli strains producing colibactin, a genotoxin suspected to be associated with the development of colorectal cancers. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent mycotoxin that contaminates staple food—especially cereal products—in Europe and North America. This study investigates the effect of the food contaminant DON on the genotoxicity of the E. coli strains producing colibactin. In vitro, intestinal epithelial cells were coexposed to DON and E. coli producing colibactin. In vivo, newborn rats colonized at birth with E. coli producing colibactin were fed a DON-contaminated diet. Intestinal DNA damage was estimated by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX. DON exacerbates the genotoxicity of the E. coli producing colibactin in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Although DON had no effect on the composition of the gut microbiota, and especially on the number of E. coli, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed in intestinal epithelial cells of animals colonized by E. coli strains producing colibactin and coexposed to DON compared to animals colonized with E. coli strains unable to produce colibactin or animals exposed only to DON. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the genotoxicity of E. coli strains producing colibactin, increasingly present in the microbiota of asymptomatic human beings, is modulated by the presence of DON in the diet. This raises questions about the synergism between food contaminants and gut microbiota with regard to intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:28292979

  10. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography. The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB1. DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, M; Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L; Motte, J-C; Van Hove, F; Schneider, Y-J; Van Peteghem, C; Larondelle, Y

    2006-09-01

    Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity column (OchraTest and DONPrep) purification was used prior to HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out with the spiked beers in the ranges of 50-200 ng OTA l-1 and 20-100 microg DON l-1, led to the overall averages of 91% (RSD = 10%, n = 9) and 93% (RSD = 5%, n = 27), respectively. Organic beers collected during 2003-2004 were more frequently OTA-contaminated (95%, n = 40) than their conventional counterparts (50%, n = 40). Conventional beers were OTA-contaminated at a mean concentration of 25 ng l-1 (range: 19-198 ng l-1), while organic beers contained a mean level of 182 ng l-1 (range: 18-1134 ng l-1). High OTA contamination above the limit of 200 ng l-1 (up to 1134 ng l-1) occasionally occurred in organically produced beers. A complementary survey performed with the same brands in 2005 did not confirm this accidental presence of excessive OTA loads (range: 3-67 ng l-1 for 10 conventional beers and 19-158 ng l-1 for 10 organic beers). Establishing a maximum of 3 microg OTA kg-1 in malt, the application of the regulation EC No. 466/2001 (entered in force before the last sampling) may be related to the observed improvement. The overall incidence of DON was 67 and 80% in conventional and organic beers, respectively. DON concentrations ranged from 2 to 22 microg DON l-1 (mean = 6 microg DON l-1) in conventional beers, while organic beers ranged from 2 to 14 microg DON l-1 (mean=4 microg DON l-1). Thus, DON in beers does not appear to be a major matter of concern. From the statistical tests, it was concluded that the variation between different batches was significant (P < 0.0001), in

  12. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  13. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented wit...

  14. Evaluation of an oral subchronic exposure of deoxynivalenol on the composition of human gut microbiota in a model of human microbiota-associated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J Saint-Cyr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deoxynivalenol (DON, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins present in cereal crops worldwide. Due to its toxic properties, high stability and prevalence, the presence of DON in the food chain represents a health risk for both humans and animals. The gastrointestinal microbiota represents potentially the first target for these food contaminants. Thus, the effects of mycotoxins on the human gut microbiota is clearly an issue that needs to be addressed in further detail. Using a human microbiota-associated rat model, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a chronic exposure of DON on the composition of human gut microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four groups of 5 germ free male rats each, housed in 4 sterile isolators, were inoculated with a different fresh human fecal flora. Rats were then fed daily by gavage with a solution of DON at 100 µg/kg bw for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at day 0 before the beginning of the treatment; days 7, 16, 21, and 27 during the treatment; and 10 days after the end of the treatment at day 37. DON effect was assessed by real-time PCR quantification of dominant and subdominant bacterial groups in feces. Despite a different intestinal microbiota in each isolator, similar trends were generally observed. During oral DON exposure, a significant increase of 0.5 log10 was observed for the Bacteroides/Prevotella group during the first 3 weeks of administration. Concentration levels for Escherichia coli decreased at day 27. This significant decrease (0.9 log10 CFU/g remained stable until the end of the experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated an impact of oral DON exposure on the human gut microbiota composition. These findings can serve as a template for risk assessment studies of food contaminants on the human gut microbiota.

  15. Deoxynivalenol-Induced Proinflammatory Gene Expression: Mechanisms and Pathological Sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Pestka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is commonly encountered in human cereal foods throughout the world as a result of infestation of grains in the field and in storage by the fungus Fusarium. Significant questions remain regarding the risks posed to humans from acute and chronic DON ingestion, and how to manage these risks without imperiling access to nutritionally important food commodities. Modulation of the innate immune system appears particularly critical to DON’s toxic effects. Specifically, DON induces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in macrophages and monocytes, which mediate robust induction of proinflammatory gene expression—effects that can be recapitulated in intact animals. The initiating mechanisms for DON-induced ribotoxic stress response appear to involve the (1 activation of constitutive protein kinases on the damaged ribosome and (2 autophagy of the chaperone GRP78 with consequent activation of the ER stress response. Pathological sequelae resulting from chronic low dose exposure include anorexia, impaired weight gain, growth hormone dysregulation and aberrant IgA production whereas acute high dose exposure evokes gastroenteritis, emesis and a shock-like syndrome. Taken together, the capacity of DON to evoke ribotoxic stress in mononuclear phagocytes contributes significantly to its acute and chronic toxic effects in vivo. It is anticipated that these investigations will enable the identification of robust biomarkers of effect that will be applicable to epidemiological studies of the human health effects of this common mycotoxin.

  16. Annual variation of deoxynivalenol in Danish wheat flour 1998-2003 and estimated daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Petersen, A.; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol ( DON) in Danish wheat flour was studied during the period 1998 - 2003 by either capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection and liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrophotometer. A total of 151 samples were collected from mills...

  17. The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the present review, the quantitative impact of dietary aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin concentrations on performance of pigs and broilers is evaluated, with special emphasis on low concentrations of these toxins. Also, responses in performance of pigs and broilers to these three

  18. Genetic variation and associations involving Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance in oats (Avena sativa L.) to infection by Fusarium graminearum was assessed in field trials in 2011-12 including 424 spring oat lines from North America and Scandinavia. Traits measured were Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), deoxynivalenol (DON) content, days to flowering (DTF) and days to matu...

  19. Engineering deoxynivalenol metabolism in wheat through the expression of a fungal trichothecene acetyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Blechl, A E; McCormick, S P; Alexander, N J; Dill-Macky, R; Hohn, T M

    2002-12-01

    Fusarium head blight occurs in cereals throughout the world and is especially important in humid growing regions. Fusarium head blight (FHB) has re-emerged as a major disease of wheat and barley in the U.S. and Canada since 1993. The primary causal agents of FHB, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, can produce deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that enhances disease severity and poses a health hazard to humans and monogastric animals. To reduce the effects of DON on wheat, we have introduced FsTRI101, a Fusarium sporotrichioides gene formerly known as TriR, into the regenerable cultivar Bobwhite. TRI101 encodes an enzyme that transfers an acetyl moiety to the C3 hydroxyl group of trichothecenes. Four different transgenic plants carrying the FsTRI101 gene were identified. Although expression levels varied among the four lines, all of them accumulated FsTRI101 transcripts in endosperm and glume. TRI101-encoded acetyltransferase activity was detected in endosperm extracts of a single plant that accumulated FsTRI101 mRNA. Greenhouse resistance tests indicated that the accumulation of FsTRI101-encoded acetyltransferase in this plant confers partial protection against the spread of F. graminearum in inoculated wheat heads (spikes).

  20. Effects of composite antimicrobial peptides in weanling piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol: II. Intestinal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H; Tan, B E; Wu, M M; Yin, Y L; Li, T J; Yuan, D X; Li, L

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) affects animal and human health and targets the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP) to repair intestinal injury in piglets challenged with DON. A total of 28 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (7 pigs/treatment): negative control, basal diet (NC), basal diet + 0.4% composite antimicrobial peptide (CAP), basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON (DON), and basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON + 0.4% CAP (DON + CAP). After an adaptation period of 7 d, blood samples were collected on d 15 and 30 after the initiation of treatment for determinations of the concentrations of D-lactate and diamine oxidase. At the end of the study, all piglets were slaughtered to obtain small intestines for the determination of intestinal morphology, epithelial cell proliferation, and protein expression in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The results showed that DON increased serum concentrations of D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and these values in the CAP and DON + CAP treatments were less than those in the NC and DON treatments, respectively (P morphology and promoted intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and protein synthesis, indicating that CAP may repair the intestinal injury induced by DON.

  1. Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish wheat--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Mats; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Fredlund, Elisabeth

    2013-10-15

    Wheat is often infected by Fusarium species producing mycotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important Fusarium toxin in Swedish wheat and has previously been shown to be produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. However, less is known about the co-occurrence of DON and F. graminearum with other toxins and Fusarium species in Sweden. This study examined the distribution of the most important toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in winter wheat (2009 and 2011) and spring wheat (2010 and 2011). DNA from seven species was quantified with qPCR and the toxin levels were quantified with a multitoxin analysis method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The method enabled detection of many fungal metabolites, including DON, zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA), and enniatins (ENNs). It was found that Fusarium poae and Fusarium avenaceum were present in almost all samples. Other common Fusarium species were F. graminearum and F. culmorum, present in more than 70% of samples. Several species occurred at lower DNA levels in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse was true for F. graminearum and Fusarium langsethiae. The most prevalent toxins were ENNs, present in 100% of samples. DON was also common, especially in spring wheat, whereas ZEA and NIV were common in 2009 and in winter wheat, but less common in 2011 and in spring wheat. Only three samples of spring wheat contained T-2 or HT-2 above LOQ. Annual mean levels of several mycotoxins were significantly lower in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse applied for DON. The strongest correlations between mycotoxin and Fusarium DNA levels were found between F. avenaceum and ENNs (r(2) = 0.67) and MON (r(2) = 0.62), and F. graminearum and DON (r(2) = 0.74). These results show that several Fusarium species and toxins co-occur in wheat. The

  2. Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Hunt, Josephine; Perrin, Irene;

    2004-01-01

    Natural Toxin Task Force therefore organised a workshop on trichothecenes with a special focus on deoxynivalenol (DON). A number of experts reviewed the current knowledge on trichothecenes with respect to occurrence, including aspects of mould growth, toxin formation, storage and effects of processing......A number of mycotoxins of the class of trichothecenes are produced by a variety of Fusarium fungi commonly found on cereals. Unfavourable weather conditions may lead to a high level of Fusarium infections in crops such as wheat and correspondingly high trichothecene contents. The ILSI Europe......; prevention; analytical methodologies, including sampling; surveillance and exposure assessments; and toxicology and risk assessment. A number of recommendations were given under the headings: prevention, sampling and analytical methods, exposure assessment, and toxicology. Gaps in knowledge were also...

  3. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Paulick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3 and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

  4. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Abysique; Catherine Tardivel; Jean-Denis Troadec; Bernadette Félix

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolu...

  5. The Food-Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Modifies Eating by Targeting Anorexigenic Neurocircuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Clémence Girardet; Marion S Bonnet; Rajae Jdir; Medhi Sadoud; Sylvie Thirion; Catherine Tardivel; Julien Roux; Bruno Lebrun; Nicolas Wanaverbecq; Lourdes Mounien; Jérôme Trouslard; André Jean; Michel Dallaporta; Jean-Denis Troadec

    2011-01-01

    Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread pres...

  6. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON. Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigated the effect of natural substance amygdalin at the selected doses (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 µg/mL in combination with deoxynivalenol (1000 ng/mL on secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs from cyclic pigs. Our results showed that the releasing of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells was affected by amygdalin plus DON addition. The secretion of progesterone by ovarian GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by administration of both compounds in all experimental groups. Similarly, estradiol releasing by GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 increased in experimental groups with amygdalin (10, 100 and 10 000 µg/mL plus DON (1000 ng/mL addition. Amygdalin treatment combined with DON caused increase of steroid hormones release by ovarian granulosa cells. Our findings suggest possible involvement of these natural substances (amygdalin and deoxynivalenol in the regulation process of steroidogenesis. In conclusion, results from this experiment contribute to knowledge about interaction between two different natural compounds and their positive or negative interferences with ovarian functions.

  7. Evaluation of the TLC quantification method and occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Denise Felippin de Lima; Oliveira, Melissa Dos Santos; Furlong, Eliana Badiale; Junges, Alexander; Paroul, Natalia; Valduga, Eunice; Toniazzo, Geciane Backes; Zeni, Jamile; Cansian, Rogério Luis

    2017-08-08

    We have evaluated a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction method for use with a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) quantification procedure for deoxynivalenol (DON). We have also surveyed DON occurrence in wheat flour from the southern region of Brazil. Forty-eight wheat flour samples were analyzed, divided into two different harvest lots, each consisting of 24 different brands. The detection and quantification limits of the method were 30 and 100 ng of DON on the TLC plate. The various concentrations of DON presented high linearity (R(2) = 0.99). A negative matrix effect (-28%) of the wheat flour was verified, with suppression of the chromatographic signal of DON, and 80.2 to 105.4% recovery. The TLC method was reliable for DON evaluation, with a coefficient of variation of less than 10%. High-performance liquid chromatography of lot 2 samples confirmed the presence of DON in all samples identified DON-positive by the TLC technique. Of the 48 wheat flour samples in lots 1 and 2 analyzed by TLC, 33.3 and 45.8% of the samples respectively were above the Brazilian legislation limit. Correlations were observed between the water activity and DON content, and between the fungal count and moisture content of the wheat flours.

  8. Beyond Ribosomal Binding: The Increased Polarity and Aberrant Molecular Interactions of 3-epi-deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Zhu, Honghui; Zhu, Yan; Zhou, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary fungal metabolite and contaminant mycotoxin that is widely detected in wheat and corn products cultivated around the world. Bio-remediation methods have been extensively studied in the past two decades and promising ways to reduce DON-associated toxicities have been reported. Bacterial epimerization of DON at the C3 carbon was recently reported to induce a significant loss in the bio-toxicity of the resulting stereoisomer (3-epi-DON) in comparison to the parental compound, DON. In an earlier study, we confirmed the diminished bio-potency of 3-epi-DON using different mammalian cell lines and mouse models and mechanistically attributed it to the reduced binding of 3-epi-DON within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC). In the current study and by inspecting the chromatographic behavior of 3-epi-DON and its molecular interactions with a well-characterized enzyme, Fusarium graminearum Tri101 acetyltransferase, we provide the evidence that the C3 carbon epimerization of DON influences its molecular interactions beyond the abrogated PTC binding. PMID:27618101

  9. Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Troadec

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, mainly produced by Fusarium fungi, and also commonly called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is one of the most abundant trichothecenes which contaminate cereals consumed by farm animals and humans. The extent of cereal contamination is strongly associated with rainfall and moisture at the time of flowering and with grain storage conditions. DON consumption may result in intoxication, the severity of which is dose-dependent and may lead to different symptoms including anorexia, vomiting, reduced weight gain, neuroendocrine changes, immunological effects, diarrhea, leukocytosis, hemorrhage or circulatory shock. During the last two decades, many studies have described DON toxicity using diverse animal species as a model. While the action of the toxin on peripheral organs and tissues is well documented, data illustrating its effect on the brain are significantly less abundant. Yet, DON is known to affect the central nervous system. Recent studies have provided new evidence and detail regarding the action of the toxin on the brain. The purpose of the present review is to summarize critical studies illustrating this central action of the toxin and to suggest research perspectives in this field.

  10. Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

    2013-10-15

    Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (Poats and revealed significant annual and regional differences. This is the first study of the so-called emerging mycotoxins (e.g., ENNs, MON and BEA) in oats grown in Sweden. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced susceptibility to Fusarium head blight in Brachypodium distachyon through priming with the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümke, Antje; Sode, Björn; Ellinger, Dorothea; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    The fungal cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum produces deoxynivalenol (DON) during infection. The mycotoxin DON is associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease that can cause vast grain losses. Whilst investigating the suitability of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for spreading resistance to F. graminearum, we unexpectedly discovered that DON pretreatment of spikelets could reduce susceptibility to FHB in this model grass. We started to analyse the cell wall changes in spikelets after infection with F. graminearum wild-type and defined mutants: the DON-deficient Δtri5 mutant and the DON-producing lipase disruption mutant Δfgl1, both infecting only directly inoculated florets, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase disruption mutant Δgpmk1, with strongly decreased virulence but intact DON production. At 14 days post-inoculation, the glucose amounts in the non-cellulosic cell wall fraction were only increased in spikelets infected with the DON-producing strains wild-type, Δfgl1 and Δgpmk1. Hence, we tested for DON-induced cell wall changes in B. distachyon, which were most prominent at DON concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppb. To test the involvement of DON in defence priming, we pretreated spikelets with DON at a concentration of 1 ppm prior to F. graminearum wild-type infection, which significantly reduced FHB disease symptoms. The analysis of cell wall composition and plant defence-related gene expression after DON pretreatment and fungal infection suggested that DON-induced priming of the spikelet tissue contributed to the reduced susceptibility to FHB.

  12. Isolation and determination of deoxynivalenol by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Kalita, Mohan Ch; Chaurasia, Asshwani Kumar; Gogoi, Hemanta Kumar; Singh, Lokendra

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by food contamination. It is a pharmacologically active compound that acts on the serotonin receptor, leading to several neuroendocrine and hematological disorders. In this article we describe a simple, accurate, and sensitive method for the quantification of DON. DON was quantified using a Phenomenex(®) ODS analytical C18 column (150 mm × 46 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase composed of mixture of water-acetonitrile-methanol (5:4:1, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and at 254 nm in an ultraviolet (UV) detector The method has been validated with isolated samples of DON and provides a tool for the control of substandard and counterfeit commercial food products.

  13. Lateral-flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol with two indicator ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolosova, Anna Yu. [Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: anna_kolosova@hotmail.com; Sibanda, Liberty [TOXI-TEST NV, Industrielaan 9a, 9990 Maldegem (Belgium); Dumoulin, Frederic [Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lewis, Janet; Duveiller, Etienne [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Van Peteghem, Carlos; Saeger, Sarah de [Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-06-02

    A lateral-flow immunoassay using a colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol (DON). Different parameters, such as the amount of immunoreagents, type of the materials, composition of the blocking solution and of the detector reagent mixture, were investigated to provide the optimum assay performance. The experimental results demonstrated that such a visual test had an indicator range rather than a cut-off value. Thus, tests for DON determination with two different indicator ranges of 250-500 and 1000-2000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were designed. The method allowed detection of DON at low and high concentration levels, which could be useful for research and practical purposes. The assay applied to spiked wheat and pig feed samples demonstrated accurate and reproducible results. The applicability of the developed lateral-flow test was also confirmed under real field conditions. The test strips prepared in Belgium were sent to Mexico, where they were used for the screening of DON contamination in different bread wheat entries from Fusarium Head Blight inoculated plots. The results were compared with those obtained by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. A poor correlation between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed. Visual results of the dipstick tests were in a good agreement with the results of the LC-MS/MS method. Coupled with a simple and fast sample preparation, this qualitative one-step test based on the visual evaluation of results did not require any equipment. Results could be obtained within 10 min. The described assay format can be used as a simple, rapid, cost-effective and robust on-site screening tool for mycotoxin contamination in different agricultural commodities.

  14. Acetylated Deoxynivalenol Generates Differences of Gene Expression that Discriminate Trichothecene Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Suzuki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, which is a toxic secondary metabolite generated by Fusarium species, is synthesized through two separate acetylation pathways. Both acetylation derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON, also contaminate grain and corn widely. These derivatives are deacetylated via a variety of processes after ingestion, so it has been suggested that they have the same toxicity as DON. However, in the intestinal entry region such as the duodenum, the derivatives might come into contact with intestinal epithelium cells because metabolism by microflora or import into the body has not progressed. Therefore, the differences of toxicity between DON and these derivatives need to be investigated. Here, we observed gene expression changes in the yeast pdr5Δ mutant strain under concentration-dependent mycotoxin exposure conditions. 15ADON exposure induced significant gene expression changes and DON exposure generally had a similar but smaller effect. However, the glucose transporter genes HXT2 and HXT4 showed converse trends. 3ADON also induced a different expression trend in these genes than DON and 15ADON. These differences in gene expression suggest that DON and its derivatives have different effects on cells.

  15. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  16. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority. PMID:27659167

  17. Dual Effects Exerted in Vitro by Micromolar Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol on Undifferentiated Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Manda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37–1.50 μM, relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  18. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 is a mycoparasitic fungus capable of controlling mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, including F. graminearum and F. culmorum, known to produce Zearalenone (ZEA) and Deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a type B trichothecene known to interfere with protein...... synthesis in eukaryotes. ZEA is a estrogenic-mimicing mycotoxin that exhibits antifungal growth. C. rosea produces the enzyme zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101), which degrades ZEA. However, the molecular basis of resistance to DON in C. rosea is not understood. We have exploited a genome-wide transcriptomic...... approach to identify genes induced by DON and ZEA in order to investigate the molecular basis of mycotoxin resistance C. rosea.Results: We generated DON- and ZEA-induced cDNA libraries based on suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 443 and 446 sequenced clones (corresponding to 58 and 65 genes...

  19. From the gut to the brain: journey and pathophysiological effects of the food-associated trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Marc

    2013-04-23

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In addition to native toxins, food also contains a large amount of plant and fungal derivatives of DON, including acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON), glucoside-DON (D3G), and potentially animal derivatives such as glucuronide metabolites (D3 and D15GA) present in animal tissues (e.g., blood, muscle and liver tissue). The present review summarizes previous and very recent experimental data collected in vivo and in vitro regarding the transport, detoxification/metabolism and physiological impact of DON and its derivatives on intestinal, immune, endocrine and neurologic functions during their journey from the gut to the brain.

  20. From the Gut to the Brain: Journey and Pathophysiological Effects of the Food-Associated Trichothecene Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maresca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In addition to native toxins, food also contains a large amount of plant and fungal derivatives of DON, including acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON, glucoside-DON (D3G, and potentially animal derivatives such as glucuronide metabolites (D3 and D15GA present in animal tissues (e.g., blood, muscle and liver tissue. The present review summarizes previous and very recent experimental data collected in vivo and in vitro regarding the transport, detoxification/metabolism and physiological impact of DON and its derivatives on intestinal, immune, endocrine and neurologic functions during their journey from the gut to the brain.

  1. Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro screening of 14 adsorbent materials, including some commercial products used to detoxify Fusarium-mycotoxins, were tested in the pH range of 3-8 for deoxynivalenol (DON)- and nivalenol (NIV)-binding ability. Only activated carbon showed to be effective with binding capacities of 35.1 μmol

  2. Crystal structure of Os79 (Os04g0206600) from Oryza sativa: a UDP-glucosyltransferase involved in the detoxification of deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight is a plant disease with significant agricultural and health impact which affects cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize and is characterized by reduced grain yield and the accumulation of trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Studies have identified trich...

  3. Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro screening of 14 adsorbent materials, including some commercial products used to detoxify Fusarium-mycotoxins, were tested in the pH range of 3-8 for deoxynivalenol (DON)- and nivalenol (NIV)-binding ability. Only activated carbon showed to be effective with binding capacities of 35.1 μmol a

  4. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to coccidiosis when fed subclinical doses of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins – special emphasis on the immunological response and the mycotoxin interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these ...

  5. A Comparison of the Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Content of Canadian 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol Producers of Fusarium graminearum in Fieldgrown Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum of Canadian origin half of which were 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) producers, were tested for their ability to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), as measured by FHB index and production of deoxynivalenol (DON) ...

  6. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 and their metabolites in pig urine as biomarkers for mycotoxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, N Q; Pettersson, H

    2009-06-01

    Methods to determine zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxins (AF) and their metabolites in pig urine were developed as biomarkers for pig exposure to the mycotoxins in feed. Urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase to cleave conjugates, extracted and cleaned-up with solid phase and immunoaffinity columns, followed by HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Good recoveries (83-130%), low variation (2-10%), and low detection limits (0.3-9.9 ng/ml) were obtained. The results of controlled AFB1 feeding trials found no difference in urine concentrations of AFB1 or AFM1 from pigs fed three different levels (127, 227, 327 µg/kg) of AFB1 in diets. The excretion of AFB1 and AFM1 in urine was on average 30% of the oral dose and the ratio AFB1 to AFM1 was around 23%. The analysis of 15 Vietnamese pig urine samples indicate a relatively high exposure of ZEA, DON and AF, which were found as toxin or metabolites in 47, 73, and 80% of the urine samples, respectively.

  7. Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group

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    Silvio Uhlig

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A glutathione (GSH adduct of the mycotoxin 4-deoxynivalenol (DON, together with a range of related conjugates, has recently been tentatively identified by LC-MS of DON-treated wheat spikelets. In this study, we prepared samples of DON conjugated at the 10- and 13-positions with GSH, Cys, CysGly, γ-GluCys and N-acetylcysteine (NAC. The mixtures of conjugates were used as standards for LC-HRMS analysis of one of the DON-treated wheat spikelet samples, as well as 19 Norwegian grain samples of spring wheat and 16 grain samples of oats that were naturally-contaminated with DON at concentrations higher than 1 mg/kg. The artificially-contaminated wheat spikelets contained conjugates of GSH, CysGly and Cys coupled at the olefinic 10-position of DON, whereas the naturally-contaminated harvest-ripe grain samples contained GSH, CysGly, Cys, and NAC coupled mainly at the 13-position on the epoxy group. The identities of the conjugates were confirmed by LC-HRMS comparison with authentic standards, oxidation to the sulfoxides with hydrogen peroxide, and examination of product-ion spectra from LC-HRMS/MS analysis. No γ-GluCys adducts of DON were detected in any of the samples. The presence of 15-O-acetyl-DON was demonstrated for the first time in Norwegian grain. The results indicate that a small but significant proportion of DON is metabolized via the GSH-conjugation pathway in plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo conjugation of trichothecenes via their epoxy group, which has generally been viewed as unreactive. Because conjugation at the 13-position of DON and other trichothecenes has been shown to be irreversible, this type of conjugate may prove useful as a biomarker of exposure to DON and other 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes.

  8. Biological detoxification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its use in genetically engineered crops and feed additives.

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    Karlovsky, Petr

    2011-08-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the major mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi in grains. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The risk can be reduced by enzymatic detoxification. Complete mineralization of DON by microbial cultures has rarely been observed and the activities turned out to be unstable. The detoxification of DON by reactions targeting its epoxide group or hydroxyl on carbon 3 is more feasible. Microbial strains that de-epoxidize DON under anaerobic conditions have been isolated from animal digestive system. Feed additives claimed to de-epoxidize trichothecenes enzymatically are on the market but their efficacy has been disputed. A new detoxification pathway leading to 3-oxo-DON and 3-epi-DON was discovered in taxonomically unrelated soil bacteria from three continents; the enzymes involved remain to be identified. Arabidopsis, tobacco, wheat, barley, and rice were engineered to acetylate DON on carbon 3. In wheat expressing DON acetylation activity, the increase in resistance against Fusarium head blight was only moderate. The Tri101 gene from Fusarium sporotrichioides was used; Fusarium graminearum enzyme which possesses higher activity towards DON would presumably be a better choice. Glycosylation of trichothecenes occurs in plants, contributing to the resistance of wheat to F. graminearum infection. Marker-assisted selection based on the trichothecene-3-O-glucosyltransferase gene can be used in breeding for resistance. Fungal acetyltransferases and plant glucosyltransferases targeting carbon 3 of trichothecenes remain promising candidates for engineering resistance against Fusarium head blight. Bacterial enzymes catalyzing oxidation, epimerization, and less likely de-epoxidation of DON may extend this list in future.

  9. Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

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    Erik Bannert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19 or a control diet (CON, n = 22. Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05. LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO2 overall (p < 0.05, but reduced pCO2 only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01, but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01, indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05. DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic.

  10. The cyclase-associated protein FgCap1 has both protein kinase A-dependent and -independent functions during deoxynivalenol production and plant infection in Fusarium graminearum.

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    Yin, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Huiquan; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong; Jiang, Cong

    2017-01-31

    Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of wheat scab and a producer of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The expression of trichothecene biosynthesis (TRI) genes and DON production are mainly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway and two pathway-specific transcription factors (TRI6 and TRI10). Interestingly, deletion mutants of TRI6 show reduced expression of several components of cAMP signalling, including the FgCAP1 adenylate-binding protein gene that has not been functionally characterized in F. graminearum. In this study, we show that FgCap1 interacts with Fac1 adenylate cyclase and that deletion of FgCAP1 reduces the intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity. The Fgcap1 deletion mutant is defective in vegetative growth, conidiogenesis and plant infection. It also shows significantly reduced DON production and TRI gene expression, which can be suppressed by exogenous cAMP, indicating a PKA-dependent regulation of DON biosynthesis by FgCap1. The wild-type, but not tri6 mutant, shows increased levels of intracellular cAMP and FgCAP1 expression under DON-producing conditions. Furthermore, the promoter of FgCAP1 contains one putative Tri6-binding site that is important for its function during DON biosynthesis, but is dispensable for hyphal growth, conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. In addition, FgCap1 shows an actin-like localization to the cortical patches at the apical region of hyphal tips. Phosphorylation of FgCap1 at S353 was identified by phosphoproteomics analysis. The S353A mutation in FgCAP1 has no effect on its functions during vegetative growth, conidiation and DON production. However, expression of the FgCAP1(S353A) allele fails to complement the defects of the Fgcap1 mutant in plant infection, indicating the importance of the phosphorylation of FgCap1 at S353 during pathogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that FgCAP1 is involved in the regulation of DON production via cAMP signalling

  11. Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol via Glycosylation Represents Novel Insights on Antagonistic Activities of Trichoderma when Confronted with Fusarium graminearum

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    Ye Tian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin mainly produced by the Fusarium graminearum complex, which are important phytopathogens that can infect crops and lead to a serious disease called Fusarium head blight (FHB. As the most common B type trichothecene mycotoxin, DON has toxic effects on animals and humans, which poses a risk to food security. Thus, efforts have been devoted to control DON contamination in different ways. Management of DON production by Trichoderma strains as a biological control-based strategy has drawn great attention recently. In our study, eight selected Trichoderma strains were evaluated for their antagonistic activities on F. graminearum by dual culture on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. As potential antagonists, Trichoderma strains showed prominent inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and mycotoxin production of F. graminearum. In addition, the modified mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G, which was once regarded as a detoxification product of DON in plant defense, was detected when Trichoderma were confronted with F. graminearum. The occurrence of D3G in F. graminearum and Trichoderma interaction was reported for the first time, and these findings provide evidence that Trichoderma strains possess a self-protection mechanism as plants to detoxify DON into D3G when competing with F. graminearum.

  12. Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol via Glycosylation Represents Novel Insights on Antagonistic Activities of Trichoderma when Confronted with Fusarium graminearum

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    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Yan, Zheng; Liao, Yucai; Chen, Jie; de Saeger, Sarah; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by the Fusarium graminearum complex, which are important phytopathogens that can infect crops and lead to a serious disease called Fusarium head blight (FHB). As the most common B type trichothecene mycotoxin, DON has toxic effects on animals and humans, which poses a risk to food security. Thus, efforts have been devoted to control DON contamination in different ways. Management of DON production by Trichoderma strains as a biological control-based strategy has drawn great attention recently. In our study, eight selected Trichoderma strains were evaluated for their antagonistic activities on F. graminearum by dual culture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. As potential antagonists, Trichoderma strains showed prominent inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and mycotoxin production of F. graminearum. In addition, the modified mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), which was once regarded as a detoxification product of DON in plant defense, was detected when Trichoderma were confronted with F. graminearum. The occurrence of D3G in F. graminearum and Trichoderma interaction was reported for the first time, and these findings provide evidence that Trichoderma strains possess a self-protection mechanism as plants to detoxify DON into D3G when competing with F. graminearum. PMID:27854265

  13. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

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    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  14. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants.

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    da Silva, Elisângela Olegário; Gerez, Juliana Rubira; do Carmo Drape, Thalisie; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM), DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM), and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83%) and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3%) expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7%) and Cox-2 (48%) expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47%) compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  15. SURVEY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL, DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL, AND T2 TOXIN IN POPCORN HYBRIDS PLANTED IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO AND IN POPCORN COMMERCIALIZED IN THE CITY OF CAMPINAS, SP

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    OLIVEIRA Adriana de Queiroz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, and T2 toxin (T2 in popcorn was investigated in 90 samples, belonging to 2 commercial and 28 experimental hybrids planted at experimental stations of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas at the locations of Campinas, Mococa, and Capão Bonito, and in 15 samples of popcorn, 9 branded and 6 unbranded, acquired from commercial outlets in the city of Campinas, SP. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector combined with an alumina:carbon cleanup column. The detection limits were 30ng/g for DON, 50ng/g for DAS, and 40ng/g for T2. Five samples were contaminated with DON, four of them commercial and one from an experimental cultivar. The level of contamination in the commercial samples ranged from 30 to 40ng/g. The sample from the experimental cultivar contained 770ng/g DON. DAS and T2 were not detected in any of the popcorn samples analyzed.

  16. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

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    Pan, Xiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whitten, Douglas A. [Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Ming [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chan, Christina [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wilkerson, Curtis G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  17. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

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    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  18. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate.

  19. Effect of ozone treatment on deoxynivalenol and quality evaluation of ozonised wheat.

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    Li, M M; Guan, E Q; Bian, K

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the secondary metabolite of Fusarium graminearum, which is always found in Fusarium head blight of wheat. In this study, gaseous ozone was used to treat both DON solution and scabbed wheat to investigate the effectiveness of ozone treatment on DON degradation and the effect of ozone on the quality parameters of wheat. It was found that gaseous ozone had a significant effect on DON reduction in solution, when 10 mg l(-1) gaseous ozone was used to treat a 1 μg ml(-1) of DON solution, the degradation rate of DON was 93.6% within 30 s. Lower initial concentrations of DON solution treated with higher concentrations of ozone, and longer times showed higher DON degradation rates. Gaseous ozone was effective against DON in scabbed wheat. The degradation rate of DON increased with ozone concentration and processing time. The correlation between the time and degradation rate was y = -1.1926x(2) + 11.427x - 8.7787. In the process of ozone oxidation, a higher moisture content of wheat was more sensitive than that of lower moisture content to ozone under the same conditions. All samples were treated with different concentrations of ozone for 4 h to investigate the effect of ozone on wheat quality. No significant detrimental changes in the starch pasting properties of wheat were observed after all the samples were treated with ozone within 4 h. On the other hand, there was a slight rise in the dough development time and stability time, which meant the quality of flour improved after ozone treatment.

  20. Influence of low doses of deoxynivalenol on histopathology of selected organs of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Ł; Wiśniewska, M; Gajecka, M; Obremski, K; Gajecki, M

    2009-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol is one of mycotoxins that are most frequently determined in animal feed manufactured in Poland. The examination of histopathological lesions concomitant with deoxynivalenol intoxication is difficult because of the common, often synergistic, reaction of this mycotoxin with other toxins, such as zearalenone or ochratoxin A, which has a strong nephrotoxic activity. The possibility of estimating histopathological lesions in the course of intoxication with pure toxin at various doses is therefore of interest. Dosages used in this experiment relate to clinical cases observed in feeding the animals with whole ration feed obtained by processing feedingstuffs contaminated with Fusarium moulds. However, concerning the fact of one-shot administration of clinically pure toxin, the main question was if it was a sufficient dose to cause changes in the histopathological picture of gastrointestinal tract organs. The experiment was carried out on 12 nursery pigs of mixed breed (Polish White Large x Polish White Ear-pendent) with an average body weigh of 35 kg. The experimental nursery pigs were divided into 3 groups: group I (n=4)--control; group II (n=4)--DON administered at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w.; group III (n=4)--DON administered at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg b.w. After slaughter of the animals, macroscopic examination was performed and segments of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes were sampled and assigned for histopathological examination. The results obtained equate to the clinically observed signs in swine production involving some nutrient metabolism disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract in the course of deoxynivalenol mycotoxicosis. Histopathological examination of segments of the duodenum, the jejunum, the ileum, the liver and the lymph nodes indicate that the regressive lesions are more expressed in the experimental group treated with the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol.

  1. Occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin, in wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food.

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    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Koji; Taniguchi, Masaru; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Kai, Shigemi; Ogiso, Motoki; Sato, Takashi; Akiyama, Yu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-11-01

    A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 μg/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Job's tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 μg/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 μg/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 μg/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Job's tears product (1,093 μg/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Job's tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Job's tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 μg/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected.

  2. Bentonite diminishes DON-induced changes in bone development in mink dams

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    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON, given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.

  3. Ocorrência de desoxinivalenol em trigo nacional e importado utilizado no Brasil Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in national and imported wheat used in Brazil

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    Maria Antonia Calori-Domingues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose, também conhecida como giberela é uma doença importante, causada principalmente pelo fungo Fusarium graminearum, que afeta de forma generalizada as regiões produtoras de trigo do Brasil e dos principais países do qual o produto é importado. Além dos danos diretos causados pela doença, os grãos infectados podem ser tóxicos para o homem e animais devido à presença de micotoxinas especialmente o desoxinivalenol (DON. A contaminação com DON foi avaliada em 100 amostras de trigo, sendo 50 de trigo nacional (provenientes dos Estados de São Paulo, Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul e 50 de trigo importado (Argentina e Paraguai. As amostras foram coletadas durante o período de maio a dezembro de 2005 de empresas que normalmente comercializam ou processam trigo e foram analisadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Os resultados indicaram que, do total de amostras avaliadas, 94% do trigo nacional e 88% do trigo importado apresentaram-se positivas quanto a presença de DON. Os níveis médios de contaminação com DON do trigo nacional (332 µg.kg- 1 foram maiores (p Fusarium Head Blight or scab is an important disease mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum that occurs in Brazil and the world's wheat-growing areas. Moreover, there are direct damages caused by this disease and the infected kernels may be toxic for humans and animals due to the presence of mycotoxins (e.g deoxynivalenol - DON. DON contamination was evaluated in a total of 100 wheat samples, and 50 were from national production (São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states and 50 were imported (Argentina and Paraguay. The samples were collected during the period of May to December, 2005 from companies that normally commercialize or process wheat and are analyzed by a thin layer of chromatography. Ninety-four percent of national wheat samples and 88% of the imported samples were DON contaminated. The mean level of the national wheat samples (332 µg.kg -1 was higher

  4. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for the Detection of Deoxynivalenol Using a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

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    Hyang Sook Chun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of applying the molecular imprinting polymer technique to the detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR transducer. A molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy film was prepared via electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a bare Au chip in the presence of a template DON molecule. Atomic force microscope SPR analysis showed that the MIPPy film was deposited homogeneously on the Au surface, with a thickness of 5 nm. The MIPPy–SPR sensor exhibited a linear response for the detection of DON in the range of 0.1–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.988. The selectivity efficiency of the MIPPy film for DON and its acetylated analogs 3-ADON and 15-ADON was 100, 19, and 44%, respectively. The limit of detection for DON with the MIPPy–SPR for a standard solution was estimated at >1 ng/mL. These results suggest that the combination of SPR sensing with a MIPPy film as a synthetic receptor can be used to detect DON.

  5. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

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    Clémence Girardet

    Full Text Available Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  6. Transcriptome analyses to understand effects of the Fusarium deoxynivalenol and nivalenol mycotoxins on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwook; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Youn, Kihoon; Kim, Sunyoung; Jung, Boknam; Lee, Jungkwan; Seo, Young-Su

    2014-12-20

    Fusarium spp. cause many diseases in farming systems and can produce diverse mycotoxins that can easily impact humans and animals through the ingestion of food and feed. Among these mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are considered the most important hazards because they can rapidly diffuse into cells and block eukaryotic ribosomes, leading to inhibition of the translation system. Conversely, the effects of DON and NIV mycotoxins on bacteria remain unclear. We employed RNA-seq technology to obtain information regarding the biological responses of bacteria and putative bacterial mechanisms of resistance to DON and NIV mycotoxins. Most differentially expressed genes down-regulated in response to these mycotoxins were commonly involved in phenylalanine metabolism, glyoxylate cycle, and cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase systems. In addition, we generated an overall network of 1028 up-regulated genes to identify core genes under DON and NIV conditions. The results of our study provide a snapshot view of the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 under DON and NIV conditions. Furthermore, the information provided herein will be useful for development of methods to detect DON and NIV.

  7. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin cell proliferation and inflammation via MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Sakshi [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi (India); Tripathi, Anurag [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Chaudhari, Bhushan P. [Pathology Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Mahatma Gandhi Marg, PO Box 80, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Dwivedi, Premendra D. [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Pandey, Haushila P. [Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi (India); Das, Mukul, E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2014-09-01

    Several toxicological manifestations of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, are well documented; however, dermal toxicity is not yet explored. The effect of topical application of DON to mice was studied using markers of skin proliferation, inflammation and tumor promotion. Single topical application of DON (84–672 nmol/mouse) significantly enhanced dermal hyperplasia and skin edema. DON (336 and 672 nmol) caused significant enhancement in [{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake in DNA along with increased myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, suggesting tissue inflammation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, DON (168 nmol) caused enhanced expression of RAS, and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs. DON exposure also showed activation of transcription factors, c-fos, c-jun and NF-κB along with phosphorylation of IkBα. Enhanced phosphorylation of NF-κB by DON caused over expression of target proteins, COX-2, cyclin D1 and iNOS in skin. Though a single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly application of DON (84 and 168 nmol) showed no tumorigenesis after 24 weeks, however, histopathological studies suggested hyperplasia of the epidermis and hypertrophy of hair follicles. Interestingly, intestine was also found to be affected as enlarged Peyer's patches were observed, suggesting inflammatory effects which were supported by elevation of inflammatory cytokines after 24 weeks of topical application of DON. These results suggest that DON induced cell proliferation in mouse skin is through the activation of MAPK signaling pathway involving transcription factors NFκB and AP-1, further leading to transcriptional activation of downstream target proteins c-fos, c-jun, cyclin D1, iNOS and COX-2 which might be responsible for its inflammatory potential. - Highlights: • Topical application of DON enhanced epidermal inflammation and cell proliferation. • DON follows PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling cascade, with activation of AP-1 and NF

  8. Predicting deoxynivalenol in oats under conditions representing Scandinavian production regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Eckersten, Henrik; Elen, Oleif; Roer Hjelkrem, Anne-Grete; Markgren, Joel; Söderström, Mats; Börjesson, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereals, produced by Fusarium fungi, cause poisoning in humans and animals. Fusarium infections in cereals are favoured by humid conditions. Host species are susceptible mainly during the anthesis stage. Infections are also positively correlated with a regional history of Fusarium infections, frequent cereal production and non-tillage field management practices. Here, previously developed process-based models based on relative air humidity, rain and temperature conditions, Fusarium sporulation, host phenology and mycelium growth in host tissue were adapted and tested on oats. Model outputs were used to calculate risk indices. Statistical multivariate models, where independent variables were constructed from weather data, were also developed. Regressions of the risk indices obtained against DON concentrations in field experiments on oats in Sweden and Norway 2012-14 had coefficient of determination values (R(2)) between 0.84 and 0.88. Regressions of the same indices against DON concentrations in oat samples averaged for 11 × 11 km grids in farmers' fields in Sweden 2012-14 resulted in R(2) values between 0.27 and 0.41 for randomly selected grids and between 0.31 and 0.62 for grids with average DON concentration above 1000 μg kg(-)(1) grain in the previous year. When data from all three years were evaluated together, a cross-validated statistical partial least squares model resulted in R(2) = 0.70 and a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) = 522 μg kg(-)(1) grain for the period 1 April-28 August in the construction of independent variables and R(2) = 0.54 and SECV = 647 μg kg(-)(1) grain for 1 April-23 June. Factors that were not accounted for in this study probably explain large parts of the variation in DON among samples and make further model development necessary before these models can be used practically. DON prediction in oats could potentially be improved by combining weather-based risk index outputs with

  9. Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Rui-Guo; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Pei-Long; Su, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal crops and has various toxic effects in animals and humans. DON primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract, the first barrier against ingested food contaminants. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based phosphoproteomic approach was employed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying DON-mediated intestinal toxicity in porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) exposed to 20 μM DON for 60 min. There were 4153 unique phosphopeptides, representing 389 phosphorylation sites, detected in 1821 phosphoproteins. We found that 289 phosphopeptides corresponding to 255 phosphoproteins were differentially phosphorylated in response to DON. Comprehensive Gene Ontology (GO) analysis combined with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment revealed that, in addition to previously well-characterized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, DON exposure altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and Janus kinase/signal transducer, and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. These pathways are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including apoptosis, the intestinal barrier, intestinal inflammation, and the intestinal absorption of glucose. DON-induced changes are likely to contribute to the intestinal dysfunction. Overall, identification of relevant signaling pathways yielded new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying DON-induced intestinal toxicity, and might help in the development of improved mechanism-based risk assessments in animals and humans. PMID:27669298

  10. Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal crops and has various toxic effects in animals and humans. DON primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract, the first barrier against ingested food contaminants. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based phosphoproteomic approach was employed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying DON-mediated intestinal toxicity in porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 exposed to 20 μM DON for 60 min. There were 4153 unique phosphopeptides, representing 389 phosphorylation sites, detected in 1821 phosphoproteins. We found that 289 phosphopeptides corresponding to 255 phosphoproteins were differentially phosphorylated in response to DON. Comprehensive Gene Ontology (GO analysis combined with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed that, in addition to previously well-characterized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, DON exposure altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt and Janus kinase/signal transducer, and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT pathways. These pathways are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including apoptosis, the intestinal barrier, intestinal inflammation, and the intestinal absorption of glucose. DON-induced changes are likely to contribute to the intestinal dysfunction. Overall, identification of relevant signaling pathways yielded new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying DON-induced intestinal toxicity, and might help in the development of improved mechanism-based risk assessments in animals and humans.

  11. The Antagonistic Effect of Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Metabolic Profiling in Serum and Liver of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP > 1, t-test p value < 0.05. The metabolic pathway analysis was performed with MetaMapp and drawn by CytoScape. Results show that the combined DON and ZEN treatment has an obvious “antagonistic effect” in serum and liver tissue metabolic profiling of mice. The blood biochemical indexes, like alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and albumin (ALB/globulin (GLO, reveal a moderated trend in the combined DON + ZEN treatment group, which is consistent with histopathological examination. The metabolic pathway analysis demonstrated that the combined DON and ZEN treatment could down-regulate the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and O-glycosyl compounds related glucose metabolism in liver tissue. The metabolic profiling in serum confirmed the finding that the combined DON and ZEN treatment has an “antagonistic effect” on liver metabolism of mice.

  12. The Antagonistic Effect of Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Metabolic Profiling in Serum and Liver of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Cui, Fangchao; Pi, Fuwei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Li, Yun; Wang, Jiasheng; Sun, Xiulan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP) > 1, t-test p value < 0.05. The metabolic pathway analysis was performed with MetaMapp and drawn by CytoScape. Results show that the combined DON and ZEN treatment has an obvious “antagonistic effect” in serum and liver tissue metabolic profiling of mice. The blood biochemical indexes, like alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and albumin (ALB)/globulin (GLO), reveal a moderated trend in the combined DON + ZEN treatment group, which is consistent with histopathological examination. The metabolic pathway analysis demonstrated that the combined DON and ZEN treatment could down-regulate the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and O-glycosyl compounds related glucose metabolism in liver tissue. The metabolic profiling in serum confirmed the finding that the combined DON and ZEN treatment has an “antagonistic effect” on liver metabolism of mice. PMID:28075412

  13. Protective Capacity of Resveratrol, a Natural Polyphenolic Compound, against Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction and Bacterial Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ka-Ho; Wan, Murphy Lam Yim; El-Nezami, Hani; Wang, Mingfu

    2016-05-16

    Contamination of food/feedstuffs by mycotoxins is a serious problem worldwide, causing severe economic losses and serious health problems in animals/humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxin contaminant and is known to impair intestinal barrier function. Grapes and red wine are rich in polyphenols, such as resveratrol (RES), which has striking antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. RES is a food-derived component; therefore, it may be simultaneously present with DON in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to explore in vitro protective effects of RES against DON-induced intestinal damage. The results showed that RES could protect DON-induced bacteria translocation because of enhanced of intestinal barrier function by restoring the DON-induced decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and increase in paracellular permeability. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that RES protects against DON-induced barrier dysfunction by promoting the assembly of claudin-4 in the tight junction complex. This is probably mediated through modulation of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways. Our results imply that RES can protect against DON-induced intestinal damage and that RES may be used as a novel dietary intervention strategy to reduce DON toxicity in animals/humans.

  14. Effect of the Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z H; Deng, H D; Deng, Y T; Deng, J L; Zuo, Z C; Yu, S M; Shen, L H; Cui, H M; Xu, Z W; Hu, Y C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find effects of Fusarium toxins on brain injury in mice. We evaluated the individual and combined effect of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone and deoxynivalenol on the mouse brain. We examined brain weight, protein, antioxidant indicators, and apoptosis. After 3 and 5days of treatment, increased levels of nitric oxide, total nitric oxide synthase, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and malondialdehyde were observed in the treatment groups. This was accompanied by reduced levels of brain protein, superoxide dismutase (apart from the low-dose zearalenone groups), glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, and percentage of apoptotic cells. By day 12, most of these indicators had returned to control group levels. The effects of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol were dose-dependent, and were synergistic in combination. Our results suggest that brain function is affected by zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The feed contaminant deoxynivalenol affects the intestinal barrier permeability through inhibition of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has critical health effects if the contaminated grains consumed by humans or animals. DON can have negative effects on the active transport of glucose and amino acids in the small intestine of chickens. As the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present study was performed to delineate more precisely the effects of cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor, CHX) and DON on the intestinal absorption of nutrients. This was to confirm whether DON effects on nutrient absorption are due to an inhibition of protein synthesis. Changes in ion transport and barrier function were assessed by short-circuit current (Isc) and transepithelial ion conductance (Gt) in Ussing chambers. Addition of D-glucose or L-glutamine to the luminal side of the isolated mucosa of the jejunum increased (P < 0.001) the Isc compared with basal conditions in the control tissues. However, the Isc was not increased by the glucose or glutamine addition after pre-incubation of tissues with DON or CHX. Furthermore, both DON and CHX reduced Gt, indicating that the intestinal barrier is compromised and consequently induced a greater impairment of the barrier function. The remarkable similarity between the activity of CHX and DON on nutrient uptake is consistent with their common ability to inhibit protein synthesis. It can be concluded that the decreases in transport activity by CHX was evident in this study using the chicken as experimental model. Similarly, DON has negative effects on the active transport of some nutrients, and these can be explained by its influence on protein synthesis.

  16. Deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with nivalenol and zearalenone induce systemic histological changes in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerez, Juliana R; Pinton, Philippe; Callu, Patrick; Grosjean, François; Oswald, Isabelle P; Bracarense, Ana Paula F L

    2015-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxins commonly produced by Fusarium species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of DON alone and in combination with NIV and ZEA on several parameters including weight gain and histological aspects of pigs submitted to chronic intoxication. Twenty, 5-week-old piglets received for 28 days one of the following diets: a control diet, a diet mono- contaminated with DON (1.5mg/kg), a diet multi-contaminated with DON (2mg/kg)+NIV (1.3mg/kg)+ZEA (1.5mg/kg) or a diet contaminated with DON (3mg/kg)+NIV (1.3mg/kg)+ZEA (1.5mg/kg). Animals fed the multi-contaminated diets presented a significant decrease in weight gain over the total period. The chronic ingestion of the contaminated diets induced a significant increase on histological changes on the intestine, liver and lymphoid organs. In addition, a significant increase on lymphocyte apoptosis was observed in lymph nodes and spleen in the animals receiving the contaminated diets. These data provide a better understanding of the possible effects of Fusarium toxins, alone or in combinations on the morphology of the intestine and lymphoid organs, which would contribute to the risk assessment of these toxins.

  17. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals.

  18. The fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol can inhibit plant apoptosis-like programmed cell death.

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    Mark Diamond

    Full Text Available The Fusarium genus of fungi is responsible for commercially devastating crop diseases and the contamination of cereals with harmful mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins aid infection, establishment, and spread of the fungus within the host plant. We investigated the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the viability of Arabidopsis cells. Although it is known to trigger apoptosis in animal cells, DON treatment at low concentrations surprisingly did not kill these cells. On the contrary, we found that DON inhibited apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD in Arabidopsis cells subjected to abiotic stress treatment in a manner independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. This suggested that Fusarium may utilise mycotoxins to suppress plant apoptosis-like PCD. To test this, we infected Arabidopsis cells with a wild type and a DON-minus mutant strain of F. graminearum and found that only the DON producing strain could inhibit death induced by heat treatment. These results indicate that mycotoxins may be capable of disarming plant apoptosis-like PCD and thereby suggest a novel way that some fungi can influence plant cell fate.

  19. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abysique, Anne; Tardivel, Catherine; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Félix, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

  20. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Lucke, Annegret; Harder, Hauke; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Böhm, Josef; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA or 5% LA solutions in a ratio of 1:1.2 (w/v) for 5, 24, or 48 h, and analyzed for multiple mycotoxin metabolites using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method. The analyses showed that treating the feed with CA and LA lowered the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON), whereby 5% LA lowered the original DON concentration in the contaminated feed samples by half, irrespective of the processing time. Similar lowering effects were observed for the concentrations of 15Ac-DON, 5-hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research is required to determine the effect on overall toxicity and to identify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27690101

  1. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abysique

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

  2. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Humer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA and lactic acid (LA on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA or 5% LA solutions in a ratio of 1:1.2 (w/v for 5, 24, or 48 h, and analyzed for multiple mycotoxin metabolites using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method. The analyses showed that treating the feed with CA and LA lowered the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON, whereby 5% LA lowered the original DON concentration in the contaminated feed samples by half, irrespective of the processing time. Similar lowering effects were observed for the concentrations of 15Ac-DON, 5-hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research is required to determine the effect on overall toxicity and to identify the underlying mechanisms.

  3. Simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in breakfast cereals and baby food by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Barbara; Ferrari, Maria; Bergamini, Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), T-2 and HT-2 toxins in foodstuff was investigated. A new kind of multi-mycotoxin immunoaffinity columns (IACs) available on the market (DZT MS-PREP(®)) was tested. A sensitive, selective and accurate method by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was developed, with electrospray ionization mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, with negative-positive-negative ion switching. The method was used for the analysis of samples marked in Italy, in the frame of official monitoring plans. The advantages of combining IACs and LC-MS/MS technique are as follows: efficient removal of matrix interferences, simple chromatographic outline, high selectivity, low detection limits (DLs) and separation of a wide range of molecules with different physico-chemical properties in a single run. The method was studied on two different matrices, breakfast cereal and baby food, at contamination levels close to Regulation limits (EC) 1126/2007. The recoveries obtained (60-100%) fulfil the performance criteria required by Regulation (EC) 401/2006. The DL is 60 µg/kg for DON and 10 µg/kg for ZEA, T-2 and HT-2. Linearity range of the calibration curves is suitable for adult and baby food.

  4. Towards analysis of mykotoxins in beverages with molecularly imprinted polymers for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R; Mizaikoff, B

    2002-03-01

    Due to ease of use and generally cost effective production molecularly imprinted polymers offer the possibility generating highly selective separation and enrichment materials. Therefore, they are considered a serious competitor to conventional biological agents such as antibodies, proteins and cells for affinity separations. Molecular imprinting applied in the present study is based on non-covalent self-assembly of the template with functional monomers prior to polymerization. Free radical polymerization with a cross-linking monomer is stabilizing (freezing) these template-functional monomer complexes, resulting in a mechanically and thermally stable polymer. After template extraction, rebinding may take place via non-covalent interactions.Selective polymeric phases intended for use in solid-phase extraction of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) from beverages have been prepared [1]. Using crystalline deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and quercetin, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been developed by a non-covalent imprinting approach via photo initiated addition polymerization. Prepared polymers are based on 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer and ethylenglycoldimethacrylat (EDMA) as crosslinking monomer. Selectivity of generated molecularly imprinted polymers has been investigated by application of prepared MIPs as stationary phase in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments. Retention and elution behavior of template compounds were determined and compared. Achieved results promise future application of molecularly imprinted polymers as highly selective matrix for clean-up and enrichment of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone from natural sources such as grains and beer.

  5. Stereoselective Luche Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Three of Its Acetylated Derivatives at C8

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    Philipp Fruhmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a well known and common contaminant in food and feed. Acetylated derivatives and other biosynthetic precursors can occur together with the main toxin. A key biosynthetic step towards DON involves an oxidation of the 8-OH group of 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin. Since analytical standards for the intermediates are not available and these intermediates are therefore rarely studied, we aimed for a synthetic method to invert this reaction, making a series of calonectrin-derived precursors accessible. We did this by developing an efficient protocol for stereoselective Luche reduction at C8. This method was used to access 3,7,8,15-tetrahydroxyscirpene, 3-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, 15-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin and 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, which were characterized using several NMR techniques. Beside the development of a method which could basically be used for all type B trichothecenes, we opened a synthetic route towards different acetylated calonectrins.

  6. Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Clark, Erica S; Pestka, James J

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15-120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a novel UDP-glycosyltransferase gene induced by DON from wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xin; DU Xu-ye; LIU Guo-juan; YANG Zai-dong; HOU Wen-qian; WANG Hong-wei; FENG De-shun; LI An-fei; KONG Ling-rang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a destructive disease of wheat throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of host resistance to FHB are stil largely unclear. Deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by F. graminearum which enhances the pathogen to spread could be converted into inactive form D3G by UDP-glycosyltrans-ferases (UGTs). A DON responsive UGT gene, designated as TaUGT4, was ifrst cloned from wheat in this study. The putative open reading frame (ORF) of TaUGT4 was 1 386 bp, encoding 461 amino acids protein. TaUGT4 was placed on chromosome 2D using a set of nul i-tetrasomic lines of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS). When fused with eGFP at C terminal, TaUGT4 was shown to localize in cytoplasm of the transformed tobacco cel s. The transcriptional analysis revealed that TaUGT4 was strongly induced by F. graminearum or DON in both of FHB-resistant cultivar Sumai 3 and susceptible cultivar Kenong 199, especial y in Sumai 3 under DON treatment. Similar increase of TaUGT4 expression was observed in Sumai 3 and Kenong 199 in response to salicylic acid (SA) treatment. But interestingly, the transcripts level of TaUGT4 in Sumai 3 showed signiifcantly higher than that in Kenong 199 after treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). According to the expression patterns, TaUGT4 might lead to different effects between FHB-resistant genotype and susceptible genotype in the process against F. graminearum inoculation. It had also been discussed in this paper that JA signaling pathway might play a signiifcant role in the resistance against F. graminearum compared to SA signaling pathway.

  8. Toxicokinetic study and absolute oral bioavailability of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, Ann; Devreese, Mathias; Goossens, Joline; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins lead to economic losses in animal production. A way to counteract mycotoxicosis is the use of detoxifiers. The European Food Safety Authority stated that the efficacy of detoxifiers should be investigated based on toxicokinetic studies. Little information is available on the absolute oral bioavailability and the toxicokinetic parameters of deoxynivalenol, T-2 and zearalenone in broilers. Toxins were administered intravenously and orally in a two-way cross-over design. For deoxynivalenol a bolus of 0.75mg/kg BW was administered, for T-2 toxin 0.02mg/kg BW and for zearalenone 0.3mg/kg BW. Blood was collected at several time points. Plasma levels of the mycotoxins and their metabolite(s) were quantified using LC-MS/MS methods and toxicokinetic parameters were analyzed. Deoxynivalenol has a low absolute oral bioavailability (19.3%). For zearalenone and T-2 no plasma levels above the limit of quantification were observed after an oral bolus. Volumes of distribution were recorded, i.e. 4.99, 0.14 and 22.26L/kg for deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, respectively. Total body clearance was 0.12, 0.03 and 0.48L/minkg for deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, respectively. After IV administration, T-2 toxin had the shortest elimination half-life (3.9min), followed by deoxynivalenol (27.9min) and zearalenone (31.8min). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Wheat and Its Management%小麦中镰刀菌毒素脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇污染现状与防控研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建荣; 刘馨; 仇剑波; 祭芳; 徐剑宏; 董飞; 殷宪超; 冉军舰

    2014-01-01

    脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON),又称呕吐毒素,是由小麦赤霉病菌禾谷镰刀菌复合群(Fusarium graminearumspecies complex)产生的单端孢霉烯族毒素,毒素在小麦籽粒中累积。作为B型单端孢霉烯族毒素, DON可以引起呕吐、拒食、腹泻、出血甚至死亡,对猪的危害尤其严重。近年来,小麦赤霉病在世界各地高频率流行,尤其在中国长江中下游小麦生产区以及黄淮部分小麦产区、美国中西部小麦主产区,导致小麦中DON毒素严重超标,并引发了严重的食品安全问题。本文对国内外小麦中DON毒素的污染现状、产毒镰刀菌种类及其化学型的分布及其趋势、毒素产生的调控机制以及小麦中DON毒素的防控途径进行了论述,希望有助于镰刀菌毒素污染小麦质量安全的风险评估、监管以及科学处置。%Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the type B trichothecene mycotoxins, also known as vomitoxin, can cause sickness such as vomiting, feed refusal, bloody diarrhea, dermatitis, hemorrhaging, and even death because of inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis at the ribosomal level in nonruminant animals, especially swine. DON is the metabolite of Fusarium graminearum species complex(FGSC) which causes wheat head blight around the world. In the last 10 years, FHB has become a severely epidemic for many times in China (especially in Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei, Henan and Shandong), north America and European countries, causing that DON becomes severe food safety issue for wheat grains. This paper presents the DON contamination of wheat, distribution and chemotype of DON-produced FGSC, the factors which influence the DON production, and the management of DON contaminated grains to facilitate the risk evaluation and surveillance of DON-contaminated wheat in this country.

  10. FgRIC8 is involved in regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, deoxynivalenol production and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinjin; Liu, Yuting; Lv, Wuyun; Yue, Xiaofeng; Que, Yawei; Yang, Nan; Zhang, Zhengguang; Ma, Zhonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J; Wang, Zhengyi

    2015-10-01

    Proteins of the resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric8) group act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and play important roles in regulating G-protein signaling in animals. In filamentous fungi, putative Ric8 orthologs have so far been identified in Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Here, we report the functional investigation of a potential RIC8 ortholog (FgRIC8) in the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Targeted gene deletion mutants of FgRIC8 exhibited a significant reduction in vegetative growth, conidiation, pigment production as well as deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis. Pathogenicity assays using a point-inoculated spikelet approach showed that the mutants were severely impaired in virulence on flowering wheat heads. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that genes encoding F. graminearum Gα (FgGpa1 and FgGpa3), Gβ (FgGpb1) and Gγ (FgGpg1) subunits were significantly down-regulated in Fgric8 mutants. Moreover, we showed that FgRic8 physically interacts with both FgGpa1 and FgGpa3, but not FgGpa2, in yeast two-hybrid assays. The intracellular cAMP levels in Fgric8 mutants were significantly decreased compared to the isogenic wild-type strain. Taken together, our results indicate that FgRic8 plays critical roles in fungal development, secondary metabolism and virulence in F. graminearum and may act as a regulator of G protein alpha subunits.

  11. Tihhi Don

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Fjodor Bondartshuk monteeris kokku tema isa Sergei poolt Itaalias 13 aastat tagasi pooleli jäänud Mihhail Sholohhovi romaani järgi tehtud teleseriaali "Vaikne Don", mida Venemaa televisiooni 1. Kanal näitab alates 7. novembrist

  12. Kinetics and metabolism of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol in farm animals: consequences for diagnosis of exposure and intoxication and carry over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Brezina, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    The knowledge of factors influencing the kinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a basic prerequisite for evaluation of the transfer (carry over) of the toxin and its metabolites into edible tissues, and for a physiological specimen-based diagnosis of intoxication. These aspects are addressed in the present review, and potentials and pitfalls of the suitability of analysis of physiological samples for evaluation of the DON exposure as a veterinary tool are discussed. For example, the farm animal species was shown to be a determining factor influencing the metabolic profile and the bioavailability of DON. Although linear relationships were derived between DON exposure of ad libitum and restrictively fed animals and DON or de-epoxy-DON concentration in the blood of pigs, dairy cows and sheep, it has to be considered that individual values might markedly deviate from these relationships, which makes interpretation of measured concentrations of DON and its metabolites difficult. The situation is further complicated by the lack of established relationships between DON residues in physiological matrices and the adverse effects of DON on the health and performance of farm animals.

  13. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 in grain based swine feed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Helga; Rácz, Anita; Guld, Zsuzsanna; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Kiskó, Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Fusarium genera can produce trichothecenes like deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin, which can occur in feed cereal grains. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) tests of different Hungarian swine feedstuff proved that these mycotoxins were present. In this survey, 45 feed samples from 3 significant Hungarian swine feedstuff manufacturers were tested. ELISA methodology validation showed mean recovery rates in ranges from 85.3% to 98.1%, with intermediate precision of 86.9-96.9% and variation coefficients of 3.4-5.7% and 5.9-7.1%, respectively. The results showed that among Fusarium toxins, generally DON was present in the highest concentration, followed by T-2 and finally ZEN in all tested swine feeds. Each of the mycotoxins was found above the limit of detection in all swine feedstuffs. Boars feed's DON (average ± standard deviation was 872 ± 139 µg kg(-1)) and ZEN (172 ± 18 µg kg(-1)) results of one of the manufacturers were above the guidance values. It indicates the necessity for efficient monitoring of DON, ZEN and T-2 mycotoxins in swine feeds.

  14. Histological structure of duodenum in gilts receiving low doses of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Gajęcka, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), produced by microfungi of the Fusarium family, are among the most commonly occurring mycotoxins. They are considered important factors affecting human and animal health as well as livestock productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure of the pig duodenum. The study was performed on 72 gilts, with initial weights of approximately 25kg, divided into 4 equal groups. Group I received per os ZEN (40μg/kg BW), group II-DON (12μg/kg BW), group III-ZEN (40μg/kg BW) and DON (12μg/kg BW), and group IV-vehicle. The pigs were killed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of the treatment, and the duodenum samples were prepared for histological investigations. The slides were digitalized and subjected to morphometrical analysis. The treatment with DON and ZEN did not change the architecture of the mucosa or the ratio between goblet and adsorptive cells in the epithelium. The administration of DON induced an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the mucosal epithelium. Both mycotoxins, administered alone or together, increased the quantity of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages with black-brown granules in the lamina propria. The time-courses of changes in the number of defense system cells evoked by DON and ZEN were different. In conclusion, dietary exposure to low doses of Fusarium mycotoxins should be considered an important risk factor for subclinical inflammation in the small intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Targets and intracellular signaling mechanisms for deoxynivalenol-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2012-06-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a known translational inhibitor, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage. Here, we characterized this process relative to (1) specific 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage sites and (2) identity of specific upstream signaling elements in this pathway. Capillary electrophoresis indicated that DON at concentrations as low as 200 ng/ml evoked selective rRNA cleavage after 6 h and that 1000 ng/ml caused cleavage within 2 h. Northern blot analysis revealed that DON exposure induced six rRNA cleavage fragments from 28S rRNA and five fragments from 18S rRNA. When selective kinase inhibitors were used to identify potential upstream signals, RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), and p38 were found to be required for rRNA cleavage, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were not. Furthermore, rRNA fragmentation was suppressed by the p53 inhibitors pifithrin-α and pifithrin-μ as well as the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Concurrent apoptosis was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry. DON activated caspases 3, 8, and 9, thus suggesting the possible coinvolvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in rRNA cleavage. Satratoxin G (SG), anisomycin, and ricin also induced specific rRNA cleavage profiles identical to those of DON, suggesting that ribotoxins might share a conserved rRNA cleavage mechanism. Taken together, DON-induced rRNA cleavage is likely to be closely linked to apoptosis activation and appears to involve the sequential activation of PKR/Hck →p38→p53→caspase 8/9→caspase 3.

  16. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a foodborne mycotoxin found in grain-based foods, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although induction of anorexia has been described as a hallmark of DON-induced toxicity in many animal species, the mechanistic basis for this adverse effect is not fully understood. The purpose of this research was to determine the role of two proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in DON-induced anorexia. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, DON-induced anorectic response occurred at 1 hr and lasted up to 6 hr. Similar anorectic effects were observed following acute administration of exogenous TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral exposure to DON at 5 mg/kg bw stimulated splenic and hepatic mRNA and plasma protein elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β that corresponded to anorexia induction. Pretreatment with the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) antagonist R-7050 dose-dependently attenuated both TNF-α- and DON-induced anorexia. While, the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist IL-1RA dose-dependently attenuated both IL-1β- and DON-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results suggest that both TNF-α and IL-1β play contributory role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to DON.

  17. An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Hu, Jiayu; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yao, Kang; Yin, Yulong; Li, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (Pglutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (Pglutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (Pglutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

  18. ASSESSING THE POSSIBLE INTERACTION BETWEEN CARDUUS MARIANUS AND DIETARY DEOXYNIVALENOL ON CAECAL MICROBIOTA AND FERMENTATION OF GROWING RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Kachlek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of feed with mycotoxins is a common problem encountered in animal farming. Mycotoxin exposure can affect adversely the health of animals. In rabbits caecal fermentation is an essential digestive process being indication of physiological alterations. Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most frequent contaminants of grains which affect the growth of monogastric animals. Data about dietary DON and its effect in rabbits are scarce. Medicinal plants are often used as feed additives to enhance the performance of the animals. Carduus marianus (milk thistle is known for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects (among others but no data are available about the effect on rabbit caecum. Considering the aforementioned, the aim of this study was to assess the possible interactive effect of Carduus marianus and DON on the caecum of growing rabbits. 75 Pannon White rabbits were reared for six weeks from 35 (after weaning till 77 days of age. Rabbits received the following diets: control (C, control with DON (CT, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% (H1, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% and DON (H1T, control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% (H2 and control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% and DON (H2T. On slaughter, caecum was collected for the analysis of total volatile fatty acids (VFA and the microbiota of the caecum, pH of the caecum was also recorded. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration or individual VFA. Number of aerobic bacteria significantly differed among toxin and non-toxin groups. DON affected adversely the number of aerobic bacteria. An interactive effect of DON and Carduus marianus on E.coli number was observed. There was no effect on total or individual VFA amounts.

  19. Deoxynivalenol transport across the human placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Vikström, Anna C; Turner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    with the ex vivo dual perfusion model. The concentration of DON on the foetal side after 4h was about 21% of that on the maternal side at t=0. These results support the data from the BeWo monolayer model in respect to the transport rate of DON, and are consistent with our hypothesis of foetal exposure to DON...... revealed frequent human exposure. This study reports on DON transfer across the human placenta. Firstly, in vitro studies with the BeWo b30 clone were used as a rapid screening model showing transfer of DON through a stable confluent cell monolayer. Five term placentas were then used to study DON transfer...

  20. The influence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on steroid hormone production by porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesarova, Adriana; Medvedova, Marina; Halenar, Marek; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Bulla, Jozef

    2017-09-25

    Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) are frequently occurring in feed of pigs together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible in vitro effects of DON and ZEA, alone or their combination on steroid secretion of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). A species-specific model with porcine ovarian GCs was used to study the potential endocrine disrupting effects of DON and ZEA alone and in co-exposure. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of this study demonstrate that DON alone at the higher concentrations may act to stimulate P4 (at 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 ng mL(-1) but not 10 and 100 ng mL(-1)) and E2 (at 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 ng mL(-1) but not 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL(-1)) secretion. The effects of ZEA on P4 and E2 secretion were not confirmed. DON in combination with the other fusariotoxin ZEA may impair steroidogenesis. Results aslo demonstrate different toxicological effects of fusariotoxins on follicle stimulating hormone-induced secretion of P4 and E2. All these results taken together suggest that fusariotoxin and their interactions can impact ovarian steroidogenesis, thereby demonstrating their potential reproductive effects in pigs.

  1. Effect of deoxynivalenol and other Type B trichothecenes on the intestine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2014-05-21

    The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world's crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered as a ubiquitous problem worldwide. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants. An increasing number of studies suggest that intestinal epithelial cells are targets for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other Type B trichothecenes (TCTB). In humans, various adverse digestive symptoms are observed on acute exposure, and in animals, these toxins induce pathological lesions, including necrosis of the intestinal epithelium. They affect the integrity of the intestinal epithelium through alterations in cell morphology and differentiation and in the barrier function. Moreover, DON and TCTB modulate the activity of intestinal epithelium in its role in immune responsiveness. TCTB affect cytokine production by intestinal or immune cells and are supposed to interfere with the cross-talk between epithelial cells and other intestinal immune cells. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the effects of DON and other TCTB on the intestine.

  2. Effect of Deoxynivalenol and Other Type B Trichothecenes on the Intestine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Pinton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world’s crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered as a ubiquitous problem worldwide. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants. An increasing number of studies suggest that intestinal epithelial cells are targets for deoxynivalenol (DON and other Type B trichothecenes (TCTB. In humans, various adverse digestive symptoms are observed on acute exposure, and in animals, these toxins induce pathological lesions, including necrosis of the intestinal epithelium. They affect the integrity of the intestinal epithelium through alterations in cell morphology and differentiation and in the barrier function. Moreover, DON and TCTB modulate the activity of intestinal epithelium in its role in immune responsiveness. TCTB affect cytokine production by intestinal or immune cells and are supposed to interfere with the cross-talk between epithelial cells and other intestinal immune cells. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the effects of DON and other TCTB on the intestine.

  3. Chemical composition and deoxynivalenol in wheat of Central- Southern Paraná: nitrogen fertilization in top dressing associated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Montagner Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agricultural management practices on the quality of grain was evaluated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. BRS Tangará from the South Central region of Paraná State (Ponta Grossa in the crop years of 2010 and 2011. The field trial was carried out in succession with soybean (2010 and corn (2011. The treatments included inoculation of seeds with Azospirillum brasilense and increasing levels of nitrogen application in top dressing (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1. The experimental design was in randomized block, factorial 2 x 5 (inoculation x N levels, with four replications. The parameters evaluated were water activity, moisture, protein, and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparison of means by Tukey’s test (p<0.05 and regression for nitrogen levels. The inoculation of seeds with A. brasilense increased the protein content in grain in 2010 (+1.6%; 16.9 g 100g-1 and 2011 (+1.7%, 15.7 g 100g-1, independently of the nitrogen level (p<0.01. Levels of nitrogen in 2010 presented a positive linear response with protein content, increasing by 14.2% using non-inoculated seeds (p<0.01, R2=0.955 and 14.4% for those inoculated with A. brasilense (p<0.01, R2=0.906. However, in 2011 a quadratic response was observed between nitrogen levels and protein content (p<0.01, R2=0.99, with stabilization or reduction in protein content using high levels of nitrogen (?120 kg ha-1. The contamination by DON was greater using high levels of nitrogen (3574 ?g kg-1, 120 kg ha-1; non-inoculated seeds in 2011, with a quadratic response between nitrogen levels and contamination of grains (p<0.05, R2=0.772. Furthermore, 37.5% of the samples presented contamination by DON higher than the maximum tolerated limit established by Brazilian legislation (2000 ?g kg-1; whole-wheat grain. The data demonstrates that proper management of nitrogen enhances intrinsic effects arising from plant breeding.

  4. Sensitive method for determination of DON in cocoa by means of HPLC-techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, M; Matissek, R

    2007-12-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of a group of mycotoxins known as type B trichothecenes and is particularly formed by the mould speciesFusarium graminearum andFusarium culmorum. The frequency of the occurrence of DON in certain raw materials and the concentrations found make it one of the world's most significant mycotoxin contaminants. Positive findings of the toxin especially have been established in cereal-based foods, as well as in oilseeds.The main objective of this study was to set up a current situation assessment of the possible occurrence of deoxynivalenol in cocoa and cocoa products. As there was no analytical method for determining DON in cocoa and cocoa products, a special method was developed. The applicability and consistency of the method was confirmed by performing recovery assays on various cocoa products. A special post-column derivatisation procedure was developed to increase selectivity and raise sensitivity by a factor of 80.The method was used to test 230 samples for possible DON content, ranging from cocoa beans to cocoa bean shells, nibs, cocoa liquor and cocoa powders through to finished cocoa-based products. The results suggest that DON may occasionally occur in cocoa beans in very low concentrations.

  5. Strategies for managing Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Gary Y; Schoneweis, Susan D

    2007-10-20

    Many mycotoxigenic fungi infect plant hosts and cause disease in the field. Therefore, control of field infection by these fungi is a critical step in managing mycotoxin accumulation in the harvested product. Fusarium graminearum, also known as Gibberella zeae, is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, in cereals and is also the primary agent responsible for contamination of grain with deoxynivalenol (DON). Research efforts worldwide are devoted to the development of strategies to control field infection of wheat and barley by this pathogen. Strategies include the use of fungicides and biological control agents to protect flowering heads from infection. There is extensive effort in breeding for host resistance to infection and spread of the pathogen within the heads. Scientists are also seeking exogenous traits to introduce into cereals to enhance resistance. Cultural practices are also being examined, primarily as measures to reduce pathogen survival and inoculum production in crop residues. The successes and limitations of these strategies in the management of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol are discussed.

  6. A Deoxynivalenol-Activated Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene from Wheat Encodes a Nuclear Localized Protein and Protects Plants Against Fusarium Pathogens and Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dong-Yun; Yi, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Rong-Jing; Qu, Bo; Huang, Tao; He, Wei-Jie; Li, Cheng; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the fungal pathogen that causes globally important diseases of cereals and produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Owing to the dearth of available sources of resistance to Fusarium pathogens, characterization of novel genes that confer resistance to mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi is vitally important for breeding resistant crop varieties. In this study, a wheat methionyl-tRNA synthetase (TaMetRS) gene was identified from suspension cell cultures treated with DON. It shares conserved aminoacylation catalytic and tRNA anticodon binding domains with human MetRS and with the only previously characterized plant MetRS, suggesting that it functions in aminoacylation in the cytoplasm. However, the TaMetRS comprises a typical nuclear localization signal and cellular localization studies with a TaMetRS::GFP fusion protein showed that TaMetRS is localized in the nucleus. Expression of TaMetRS was activated by DON treatment and by infection with a DON-producing F. graminearum strain in wheat spikes. No such activation was observed following infection with a non-DON-producing F. graminearum strain. Expression of TaMetRS in Arabidopsis plants conferred significant resistance to DON and F. graminearum. These results indicated that this DON-activated TaMetRS gene may encode a novel type of MetRS in plants that has a role in defense and detoxification.

  7. EFFECT OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PARAMETERS OF PORCINE BLOOD IN VITRO

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    Katarína Zbyňovská

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important and the most common Fusarium mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON. It occurs predominantly in grains such as wheat, barley, and maize and less often in oats, rice, rye, sorghum and triticale. It has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DON on some haematological (red blood cells - RBC, white blood cells - WBC, platelets - PLT, haemoglobin - HGB, packed cell volume - PCV and lymphocyte - LYM, biochemical (cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, calcium and phosphorus and anti- and pro-oxidants parameters (superoxide dismutase - SOD, glutathione peroxidase - GPx and ROS – reactive oxygen species in porcine blood in vitro. Significantly decreased content of total protein in the group with dose of 1000 ng.l-1 DON was observed compared with the control group. In other groups (E1 with 10 ng.l-1 DON and E2 with 100 ng.l-1 slightly lower values were measures in comparison with the control group. PLT significantly decreased in the experimental group E3 when compared with E1, E2, and the control group. Concentration of GPx in porcine blood significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in E1 against the control group. Concentration of SOD significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group E2 in comparison with E1 group. The highest value of ROS was in E2 group. Other parameters were not influenced by The most important and the most common Fusarium mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON. It occurs predominantly in grains such as wheat, barley, and maize and less often in oats, rice, rye, sorghum and triticale. It has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DON on some haematological (red blood cells - RBC, white blood cells - WBC, platelets - PLT, haemoglobin - HGB, packed cell volume - PCV and lymphocyte - LYM, biochemical

  8. The Effect of Deoxynivalenol on Selected Populations of Immunocompetent Cells in Porcine Blood—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dąbrowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in Europe. Pigs are an animal species that is most susceptible to this mycotoxin. Deoxynivalenol causes significant losses in pig production by lowering feed intake, decreasing daily weight gains, disrupting immune responses, and increasing susceptibility to diseases. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of feed contaminated with DON at concentrations insignificantly higher than recommended by the European Commission (900 µg/kg. The experimental feed contained 1008 μg DON/kg. The experiment was performed on eight weaners from the same litter. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (M, n = 4 fed contaminated feed and a control group (C, n = 4 administered feed free of mycotoxins. The experiment lasted for six weeks, and peripheral blood samples were collected from the animals for analyses of selected morphological parameters and changes in the percentages of CD4+8−, CD4−8+, and CD4+8+ lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC with CD14+172+ (monocytes, CD172ahigh4−14− (conventional dendritic cells, cDC, and CD172adim4+14− (plasmacytoid dendritic cells, pDC phenotypes. The morphological parameters of porcine blood samples were determined by flow cytometry with non-fluorescent particle-size calibration standards, and no differences were observed between groups M and C. An immunophenotyping analysis of lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC revealed an increase in the percentage of CD4+8−, CD172ahigh4−14−, and CD172adim4+14− cells, and a decrease in the number of CD4−8+ cells in group M. The results of this experiment suggest that prolonged exposure to low doses of DON can change the proportions of immunocompetent cells (a shift towards humoral immunity, without affecting their overall counts.

  9. Early Activation of MAPK p44/42 Is Partially Involved in DON-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier Function and Tight Junction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springler, Alexandra; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the plant pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, is one of the most common mycotoxins, contaminating cereal and cereal-derived products. Although worldwide contamination of food and feed poses health threats to humans and animals, pigs are particularly susceptible to this mycotoxin. DON derivatives, such as deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), are produced by bacterial transformation of certain intestinal bacteria, which are naturally occurring or applied as feed additives. Intestinal epithelial cells are the initial barrier against these food- and feed-borne toxins. The present study confirms DON-induced activation of MAPK p44/42 and inhibition of p44/42 by MAPK-inhibitor U0126 monoethanolate. Influence of DON and DOM-1 on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), viability and expression of seven tight junction proteins (TJ), as well as the potential of U0126 to counteract DON-induced effects, was assessed. While DOM-1 showed no effect, DON significantly reduced TEER of differentiated IPEC-J2 and decreased expression of claudin-1 and -3, while leaving claudin-4; ZO-1, -2, and -3 and occludin unaffected. Inhibition of p44/42 counteracted DON-induced TEER decrease and restored claudin-3, but not claudin-1 expression. Therefore, effects of DON on TEER and claudin-3 are at least partially p44/42 mediated, while effects on viability and claudin-1 are likely mediated via alternative pathways. PMID:27618100

  10. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomic strategy for combined toxicity effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

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    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Pi, Fuwei; Sun, Chao; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Jiadi; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-09-15

    The actual health risk from exposure to combined mycotoxins is unknown, and few studies have focused on changes to cellular biological systems (e.g., metabolomics) caused by combined mycotoxic effects. To evaluate the combined mycotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the level of cellular biological systems, gas chromatographic, time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (GC-TOF/MS) of the complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome was implemented in this study. Using optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed using multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent-structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolite sets were screened for further pathway analysis under rules of t-test (P) value  1, and similarity value > 500. The mainly interfered metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominant types: amino acid metabolism and glycometabolism. Four metabolites, palmitic acid, 1-monopalmitin, ribose-5-phosphate and 2-deoxy-D-galactose, occur only under combined "DON + ZEN" treatment, indicating abnormal metabolism in ANA-1 cells. The metabolic state of ANA-1 cells under induction by combined "DON + ZEN" illustrates that DON may inhibit the estrogenic effects of ZEN. Thus, the combined effect of "DON + ZEN" may exacerbate toxicity in the pentose phosphate pathway, while palmitic acid metabolism is likely a new pathway effected by the combination, "DON + ZEN." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigé, Stéphanie; Bonnet, Marion S; Tardivel, Catherine; Pinton, Philippe; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Guzylack, Laurence; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Dallaporta, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the cereal-contaminating Fusarium fungi, is a major trichothecene responsible for mycotoxicoses in farm animals, including swine. The main effect of DON-intoxication is food intake reduction and the consequent body weight loss. The present study aimed to identify brain structures activated during DON intoxication in pigs. To this goal, we used c-Fos staining which constitutes a useful approach to identify activated neurons. We showed that per os administration of Fusarium graminearum extracts (containing the equivalent of 1mg DON per kg of body weight) induced an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in several central structures, including the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), dorsal vagal complex (DVC), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (Arc), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and amygdala (CeA). Moreover, we coupled c-Fos staining with phenotypic markers detection in order to specify the neuronal populations activated during DON intoxication. This phenotypic characterization revealed the activation of catecholaminergic but not of serotoninergic neurons in response to the toxin. In this context, we also paid a particular attention to NUCB2/nesfatin-1 positive cells, since nesfatin-1 is known to exert a satiety effect. We report here, for the first time in the pig brain, the presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the VLM, DVC, PVN, Arc and SON, and their activation during DON intoxication. Taken together, these data show that DON stimulates the main structures involved in food intake in pigs and suggest that catecholaminergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons could contribute in the anorexigenic effects of the mycotoxin.

  12. Gene regulation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2 is dependent on the site of deoxynivalenol toxicological action.

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    Anne-Kathrin Diesing

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelial cell layer represents the border between the luminal and systemic side of the gut. The decision between absorption and exclusion of substances is the quintessential function of the gut and varies along the gut axis. Consequently, potentially toxic substances may reach the basolateral domain of the epithelial cell layer via blood stream. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a Fusarium derived secondary metabolite known to enter the blood stream and displaying a striking toxicity on the basolateral side of polarised epithelial cell layers in vitro. Here we analysed potential mechanisms of apical and basolateral DON toxicity reflected in the gene expression. We used the jejunum-derived, polarised intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 as an in vitro cell culture model. Luminal and systemic DON challenge of the epithelial cell layer was mimicked by a DON application from the apical or basolateral compartment of membrane inserts for 72 h. We compared the genome-wide gene expression of untreated and DON-treated IPEC-J2 cells with the GeneChip® Porcine Genome Array of Affymetrix. Low basolateral DON (200 ng/mL application triggered 10 times more gene transcripts in comparison to the corresponding apical application (2539 versus 267 despite the intactness of the challenged cell layer as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. Analysis of the regulated genes by bioinformatic resource DAVID identified several groups of biochemical pathways modulated by concentration and orientation of DON application. Selected genes representing pathways of the cellular metabolism, information processing and structural design were analysed in detail by quantitative PCR. Our findings clearly show that apical and basolateral challenge of epithelial cell layers trigger different gene response profiles paralleled with a higher susceptibility towards basolateral challenge. The evaluation of toxicological potentials of mycotoxins

  13. The 5-oxoprolinase is required for conidiation, sexual reproduction, virulence and deoxynivalenol production of Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Piao; Chen, Yunyun; Wu, Huiming; Fang, Wenqin; Liang, Qifu; Zheng, Yangling; Olsson, Stefan; Zhang, Dongmei; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zonghua; Zheng, Wenhui

    2017-09-16

    In eukaryotic organisms, the 5-oxoprolinase is one of the six key enzymes in the γ-glutamyl cycle that is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of glutathione (GSH, an antioxidative tripeptide counteracting the oxidative stress). To date, little is known about the biological functions of the 5-oxoprolinase in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the 5-oxoprolinase in Fusarium graminearum for the first time. In F. graminearum, two paralogous genes (FgOXP1 and FgOXP2) were identified to encode the 5-oxoprolinase while only one homologous gene encoding the 5-oxoprolinase could be found in other filamentous phytopathogenic fungi or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of FgOXP1 or FgOXP2 in F. graminearum led to significant defects in its virulence on wheat. This is likely caused by an observed decreased deoxynivalenol (DON, a mycotoxin) production in the gene deletion mutant strains as DON is one of the best characterized virulence factors of F. graminearum. The FgOXP2 deletion mutant strains were also defective in conidiation and sexual reproduction while the FgOXP1 deletion mutant strains were normal for those phenotypes. Double deletion of FgOXP1 and FgOXP2 led to more severe defects in conidiation, DON production and virulence on plants, suggesting that both FgOXP1 and FgOXP2 play a role in fungal development and plant colonization. Although transformation of MoOXP1into ΔFgoxp1 was able to complement ΔFgoxp1, transformation of MoOXP1 into ΔFgoxp2 failed to restore its defects in sexual development, DON production and pathogenicity. Taken together, these results suggest that FgOXP1 and FgOXP2 are likely to have been functionally diversified and play significant roles in fungal development and full virulence in F. graminearum.

  14. Effects of Sterigmatocystin, Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin G1 on Apoptosis of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of Sterigmatocystin (ST), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) on apoptosis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) in vitro and thus to further elucidate the putative roles of these three mycotoxins on human immunosystem. Methods The effects of ST, DON and AFG1 on apoptosis of HPBLs were studied with cell culture, flow cytometric (FCM) DNA analysis and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Results DNA agarose gel electrophoresis results showed the characteristic "ladder" pattern of apoptosis in HPBLs treated with ST, DON and AFG1. Flow cytometric DNA analysis revealed that typical subdiploid peaks of apoptosis in DNA histogram could be seen in all groups treated with the three mycotoxins. Significant time-effect and dose-effect relationships were found between the apoptosis rates and treatment time as well as concentrations of the three mycotoxins. Conclusion ST, DON and AFG1 can induce apoptosis of HPBLs in vitro and may have some negative effects on human immunosystem.

  15. THE EFFECT ON PROTEOGLYCAN METABOLISM OF DEOXYNIVALENOL AND SELENIUM IN THE CULTURED HUMAN FETAL CHONDROCYTES IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and selenium (Se) on the morphology of chondrocytes and the metabolism of cartilage matrix, and the expression of aggrecanase-1, 2 mRNA in monolayer cultured chondrocytes in vitro. Methods To plant human fetal chondrocytes on the BMG, the expression of Aggrecanase-1, 2 mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR, the immunohistochemistry of NITEGE epitope was quantitativly analyzed by the image collection and analysis system. Results With the increase of the concentration of DON, the damage of cultured chondrocytes was more and more severe; the expression of NITEGE epitope showed an increasing trend and the fluorescent bands of aggrecanase-1, 2 mRNA were more and more obvious. After adding Se, the damage was relieved, and there was a decreasing trend of NITEGE epitope expressed in matrix. Conclusion DON can enhance transcription of aggrecanase gene and increase the expression of NITEGE epitope which eventually lead to the metabolic disorder of cartilage proteoglycan. It suggested that Se can partially alleviate the damage of DON on cartilage, but can not completely prevent the occurrence of these changes.

  16. Solvent and Water Mediated Structural Variations in Deoxynivalenol and Their Potential Implications on the Disruption of Ribosomal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Nora A.; Shank, Roxanne A.; Kiss, Douglas; Eudes, François; Hazendonk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops caused by trichothecene producing Fusarium species. Trichothecenes, macrocylicic fungal metabolites composed of three fused rings (A–C) with one epoxide functionality, are a class of mycotoxins known to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic ribosomes. These toxins accumulate in the kernels of infected plants rendering them unsuitable for human and animal consumption. Among the four classes of trichothecenes (A–D) A and B are associated with FHB, where the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) is most relevant. While it is known that these toxins inhibit protein synthesis by disrupting peptidyl transferase activity, the exact mechanism of this inhibition is poorly understood. The three-dimensional structures and H-bonding behavior of DON were evaluated using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. Comparisons of the NMR structure presented here with the recently reported crystal structure of DON bound in the yeast ribosome reveal insights into the possible toxicity mechanism of this compound. The work described herein identifies a water binding pocket in the core structure of DON, where the 3OH plays an important role in this interaction. These results provide preliminary insights into how substitution at C3 reduces trichothecene toxicity. Further investigations along these lines will provide opportunities to develop trichothecene remediation strategies based on the disruption of water binding interactions with 3OH. PMID:27582730

  17. Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae

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    Jassy Drakulic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON, which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection. Previous work has shown that grain aphids are repelled by wheat infected with DON-producing F. graminearum, and this study seeks to determine the influence of pathogen mycotoxins to host volatile chemistry. Volatile collections from infected hosts and olfactometer bioassays with alate aphids were performed. Infections with isolates that produced DON and NIV were compared, as well as a trichothecene deficient transformant derived from the NIV-producing isolate. This work confirmed the repellent nature of infected hosts with DON accumulation. NIV accumulation produced volatiles that were attractive to aphids. Attraction did not occur when NIV was absent and was, therefore, a direct consequence of NIV production.

  18. Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulic, Jassy; Kahar, Mohd Haziq; Ajigboye, Olubukola; Bruce, Toby; Ray, Rumiana V

    2016-11-30

    Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection. Previous work has shown that grain aphids are repelled by wheat infected with DON-producing F. graminearum, and this study seeks to determine the influence of pathogen mycotoxins to host volatile chemistry. Volatile collections from infected hosts and olfactometer bioassays with alate aphids were performed. Infections with isolates that produced DON and NIV were compared, as well as a trichothecene deficient transformant derived from the NIV-producing isolate. This work confirmed the repellent nature of infected hosts with DON accumulation. NIV accumulation produced volatiles that were attractive to aphids. Attraction did not occur when NIV was absent and was, therefore, a direct consequence of NIV production.

  19. Decontamination and detoxification strategies for the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in animal feed and the effectiveness of microbial biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Bohm, Josef; Zentek, Jurgen

    2010-04-01

    Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and is a significant contaminants due to its frequent occurrence in toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Since toxin production depends strongly on environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, Fusarium toxin contamination can not be avoided completely. Therefore, exposure to this toxin is a permanent health risk for both humans and farm animals. As cereal crops are commonly contaminated with DON and animal diets consist mainly of cereals, it can be assumed that animals are frequently exposed to DON-contaminated feeds. Many strategies can be undertaken to reduce the toxic effect of DON. In addition to the general necessity for minimizing all risk factors that might influence the contamination of cereals with DON, such as the so-called field toxins before harvest, several post-harvest strategies can be applied to counteract possible deleterious effects of this mycotoxin in farm animals. Another approach for decontamination in feedstuffs is the use of adsorbent materials. Adsorbent materials may bind mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce absorption and systemic toxicity. It has been shown that some adsorbents are suitable to alleviate the toxic effects of specific mycotoxins, but its efficacy against trichothecenes is practically zero. Therefore, alternative strategies to reduce animal and human health risk are needed. The use of microbial additives is a method which uses microorganisms having the capability to detoxify mycotoxins by metabolism or degradation prior to their resorption in the gastrointestinal tract. DON has been reported to be completely transformed to de-epoxy-DON by ruminal and intestinal microflora. Eubacterium BBSH 797 was capable of DON degradation and counteracted the toxic effects of DON in animals. This review focuses on

  20. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenda [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); He, Kaiyu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berthiller, Franz [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria); Adam, Gerhard [Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko [Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan); Watanabe, Maiko [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Krantis, Anthony [Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada); Durst, Tony [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada); Zhang, Haibin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  1. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. PMID:25533517

  2. Fungal diversity and natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in freshly harvested wheat grains from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Bemvenuti, Renata Heidtmann; Zorzete, Patrícia; de Souza Garcia, Fábio; Corrêa, Benedito

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the fungal diversity and presence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in 150 samples of freshly harvested wheat grains collected in three regions of Brazil (Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul). Analysis of the mycobiota showed a predominance of Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp. and Epicoccum sp. Microdochium nivale (23%), a fungus rarely found in Brazilian crops, was detected in Sao Paulo. Four members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex were isolated: F. graminearum s.s. (37%), Fusarium meridionale (46%), Fusarium cortaderiae (13%), and Fusarium austroamericanum (3%). Toxin analysis revealed 99% contamination with deoxynivalenol (mean 706 μg/kg). The frequency of zearalenone varied greatly across regions: wheat grains from Rio Grande do Sul (84%) and Sao Paulo (12%) had median concentrations of 70.9 and 57.9 μg/kg, respectively. ZEA was not detected in the samples from Parana. A total of six samples were above the maximum tolerated level recommended by the European Commission for ZEA in wheat grains. This study provided new insights into the natural mycobiota of Brazilian wheat, demonstrating contamination of most samples with deoxynivalenol and high frequency of zearalenone in samples from Rio Grande do Sul. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential roles for calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) in murine anorectic response to deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2017-01-01

    Food contamination by the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) has the potential to adversely affect animal and human health by suppressing food intake and impairing growth. In mice, the DON-induced anorectic response results from aberrant satiety hormone secretion by enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent in vitro studies in the murine STC-1 EEC model have linked DON-induced satiety hormone secretion to activation of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-coupled protein receptor, and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), a TRP channel. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms mediate DON's anorectic effects in vivo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON-induced food refusal and satiety hormone release in the mouse are linked to activation of CaSR and TRPA1. Oral treatment with selective agonists for CaSR (R-568) or TRPA1 (allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)) suppressed food intake in mice, and the agonist's effects were suppressed by pretreatment with corresponding antagonists NPS-2143 or ruthenium red (RR), respectively. Importantly, NPS-2143 or RR inhibited both DON-induced food refusal and plasma elevations of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36); cotreatment with both antagonists additively suppressed both anorectic and hormone responses to DON. Taken together, these in vivo data along with prior in vitro findings support the contention that activation of CaSR and TRPA1 contributes to DON-induced food refusal by mediating satiety hormone exocytosis from EEC.

  4. Impact of post-anthesis rainfall, fungicide and harvesting time on the concentration of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbikar, Lalit L; Dickin, Edward T; Edwards, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to identify the impact of post-anthesis rainfall on the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in harvested wheat grain. Winter wheat plots were inoculated with Fusarium graminearum at stem extension (GS31) and prothioconazole was applied at mid-anthesis (GS65) to split plots and plots were subsequently mist irrigated for 5 days. Plots were either covered by polytunnels, irrigated by sprinklers or left as non-irrigated uncovered control plots after medium-milk (GS75). Plots were harvested either when ripe (GS92; early harvest) or three weeks later (late harvest). Fusarium head blight (FHB) was assessed each week from inoculation. At harvest, yield and grain quality was measured and grains were analysed for DON and ZON. Differences in rainfall resulted in contrasting disease pressure in the two experiments, with low FHB in the first experiment and high FHB in the second. Difference in FHB resulted in large differences in grain yield, quality and mycotoxin content. DON concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in irrigated compared to covered and control plots in the first experiment, whereas in the second experiment, DON was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the covered plots compared to the control and irrigated plots. ZON concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in irrigated plots in both experiments. Later harvesting resulted in an approximate fivefold increase in ZON in the first experiment, but was not significantly different in the second experiment. Prothioconazole significantly (P < 0.05) reduced DON in both experiments, but gave inconsistent reductions to ZON. This is the first report to show that the post-anthesis rainfall can significantly increase ZON in wheat, which can increase further with a delayed harvest but may be significantly reduced with the application of prothioconazole. Importantly, in the absence of moisture late season, ZON remains at very low concentrations even when

  5. Application on Gold Nanoparticles-Dotted 4-Nitrophenylazo Graphene in a Label-Free Impedimetric Deoxynivalenol Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Edozie Sunday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a new concept to construct a label-free electrochemical inhibition-based immunosensor for the detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON in cereal samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of tris(bipyridine ruthenium (II chloride was used as a marker enhanced with gold nanoparticles-dotted 4-nitrophenylazo functionalized graphene (AuNp/G/PhNO2 nanocatalyst mediated in Nafion on a glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized conditions, the formation of immunocomplexes inhibited electron flow and increased the charge transfer resistance of the sensing interface linearly. The change in impedance was proportional to DON concentrations in the range of 6–30 ng/mL with a sensitivity and detection limit of 32.14 ΩL/ng and 0.3 µg/mL, respectively, which compares favorably with the ELISA result. The proposed sensor had a stability of 80.3%, good precision and selectivity in DON standard solution containing different interfering agents, indicating promising application prospect for this strategy in designing impedimetric, electrochemiluminescent, voltammetric or amperometric sensors.

  6. 小麦脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)检测方法的研究%Detection method of Deoxynivalenol in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳毅; 程树峰; 唐芳; 张海洋

    2015-01-01

    A new method was established to detect deoxynivalenol (DON)in wheat by high liquid chro-matography detection.The wheat samples were treated by oscillation with polyethylene glycol and water. Some kinds of adsorption materials like activated carbon,silica gel column chromatography,neutral alu-mina,acidic alumina,basic alumina were used to purify the extract,respectively,to compare the purif-ying effect on DON in wheat.The result showed that acidic alumina had the best purifying effect with the rate of removing impurities 66.3%.The purification liquid though 0.22 μm polyethersulfone membrane was detected by HPLC directly with C18 column,mobile phase of methanol∶water (20∶80)and wave-length of 230 nm.The percent recovery in three levels was 91.0%~103.7%.The range of the relative standard deviation (RSD)of positive wheat samples with different pollution levels was 2.3%~8.5%. Compared with the result of another method by immunoaffinity column cleanup,the deviation of two methods was 2.3%~8.4%.The characteristic of simple,rapid,accurate,and low cost makes this method suitable to meet the needs of quantitive detection of DON in wheat with large number of samples.%建立了一种新的小麦脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)高效液相色谱检测方法。采用聚乙二醇和水对小麦样品进行振荡提取,提取液分别用活性炭、柱层析硅胶、中性氧化铝、酸性氧化铝、碱性氧化铝净化,比较几种吸附剂对小麦 DON 净化效果。结果表明,用酸性氧化铝净化效果最好,除杂率为66.3%,净化液通过0.22μm 聚醚砜滤膜可直接用于 HPLC 检测;色谱条件:分离柱为 C18柱;流动相为甲醇∶水(20∶80);波长为230 nm。三水平加标平均回收率为91.0%~103.7%,不同污染水平的小麦阳性样品精密度试验相对标准偏差(RSD)为2.3%~8.5%;与免疫亲和柱(IAC)净化方法比较,方法间误差为2.3%~8.4%。本方法

  7. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( clay had reduced ADG ( pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( Pelleting improved ( pellet form: 1) PC (pellet form. No interactions were observed between pelleting and Defusion. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( pelleting improved ( pelleting can help overcome some of the negative effects of DON, whereas other feed additives and additional nutrients do not.

  8. Deoxynivalenol as a new factor in the persistence of intestinal inflammatory diseases: an emerging hypothesis through possible modulation of Th17-mediated response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Cano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species which is commonly found in temperate regions worldwide as a natural contaminant of cereals. It is of great concern not only in terms of economic losses but also in terms of animal and public health. The digestive tract is the first and main target of this food contaminant and it represents a major site of immune tolerance. A finely tuned cross-talk between the innate and the adaptive immune systems ensures the homeostatic equilibrium between the mucosal immune system and commensal microorganisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of DON on the intestinal immune response. METHODOLOGY: Non-transformed intestinal porcine epithelial cells IPEC-1 and porcine jejunal explants were used to investigate the effect of DON on the intestinal immune response and the modulation of naive T cells differentiation. Transcriptomic proteomic and flow cytometry analysis were performed. RESULTS: DON induced a pro-inflammatory response with a significant increase of expression of mRNA encoding for IL-8, IL-1α and IL-1β, TNF-α in all used models. Additionally, DON significantly induced the expression of genes involved in the differentiation of Th17 cells (STAT3, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1β at the expenses of the pathway of regulatory T cells (Treg (FoxP3, RALDH1. DON also induced genes related to the pathogenic Th17 cells subset such as IL-23A, IL-22 and IL-21 and not genes related to the regulatory Th17 cells (rTh17 such as TGF-β and IL-10. CONCLUSION: DON triggered multiple immune modulatory effects which could be associated with an increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  9. The Effect of Deoxynivalenol on Selected Populations of Immunocompetent Cells in Porcine Blood-A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Michał; Jakimiuk, Ewa; Baranowski, Mirosław; Gajęcka, Magdalena; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej Tadeusz

    2017-04-26

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in Europe. Pigs are an animal species that is most susceptible to this mycotoxin. Deoxynivalenol causes significant losses in pig production by lowering feed intake, decreasing daily weight gains, disrupting immune responses, and increasing susceptibility to diseases. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of feed contaminated with DON at concentrations insignificantly higher than recommended by the European Commission (900 µg/kg). The experimental feed contained 1008 μg DON/kg. The experiment was performed on eight weaners from the same litter. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (M, n = 4) fed contaminated feed and a control group (C, n = 4) administered feed free of mycotoxins. The experiment lasted for six weeks, and peripheral blood samples were collected from the animals for analyses of selected morphological parameters and changes in the percentages of CD4⁺8(-), CD4(-)8⁺, and CD4⁺8⁺ lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC) with CD14⁺172⁺ (monocytes), CD172a(high)4(-)14(-) (conventional dendritic cells, cDC), and CD172a(dim)4⁺14(-) (plasmacytoid dendritic cells, pDC) phenotypes. The morphological parameters of porcine blood samples were determined by flow cytometry with non-fluorescent particle-size calibration standards, and no differences were observed between groups M and C. An immunophenotyping analysis of lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC) revealed an increase in the percentage of CD4⁺8(-), CD172a(high)4(-)14(-), and CD172a(dim)4⁺14(-) cells, and a decrease in the number of CD4(-)8⁺ cells in group M. The results of this experiment suggest that prolonged exposure to low doses of DON can change the proportions of immunocompetent cells (a shift towards humoral immunity), without affecting their overall counts.

  10. Oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and metabolism of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in animals and humans: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Wei; Nüssler, Andreas K; Xiong, Ling-Yun; Kuča, Kamil; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2014-07-01

    Trichothecenes are a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by Fusarium genus. Among the trichothecenes, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) cause the most concern due to their wide distribution and highly toxic nature. Trichothecenes are known for their inhibitory effect on eukaryotic protein synthesis, and oxidative stress is one of their most important underlying toxic mechanisms. They are able to generate free radicals, including reactive oxygen species, which induce lipid peroxidation leading to changes in membrane integrity, cellular redox signaling, and in the antioxidant status of the cells. The mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway is induced by oxidative stress, which also induces caspase-mediated cellular apoptosis pathways. Several new metabolites and novel metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin have been discovered very recently. In human cell lines, HT-2 and neosolaniol (NEO) are the major metabolites of T-2 toxin. Hydroxylation on C-7 and C-9 are two novel metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin in rats. The metabolizing enzymes CYP3A22, CYP3A29, and CYP3A46 in pigs, as well as the enzymes CYP1A5 and CYP3A37 in chickens, are able to catalyze T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin to form the C-3'-OH metabolites. Similarly to carboxylesterase, CYP3A29 possesses the hydrolytic ability in pigs to convert T-2 toxin to NEO. T-2 toxin is able to down- or upregulate cytochrome P-450 enzymes in different species. The metabolism of DON in humans is region-dependent. Free DON and DON-glucuronide are considered to be the biomarkers for humans. The masked mycotoxin DON-3-β-D-glucoside can be hydrolyzed to free DON in the body. This review will provide useful information on the progress of oxidative stress as well as on the metabolism and the metabolizing enzymes of T-2 toxin and DON. Moreover, the literature will throw light on the blind spots of metabolism and toxicological studies in trichothecenes that have to be explored in the future.

  11. Levels and Trends in Absolute Poverty in the World: What we know and what we don't

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the recent changes to the Global Poverty numbers generated by the World Bank in 2008. While they have little impact on observed poverty trends and while there are good reasons to believe that the previous numbers were on weak foundations, the new numbers on levels of poverty in the developing world create new uncertainties und questions. In particular, there are conceptual issues involved in using one ICP round to update all poverty numbers and more empirical iss...

  12. Don't Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eShang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even mere choice that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1 and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Surface Plasmon Resonance and Biolayer Interferometry for Screening of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat and Wheat Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sanders

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A sample preparation method was developed for the screening of deoxynivalenol (DON in wheat and wheat dust. Extraction was carried out with water and was successful due to the polar character of DON. For detection, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was compared to the sensor-based techniques of surface plasmon resonance (SPR and biolayer interferometry (BLI in terms of sensitivity, affinity and matrix effect. The matrix effects from wheat and wheat dust using SPR were too high to further use this screenings method. The preferred ELISA and BLI methods were validated according to the criteria established in Commission Regulation 519/2014/EC and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. A small survey was executed on 16 wheat lots and their corresponding dust samples using the validated ELISA method. A linear correlation (r = 0.889 was found for the DON concentration in dust versus the DON concentration in wheat (LOD wheat: 233 μg/kg, LOD wheat dust: 458 μg/kg.

  14. Association of single nucleotide polymorphic sites in candidate genes with aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol production in Fusarium graminearum causing wheat head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talas Firas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s. is an ubiquitous pathogen of cereals. The economic impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB is characterized by crop losses and mycotoxin contamination. Our objective was to associate SNP diversity within candidate genes with phenotypic traits. A total of 77 F. graminearum s.s. isolates was tested for severity of fungal infection (= aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol (DON production in an inoculated field experiment at two locations in each of two years. For seven genes known to control fungal growth (MetAP1, Erf2 or DON production (TRI1, TRI5, TRI6 TRI10 and TRI14 single nucleotides polymorphic sites (SNPs were determined and evaluated for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD. Associations of SNPs with both phenotypic traits were tested using linear mixed models. Results Decay of LD was in most instances fast. Two neighboring SNPs in MetAP1 and one SNP in Erf2 were significantly (P pG of 25.6%, 0.5%, and 13.1%, respectively. One SNP in TRI1 was significantly associated with DON production (pG = 4.4. Conclusions We argue that using the published sequence information of Fusarium graminearum as a template to amplify comparative sequence parts of candidate genes is an effective method to detect quantitative trait loci. Our findings underline the potential of candidate gene association mapping approaches to identify functional SNPs underlying aggressiveness and DON production for F. graminearum s.s populations.

  15. Survey of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 in Instant Noodles and Bread Consumed in Thailand by Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralatnet, Sasithorn; Poapolathep, Saranya; Giorgi, Mario; Imsilp, Kanjana; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-07-01

    One hundred wheat product samples (50 instant noodle samples and 50 bread samples) were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in these products was analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The limit of quantification values of DON and AFB1 in the instant noodles and bread were 2 and 1 ng g(-1), respectively. The survey found that DON was quantifiable in 40% of collected samples, in 2% of noodles (0.089 μg g(-1)), and in 78% of breads (0.004 to 0.331 μg g(-1)). AFB1 was below the limit of quantification of the method in all of the tested samples. The results suggest that the risk of DON exposure via noodles and breads is very low in urban areas of Thailand. No risk can be attributable to AFB1 exposure in the same food matrices, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these data.

  16. Influence of arterial dissolved oxygen level on venous oxygen saturation: don't forget the PaO2!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Vallée, Fabrice; Mateo, Joaquim; Payen, Didier

    2014-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen (i.e., unbound to hemoglobin) is often neglected as a determinant of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in review articles and textbooks. These statements may lead to potential misinterpretation of SCvO2 value across FiO2 changes. In this study, we aimed to explore the influence of PaO2 and FiO2 on ScvO2 in ventilated critically ill patients. This was a prospective observational study in two surgical intensive care units. Mechanically ventilated and sedated patients with cardiac output and ScvO2 monitoring and PaO2/FiO2 > 200 with inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 0.5 were enrolled (cohort [ScvO2]). A second cohort of brain-injured patients with jugular venous oxygen saturation monitoring was studied to assess the application of the results to regional circulation (cohort [SjvO2]). Central venous oxygen saturation was measured at baseline FiO2 and at FiO2 = 1. We finally estimated the participation of the dissolved oxygen (PadissolvO2) to the ScvO2 variations. Twenty patients formed the cohort ScvO2 and eight formed the cohort SjvO2. Central venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (69%-76%) to 84% (78%-88%) after increasing FiO2, whereas PaO2 rose from 100 (85-124) mmHg to 387 (360-449) mmHg. The rise of ScvO2 was mostly ascribable to the dissolved oxygen. The increase of ScvO2 was not explained by changes in cardiac output or hemoglobin levels. Jugular venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (58%-78%) to 83% (78%-89%) after increasing FiO2. Arterial dissolved oxygen level can significantly influence the ScvO2 value. Therefore, PaO2 should not be overlooked while considering the ScvO2 value as a therapeutic goal. Interpretation of ScvO2 variations in response to a therapeutic challenge (i.e., fluid challenge, inotropic drug initiation) should be performed at constant FiO2.

  17. Role of cholecystokinin in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the 8-ketotrichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, and nivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Pan, Xiao; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J

    2014-04-01

    Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX), and (5) nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY₃₋₃₆ (PYY₃₋₃₆), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY₃₋₃₆ concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY₃₋₃₆ was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON, or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY₃₋₃₆ might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response.

  18. Evaluation of preformance of Predictive Models for Deoxynivalenol in Wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two predictive models for deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat at harvest in the Netherlands, including the use of weather forecast data and external model validation. Data were collected in a different year and from different wheat fields th

  19. Evaluation of preformance of Predictive Models for Deoxynivalenol in Wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two predictive models for deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat at harvest in the Netherlands, including the use of weather forecast data and external model validation. Data were collected in a different year and from different wheat fields

  20. A novel recombinant cell fluorescence biosensor based on toxicity of pathway for rapid and simple evaluation of DON and ZEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Gu, Wenshu; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiadi; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    During an exposure, humans and animals are most often exposed to a mixture rather than individual mycotoxins. In this study, a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell (HEK-293) fluorescence sensor was developed to detect and evaluate mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) compounds, produced by Fusarium culmorum that are common food contaminants. TRE-copGFP (green fluorescent protein) and ERE-TagRFP (red fluorescent protein) plasmids were constructed and cotransfected into HEK-293 cells through a highly efficient, lipid-mediated, DNA-transfection procedure. Results show that fluorescence intensity was proportional to DON and ZEN concentrations, ranging from 2 to 40 ng/mL and 10 to 100 ng/mL respectively, with a detection limit of 0.75 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL respectively. The EC50 of DON and ZEN are 30.13 ng/mL and 76.63 ng/mL respectively. Additionally, ZEN may have a synergistic effect on enhancing AP-1 activity of the toxicity pathway of DON. These data indicate the high sensitivity and effectiveness of our biosensor system in the evaluation of the combined toxicity of ZEN, DON and their derivatives. In addition, this approach is suitable for an early warning method for the detection of ZEN and DON family mycotoxins contamination without higher-priced, conventional analytical chemistry methods. PMID:27498557

  1. Effects of dietary arginine and glutamine on alleviating the impairment induced by deoxynivalenol stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Wence; Yao, Kang; Zhou, Ting; Yin, Jie; Li, Tiejun; Yang, Lin; He, Liuqin; Yang, Xiaojian; Zhang, Hongfu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Ruilin; Yin, Yulong

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that reduces feed intake and animal performance, especially in swine. Arginine and glutamine play important roles in swine nutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamine on both the impairment induced by DON stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs. A total of forty 60-d-old healthy growing pigs with a mean body weight of 16.28±1.54 kg were randomly divided into 5 groups, and assigned to 3 amino acid treatments fed 1.0% arginine (Arg), 1.0% glutamine (Gln) and 0.5% Arg+0.5% Gln, respectively, plus a toxin control and a non-toxin control. Pigs in the 3 amino acid treatments were fed the corresponding amino acids, and those in non-toxin control and toxin control were fed commercial diet with 1.64% Alanine as isonitrogenous control for 7 days. The toxin control and amino acid treatments were then challenged by feeding DON-contaminated diet with a final DON concentration of 6 mg/kg of diet for 21 days. No significant differences were observed between toxin control and the amino acid groups with regard to the average daily gain (ADG), although the values for average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the amino acid groups were significantly higher than that in toxin control (Parginine and Arg+Glu groups (Parginine and glutamine on alleviating the impairment induced by DON stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs.

  2. Direct Activation of Ribosome-Associated Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKR by Deoxynivalenol, Anisomycin and Ricin: A New Model for Ribotoxic Stress Response Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ren Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR is a critical upstream mediator of the ribotoxic stress response (RSR to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON and other translational inhibitors. Here, we employed HeLa cell lysates to: (1 characterize PKR’s interactions with the ribosome and ribosomal RNA (rRNA; (2 demonstrate cell-free activation of ribosomal-associated PKR and (3 integrate these findings in a unified model for RSR. Robust PKR-dependent RSR was initially confirmed in intact cells. PKR basally associated with 40S, 60S, 80S and polysome fractions at molar ratios of 7, 2, 23 and 3, respectively. Treatment of ATP-containing HeLa lysates with DON or the ribotoxins anisomycin and ricin concentration-dependently elicited phosphorylation of PKR and its substrate eIF2α. These phosphorylations could be blocked by PKR inhibitors. rRNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP of HeLa lysates with PKR-specific antibody and sequencing revealed that in the presence of DON or not, the kinase associated with numerous discrete sites on both the 18S and 28S rRNA molecules, a number of which contained double-stranded hairpins. These findings are consistent with a sentinel model whereby multiple PKR molecules basally associate with the ribosome positioning them to respond to ribotoxin-induced alterations in rRNA structure by dimerizing, autoactivating and, ultimately, evoking RSR.

  3. Direct activation of ribosome-associated double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) by deoxynivalenol, anisomycin and ricin: a new model for ribotoxic stress response induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Landgraf, Jeff; Pan, Xiao; Pestka, James J

    2014-12-16

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a critical upstream mediator of the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and other translational inhibitors. Here, we employed HeLa cell lysates to: (1) characterize PKR's interactions with the ribosome and ribosomal RNA (rRNA); (2) demonstrate cell-free activation of ribosomal-associated PKR and (3) integrate these findings in a unified model for RSR. Robust PKR-dependent RSR was initially confirmed in intact cells. PKR basally associated with 40S, 60S, 80S and polysome fractions at molar ratios of 7, 2, 23 and 3, respectively. Treatment of ATP-containing HeLa lysates with DON or the ribotoxins anisomycin and ricin concentration-dependently elicited phosphorylation of PKR and its substrate eIF2α. These phosphorylations could be blocked by PKR inhibitors. rRNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) of HeLa lysates with PKR-specific antibody and sequencing revealed that in the presence of DON or not, the kinase associated with numerous discrete sites on both the 18S and 28S rRNA molecules, a number of which contained double-stranded hairpins. These findings are consistent with a sentinel model whereby multiple PKR molecules basally associate with the ribosome positioning them to respond to ribotoxin-induced alterations in rRNA structure by dimerizing, autoactivating and, ultimately, evoking RSR.

  4. Don Eddy; "Jewelry."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Claire

    1989-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students in grades K-three to sources of design inspiration in contemporary urban settings. Using Don Eddy's painting of a jewelry store window display, asks students to describe and analyze the interplay of shape, pattern, and color. Suggests studio activities, including an activity in which students build a…

  5. Don Quixote. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Kristen

    Based on Miguel de Cervantes' novel "Don Quixote," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Quixote's misperceptions are understandable; writers often describe one object to sound as if it were something else; and metaphors help readers see with new eyes. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  6. Don Quijote y Hamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúdovik B. Osterc

    2002-12-01

    Hamlet está loco, es un alucinado que duda de sus propios sentidos. Para él existe sólo un lado negro de la existencia, su único objeto es llegar más pronto al descubrimiento del crimen. Es egocentrico, ne cree en nada, eternamente mira en su interior, se alimenta en su desprecio de sí mismo y su sufrimiento es mucho más doloroso.que aquel de Don Quijote. Don Quijote, al contrario, cree en el hombre y su futuro. Su ideal es implantar por la fuerza, la verdad, el bien y la justicia en la tierra. Para servir a su ideal, está dispuesto a sufrir todas las posibles privaciones. Representa la fe en la verdad. Es ridículo y quizás el más cómico tipo disenado jamás por un literato. Hamlet es el hijo del rey muerte, mientras que Don Quijote está pobre. Se hace los enemigos imaginarios y lucha contra ellos, mientras que Hamlet no cree en las ilusiones (siempre duda, y tampoco no combatiría si supiera que son sinónimos de opresores. Continua con la examinación de la actitud del pueblo o sus representantes hacia Don Quijote y Hamlet y viceversa. Polonia es el representante de las multitudes populares ante Hamlet, Sancho lo es ante su senor. El primero es de sano pensamiento y al mismo tiempo un viejo charalatán. Para él Hamlet no es tanto un loco como un nino y le parece inútil para la sociedad. Sancho Pansa está persuadido de que su senor está loco, pero le está leal hasta la muerte. Don Quijote simpatiza profundamente con el pueblo, pero la única persona con la que se entiende verdaderamente es Sancho Pansa (uno no puede vivir sin otro. La actitud de Hamlet es completamente diferente, él desprecia las multitudes populares, porque también desprecia a sí mismo. social: el tedio, el hastío, el descontento de la vida, desorientación espiritual y la eclipse de la fe, miéntras que Don Quijote encarna el mundo libre, bien estar y la felicidad de los seres humanos. Por eso y porque es un ideal el más humano, generoso, noble y elevado, el autor del

  7. Relationships between body temperatures and inflammation indicators under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in pigs exposed to systemic lipopolysaccharide and dietary deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, T; Bannert, E; Kluess, J; Frahm, J; Hüther, L; Kersten, S; Breves, G; Renner, L; Kahlert, S; Rothkötter, H-J; Dänicke, S

    2017-03-06

    We studied the constancy of the relationship between rectal and intraabdominal temperature as well as their linkage to inflammatory markers (leucocyte counts, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (Kyn-Trp ratio), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in healthy and in pigs exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or deoxynivalenol (DON). Barrows (n = 44) were fed 4 weeks either a DON-contaminated (4.59 mg DON/kg feed) or a control (CON) diet and equipped with an intraabdominal temperature logger and a multicatheter system (V.portae hepatis, V.lienalis, Vv.jugulares) facilitating infusion of 0.9% NaCl (CON) or LPS (7.5 μg/kg BW) and simultaneous blood sampling. Body temperatures were measured and blood samples taken every 15 min for leucocyte counts, TNF-α and Kyn-Trp ratio. Combination of diet and infusion created six groups: CON_CONjug .-CONpor. , CON_CONjug. -LPSpor. , CON_LPSjug. -CONpor. , DON_CONjug. -CONpor. , DON_CONjug. -LPSpor. , DON_LPSjug. -CONpor. . The relationship between both temperatures was not uniform for all conditions. Linear regression revealed that an intraabdominal increase per 1°C increase in rectal temperature was ~25% higher in all LPS-infused pigs compared to NaCl-infusion, albeit diet and site of LPS infusion modified the magnitude of this difference. Inflammatory markers were only strongly present under LPS influence and showed a significant relationship with body temperatures. For example, leucocyte counts in clinically inconspicuous animals were only significantly correlated to core temperature in DON-fed pigs, but in all LPS-infused groups, irrespective of diet and temperature method. In conclusion, the gradient between body core and rectal temperature is constant in clinically inconspicuous pigs, but not under various pathophysiological conditions. In the latter, measurement of inflammatory markers seems to be a useful completion.

  8. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    ), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... % of the DON concentration. The DON-3-glucoside levels in both the naturally and in the artificially grain inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below...

  9. The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Tarasiuk, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej; Gajęcka, Magdalena

    2015-11-11

    Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

  10. Don Alan Pennebaker

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Geboren am 15. Juli 1925, dreht der heute vierundachtzigjährige Don Alan Pennebaker, Sohn eines Fotografen, noch immer Filme. Nach seinem Militärdienst und einem Ingenieurstudium in Yale sowie am M.I.T in Cambridge arbeitete er in verschiedenen Berufen, bevor er auf Drew und Leacock stieß. Michael Barchet zufolge verdiente Pennebaker sein Geld zunächst als Werbetexter und entwickelte u.a. ein computergestütztes Buchungssystem für Fluglinien (Barchet 1991, 154). Inspiriert durch den Filmemache...

  11. Mimesis in Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle von der Walde

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Frente a argumentos tomados de las poéticas neoaristotélicas que esgrime el canónigo para condenar los libros de caballerías, don Quijote pretende mostrar con su propio ejemplo, que ese tipo de lecturas no llevan a la locura ni al abandono de sí mismo, sino que, por el contrario, sacan lo mejor de la naturaleza de un individuo y lo hacen mejor persona. Este es el único tipo de imitación que Platón acepta en la República, pues más que un remedo o una suplantación, implica emulación. Este escrito se propone mirar, a partir del diálogo con el canónigo de Toledo (I, 49-50, cómo en sus conductas miméticas desde el comienzo de la obra, don Quijote entiende la imitación como emulación; en consecuencia se intenta demostrar que el efecto de la literatura en el caballero manchego parece ser el tipo de mimesis que Platón acepta en el libro III de la República.Abstract:Don Quijote demonstrates with the example of his own life the error made by the Canon of Toledo when the latter uses the arguments of the neo-Aristotelian poets to condemn the novels of chivalric romance. Quijote tries to show that reading the chivalric romances leads to neither madness nor the abandonment of the self, but, on the contrary, brings out the best in a person’s nature, and makes one a better person. This is the only type of imitation that Plato accepts in the Republic, because, unlike the mere copying of a person, or the substitution of one person for another, it implies a type of emulation. Starting with the dialogue of the Canon of Toledo (I, 49-50, this paper shows how, in his mimetic behavior, Don Quijote understands imitation as emulation. As a result, the paper shows that the effect of literature on the gentleman from La Mancha is the type of mimesis of which Plato approves in book III of the Republic.

  12. Evaluation of effect of measures taken after a DON outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, M C; Scholten, J M; Rensen, P M

    2002-03-01

    In April 1999 an amount of 2600 μg/kg DON was found in a sample breakfast cereals in the Netherlands. This event was the start of a lot of activities, which dealt with the prevention, control, health and consumer aspects of DON in food for human consumption. The Food Inspection Services started a monitoring program to measure DON in cereal products, flour and raw cereals. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, another part of the Ministry of Health in the Netherlands, was asked to carry out a risk analysis on DON. This was the basis for the Minister of Health to set an action limit for consumer products. She also informed Brussels and asked for a European limit. The Main Board on Agriculture set out to implement measures to be taken at harvesting, milling and bread baking industry. The Scientific Committee on Food of the EC expressed an opinion on DON in December 1999. Worldwide attention leads to discussion of a DON limit by JECFA in February 2001.In the period may 1999 until march 2002 a number of more than 1700 samples were analysed on DON. These originated from the cereal harvest of the years 1998 until 2001. The results showed a sharp decrease of DON content in samples of harvest 1999 when compared to 1998. This lower level was maintained in the 2000 and 2001 harvests. Apparently the measures taken to control the DON level succeeded to maintain values below the action limits. Despite these activities a smaller outbreak of DON appeared in 2001 in pasta products at a lower extent. This indicated that control should be done systematically, not sporadically, and at a European level, which is made possible since EC has set a limit in July 2000. Analytical results of the measurements are presented, together with the chronological order of the associated activities of national, EU and worldwide bodies on human health control. Special attention is paid to DON in bread, related to the level in flour.

  13. Individual and combined effects of Aflatoxin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyuan; George, Saji; Hay, Crystal; Lee, Joel; Qian, He; Sun, Xiulan

    2017-05-01

    To understand the combinatorial toxicity of mycotoxins, we measured the effects of individual, binary and tertiary combinations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEN) on the cell viability and cellular perturbations of HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells. The nature of mycotoxins interactions was assessed using mathematical modeling (Chou-Talalay). Mechanisms of cytotoxicity were studied using high content screening (HCS) that probed cytotoxicity responses, such as changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) flux, and cell membrane damage. Our results showed that individual cytotoxicity of mycotoxins in a decreasing order was DON>AFB1>ZEN. Varying combinations of mycotoxins at differing concentrations showed different types of interactions. Most of the mixtures showed increasing toxic effects-synergism and/or addition while antagonistic effects were observed with combination of AFB1+ZEN. Generally, combination of mycotoxins showed significantly increased intracellular ROS production and [Ca(2+)]i flux, and decreased MMP in both cell lines, showing that the synergistic and additive effects of mycotoxin combination originate from perturbations of multiple cellular functions. Additionally, this study demonstrated the applicability of HCS for gaining mechanistic understanding on the toxicity of individual as well as combinatorial mycotoxins, and also provided scientific bases for formulating regulatory policies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cumulative health risk assessment of co-occurring mycotoxins of deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in wheat and maize: case study, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zheng; Nie, Dongxia; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Yang, Xianli; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Bo; Li, Shuguang; On, Stephen L W; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-12-01

    Humans are naturally and frequently exposed to a multitude of mycotoxins, but health risk assessments are usually performed on individual mycotoxins, which may underestimate the total risks. In this study, we assessed for the first time the cumulative health risks of concomitant exposure via dietary intake (DI) to multiple mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetyl derivatives of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), based on the concentration addition (CA) concept. A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven districts in Shanghai, China with 1269 participants and 330 wheat and maize samples analyzed. After probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation, the results showed no health risks to the population in Shanghai considering individual mycotoxins. However, if the cumulative health risks were calculated based on the combined consideration of DON with either 3-ADON or 15-ADON or both, the DI values in 95th percentile were up to 1087 ng/kg body weight/day, exceeding the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1000 ng/kg body weight/day and hence representing potential health risks to the population in Shanghai. The integrated study proposed here could be a model strategy for cumulative health risk assessment on the co-occurring hazards in the fields of food safety combined with environmental contaminants.

  15. El evangelio de Don Florencio

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En su discurso de incorporación a la Academia Costarricense de la Lengua, el periodista Armando Vargas, escoge un tema que vincula a Costa Rica, España y México: El evangelio de Don Florencio. Rescata las enseñanzas cívicas, éticas, filosóficas y políticas de un maestro adelantado a su época. El autor presenta a don Florencio del Castillo, prócer de la independencia, como el primer costarricense universal cuyos valores e ideales cobran hoy actualidad. Don Florencio, liberal y progresista, es ...

  16. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  17. Chemical Synthesis of Deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-[13C6]-glucoside and Application in Stable Isotope Dilution Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Habler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified mycotoxins have been gaining importance in recent years and present a certain challenge in LC-MS/MS analysis. Due to the previous lack of a labeled isotopologue of the modified mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, in our study we synthesized the first 13C-labeled internal standard. Therefore, we used the Königs-Knorr method to synthesize deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-[13C6]-glucoside originated from unlabeled deoxynivalenol and [13C6]-labeled glucose. Using the synthesized isotopically-labeled standard deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-[13C6]-glucoside and the purchased labeled standard [13C15]-deoxynivalenol, a stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was firstly developed for deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and deoxynivalenol in beer. The preparation and purification of beer samples was based on a solid phase extraction. The validation data of the newly developed method gave satisfying results. Intra- and interday precision studies revealed relative standard deviations below 0.5% and 7%, respectively. The recoveries ranged for both analytes between 97% and 112%. The stable isotope dilution assay was applied to various beer samples from four different countries. In summary, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and deoxynivalenol mostly appeared together in varying molar ratios but were quantified in rather low contents in the investigated beers.

  18. "Tihhi Don" - za i protiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Võrdluses on Mihhail Sholohhovi raamatu "Vaikne Don" kaks ekraniseeringut : Sergei Gerassimovi (1975) ja Sergei Bondartshuki (1991) oma. Võrreldakse peaosatäitjaid, meenutatakse huvitavaid fakte filmivõtetelt. Katkend Elina Bõstritskaja mälestusteraamatust

  19. Vaikne Don : [luuletused] / Mart Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Vaikne Don ; "Imelik, kui kerge on hakata armastama neid ..." ; "Laud otsekui tool ..." ; "Raamat on monument ..." ; "Nägu on liiga tühi ..." ; "Mida teeb Buddha pärast virgumist? Peseb hambaid ..."

  20. Pregnant? Don't Smoke!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer, heart disease, and stroke. But women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their developing babies ...

  1. "Tihhi Don" - za i protiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Võrdluses on Mihhail Sholohhovi raamatu "Vaikne Don" kaks ekraniseeringut : Sergei Gerassimovi (1975) ja Sergei Bondartshuki (1991) oma. Võrreldakse peaosatäitjaid, meenutatakse huvitavaid fakte filmivõtetelt. Katkend Elina Bõstritskaja mälestusteraamatust

  2. Effects of dietary arginine and glutamine on alleviating the impairment induced by deoxynivalenol stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin that reduces feed intake and animal performance, especially in swine. Arginine and glutamine play important roles in swine nutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamine on both the impairment induced by DON stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs. A total of forty 60-d-old healthy growing pigs with a mean body weight of 16.28±1.54 kg were randomly divided into 5 groups, and assigned to 3 amino acid treatments fed 1.0% arginine (Arg, 1.0% glutamine (Gln and 0.5% Arg+0.5% Gln, respectively, plus a toxin control and a non-toxin control. Pigs in the 3 amino acid treatments were fed the corresponding amino acids, and those in non-toxin control and toxin control were fed commercial diet with 1.64% Alanine as isonitrogenous control for 7 days. The toxin control and amino acid treatments were then challenged by feeding DON-contaminated diet with a final DON concentration of 6 mg/kg of diet for 21 days. No significant differences were observed between toxin control and the amino acid groups with regard to the average daily gain (ADG, although the values for average daily feed intake (ADFI in the amino acid groups were significantly higher than that in toxin control (P<0.01. The relative liver weight in toxin control was significantly greater than those in non-toxin control, arginine and Arg+Glu groups (P<0.01, but there were no significant differences in other organs. With regard to serum biochemistry, the values of BUN, ALP, ALT and AST in the amino acid groups were lower than those in toxin control. IGF1, GH and SOD in the amino acid groups were significantly higher than those in toxin control (P<0.01. The IL-2 and TNFα values in the amino acid groups were similar to those in non-toxin control, and significantly lower than those in toxin control (P<0.01. These results showed the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine

  3. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins-Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J

    2016-07-27

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  4. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D.; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  5. Application of response surface methodology for air assisted-dispersive liquid- liquid microextraction of deoxynivalenol in rice samples prior to HPLC-DAD analysis and comparison with solid phase extraction cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mashaallah; Ghasemi, Elham; Sasani, Mojtaba

    2017-04-01

    A fast, simple, and easy to operate air assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (AA-DLLME) for preconcentration and extraction of deoxynivalenol (DON) from rice samples is proposed and compared with solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. DON was determined using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). AA-DLLME was performed using a glass syringe and dispersion of extractant in the sample solution was achieved with help of air bubbles. Chloroform was used as the extractant solvent. To find out the optimized condition for the proposed method, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for multivariate optimization of effecting parameters namely volume of extractant, number of extraction, pH, and rate of centrifugation. Under optimized condition the dynamic range of calibration graph was found to be 50-500μgL(-1) with detection limit of 23.6μgL(-1). Both methods were applied for extraction of DON from rice.

  6. Changes in the concentrations of fumonisin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in corn silage during ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Tsukiboshi, Takao; Tohno, Masanori

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the production of the mycotoxins fumonisin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone during the ensiling of corn. Corn was harvested at yellow-ripe or full-ripe stage and separated into the stem and leaf parts and the ear parts, including bracts. Each material was ensiled under five conditions: (1) no fungus added, anaerobic conditions; (2) no fungus added, aerobic conditions; (3) mycotoxin-producing fungus added, anaerobic conditions; (4) mycotoxin-producing fungus added, aerobic conditions; and (5) mycotoxin-producing fungus added to autoclaved material, aerobic conditions. After 40 days of ensilage, we analyzed the silage fermentative quality and mycotoxin concentration. The fermentative quality of all materials was good in treatments (1) and (3), because the pH < 4 increased the lactic acid content preventing mycotoxin levels from increasing. In treatments (2) and (4), fermentative quality of all materials was poor, and mycotoxin levels were slightly increased. In treatment (5), fermentative quality was poor, and mycotoxin levels were increased remarkably. These results indicate that mycotoxins are not produced under anaerobic conditions and are hardly produced under aerobic condition during the ensiling of corn. Our findings suggest that almost all mycotoxins in corn silage are produced pre-harvest.

  7. Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewaters from animal feedlots and storage lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyi; Khan, Eakalak; Simsek, Senay; Ohm, Jae-Bom; Simsek, Halis

    2017-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from animal wastes can contribute to pollution of surface waters. Bioavailable DON (ABDON) is a portion of DON utilized by algae with or without bacteria. This study determined DON and ABDON levels in animal wastewater collected from two different sources: an animal feedlot wastewater storage tank and a sheep wastewater storage lagoon. Inocula for the ABDON bioassays were comprised of individual species and several combinations involving two algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris) and a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) bacterial culture. The ratio of initial DON to initial total dissolved nitrogen was 18% in the feedlot wastewater samples and 70% in the lagoon wastewater samples. The results showed that between 1.6 and 4.5 mg-NL-1 DON (45-79% of initial DON) in the feedlot samples and between 3.4 and 7.5 mg-NL-1 DON (36%-79% of initial DON) in the lagoon samples were bioavailable with the inocula tested. These results suggest that when considering eutrophication potential of livestock wastewater, organic nitrogen should be included in addition to the obvious culprits, ammonia and nitrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Don't Double Up on Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Don't Double Up on Acetaminophen Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... consumer organizations. AAC’s outreach campaign, "Double Check, Don't Double Up," is all about the safe use ...

  9. "Don't take diabetes for granted."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Don't take diabetes for granted." Past Issues / Fall 2009 ... regularly, and take your medicines on time. Don't take diabetes for granted! Fall 2009 Issue: Volume ...

  10. Identification by PCR of Fusarium culmorum Strains Producing Large and Small Amounts of Deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, B.; Giraud-Delville, C.; Pinson, L.; Richard-Molard, D.; Fournier, E.; Brygoo, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty deoxynivalenol-producing F. culmorum strains, isolated from wheat grains, were incubated in vitro and analyzed for trichothecene production. Seventeen strains produced more than 1 ppm of deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenol and were considered high-deoxynivalenol-producing strains, whereas 13 F. culmorum strains produced less than 0.07 ppm of trichothecenes and were considered low-deoxynivalenol-producing strains. For all strains, a 550-base portion of the trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) was amplified and sequenced. According to the tri5 data, the F. culmorum strains tested clustered into two groups that correlated with in vitro deoxynivalenol production. For three high-producing and three low-producing F. culmorum strains, the tri5-tri6 intergenic region was then sequenced, which confirmed the two separate clusters within the F. culmorum strains. According to the tri5-tri6 sequence data, specific PCR primers were designed to allow differentiation of high-producing from low-producing F. culmorum strains. PMID:12406740

  11. Progress in Research of Deoxynivalenol%脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付杨; 李洪军; 贺稚非; 黄业传

    2011-01-01

    脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)是单端孢霉烯族化合物,是镰刀菌产生的次级代谢产物。DON存在于农作物以及食品和饲料中,世界上许多地区都有DON毒素的检出报道。由于其具有较强毒性,不仅对农业经济造成严重的损失,而且严重威胁人类和动物的健康,引起一系列不良反应例如呕吐、腹泻、胃肠道出血等。本文从DON的毒性作用、检出量、影响DON含量的因素、降解方法四方面进行综述。%Deoxynivalenol(DON),a trichothecene compound,is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium.DON is present in crops,animal feed and human food.A number of reports in the literature indicate that DON has been found in many areas all over the world.Due to its strong toxity,it not only causes severe agricultural economic losses,but also brings serious threat to human and animal health and give rise to a series of adverse reactions such as vomiting,diarrhea,gastrointestinal bleeding and so on.Recent progresses made in the studies of DON toxicity,detectable levels in different areas of the world,factors affecting DON level and DON degradation approaches are reviewed,which will provide some references for further study of DON.

  12. "I Don't Speak with a Geordie Accent, I Speak, Like, the Northern Accent": Contact-Induced Levelling in the Tyneside Vowel System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Dominic

    2002-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the levelling of the Tyneside (Newcastle) English vowel system toward that of a putative regional standard. This process is hypothesized to follow from the fragmentation of tight-knit urban communities that formed after large-scale immigration to Tyneside from elsewhere in the British Isles during the 18 and 19th…

  13. 脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇致小鼠畸形骨骼组织差异表达基因及相关通路分析%Differential gene expression and related pathways of skeletal malformations induced by deoxynivalenol in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 赵英会; 庄东明; 李晓霞; 于爱莲

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To screen the differential gene expression and related pathways of fetal skeletal malformations induced by deoxynivalenol(DON) in mice,and to explore the mechanism of deformities induced by DON at the molecular level.METHODS:30 pregnant mice were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups and 2 control groups,6 in each group. DON injection was performed from days 7 to 10 of pregnancy by intraperitoneal injection into pregnant mice. At GD 18,all mice were killed under isoflurane anesthesia,and vertebral bone tissue of fetuses were collected. Total RNA of vertebral bone tissues was extracted and cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR. Using whole genome microarray technology,the gene expression profiles and the pathways of the rat vertebral bone tissue were studied. Analysis of the function of differentially expressed genes was performed by using software of gene ontology. Screening signaling pathways of differentially expressed genes was done by DAVID database. The results were verified by fluorescence quantitative PCR(qPCR) technology. RESULTS:Microarray analysis showed that 282 genes,including 148 down-regulated and 134 up-regulated genes,were abnormally expressed in fetal vertebral bones after maternal DON exposure. 153 pathways were related to the differentially expressed genes. The relative quantitative results ofqPCR were consistent w ith t he r esults o f g ene c hip t est i nFbn1,Co19a2,Papss2,Pax1,Runx2 a ndPthlh g enes.CONCLUSION: There were differential gene expressions in deformed fetal skeleton between deoxynivalenol-treated rats and normal rats, involving multiple signaling pathways. The differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways may be related to the molecular mechanisms of deformities induced by DON.%目的:DON致小鼠骨骼畸形的分子基础。方法:取孕期小鼠30只,随机分成3个不同浓度DON染毒组、溶剂对照组和空白对照组,每组6只,将DON染毒组孕鼠于孕期第7~10天

  14. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwart, Marian; Suchowilska, Elżbieta; Kandler, Wolfang; Sulyok, Michael; Wachowska, Urszula; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%), number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8%) and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%). T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G) than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut. PMID:27092526

  15. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wiwart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%, number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8% and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%. T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  16. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  17. Kulturel liminalitet i Don Quixote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fastrup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i og i kontrast til nogle af hovedlinierne i den nyere litteratur om Don Quixote søger artiklen tilbage til de mere specifikke og lokale historiske forhold, som er romanens baggrund, bl.a. til Cervantes' »algierske erfaring« med tyrkisk fangenskab. Artiklen forsøger at kombinere...

  18. Influence of filtration velocity on DON variation in BAF for micropolluted surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Fei; Chen, You-Peng; Kang, Jia; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jin-Song; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Biological aerated filters (BAFs) are widely used for the treatment of micropolluted surface water. However, the biological process produces dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which, as precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products, pose potential threats to drinking water safety. Therefore, to control DON in BAF effluent, it is necessary to study the influence of BAF operation parameters on DON production. In this study, the influence of filtration velocity in a BAF on DON production was investigated. Under different filtration velocity (0.5, 2, and 4 m/h) conditions, profiles of DON concentrations along the media layer were measured. The profile at a filtration velocity of 0.5 m/h showed a decreasing trend, and the ones under filtration velocities of 2 and 4 m/h fluctuated in a small range (from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L). Moreover, the relatively high filtration velocities of 2 and 4 m/h resulted in a lower level of DON concentration. Additionally, 3D excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize DON. It is found that the patterns of DON at a relatively high filtration velocity condition (4 m/h) were obviously different from the ones under low filtration velocity conditions (0.5 and 2 m/h).

  19. The "Don't Know" Option in Progress Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, C. J.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Haaring, C.; Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J.; Beek, F. J. A.; Bakker, J.; Van Schaik, J.P.J.; Ten Cate, Th. J.

    2015-01-01

    Formula scoring (FS) is the use of a don't know option (DKO) with subtraction of points for wrong answers. Its effect on construct validity and reliability of progress test scores, is subject of discussion. Choosing a DKO may not only be affected by knowledge level, but also by risk taking tendency, and may thus introduce construct-irrelevant…

  20. Increasing trends of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in temperate forests under recovery from acidification in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Arne; Verschelde, Pieter; De Vos, Bruno; Neirynck, Johan; Cools, Nathalie; Roskams, Peter; Hens, Maarten; Louette, Gerald; Sleutel, Steven; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated trends (2005-2013) and patterns of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its ratio with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOC:DON in atmospheric deposition and soil solution of five Level II plots of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) in Flanders, Northern Belgium. The primary aim was to confirm positive postulated trends in DON levels and DOC:DON under on-going recovery from acidification. The DON concentrations (0.95-1.41 mg L(-1)) and fluxes (5.6-8.3 kg ha(-1)y(-1)) in throughfall were about twice as high compared to precipitation in the open field (0.40-0.48 mg L(-1), 3.0-3.9 kg ha(-1)y(-1)). Annual soil profile leaching losses of DON varied between 1.2 and 3.7 kg ha(-1)y(-1). The highest soil DON concentrations and fluxes were observed beneath the O horizon (1.84-2.36 mg L(-1), 10.1-12.3 kg ha(-1)y(-1)). Soil solution concentrations and fluxes of DON showed significant increasing trends. Temporarily soil solution DOC:DON rose following an exceptionally long spring drought in 2007, suggesting an effect of drying and rewetting on DOM composition. Further research is needed to test the dependence of DON and DOC:DON on factors such as latitude, forest cover, length of the growing season, hydrology and topography. Nonetheless, even with considerable variation in soil type, level of base saturation, and soil texture in the five included ICP Forests Level II plots, all data revealed a proportionally larger positive response of DON flux than DOC to recovery from acidification.

  1. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m (99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma-scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation.

  2. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V. [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Assam (India); Department of Life Sciences, Defense Research Development and Organization, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  3. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella; Marzocco, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change increases deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat in north-western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Olesen, J.E.; Madsen, M.S.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change will affect the development of cereal crops and the occurrence of mycotoxins in these crops, but so far little research has been done on quantifying the expected effects. The aim of this study was to assess climate change impacts on the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat grown in

  5. Don DeLillos Bilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diesner, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The American author Don DeLillo is a master of creating powerful images, which want to be discovered, read and interpreted. To have a closer look at his novel Mao II from the Visual Studies' point of view reveals the complexity of literary images and the diverse references that are evoked. DeLillo plays with the reader's memory of perception, asks fundamental questions about our society ruled by mass media and simply delights with a picturesque style of narration. The central aspects in his novel are photography in general, the visual arts especially by Andy Warhol and the visual representation of mass media, particularly television.

  6. [Don Quijote, a lucid mad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fernández, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 50-year-old hidalgo who believed to be transformed into a knight-errant named Don Quijote is a megalomaniac systematized delusion of transformation of the self, a delusion of metamorphosis in reference to the patient's own identity. The outward projection of this syndrome produces some delusional misidentifications of others, things and animals and include elements of a persecutory delusion which increase the grandiosity of the self. At the same time the hidalgo was maniac with a pathway of bipolar disorder. The phenomenon of donquijotismo is described as the defence of wasted causes and Sancho Panza as an illiterate Sócrates.

  7. Don Germán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  8. Hotel Don Pepe. Marbella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Población, Eleuterio

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This splendid building, located at «Las Merinas», is a new source of interest in the beautiful Costa del Sol. It has been made with the most modern materials and techniques. It has an outstanding view over the sea and it has seven standardized floor levels occupied by single rooms, whilst other parts of the building are taken up with small apartments. The recreation zone includes a bar, swimming pools for children and adults, and a cabaret. The ground floor has a main entrance hall, reception offices, shopping corridor, great hall, tea room, and bar. The second floor has a breakfast room, connecting two banqueting halls, hairdresser's, sauna baths, gymnasium, administrative offices, and the manager's flat. The services zone comprises the kitchen, a dining room for various members of the senior staff, post office, laundry, and other standard facilities. The celler serves as a general store and also as wine storage. This hotel has a most impressive functional aspect, and sets a new standard of comfort and luxury for the benefit of tourists who visit this fashionable and picturesque part of the Mediterranean coast.Este espléndido edificio, situado en la finca «Las Merinas», es un atractivo más de la bellísima Costa del Sol malagueña. Se ha instalado de acuerdo con los más modernos materiales y técnicas, disfrutando de bellas vistas hacia el mar, y dispone de: un bloque con siete plantas-tipo de habitaciones, otro de apartamentos auxiliares de pequeña altura, y la zona de recreo, con bar, piscinas para niños, nadadores y saltos, y sala de fiestas. La planta baja aloja: el acceso principal, recepción, conserjería, galería comercial, gran hall, salón de té, bar, etc. La entreplanta comprende: el comedor de desayunos, en conexión con dos comedores para banquetes; peluquerías, sauna, gimnasio, administración y vivienda del director, aparte de la zona de servicios, con cocina, comedores varios de jefes, personal, correos, lavander

  9. Relieving Effects of Oligoglucosamine on the Inhibition Induced by Deoxynivalenol in Wheat Embryo Cells%壳寡糖诱导小麦种胚细胞抗脱氧雪腐镰刀菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 杜昱光; 白雪芳

    2001-01-01

    The growth of etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. LumaiNo.22) seedlings and the activation of the cell cycle in embryo cells were estimated by flow cytometric analyses in wheat after the seeds being treated with oligoglucosamine and deoxynivalenol (DON). The results indicated that both the root number in etiolated wheat seedlings and the activation of the cells which had been arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle in wheat embryos were enhanced by oligoglucosamine, suggesting that the mitosis in wheat embryo cells could be promoted by oligoglucosamine. The inhibition of DON on the growth of etiolated wheat seedlings and on the activation of the cell cycle in wheat embryo cells were relieved when the seeds were immersed in oligoglucosamine solution for 12 h before DON treatment. The results indicated that oligoglucosamine increased the hardiness to the poisoning of DON in wheat embryo cells. This might be the reason why such oligosaccharide elicits the resistance of plants to pathogen infection.%用壳寡糖和脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)以不同方式处理小麦(Triticum aestivumL.)种子,测定从G1期启动进入S期和G2-M期的胚细胞百分率和小麦黄化苗的生长。结果表明:壳寡糖可促进小麦种胚细胞周期启动并促进小麦根数目增加,说明壳寡糖对小麦种子的胚细胞分裂有促进作用;壳寡糖预处理小麦种子可解除DON对小麦黄化苗生长及胚细胞启动的抑制作用,表明寡聚糖可提高植物对病原菌毒素的抗耐性,这可能是寡聚糖诱导植物提高抗病性的重要机制之一。

  10. Climate change increases deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Madsen, M S

    2012-01-01

    Climate change will affect the development of cereal crops and the occurrence of mycotoxins in these crops, but so far little research has been done on quantifying the expected effects. The aim of this study was to assess climate change impacts on the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat grown...... will be earlier in the season because of climate change effects, about 1 to 2 weeks. Deoxynivalenol contamination was found to increase in most of the study region, with an increase of the original concentrations by up to 3 times. The study results may inform governmental and industrial risk managers to underpin...... in north-western Europe by 2040, considering the combined effects of shifts in wheat phenology and climate. The study used climate model data for the future period of 2031–2050 relative to the baseline period of 1975–1994. A weather generator was used for generating synthetic series of daily weather data...

  11. Study of clean up procedures using Charcoal-Alumina-Celite column, immunoaffinity column and strata x column to determine deoxynivalenol by high performance liquid chromatography in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the most common toxic fungal species affecting grains in Uruguay. Since 1977, due to favorable climate conditions, there have been harvests with prominent Fusarium Head Blight in wheat. This were in 1984, 1990, 1993, 1996 and 2001.Natural Toxin Department of Technological Laboratory of Uruguay as National Reference Laboratory, is continuously improving the analytical methods in order to have a good response to the industry requirements and to the monitoring programs for import and exports commodities. The objective of this work was to compare different clean up methods in order to select the best one for routine determination of deoxynivalenol (DON in wheat (grain and flour.  Charcoal-alumina-celite (7+5+3,  immunoaffinity columns DONPREP R-Biopharm Rhone and Strata X 33 m polymeric sorbent  Phenomenex columns were used to perform the study. Considering as reference analytical method the internal protocol  PEC.TOX.063 accredited by United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS  following the ISO 17025 requirements, and  based on AOAC method 986.17( chapter 49, 2002 for extraction and clean-up  and on J.AOAC 70(3, 1987:479-483 for the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC detection, two more clean up methods were evaluated. In all of them PEC.TOX.063 detection procedure was carried out. PEC.TOX.063 used for the clean up an in house column chromatography prepared with charcoal-alumina-celite (7+5+3 . Extraction was performed using acetonitrile- water (84+16 and an aliquot of the extract was passed through the column. Extract was dryed under vacuum and DON detected by HPLC using photodiode array detector. For the method that used immunoaffinity columns, water was the extraction solvent, and manufacture protocol was followed up. An aliquot of the extract was passed through the column. Column was washed using water and DON eluated using methanol 100%. For the method that used Strata X column for the clean up, the

  12. A microsatellite based method for quantification of fungi in decomposing plant material elucidates the role of Fusarium graminearum DON production in the saprophytic competition with Trichoderma atroviride in maize tissue microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Andreas; Senatore, Mauro; Défago, Geneviève

    2006-02-01

    Common PCR assays for quantification of fungi in living plants cannot be used to study saprophytic colonization of fungi because plant decomposition releases PCR-inhibiting substances and saprophytes degrade the plant DNA which could serve as internal standard. The microsatellite PCR assays presented here overcome these problems by spiking samples prior to DNA extraction with mycelium of a reference strain. PCR with fluorescent primers co-amplifies microsatellite fragments of different length from target and reference strains. These fragments were separated in a capillary sequencer with fluorescence detection. The target/reference ratio of fluorescence signal was used to calculate target biomass in the sample. Such PCR assays were developed for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride, using new microsatellite markers. In contrast to real-time PCR assays, the novel PCR assays showed reliable fungal biomass quantification in samples with differentially decomposed plant tissue. The PCR assays were used to quantify the two fungi after competitive colonization of autoclaved maize leaf tissue in microcosms. Using a DON-producing F. graminearum wild-type strain and its nontoxigenic mutant we found no evidence for a role of DON production in F. graminearum defense against T. atroviride. The presence of T. atroviride resulted in a 36% lower wild-type DON production per biomass.

  13. Establishment of a HPLC-UV Method for Simultaneous Determination of DON,15ACDON, and 3ACDON in Wheat%高效液相色谱-紫外法同时检测小麦中DON、15ACDON和3ACDON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹; 耿志明; 马鸿翔; 姚金保; 张旭; 张平平; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    A HPLC-UV method was established to determine deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ACDON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ACDON) in wheat. Wheat sample was extracted by water, and the extracting solution was precipitated with an equal volume of ethanol followed by solid phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridge. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of DON, 15ACDON and 3ACDON were done by HPLC-UVD using gradient elution program with acetonitrile and 0.005% phosphoric acid solution. Results showed that at the linear range of 0.5-15.0 mg L-1, the recoveries were 89.8%, 93.4%, and 92.9%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were 2.2%, 2.0%, and 2.5%, respectively, and the detection limit levels were 12.2, 10.5, and 16.7 μg kg-1, respectively. The method was accurate and reproducible. Sample purification lessened interference peaks, and due to the use of organic solvents was greatly reduced, the cost was decreased. Therefore, the method was suitable for the large batch determination of type B trichothecenes in wheat.%建立了测定小麦中B型单端孢酶烯族毒素脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(deoxynivalenol,DON)、3-乙酰脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(3-acetyldeoxynivalenol,3-ACDON)和15-乙酰脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(15-acetyldeoxynivalenol,15-ACDON)的高效液相色谱-紫外(HPLC-UV)检测方法.用水提取小麦样品,提取液经无水乙醇等体积沉淀,再结合Oasis HLB固相萃取小柱可取得较好的净化效果.采用乙腈-0.005%磷酸水溶液二元梯度洗脱程序在高效液相色谱-紫外检测器上完 成DON、15ACDON和3ACDON的定性定量分析.结果表明,在0.5~15.0 mg L-1线性范围内,DON、15ACDON和3ACDON的平均加标回收率分别为89.8%、93.4%和92.9%,相对标准偏差分别为2.2%、2.0%和2.5%(n=3);检测限分别为12.2、10.5和16.7 μg kg-1.该方法准确、重现性好,样品净化方法使杂峰干扰少,大幅减少有机溶剂的使用,成本低,适用于小麦中B型

  14. "Don't Lecture Me"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Often I will listen to public radio on long drives when I am alone. Recently I happened to catch a program called "Don't Lecture Me" and it really caught my attention for several reasons. First, the speakers were all notable leaders in Physics Education Research such as Joe Redish, David Hestenes, and Eric Mazur. (See this month's WebSights column.) These folks are among many who have devoted their energies to understanding how students learn physics and how teachers can design classroom instruction and interactions to best meet the needs of learners. Second, on this particular trip, I had just observed a teacher whose class was very teacher-centered as the teacher lectured most of the class period. As we discussed this later, she expressed concern that she had to cover the material and didn't feel that she could do it without lecturing.

  15. ``Don't Lecture Me''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Often I will listen to public radio on long drives when I am alone. Recently I happened to catch a program called ``Don't Lecture Me'' and it really caught my attention for several reasons. First, the speakers were all notable leaders in Physics Education Research such as Joe Redish, David Hestenes, and Eric Mazur. (See this month's WebSights column.) These folks are among many who have devoted their energies to understanding how students learn physics and how teachers can design classroom instruction and interactions to best meet the needs of learners. Second, on this particular trip, I had just observed a teacher whose class was very teacher-centered as the teacher lectured most of the class period. As we discussed this later, she expressed concern that she had to cover the material and didn't feel that she could do it without lecturing.

  16. Don Zhuanu otdajutsja tolko po ljubvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eestisse tuleb külla Roman Viktjuki Teater, 1. nov. mängitakse Vene Kultuurikeskuses Jean Genet' "Toatüdrukuid" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk), 23. nov. etendatakse Eric-Emmanuel Scmitti "Don Juani viimast armastust" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk)

  17. Donning and doffing PPE for HPAI surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions describing the proper donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) surveillance. This protocol...

  18. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... bushel of problems. How it does or doesn’t work Depending on the active ingredient, grapefruit can ...

  19. Don't Take This with That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... bushel of problems. How it does or doesn’t work Depending on the active ingredient, grapefruit can ...

  20. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... bushel of problems. How it does or doesn’t work Depending on the active ingredient, grapefruit can ...

  1. Don Zhuanu otdajutsja tolko po ljubvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eestisse tuleb külla Roman Viktjuki Teater, 1. nov. mängitakse Vene Kultuurikeskuses Jean Genet' "Toatüdrukuid" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk), 23. nov. etendatakse Eric-Emmanuel Scmitti "Don Juani viimast armastust" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk)

  2. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields.

  3. Guidelines : the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. METHODS: The authors built consensus by an iterative proc

  4. Don Quixote: Freud and Cervantes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beá, J; Hernández, V

    1984-01-01

    We have focused this paper on an attempt to examine the process occurring in the transformations which Alonso Quijano undergoes when becoming Don Quixote as an expression of his disturbance, and the evolution at work during his travels to dissipate his grandiose narcissism by means of a cure of humiliation which makes him humble and able to recognize dependence and internal conflicts, finally culminating in the working through of the depressive position and the resolution of the prior schizo-paranoid phase just before his death. The disturbances of Alonso Quijano begin when he is faced with the anxieties provoked by approaching old age and death. The internal conflict over not-worked through mournings may lead to making reparations and to the stimulus of creativity and towards maturity. Badly resolved, it progresses to involutive psychosis which may result in psychotic destruction. Cervantes creates a 'hero' whom he treats in humorous and tragicomic ways, a hero who rises regressively from his unresolved Oedipus conflict, and with the traits of a grandiose self and with the need to 'repair' the projected image, deforming reality and at the same time being slowly obliged to take it into account.

  5. Don Quijote, el escribidor y el escritor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Pollarolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In his diverse critical studies, Mario Vargas Llosa has shown particular interest in reflecting on Miguel de Cervantes’s novelistic theory in accordance with his own concerns as a scholar and novelist. Suffice it to read the essay “Una novela para el siglo XXI” that he wrote in 2005 as an introduction to the edition of Don Quijote prepared to celebrate the IV Centenario, to make sure that Vargas Llosa “reads” Cervantes in accordance with his own reflections on the theory of the novel, fanaticism or the “insanity” of the characters, the fiction and its relationship with “reality”, the narrative voices or the problem of the narrator. But the Cervantes – Vargas Llosa relationship goes beyond the theoretical level or reflective and is manifested in his own novelistic creation such as ocurrs, specifically, in La tía Julia y el escribidor. In that sense, the main goal of this study is to analyze the “dialogue” that is set between La tía Julia y el escribidor and the Quijotefrom the point of view of the “insanity” of Pedro Camacho, the writer of radio soap operas created by Vargas Llosa, and their similarities with that of the knight-errant.

  6. An ergonomic evaluation of infant life jackets: Donning time & donning accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, C V; Brooks, C J; Kozey, J W; Habib, A

    2011-01-01

    Canada is considering the development of a new standard for infant/child life jackets. Eight currently available (approved and non-approved) infant/child life jackets were procured for evaluation. Fifty-six participants were chosen as a sample of convenience from the general public for testing. The life jackets were divided into two groups of four, which were donned on a soft infant manikin procured from the Red Cross. In 224 attempts at donning, only 43 (19%) attempts resulted in the life jacket being donned correctly in less than 1 min. Only one life jacket came close to a good design and passed the life jacket standard for donning time and accuracy. Failure rates were observed across all the participants irrespective of age, gender, experience with children and experience with recreational marine equipment. Accuracy and speed of donning the life jacket were hampered as the number of donning sub-tasks increased. It was concluded that it is possible to design a life jacket that can be donned correctly in under 1 min. The life jacket must be of simple, intuitive design and fall naturally into the anatomical shape of the child. A minimum number of ties, zips and clips should be used in the design, and if such connectors are used they should be color coded or of different shapes and sizes to avoid confusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum Growth and Deoxynivalenol Production in Wheat Kernels with Bacterial Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the main causal pathogen affecting small-grain cereals, and it produces deoxynivalenol, a kind of mycotoxin, which displays a wide range of toxic effects in human and animals. Bacterial strains isolated from peanut shells were investigated for their activities against F. graminearum by dual-culture plate and tip-culture assays. Among them, twenty strains exhibited potent inhibition to the growth of F. graminearum, and the inhibition rates ranged from 41.41% to 54.55% in dual-culture plate assay and 92.70% to 100% in tip-culture assay. Furthermore, eighteen strains reduced the production of deoxynivalenol by 16.69% to 90.30% in the wheat kernels assay. Finally, the strains with the strongest inhibitory activity were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical methods and also 16S rDNA and gyrA gene analysis as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The current study highlights the potential application of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites in the prevention of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in wheat kernels. As a biological strategy, it might avoid safety problems and nutrition loss which always caused by physical and chemical strategies.

  8. Genio y figura de don Alfonso Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre varias, escojo esta: por sobria y conmovida a un tiempo. La escribió Juan Fernández Figueroa para su revista " Indice", de Madrid. Nos parece ver a don Alfonso en el rellano de la escalera -al fondo, sus libros; más allá, toda su vida, noble y pura- nos parece verle por última vez, inclinado ya sobre la baranda de la muerte. Tiene la calidad y el dinamismo de unos cuantos dibujos rápidos, nerviosos, esta imagen última de don Alfonso Reyes.

  9. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol from a total diet study in an adult urban Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, F; Nasreddine, L; Hilan, C; Bartosik, M; Parent-Massin, D

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins may be associated with carcinogenic, immunosuppressant and estrogenic effects. In the Middle-East, studies investigating food contamination and dietary exposure to mycotoxins are particularly scarce. This study aims at evaluating the dietary exposure of an adult Lebanese urban population to four mycotoxins (AFB1, AFM1, OTA, DON) classified as priority food contaminants by the WHO. Dietary exposure assessment was performed by means of the total diet study approach. Average and excessive consumer exposure estimates (p95) were calculated and compared with appropriate toxicological reference values (TRVs). Average dietary exposure levels to OTA and DON represented 29.9% and 156.8% of the respective TRVs, with the p95 exposure estimates approaching or exceeding the TRVs for these mycotoxins (95.1% and 355.8%, respectively). Based on the mean dietary exposure level to AFB1, cancer risk was estimated at 0.0527-0.0545cases/100,000persons/year, while mean exposure to AFM1 was associated with a population risk of 0.0018-0.0027cases/100,000persons/year. The study's findings place Lebanon among countries that are highly exposed to mycotoxins through the diet and call for larger-scale studies aiming at providing a comprehensive assessment of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to mycotoxins as well as to other food contaminants.

  10. Loca amoena in Don Quixote. The art of transition in pastoral episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Márquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Don Quixote’s pastoral episodes allow us to analyze Cervantes’s subtleness and irony in the art of transition. Cervantes intentionally uses the locus amoenus as a topos to link the pastoral episodes with the comic realistic story of Don Quixote and Sancho. The most striking feature of these meticulous transitions is that the locus amoenus, which would correspond to the pastoral stories, is transferred to the primary diegetic level, replacing the hegemonic chronotopos of the camino real. The role of this technique is to smooth the transition to the bucolic world. Moreover, this analysis helps us interpret the pastoral events as a tragic counterpoint (Marcela and Chrysostom, Leandra, and to perceive Don Quixote’s siesta (the “feigned Arcadia” as the starting point of his decline.

  11. Sketch of Discourse and Power in Don DeLillo’s White Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In White Noise (1985, Don DeLillo shows the web of systems predominating late twentieth century society. DeLillo illustrates the organizations of supermarket, media, and even drug as new discourses of power in postmodern condition in which, according to Michele Foucault, power is diffuse, and power conflicts can happen at many different sites and levels. This study is an exegesis of Foucault’s central concept for understanding representations, and the intersections of discourse, power, and the subject in Don DeLillo’s White Noise in which power disseminates through different social and cultural discourses.

  12. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Christopher L; Edgell, Luke R

    2013-01-01

    We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN's 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act.

  13. Don Juan on manipulaator / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Nüüdisaegne muusikalis-koreograafiline fantaasia "Don Juani pidusöök" Kanuti Gildi Saalis. Eesti tantsijate ja hollandi muusikute Holland Windplayers koostöös sündinud projekti tutvustab Tallinna Filharmoonia sarja "Diplomaadilised noodid" juht Heli Vaus-Tamm

  14. Saga y fugas de Don Juan

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Bustamante Mourier, Ana Sofía

    1998-01-01

    Ensayo acerca de las diversas versiones e interpretaciones que a lo largo de la historia ha suscitado el mito de Don Juan Tenorio. Lectura original del donjuanismo a partir de las teorías del filósofo José Antonio Marina en torno al ingenio y sus productos.

  15. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't ...

  16. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take ... more than fifty prescription and over-the-counter drugs known to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...

  17. Don Quixote at 400: Still Conquering Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavans, Ilan

    2005-01-01

    The Knight of the Sorrowful Countenance is turning 400. By some accounts, the first part of Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece, was available in Valladolid by Christmas Eve 1604, although Madrid did not get copies until January 1605. Thus came to life the "ingenious gentleman" who, ill equipped with antiquated armor "stained with rust…

  18. Don Quijote en Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer a Cervantes y su obra.- Descubrir otros países y artistas.- Conocer al personaje de Don Quijote.- Familiarizarse con los personajes principales.- Relacionar la pintura y la literatura.- Desarrollar habilidades manuales y artísticas.- Potenciar la creatividad.

  19. A Conversation with Don Knuth: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Donald J.; Steen, Lynn Arthur

    1982-01-01

    This interview reviews Don Knuth's life and contributions and his views on a variety of mathematical and computer-related topics. He is viewed as the pre-eminent scholar of computer science in the world, and is probably best known for a series of books titled, "The Art of Computer Programing." (MP)

  20. On Byronic Heroism in Don Juan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曼琦

    2011-01-01

    Byron is the chief exponent and the most important figure of the "Romantic Movement".And Byronic heroism is one of his most important representatives of his literary contribution.In his masterpiece Don Juan,Byron exploits the whole range of his feelings a

  1. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take ... more than fifty prescription and over-the-counter drugs known to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...

  2. Don Juan on manipulaator / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Nüüdisaegne muusikalis-koreograafiline fantaasia "Don Juani pidusöök" Kanuti Gildi Saalis. Eesti tantsijate ja hollandi muusikute Holland Windplayers koostöös sündinud projekti tutvustab Tallinna Filharmoonia sarja "Diplomaadilised noodid" juht Heli Vaus-Tamm

  3. Dewey or Don't We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Devona J.

    2013-01-01

    "Dewey or don't we?" is the question that hundreds, if not thousands, of school librarians across the country are currently asking themselves. Do they throw out what is old but trusted for new organizational systems, or do they continue using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system and make changes and adjustments to the…

  4. Cervantes and the Lirical Poetry: Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Romo Feito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the lyrical poems included in the first and the second part of Don Quixote. The different classes of poems are studied attending to its narrative context. But the poetry is also studied by relating it with metrical and aesthetical categories: Realism, Parody, Manierism…

  5. [Discreet follies. Variations on Don Quixote's folly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia Guillén, Diego

    2005-01-01

    Physicians and psychiatrists have been discussing through centuries about the madness of Don Quixote. The first in doing that was Philippe Pinel, followed immediately by many others. They all agreed in diagnosing Don Quixote as "monomaniac". Cervantes was considered an excellent "nosographer", and the novel a paradigmatic description of this mental disorder. After the Kraepelin's work, the old Pinelian nosography was substituted by a new system of classification of mental diseases, and Don Quixote was considered "paranoid". Finally, after the DSM IV, the usual diagnostic is "delusional disorder". Throughout history there have been two different types of mental disorders, being only one of them considered pathological. This difference appears in English in words like "crazy" and "mad." The thesis of this essay is that Don Quixote is more a crazy than a mad man. He is trying to achieve a world full of peace, justice and love. His moral ideal is to make possible the triumph of this perfect world. This crazy goal was deeply influenced by the Erasmian ideology. And Erasmus of Rotterdam was the author of a very famous book entitled The Praise of Folly, published the year 1509, almost a century before the novel of Cervantes. In this work, the word opposite to "loco" (crazy, mad, insane) is "discreto", a word of difficult translation to English, which means at the same time "shrewd," "discreet" and "ingenious". Cervantes says at the beginning of the second part of his work, that Don Quixote is doing in it "discretas locuras" ("discreet follies", trans. Thomas Shelton, 1620; "ingenious follies", trans. Tobias G. Smollet, 1755; "shrewd lunacies", trans. John Ormsby, 1885). This mixture of cleverness and lack of moderation is considered by the author the interpretation's key of the work.

  6. Isotopic analysis of bulk, LMW, and HMW DON d15N indicates recycled nitrogen release from marine DON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, A. N.; Sigman, D. M.; Lipschultz, F.; Kustka, A.; Capone, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) concentration and stable isotope ratio (d15N) measurements were made on bulk and size fractionated surface ocean dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) samples collected in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The bulk DON concentration in the upper 100 m is similar between the North Atlantic and North Pacific, between 4.5 and 5.0 uM, but the average d15N of bulk DON is significantly different, 3.9 per mil vs. air in the North Atlantic and 4.7 per mil in the North Pacific. The d15N of both bulk and HMW DON from the western tropical North Atlantic are similar to previous measurements, ~4.0 to 4.5 per mil. We report the first measurements of LMW DON d15N, which is consistently lower than HMW DON d15N. Neither the concentration nor d15N of bulk or size-fractionated DON varied with in situ N2 fixation rate, although significant variation in bulk and LMW DON d15N was observed between January and July of the same year in the western tropical North Atlantic. We propose a conceptual model to explain 1) the elevated d15N of bulk DON relative to other surface ocean N pools and fluxes, 2) the elevation of HMW DON d15N relative to LMW DON d15N, and 3) the inter-basin difference in the d15N of bulk DON. In this model, DON is produced from suspended particulate organic nitrogen (PON) without isotope fractionation because the conversion from PON to DON largely does not involve N-bearing bonds. In contrast, deamination and amide hydrolysis, with N isotope effects of 3 to 10 per mil, are major mechanisms by which DON is converted to ammonia and/or to other simple N compounds (e.g., amino acids). Thus these N-specific DON loss reactions result in an elevated d15N of residual DON relative to the parent DON and therefore also to the PON source. Moreover, the ammonium and simple organic N compounds released by microbial DON degradation are efficiently reassimilated back into the PON pool, as an integral part of the regenerated N cycle that further lowers the d15N

  7. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  8. Determination of Deoxynivalenol and Selenium in High Incidence Areas with Esophageal Cancer in Shandong%山东食管癌高发区脱氧雪腐烯醇和硒元素含量检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海峰; 陈龙明; 邱静; 李金平; 董方; 李群伟

    2011-01-01

    [Purpose]To investigate relationship between high incidence of esophageal cancer and content of deoxynivalenol(DON), selenium(Se) in grains in rural residents in Shandong Province.[Methods]DON was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Quantitative determination of Se was performed with 2,3-DAN fluorescence spectrophotometry.[Results]The concentration of DON in grains in high incidence area, of esophageal cancer Dongping and Feicheng was 70.1 ~302.8μg/kg respectively.The concentration in control areas, Taishan and Changqing was less than 27.3μg/kg.There was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).The concentration of Se in grains in the two esophageal cancer high incidence Dongping and Feicheng areas was 76.5μg/kg and 85.6μg/kg, while it was 83.1μ g/kg and 90.7μg/kg in control areas respectively, with significant difference (P<0.05).Content of Se in hairs in Dongping, Feicheng, Taishan and Changqing was 0.926mg/kg, 1.015mg/kg, 0.937mg/kg and 0.941mg/kg, respectively, without significant difference between high incidence areas group and control areas group(P>0.05).[Conclusion]DON might relate to carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer.Lack of Se might not be the main risk factor for carcinogenesis with esophageal cancer.%[目的]探讨山东省农村居民粮食中脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)和硒元素(Se)的含量与食管癌高发的关系.[方法]粮食样品中DON毒素含量的检测采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA);硒元素的检测采用2,3-二氨基萘(DAN)荧光分光光度法.[结果]东平、肥城两个食管癌高发区粮食DON含量为70.1-302.8μg/kg,对照组(泰山区、长清区)粮食DON检测结果为低于27.3μg/kg,食管癌高发区与对照区粮食DON含量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);东平、肥城两个食管癌高发区粮食Se含量均数分别为76.5μg/kg、85.6μg/kg,对照组泰山区、长清区粮食Se含量均数分别为83.1μg/kg、90.7μg/kg,对照地区

  9. Impact of Climate Change Effects on Contamination of Cereal Grains with Deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; van Asselt, E D; Madsen, M S

    2013-01-01

    two different global and regional climate model combinations were used. A weather generator was applied for downscaling climate data to local conditions. Crop phenology models and prediction models for DON contamination used, each for winter wheat and grain maize. Results showed that flowering...

  10. Polarized Light Experiment, Presa Don Martin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This is a single scene from a pair (frames 021 and 024) to study the effects of polarized light in Earth Observations. One scene was exposed with vertically polarized light, the other, horizontally. The subject in this study, is a lake behind Presa (dam) Don Martin (27.5N, 100.5W) on thge edge of the Rio Grande Plain near it's boundry with the Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Mexico.

  11. Polarized Light Experiment, Presa Don Martin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This is a single scene from a pair (frames 021 and 024) to study the effects of polarized light in Earth Observations. One scene was exposed with vertically polarized light, the other, horizontally. The subject in this study, is a lake behind Presa (dam) Don Martin (27.5N, 100.5W) on thge edge of the Rio Grande Plain near it's boundry with the Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Mexico.

  12. Blood-Brain Barrier Effects of the Fusarium Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol, 3 Acetyldeoxynivalenol, and Moniliformin and Their Transfer to the Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Behrens

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi frequently contaminate food and feed and have adverse effects on human and animal health. Fusarium mycotoxins exhibit a wide structural and biosynthetic diversity leading to different toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Several studies investigated the toxicity of mycotoxins, focusing on very specific targets, like the brain. However, it still remains unclear how fast mycotoxins reach the brain and if they impair the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. This study investigated and compared the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and moniliformin on the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, the transfer properties to the brain were analyzed, which are required for risk assessment, including potential neurotoxic effects.Primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells were cultivated to study the effects of the examined mycotoxins on the blood-brain barrier in vitro. The barrier integrity was monitored by cellular impedance spectroscopy and 14C radiolabeled sucrose permeability measurements. The distribution of the applied toxins between blood and brain compartments of the cell monolayer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to calculate transfer rates and permeability coefficients.Deoxynivalenol reduced the barrier integrity and caused cytotoxic effects at 10 μM concentrations. Slight alterations of the barrier integrity were also detected for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. The latter was transferred very quickly across the barrier and additionally cleaved to deoxynivalenol. The transfer of deoxynivalenol and moniliformin was slower, but clearly exceeded the permeability of the negative control. None of the compounds was enriched in one of the compartments, indicating that no efflux transport protein is involved in their transport.

  13. Blood-Brain Barrier Effects of the Fusarium Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol, 3 Acetyldeoxynivalenol, and Moniliformin and Their Transfer to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Matthias; Hüwel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi frequently contaminate food and feed and have adverse effects on human and animal health. Fusarium mycotoxins exhibit a wide structural and biosynthetic diversity leading to different toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Several studies investigated the toxicity of mycotoxins, focusing on very specific targets, like the brain. However, it still remains unclear how fast mycotoxins reach the brain and if they impair the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. This study investigated and compared the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and moniliformin on the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, the transfer properties to the brain were analyzed, which are required for risk assessment, including potential neurotoxic effects. Methods Primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells were cultivated to study the effects of the examined mycotoxins on the blood-brain barrier in vitro. The barrier integrity was monitored by cellular impedance spectroscopy and 14C radiolabeled sucrose permeability measurements. The distribution of the applied toxins between blood and brain compartments of the cell monolayer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to calculate transfer rates and permeability coefficients. Results Deoxynivalenol reduced the barrier integrity and caused cytotoxic effects at 10 μM concentrations. Slight alterations of the barrier integrity were also detected for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. The latter was transferred very quickly across the barrier and additionally cleaved to deoxynivalenol. The transfer of deoxynivalenol and moniliformin was slower, but clearly exceeded the permeability of the negative control. None of the compounds was enriched in one of the compartments, indicating that no efflux transport protein is involved in their transport. PMID:26600019

  14. Monitoring of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in cereals and cereal products from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2001-03-01

    A Fusarium and Fusarium toxin monitoring programme has been established within the food and feed control authorities of Saxony-Anhalt for the 2001-2003 period. The first results of the deoxynivalenol analyses of cereals and cereal products with assured origin in this federal state, showed a contamination rate of 42% for wheat and wheat products. The contamination incidence reached only 14% in rye and rye products. Zearalenone couldn't be detected at all in the analyzed samples.

  15. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Dan Funck;

    2014-01-01

    approach to identify genes induced by DON and ZEA in order to investigate the molecular basis of mycotoxin resistance C. rosea.Results: We generated DON- and ZEA-induced cDNA libraries based on suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 443 and 446 sequenced clones (corresponding to 58 and 65 genes...

  16. A review on the clean-up, determination, toxicity and biodetoxification of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone from cereals%谷物中DON、ZEA毒素的净化、检测、毒性与生物脱毒技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽; 王步军

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum colonizes cereals and produces toxic secondary metabolites, such as trichothecenes [deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV)] and zearalenone(ZEA). Mycotoxins contamination of cereal grains and cereal-based products is a major problem in agricultural grains production. Clean-up is necessary step for determining the mycotoxins extracted by solid-liquid extraction. There are kinds of clean-up methods applied to purify Fusarium toxins, including solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, such as specific immunoaffinity clean-up columns and mycosep multifunctional columns, as well as the cheap and effective QuEChERS-base method for cleaning-up complex samples. The determination of foods and feeds contaminated by mycotoxins, toxin-producing conditions, toxicity and biological detoxification of Fusarium graminearum toxins were also reviewed in this paper. It is crucial to develop and explore a safe, efficient and cost effective biological detoxification technology, with the purpose of supplying safety and high quality ce-reals and foods.%禾谷镰刀菌在侵染谷物过程中所产生的次生代谢产物——单端孢霉烯族毒素[脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(deoxynivalenol, DON)、雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(nivalenol, NIV)]以及玉米赤霉烯酮(zearalenone, ZEA)是世界上粮食安全的一个重大问题。毒素经固液萃取技术提取后,需要通过净化处理才能进行检测与分析。目前有多种净化技术用于毒素的净化,如免疫亲和柱、多功能净化柱等固相萃取柱等,以及广泛使用且简便经济的QuEChERS前处理技术。本文还介绍了禾谷镰刀菌毒素中DON、ZEA的检测方法、产毒条件、毒性以及生物脱毒技术等方面的研究进展,旨在开发与应用更安全、高效、经济的生物脱毒技术进行毒素的防御与去除,以提供安全、优质的粮食与食品。

  17. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell - Policy Analysis and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    biological or genetic factors, thereby disputing the idea that homosexuality is an aberrant behavior [Ref. 60]; the presence of " homophobia " in the...don’t like homosexuals. I guess we’re more tolerant than your southern baptists or southern christian religions. That was a good question I think. Q

  18. The vindication of Don Quijote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla; Panduro, Toke Emil; Lundhede, Thomas

    on the price schedule of neighboring residential properties. The visual pollution accounts for 3.15% of the residential sales price. The price premium declines with distance by about 0.242% of the sales price for every 100 meters. The effect of noise depends on the noise level emitted and ranges from 3% to 7......In this article we quantify the marginal external effects of nearby land based wind turbines on property prices capitalized through traded residential properties located within 2,500 meters or less. We succeed in separating the effect of noise and visual pollution from wind turbines....... This was achieved by using a dataset covering 21 municipalities and consisting of 12,640 traded residential properties sold in the period 2000-2011. We model the hedonic price function in two steps. First we detrend data across municipalities using a pooled cross sectional model which allows for different price...

  19. Cometary Activity in Near-Earth Asteroid Don Quixote

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Reach, W. T.; Mueller, M.; Thomas, C. A.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D. E.; Delbo', M.; Smith, H.

    2013-01-01

    The near-Earth object (NEO) population is thought to comprise a number of "dormant" short-period comets [1]. One of the most promising NEO candidates for a cometary origin is (3552) Don Quixote, due to its comet-like orbit and albedo. We present the discovery of cometary activity in (3552) Don

  20. Reading "Las Meninas": An Ekphrastic Approach to Teaching "Don Quijote"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuno, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Reading and teaching "Don Quijote" present multiple challenges to twenty-first century students and instructors who are culturally and historically distanced from the seventeenth century. With "Las Meninas" serving as a visual lexicon for cuing correlative themes and events in "Don Quijote", the instructor, through an ekphrastic, interdisciplinary…

  1. Don Pedro Laín Entralgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serpa Florez

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Al amanecer del martes 5 de junio murió don Pedro Laín Entralgo eminente médico, escritor, historiador de la medicina y académico, uno de las más grandes pensadores y humanistas españoles del siglo veinte (1908-2001. En España el trato de “don” es el de más alta categoría que puede darse: don Gregorio Marañón, don José Ortega y Gasset, don Miguel de Unamuno, don Carlos Jiménez Díaz, don Antonio Machado.

    Don Pedro Laín Entralgo fue uno de los más grandes historiadores de la medicina en todo el mundo:

    Miembro de la Real Academia de Medicina Española (desde 1948, Miembro de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua (desde 1954, Miembro de la Real Academia Española de Historia (desde 1962; por muchos años fue Presidente de la Real Academia de la Lengua y miembro numerario de la Academia de Medicina.

    Catedrático de Historia de la Medicina de la Universidad Central y Rector de ella hasta 1956, don Pedro Laín Entralgo dirigió y editó el más completo e importante tratado de Historia de la Medicina.

    En los siete volúmenes de La Historia Universal de la Medicina, publicados entre los años 1972 y 1975, colaboraron más de un centenar de autores de veinte países. Otros libros de los muchos que escribió:

    “España como problema” (1949, su manual de “Historia de la Medicina” (1978, “Historia de la Medicina Moderna y Contemporánea” (1963, “La relación médico-enfermo, historia y teoría” (1961, El que hacer del médico a lo largo de la historia de la cultura (el ars medica de los romanos, la thekné de los griegos y la técnica deshumanizada del siglo XX, la relación humana entre el médico y su paciente, las relaciones entre la praxis (el conocimiento y las destrezas y la ética y los valores, fueron objeto de sus meditaciones filosóficas.

    En el Epílogo de su libro La Medicina actual (1973 don Pedro Laín Entralgo escribió:

    “La fabulosa medicina actual es, en

  2. Colombianos de ayer. Don Ezequiel Uricochea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sánchez Montenegro

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available El general Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera había sido electo presidente por cuarta vez para el período presidencial de 1866 a 1868, según la reforma de la Constitución de Rionegro. La oposición se desencadenó casi al instante de la inauguración de su gobierno. En "El Mensajero" lo combatían sin tregua don Santiago Pérez, Tomás Cuenca y Felipe Zapata.

  3. Don Quijote, el escribidor y el escritor

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In his diverse critical studies, Mario Vargas Llosa has shown particular interest in reflecting on Miguel de Cervantes’s novelistic theory in accordance with his own concerns as a scholar and novelist. Suffice it to read the essay “Una novela para el siglo XXI” that he wrote in 2005 as an introduction to the edition of Don Quijote prepared to celebrate the IV Centenario, to make sure that Vargas Llosa “reads” Cervantes in accordance with his own reflections on the theory of the novel, fanatic...

  4. Don Quijote, el escribidor y el escritor

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In his diverse critical studies, Mario Vargas Llosa has shown particular interest in reflecting on Miguel de Cervantes’s novelistic theory in accordance with his own concerns as a scholar and novelist. Suffice it to read the essay “Una novela para el siglo XXI” that he wrote in 2005 as an introduction to the edition of Don Quijote prepared to celebrate the IV Centenario, to make sure that Vargas Llosa “reads” Cervantes in accordance with his own reflections on the theory of the novel, fanatic...

  5. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  6. Measuring the continuum linear polarization with ESPaDOnS

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, A; Martioli, E

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to test the feasibility to obtain accurate measurements of the continuum linear polarization from high-resolution spectra using the spectropolarimetric mode of ESPaDOnS. We used the new pipeline OPERA to reduce recent and archived ESPaDOnS data. A couple of standard polarization stars and several science objects were tested. Synthetic broad-band polarization was computed from the ESPaDOnS continuum linear polarization spectra and compared with published values to quantify the accuracy of the instrument. The continuum linear polarization measured by ESPaDOnS is consistent with the broad-band polarimetry measurements available in the literature. The polarization degree accuracy is better than 0.2% considering the full sample. The accuracy in polarization position angle using the most polarized objects is better than 5deg. Our results suggest that measurements of the continuum linear polarization using ESPaDOnS are viable.

  7. Deoxynivalenol induces ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 and thereby inhibits the TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seiya; Kataoka, Takao

    2013-02-15

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are known to inhibit eukaryotic translation and to trigger the ribotoxic stress response, which regulates gene expression via the activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily. In this study, we found that deoxynivalenol induced the ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFRSF1A) and thereby inhibited the TNF-α-induced signaling pathway. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induced by TNF-α more strongly than that induced by interleukin 1α (IL-1α), whereas T-2 toxin and verrucarin A exerted nonselective inhibitory effects. Deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol also inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway induced by TNF-α, but not that induced by IL-1α. Consistent with these findings, deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol induced the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 by TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE), also known as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). In addition to the TACE inhibitor TAPI-2, the MAP kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 induced by deoxynivalenol and reversed its selective inhibition of TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression. Our results demonstrate that deoxynivalenol induces the TACE-dependent ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 via the activation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase, and thereby inhibits the TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. DON抑制小麦种胚细胞周期启动的研究%Inhibition Effect of DON on Cell Cycle Activation in Wheat Embryo Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 杜昱光; 白雪芳

    2000-01-01

    小麦种子在0.5~4.0 mg/L的脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)溶液中萌发,用流式细胞仪检测胚细胞的周期时相并观察黄化苗的生长。结果表明,对照组胚细胞在萌发12 h开始启动细胞周期,此后S期细胞比率迅速增加并在20 h达到最大值,较萌发10 h的6.5%增加1.78倍,约14%的胚细胞在萌发的22~26 h间完成第一次分裂;DON抑制G1期胚细胞的启动,小麦胚中S期细胞比率随DON浓度增加呈指数下降,3.5与2.0 mg/L的DON可分别将小麦胚细胞阻滞在G1期和S期;小麦黄化苗的苗高与主胚根长均随DON浓度升高呈线性下降,但DON刺激小麦初生根数目增加,刺激作用以1.5 mg/L最强。以上结果说明DON因阻止了胚细胞周期的启动而抑制小麦种子萌发。%The activation of the cell cycle in embryo cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Lu-Mai No. 22) seeds imbibing in 0.5~4.0 mg/L deoxynivalenol (DON) was studied by flow cytometric analyses. The results indicated that the majority of the embryo cells in wheat seeds were arrested at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle was activated after the seeds imbibing in distilled water for 12 h, and then the relative percentage of S-phase cells in wheat embryos were observed to increase steadily until a peak was reached on the 20 h imbibition. The number of S-phase cells in wheat embryos imbibing in water for 20 h was 1.78 fold more than that imbibing for 10 h. When imbibing for 22 to 26 h, about 14% embryo cells in wheat seeds had finished their mitosis. The entry of the embryo cells at G1 phase into S phase was strongly inhibited by imbibing the seeds in DON solution. The percentage of wheat embryo cells at S phase decreased exponentially with increasing concentration of DON treatment up to 4.0 mg/L. Embryo cells in wheat seeds could be blocked completely at G1 phase and S phase by 3.5 and 2.0 mg/L DON treatment respectively. The seedling height and radicle

  9. Development and in-house validation of a robust and sensitive solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Gatta, Stefania Della; Suman, Michele; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-07-15

    A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2)), ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v) and cleaned up through a polymeric solid-phase extraction column. Detection and quantification of the nine mycotoxins were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), using fully (13)C-isotope-labelled mycotoxins as internal standards. The method was validated in-house for five different cereal processed products, namely barley, oat and durum wheat flours, rye- and wheat-based crisp bread. Recoveries and repeatability of the whole analytical procedure were evaluated at contamination levels encompassing the EU maximum permitted levels for each tested mycotoxin. Recoveries ranged from 89 to 108% for deoxynivalenol, from 73 to 114% for aflatoxins, from 85 to 114% for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, from 64 to 97% for zearalenone, from 74 to 102% for ochratoxin A. Relative standard deviations were less than 16% for all tested mycotoxins and matrices. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) ranged from 0.1 to 59.2 µg/kg. The trueness of the results obtained by the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of reference materials for aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone. The use of inexpensive clean-up cartridges and the increasing availability of less expensive LC/MS/MS instrumentation strengthen the potential of the proposed method for its effective application for reliable routine analysis to assess compliance of tested cereal products with current regulation.

  10. Don quijote, Christelike geloof en natuurwetenskap 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P.P. Lötter

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The story about Don Qulchote and the windmills is used in this article as an analogy to typify the debates that have taken place in history between natural science and representatives of Christian religion. The analogy is tested on debates that took place around Galileo. Darwin, Newton, Cuvier and the Big Bang theory. The analogy matches these debates quite well and this Is explained by the view that scientific claims to knowledge, and claims to knowledge based on Christian faith, belong to different categories and are thus not concurrents for the same truth. Gilbert Ryle's criticism on Descartes' mind-body dualism is used here to strengthen this argument. The article is concluded by pointing out in what ways one can engage in a meaningful debate on the nature of the relationship between science and Christian religion.

  11. Don Quijote o la mismidad de Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés Ahumada

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahora tenemos que don Miguel era un pobre diablo, un mísero ente, todo inseguridad y a merced del primer viento, que, a las mil y una vueltas de su vida, escribió nada menos que el "Quijote" ¡El Cervantes de aquella España errabunda y a la intemperie, de aquella Iberia con vocación de alondra; una España que brotó en el planeta con la misión de quinta esencia las potencialidades fabulosas del gesto gallardo, como el de Ercilla en América, como los de Leiva y Oquendo en Inglaterra, como el de los soldados de los tercios de Italia!

  12. We don't need another hero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaracco, J L

    2001-09-01

    Everybody loves the stories of heroes like Martin Luther King, Jr., Mother Teresa, and Gandhi. But the heroic model of moral leadership usually doesn't work in the corporate world. Modesty and restraint are largely responsible for the achievements of the most effective moral leaders in business. The author, a specialist in business ethics, says the quiet leaders he has studied follow four basic rules in meeting ethical challenges and making decisions. The rules constitute an important resource for executives who want to encourage the development of such leaders among their middle managers. The first rule is "Put things off till tomorrow." The passage of time allows turbulent waters to calm and lets leaders' moral instincts emerge. "Pick your battles" means that quiet leaders don't waste political capital on fights they can't win; they save it for occasions when they really want to fight. "Bend the rules, don't break them" sounds easier than it is--bending the rules in order to resolve a complicated situation requires imagination, discipline, restraint, flexibility, and entrepreneurship. The fourth rule, "Find a compromise," reflects the author's finding that quiet leaders try not to see situations as polarized tests of ethical principles. These individuals work hard to craft compromises that are "good enough"--responsible and workable enough--to satisfy themselves, their companies, and their customers. The vast majority of difficult problems are solved through the consistent striving of people working far from the limelight. Their quiet approach to leadership doesn't inspire, thrill, or provide story lines for uplifting TV shows. But the unglamorous efforts of quiet leaders make a tremendous difference every day in the corporate world.

  13. Critical evaluation of LC-MS-based methods for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxins, fumonisins and T-2/HT-2 toxins in maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girolamo, De A.; Solfrizzo, M.; Lattanzio, V.M.T.; Stroka, J.; Alldrick, A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Visconti, A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of a proficiency test for the LC-MS/(MS) determination of up to 11 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, fumonisins B1 and B2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and zearalenone) in maize were evaluated to identify possible strengths and weaknesses of various

  14. Critical evaluation of LC-MS-based methods for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxins, fumonisins and T-2/HT-2 toxins in maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girolamo, De A.; Solfrizzo, M.; Lattanzio, V.M.T.; Stroka, J.; Alldrick, A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Visconti, A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of a proficiency test for the LC-MS/(MS) determination of up to 11 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, fumonisins B1 and B2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and zearalenone) in maize were evaluated to identify possible strengths and weaknesses of various methodolo

  15. A Comparison of Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production Between Canadian Fusarium graminearum Isolates with 3-Acetyl and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Chemotypes in Field-Grown Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum, half of which were 3- acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotypes, were tested for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol and to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), in spring wheat cultivars. The objectives of this...

  16. Development of in vitro digestion model for assessing the bioaccessibility of deoxynivalenol derived from foods%脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇生物可及性体外消化模型的构建及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林肖惠; 邵兵; 李凤琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 构建脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)生物可及性体外消化模型并验证,并对影响模型的主要因素进行优化.方法 模拟胃肠道生理消化过程,研究消化时间、禁食和进食状态、消化液体积、消化液pH值、同时进食的多种食物成分等对DON在口腔、胃和小肠中生物可及性的影响,确定DON生物可及性体外消化模型最优技术参数,并对模型进行验证.结果 经过优化,食品中DON释放到唾液、胃液、十二指肠液和胆汁中浓度达最高的最佳条件为:口腔、胃和十二指肠中的消化时间分别为6min、1.5h和1.5h;消化液pH分别为6.5、0.9、7.5和8.0;消化液体积分别为6、13、11ml和6ml;禁食和进食等各种状态下DON生物可及性范围为81.28%~99.58%,DON的生物可及性随胃内容物的增加而降低;食品基质类别(玉米和小麦粉)对DON生物可及性无影响;同时进食的其他食物成分可降低谷物中DON的生物可及性.结论 构建的DON体外消化模型稳定性高、重复性好,完全可以满足对食品中DON生物可及性的研究.%Objective To develop and validate in vitro digestion model for assessing the bioaccessibility of deoxynivalenol ( DON) derived from foods, and optimize the major parameters affecting the model. Method To study the effect of digestion time, the fasting and feeding status, the volume and the pH of digestive juice, as well as other food components ingested with DON derived from mixed foodstuff on the bioaccessiblity of DON in a model simulating the process manner on gastrointestinal physiological digestion. To optimize some technical parameters of the model and validate it with both mycotoxin adsorbents and foods naturally contaminated by DON. Results The optimized conditions of which DON released from the ingested foods at the highest concentration in gastrointestinal tract are as follows: digestion of 6 min, 1. 5h and 1. 5h in mouth, stomach and duodenum

  17. Validation of an HPLC analytical method coupled to a multifunctional clean-up column for the determination of deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita-Konsihi, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Tabata, Setsuko; Nakajima, Masahiro; Nouno, Masanori; Nakaie, Yoko; Chonan, Takao; Aoyagi, Mitsutoshi; Kibune, Nobuyuki; Mizuno, Kazutoshi; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Kanamaru, Naoki; Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Aita, Norio; Kushiro, Masayo; Tanaka, Kenji; Takatori, Kosuke

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate a method using a multifunctional clean-up column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography as an official analytical method for the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat used as food or feed, an inter-laboratory study was performed in 12 laboratories using four naturally contaminated wheat samples and one spiked sample. The relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDR) of naturally contaminated wheat were in the range 5.8-11.3% and 12.0-20.7%, respectively. The HORRAT was less than 1.0 in each sample. From the spiking test, the recovery rate, RSDr, RSDR and HORRAT value were 100.0%, 11.2%, 10.3% and 0.5, respectively. The limit of quantification is 0.10 mg/kg from the range obtained in a linear calibration. Thus, it should be useful as a sensitive and validated analytical method for the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat intended for use in food and feed.

  18. News from the CFHT/ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moutou, C; Manset, N; Selliez-Vandernotte, L; Desrochers, M -E

    2015-01-01

    The ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter has been in use on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) since 2004, for studying stars, galactic objects and planets. ESPaDOnS is used in queued service observing mode since 2008, which allows an optimization of the science outcome. In this article, we summarize the new functionalities and analyses made on ESPaDOnS operations and data for the present and future users. These modifications include: signal-to-noise ratio based observing, radial velocity nightly drifts, the OPERA pipeline under development, the measurement of H2O content in the Maunakea sky, and the use of ESPaDOnS with the neighbour telescope Gemini.

  19. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  20. Speak Up! But don't strain your voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Speak Up! But don't strain your voice Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. A clinical trial at the NIDCD Voice Center gave Sherdina Jones tools to limit voice ...

  1. Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162669.html Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk: ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Taking vitamin E and selenium does not appear to reduce ...

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Don't Be Misled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Don't Be Misled Share Tweet ... How HBOT Works What are the Risks No, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has not been clinically proven ...

  3. Don't Panic! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Don't Panic! Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Phobias and other anxiety disorders affect millions of Americans. ...

  4. Common Culex Mosquitoes Don't Transmit Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 161186.html Common Culex Mosquitoes Don't Transmit Zika Virus: Study These widespread insects do spread West Nile ... t appear to be able to transmit the Zika virus to people, researchers report. The researchers at Kansas ...

  5. Will 3552 Don Quixote escape from the Solar System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Siregar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid 1983 SA, well known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs which is the most probable candidate for the cometary origin, or otherwise as Jupiter-Family-Comets (JFCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 3552 Don Quixote to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 100 hypothetical asteroids generated by cloning 3552 Don Quixote. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (220 kyr relative to the Solar System life time (10 Gyr, the asteroid 3552 Don Quixote gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System. Probability of ejection within the 220 kyr time scale is 50%.

  6. Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166931.html Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk: Study New research debunks other studies suggesting ... drugs may increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in people aged 75 and older. PPIs ...

  7. Don't Let Summer Strain Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167003.html Don't Let Summer Strain Your Back All that yard work ...

  8. The Rhetoric of Madness in Kathy Acker’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the rhetorical experimentation of Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, starting from a theoretical concept central in the author’s thought: her search for a “language of the body”. A brief introduction to Kathy Acker’s plagiaristic poetics frames her narrative strategies between postmodern rewriting and pastiche. It shows the way in which her Don Quixote transposes the representative scheme of the chivalric quest into the contemporary value system with the aim of questioning Cervantes’ text as one of the canonical works of the Western literary tradition. The following section deepens three focal concepts of Acker’s theoretical works – body, madness, and norm – illuminating the connections between her rhetorical experimentation and the works by Luce Irigaray and Judith Butler. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how these concepts in Acker's rewriting of Don Quixote are strictly related to paradox, which she uses in order to actualize a “language of the body”: in the passage from the former novel to the postmodern work, madness has become the device which, from the semantic level to the rhetorical one, expresses Acker’s idea of language of the body, as an alternative and in contrast to the canonical language of the logos.

  9. Determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat-based snacks by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rodríguez-Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El deoxinivalenol (DON es la micotoxina producida por hongos del género Fusarium que con más frecuencia se detecta en cereales y productos a base de cereales. Por ello, es recomendable realizar una continua monitorización de su incidencia en los alimentos. Este trabajo propone un procedimiento analítico basado en una extracción tipo QuEChERS seguido de una cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de triple cuadrupolo para la determinación de DON en rosquilletas. Se analizaron un total de 40 muestras las cuales se dividieron según su composición en dos grupos. El DON fue identificado en el 67,5% de las muestras analizadas con un contenido máximo de 61 μg/kg. A pesar de su incidencia elevada, los niveles de DON hallados fueron muy inferiores a los límites máximos legislados en la actual legislación europea (500 μg/kg. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una baja exposición a DON a través del consumo de esta matriz alimentaria.

  10. El libro "La locura de Don Quijote".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    2007-09-01

    La Academia Colombiana, por su parte, se ha dedicado a recoger en preciosa compilación de gran formato los trabajos que los académicos de la lengua elaboraron y presentaron sobre el Ingenioso Hidalgo, cubriendo las diversas modalidades del personaje y su entorno, desde los aspectos médicos, económicos, sentimentales y legales pasando por la filología y la semántica hasta la flora, la ecología, la etnología y la filosofía de la Europa y la España de entonces. En esa recolección se incluyó lo que es hoy el capítulo sexto pero faltó, por razones de espacio y porque merecía sitial aparte, la totalidad de la erudita obra de Adolfo de Francisco Zea, sobre La Locura de Don Quijote, que nos ofrecen hoy en encomiable esfuerzo tripartita las Academias Nacionales de Medicina, de la Lengua y de Historia.

  11. Don't Be Such a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R.

    2006-12-01

    Academics are bad enough at communication. Science academics are worse. They think too much, they don't care about their image, they assume audiences cherish every word they say, and when the general public fails to embrace them, they blame it on the audience. This is the message of my recent documentary feature film, "Flock of Dodos: the evolution-intelligent design circus." I'm not alone with this message -- others are saying it as well. The world has changed. We live in a new media environment, and changed environments bring about new selective forces. Academic scientists are being challenged as never before, as documented in part in Chris Mooney's bestselling book, "The Republican War on Science." And they must now consider whether they need to adapt, or run the risk of going the way of the dodo. In this talk I will offer up my ten suggestions on how to more effectively reach a broader audience, and then wait for all the scientists to tell me I'm wrong.

  12. Don Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. El Fundador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro López Pardo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Discurso pronunciado por el Doctor Alvaro López Pardo Presidente de la Academia de Historia de Bogotá, al Consejo de Bogotá el día 6 de agosto de 1988. Sesión especial de los 450 años.

    Por el año de 1578, caminaba lentamente por las polvorientas calles del poblado de Mariquita, un anciano, casi octogenario, que mostraba en su piel huellas de un enfermedad que se decía era la de San Lázaro.

    Las gentes lo miraban pasar con una mezcla de respeto y de piedad. En su mirada, un tanto vaga, se podían apreciar destellos de la que fuera una recia personalidad. Esta pobre figura era nadie menos que el Mariscal Don Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.

    En esta población ardiente y lejana, cargado de deudas, sin techo propio, iba a morir el gran señor, el Gran Capitán, el Gran Aventurero que fundara ésta nuestra noble y muy leal Santa Fe de Bogotá, cuyos 450 años celebramos en este día.

    Parece increíble que en aquella época y con una agitada vida, Don Gonzalo hubiera llegado a tan avanzada edad, es muestra de la fuerza de una raza y del templo de su espíritu, que se sobreponía a todas las adversidades y contratiempos.

    ¿Qué recuerdos vendrían a la mente de este anciano cuando, sentado en una pobre silla de vaqueta, contempla el azul cielo del trópico? ¿Quizá su infancia en España, en Córdoba, donde naciera o en la imponente Granada de los moros, recuperada hacía unos años por la Reina Isabel. Viendo los jardines de la Alhambra, el Generalife y al fondo el blanco perpetuo de la Sierra Nevada. O vendría a su mente el paso del fúnebre cortejo de Felipe el Hermoso y su lunática viuda Doña Juana?

    Sería tal vez el periodo de su juventud, oyendo las aventuras de Cortés en la Conquista de México, en medio de una Europa convulsionada y con España como centro de la misma. O quizás cuando estudiaba leyes en Salamanca y se metía en pleitos que no siempre ganaba y como

  13. On dialectisms of authentic origin in Don dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flyagina Marina Valerievna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the locally limited vocabulary of authentic origin represented in the dictionary of Don dialects. The emergence of vocabulary authentic origin in the dialect language is the result of cultural and language contacts, which are an integral part of any ethnic culture. Particularly notable was the impact of the Turkic language, related to the pre-Russian indigenous population neighborhoods of Wild Field. Authentic locally marked lexical units reflect the particular social, commodity-money relations, religious beliefs inherent in the culture of Turkic peoples, whose names were borrowed from Russian. Besides Turkisms in the lexicon of the Don dialect, there are also borrowings from other languages - Finno-Ugric, Slavic. Turkisms take the bulk of borrowed words, due to the territorial proximity to the earliest periods of the Don Cossacks. Regional origin covers the entire scope of domestic relations on Don, found among the names of the natural world. Research of dialect vocabulary of authentic origin lets to determine the specifics of formation of Don resettlement negotiations, which took place in a dialogue between different ethnic cultures.

  14. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium...... seedling blight (Fusarium spp., Microdochium spp.) were improving germination and reducing seedling blight on roots and coleoptiles under field conditions in winter wheat. Some of the seed treatments were also shown to have an impact on soil-borne Fusarium in trials carried out under glasshouse conditions...... germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  15. Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163146.html Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk ... nutrition for babies, a new study suggests that most cow's milk formulas don't increase the risk ...

  16. [Spanish neuroscience in times of Don Quixote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, Antonio; Mikola, Yvett; Almendral-Doncel, Raquel; Campos-Bueno, Javier

    2016-02-16

    Introduccion. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra publico su inmortal obra Don Quijote de la Mancha en plena epoca de crisis y decadencia en la España de la transicion entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Objetivo. En 2016 se conmemora el cuarto centenario del fallecimiento de nuestro insigne literato, por cuyo motivo analizamos en este articulo el estado de la neurociencia hispana, tanto en el texto quijotesco como en la obra de los autores coetaneos mas relevantes. Desarrollo. A pesar de las peyorativas circunstancias historicas, en la epoca de la transicion del Renacimiento al Barroco se produjo en la Corona de Castilla un florecimiento de la literatura (Siglo de Oro español) y de otras artes hispanas (pintura, escultura, arquitectura y musica), asi como una prodigiosa creatividad en el campo de la neurociencia, incluida en la filosofia natural. El medico Gomez Pereira, en su libro Antoniana Margarita, se adelanto en decadas a las bases del mecanicismo cerebral y del concepto de reflejo condicionado. El boticario Miguel Sabuco, en su texto Nueva filosofia, anticipo en siglos el concepto de neurotransmision. El medico Juan Huarte de San Juan fue el fundador de la neuropsicologia y la psicologia experimental; su texto Examen de ingenios ha sido uno de los textos cientificos mas influyentes y traducidos de todos los tiempos; sus conceptos quedan patentemente reflejados en el texto cervantino. Conclusion. Este analisis de la obra cervantina dentro del entorno cultural de la obra pretende ser un homenaje a la inmortal figura de nuestro 'Principe de los ingenios' en el cuarto centenario de su fallecimiento.

  17. Dostoyevski and Don Quijote: Poetics and Aesthetics of a Delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Djermanovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky’s body of work (1821-1881 one can find more than thirty references to Don Quixote; while some of them allude to the novel of Don Quixote itself, other ones refer to Cervantes’ hero as an archetypal figure. Since decades ago, the Russian literary criticism has been interested in the Russian quixotism – including Dostoevsky’s work – and important studies on this subject have been published recently. This study follows Dostoevsky’s references on La Mancha’s Knight as an independent figure of Cervantes’ novel, and the different symbolism Don Quixote’s figure has had in both Russian people and Russian intelligentsia.

  18. Distributed Observer Network (DON), Version 3.0, User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Rebecca A.; Conroy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Distributed Observer Network (DON) is a data presentation tool developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to distribute and publish simulation results. Leveraging the display capabilities inherent in modern gaming technology, DON places users in a fully navigable 3-D environment containing graphical models and allows the users to observe how those models evolve and interact over time in a given scenario. Each scenario is driven with data that has been generated by authoritative NASA simulation tools and exported in accordance with a published data interface specification. This decoupling of the data from the source tool enables DON to faithfully display a simulator's results and ensure that every simulation stakeholder will view the exact same information every time.

  19. Le don, histoire du concept, évolution des pratiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Athané

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Le premier chapitre de cette thèse étudie la notion de don établie en anthropologie et en sociologie par l’Essai sur le don de Marcel Mauss . Il a semblé utile d’examiner en détail les faits sociaux et culturels dont parle Mauss : le potlatch, cette fameuse « guerre des cadeaux » des Amérindiens de la côte nord-ouest du Canada, le kula des archipels Trobriand, à l’est de la Nouvelle-Guinée, le hau des Maoris de Nouvelle-Zélande. La thèse centrale de l’anthropologie de Mauss est que dons et ca...

  20. Don Quixote e a transgressão do saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ceccarelli

    2009-01-01

    truth will constantly be replaced to make place to another one that, in turn, will also be replaced. Cervantes belongs to the intellectual tradition of Erasmus de Rotterdam, and his Don Quixote rambles thought the universe of Erasmus in which every truth is suspected, and everything bathes in incertitude. Don Quixote de La Mancha is the result of the wisdom of Rotterdam and craziness of La Mancha. By transgressing the "known", Don Quixote transgresses the truth that up to then was taken for sacred and as a guarantee of knowledge and, therefore, of a possible means of controlling the world. Transgression produces turning points but there is not such a thing like a "final transgressing", which would be the equivalent of recreating the myth of an absolute knowledge. According to author, both our theoretical and clinical practices lack the necessary transgressing movement that would force us to abandon the shelter of constructed truths.

  1. Science and Fiction. On Don Quijote’s Epistemological Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Schmelzer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to analyze the representation of scientific knowledge in Cervantes’ Quixote, focusing on various passages that underline the scientific expertise of don Quixote himself. It is shown that the novel contains a subtle critique of science, based on an epistemological skepticism with regard to the arbitrariness of our world concepts. The characterization of don Quixote as a man of science even permits deducting that he suffers from a ‘double mental damage’, caused by the lecture of both books of cavalry and science. Cervantes thus would consider science to be fiction, a very modern point of view.

  2. Don Quixote's countenance before and after losing his teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, A; Romero, M

    2009-02-01

    The authors of this paper wish to draw attention to certain not-so-well-known aspects concerning the epithet "Knight of the Woeful Countenance", by which Cervantes' character Don Quixote is universally known. Cervantes used it to highlight the loss of his hero's molars and incisors; thus, the reduced vertical dimension of his face, along with his sagging cheeks and deepened facial furrows, was the reason for his permanently sorrowful countenance. Luis Martínez, a professional illustrator following instructions from the authors of this paper, has recreated the face of Don Quixote as Miguel de Cervantes may well have imagined it for his celebrated character.

  3. Mars and the Mind of Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.

    2002-12-01

    Among the many interests of Don Turcotte have been the terrestrial planets, both as individual bodies and as test beds for generalizations on the processes that have affected the form, evolution, and interior dynamics of Earth-like planets. Over a span of more than 20 years, Turcotte and his collaborators have contributed many insights into the surface evolution and mantle dynamics of Mars on topics ranging from the nature of support of long-wavelength topography, the origin of the Tharsis rise, the internal thermal evolution and its effect on topography and lithospheric stress, and the history of outgassing. A summary of recent findings concerning early Martian evolution permits Turcotte's contributions to be placed within the context of current understanding. Core-mantle differentiation occurred within 10-15 My of the start of solar system evolution, on the basis of isotope systematics in Martian meteorites. A magnetic dynamo was active in the early Noachian but apparently ceased before the end of heavy bombardment. Crustal formation was largely complete by the earliest Noachian, on the basis of the density of both well-preserved and largely buried impact structures. Gravity-topography admittances for Noachian terrain suggests that the general south-to-north thinning of the crust may have been the result of lower crustal flow, but rapid cooling of the crust is indicated by the preservation of early Noachian relief and large crustal magnetization anomalies. The onset of the Tharsis province as a site of voluminous magmatism and concentrated deformation likely postdated the establishment of the crustal thickness dichotomy, but much of the magmatism occurred prior to the formation of late Noachian valley networks. Extensive resurfacing of the northern hemisphere occurred in the Noachian, on the basis of the detection of large impact structures superposed on older filled basins. Extensive evidence for water-surface interactions during this period supports the view

  4. Don Juan Huarte de San Juan: El doctor que anticipó la melancolía de Don Quijote Don Juan Huarte de San Juan: The doctor who antocipated Don Quixote´s Melancholy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García Martín

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El estado de enajenación del ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote lo había aprendido Cervantes a través del doctor Juan Huarte San Juan, autor del famoso ensayo Examen de ingenios, donde formula la teoría de los humores para explicar el cuerpo y el carácter del hombre. En este artículo, pues, repasaremos la biografía de este personaje, analizaremos la formación de los médicos en las universidades de la España del Siglo de Oro, la influencia del Examen en la Europa de su tiempo y en la obra cervantina a través de la melancolía de don Quijote y de la locura del Licenciado Vidriera. Para terminar con la aplicación literaria de las tesis sobre ingenios que definiera nuestro dilecto médico de resonancia mundial.Cervantes learned about Don Quixote's derangement through Juan Huarte de San Juan's famous treatise Examen de ingenios, where he deployed the humoral theory to explain human body and character. In this article Huarte's biography will be summarized, analyzing the academic background of golden age Spanish doctors, and the impact of Examen in Early Modern Europe and in Cervante's work by examining Don Quixote's melancholy and Licenciado Vidriera's madness. Finally, I will show how the internationally famous Spanish doctor's thesis was used in literature.

  5. "Tihhi Don" : Fjodor Bondartshuk zakontshil film svojego otsa / Darja Zavgorodnjaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zavgorodnjaja, Darja

    2006-01-01

    Fjodor Bondartshuk monteeris kokku tema isa Sergei poolt Itaalias 13 aastat tagasi pooleli jäänud Mihhail Sholohhovi romaani järgi tehtud teleseriaali "Vaikne Don", mida hakkab Venemaa televisiooni 1. Kanal näitama 7. novembril

  6. Fjodor Bondartshuk dodelal "Tihhi Don" ottsa / Olga Saburova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saburova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Fjodor Bondartshuk monteeris kokku tema isa Sergei poolt Itaalias 13 aastat tagasi pooleli jäänud Mihhail Sholohhovi romaani järgi tehtud teleseriaali "Vaikne Don", mida hakkab Venemaa televisiooni 1. Kanal näitama 7. novembril

  7. "Don Kihotõ" nazõvajut lutshshih / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2003-01-01

    Lõppenud festivali FIPRESCI auhinna sai türgi film "Kauge" ("Uzak") : režissöör Nuri Bilge Ceylan. Rahvusvaheline filmiklubide föderatsioon (FICC) andis oma auhinna Don Quijote Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmile "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije") ja eriauhinna hiinlase Chen Kaige filmile "Üheskoos" ("Han ni zai ylki")

  8. IDEA: An Interdisciplinary Unit Comparing "Don Quixote" to "Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an idea for teaching language through content-based instruction in which a high school Spanish class studying a shortened abridged version of Cervantes'"Don Quixote" and an English class reading Shakespeare's "Hamlet," did a simple comparative analysis of the two texts. (Author/VWL)

  9. Don Favareau and the Road to Biosemiotic Transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Don Favareau has been a dynamic contributor to the development of biosemiotics its organization, not only with his seminal book: Essential Readings in Biosemiotic: Anthology and Commentary from 2010, where he edited all his colleagues’ writings creating the history of biosemiotics. He has assumed...

  10. IDEA: An Interdisciplinary Unit Comparing "Don Quixote" to "Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an idea for teaching language through content-based instruction in which a high school Spanish class studying a shortened abridged version of Cervantes'"Don Quixote" and an English class reading Shakespeare's "Hamlet," did a simple comparative analysis of the two texts. (Author/VWL)

  11. Det litterære rum i Don Quixote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2003-01-01

    Don Quixote kommer til verden i det måske mest afgørende øjeblik i den vestlige rumopfattelses historie - nemlig i det øjeblik, hvor forestillingen om, at vi lever i et uendeligt univers, erstatter den gammeleuropæiske forestilling om verdensrummet som et endeligt kosmos. Det nye verdensrum danner...

  12. Don L. Anderson and the Caltech Seismo Lab

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The following reminiscences and recollections, scientific and otherwise, were contributed by Don Anderson’s scientific colleagues. Incomplete though they are, they give a flavor of the extraordinary range of Don’s activities, his influence on Earth science, and the phenomenon that was the Caltech Seismological Laboratory in his time.

  13. The 'Don'ts' of Web Page Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Janet L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses online resources that focus on what not to do in Web page design. "Don'ts" include: making any of the top 10 mistakes identified by Nielsen, qualifying for a "muddie" award for bad Web sites, forgetting to listen to users, and forgetting accessibility. A sidebar lists the Web site addresses for the nine resources…

  14. "Don Kihotõ" nazõvajut lutshshih / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2003-01-01

    Lõppenud festivali FIPRESCI auhinna sai türgi film "Kauge" ("Uzak") : režissöör Nuri Bilge Ceylan. Rahvusvaheline filmiklubide föderatsioon (FICC) andis oma auhinna Don Quijote Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmile "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije") ja eriauhinna hiinlase Chen Kaige filmile "Üheskoos" ("Han ni zai ylki")

  15. Fjodor Bondartshuk dodelal "Tihhi Don" ottsa / Olga Saburova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saburova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Fjodor Bondartshuk monteeris kokku tema isa Sergei poolt Itaalias 13 aastat tagasi pooleli jäänud Mihhail Sholohhovi romaani järgi tehtud teleseriaali "Vaikne Don", mida hakkab Venemaa televisiooni 1. Kanal näitama 7. novembril

  16. "Tihhi Don" : Fjodor Bondartshuk zakontshil film svojego otsa / Darja Zavgorodnjaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zavgorodnjaja, Darja

    2006-01-01

    Fjodor Bondartshuk monteeris kokku tema isa Sergei poolt Itaalias 13 aastat tagasi pooleli jäänud Mihhail Sholohhovi romaani järgi tehtud teleseriaali "Vaikne Don", mida hakkab Venemaa televisiooni 1. Kanal näitama 7. novembril

  17. Viajando con Don Quijote en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilíe Rojas López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen. El Quijote ha cabalgado con nosotros por largo tiempo y como si no fuera suficiente la lucha contra los molinos de viento, don Quijote de la Mancha tendrá que luchar contra muchas situaciones de nuestra época actual. ¿Logrará esta hazaña el Caballero de la Triste Figura? El reto es dar la respuesta.

    Por tal motivo, la autora de este ensayo traslada al Caballero de la Triste Figura y lo inserta a la sociedad del siglo XXI. Transforma los valores, costumbres y puntos de vistas de la época en que se desarrolla la obra literaria y establece una serie de correlaciones entre el texto literario, el personaje principal y las diversas situaciones cotidianas actuales. Ciertamente, Don Quijote seguirá luchando contra las situaciones de nuestra época actual. Sin duda alguna este hidalgo está aún entre nosotros.

     

    Abstract. Don Quixote has ridden with us for a long time now, and as if his fight against windmills were not enough, Don Quixote still has many more difficult situations to combat in the present times.  Will the Knight of the Sad Figure accomplish this new deed?

    It is our challenge to find an answer to this inquiry. For this purpose, the author of this essay inserts the Knight of the Sad Figure in XXI century society. The author transforms the values, costumes and points of view of the times of the literary piece and establishes a series of relationships between the literary text, the main character and several current daily life situations. Don Quixote will certainly continue his fight against all the conditions we encounter nowadays. There is no doubt, then, that this knight still lives among us.

  18. The Comprehensive Review Working Group and Don't Ask, Don't Tell repeal at the Department of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    In February 2010, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Michael Mullen established the Comprehensive Review Working Group (CRWG) to conduct a comprehensive review of the issues associated with a repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT). Over the next 10 months, the CRWG undertook one of the most extensive studies of a personnel issue in the history of the U.S. military. This article describes the work and the findings of the CRWG (on which the author served) in the context of the activities within the Department of Defense (DoD) following President Obama's call for DADT repeal in his January 2010 State of the Union Address and leading up to the passage of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act in December 2010. It argues that the CRWG served a number of important functions in the DADT repeal process, particularly that it a) provided a rigorous, fact-based assessment of the impacts of repeal from which DoD senior leaders and Congress could base their views; b) developed a road map for a smooth and orderly implementation of repeal; and c) opened a conversation among military service members about what repeal would really mean to them. In doing so, the CRWG contributed to what has been a largely incident-free and successful transition to a post-DADT military.

  19. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  20. Fungal diversity and natural occurrence of fusaproliferin, beauvericin, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in wheat cultivated in Santa Fe Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílico, María Luz Zapata; Pose, Graciela; Ludemann, Vanesa; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E; Aríngoli, Elena E; Ritieni, Alberto; Basílico, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The Fusarium diversity and the mycobiota associated with moldy wheat kernels from Santa Fe province, Argentine, was assessed. The wheat cultivated area in Santa Fe province is divided according to agrometeorological conditions into two zones: Zone I (north-central) and Zone II (south). The natural occurrence of Fusarium toxins BEA, FUP, DON and NIV was also determined. Cladosporium was the most abundant of the 19 genera identified, followed by Fusarium, Phoma and Alternaria. Zone II shows a predominance of F. graminearum and F. culmorum. In Zone I, DON was present in 13/32 samples (range 0.43-3.60 mg kg(-1)) and NIV in 6/32 samples (range 0.11-0.40 mg kg(-1)). In zone II, DON was found in 11/21 samples (range 0.57-9.50 mg kg(-1)) and NIV in 4/21 samples (range 0.10-0.60 mg kg(-1)). BEA and FP were not detected in both zones.

  1. CDC Vital Signs–Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  2. 中国居民小麦粉和玉米制品中脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇和玉米赤霉烯酮暴露水平评估%Probabilistic assessment of dietary exposure to both deoxynivalenol and zearalenone from cereal-based products in Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 朱江辉; 邵兵; 李凤琴

    2015-01-01

    .039(0.038 ~0.039)、0.101 (0.100 ~0.101)、0.195 (0.194 ~0.197)和0.378(0.374 ~0.381) μg · kg-·d-1,均高于≥14岁组的x(95%CI)[0.001 (0.001 ~ 0.001)、0.004(0.004 ~0.004)、0.026(0.026 ~0.026)、0.061(0.060 ~0.061)、0.115(0.115 ~0.116)和0.232(0.231 ~0.235)μg· kg-1·d-1](t值分别为151.11、73.80、96.81、100.81、91.93和76.13,P值均<0.001).3~13岁组超过PMTDI的DON最小暴露水平为P76,其P99为1.03 μg·kg-1·d-1,≥14岁组超过PMTDI的DON最小暴露水平为P84,P95为1.01μg·kg-1·d-1.3~ 13岁组超过TDI的ZEN最小暴露水平为P97,其P95为0.25μg·kg-1·d-1,≥14岁组超过TDI的ZEN最小暴露水平为P98,其P90为0.26 μg·kg-1·d-1.结论 中国小麦粉和玉米制品中DON和ZEN的污染水平较低;人群膳食DON和ZEN暴露风险较低;3~ 13岁组对DON和ZEN的膳食暴露量均高于≥14岁组,是膳食暴露DON和ZEN的高危人群.%Objective To elucidate the dietary exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) from cereal-based products in Chinese populations using the probabilistic assessment approach.Methods A total of 292 wheat flours and 347 corn-based products were collected from sampling sites of 107 supermarkets or farmers markets,which were randomly selected from 44 cities of 13 provinces in 2009 by the stratified cluster random sampling method.Then,DON and ZEN contamination levels in these samples above analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS in combination with the food consumption data of 68 959 respondents,who were divided into group 1 aged 3 to 13 years old,and group 2 aged 14 and over 14 years old (≥14 years old),obtained by China National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were investigated.A probabilistic assessment model using Monte Carlo simulation was applied to derive the intake distribution of P1-P99 percentile of dietary exposure to DON and ZEN.Meanwhile,all parameters related to dietary exposure to both toxins were compared with either the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake

  3. Rocks and the Psychological Construction of Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karl Ulrich

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An element that is at once constructive and destructive, the rock figures as one of the most powerful symbols in Don Quixote. The most common interpretations of rocks hail from the Judeo-Christian tradition, that is, the durability and resistance associated with faith. Nonetheless, this article aims to expand upon this notion and investigate the relationship of rocks with punishment, death, martyrdom and even resurrection. Through the análisis of five episodes from Cervantes’ novel, the article will illustrate how the polyvalent nature of rocks reflects the polyvalence of Don Quixote’s psychology and his transition from a choleric to a melancholic individual. It will also address the architectonic role of rocks in both the construction and the destruction of ideals, and by extension, the destruction of the protagonist’s own identity.

  4. Don Quixote an Celia: the desire to live other lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Fraga Fernández-Cuevas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the parallelisms between Don Quixote and Elena Fortun’s novels Celia. First, it enumerates the various activities that prove the author’s interest in Cervantes and his work, as well as the possible intervention of her mentor, Maria Martinez Sierra, in the genesis of the child’s character. Both novels, of dialogical nature, share an episodic structure articulated by a weak storyline. Its protagonists are animated by the desire to live the lives of the characters of their favorite readings. They confuse fantasy and reality causing situations whose results are almost always adverse. If Don Quixote dies back to the reason, so will Celia, the girl, with her entry into adulthood by resigning her fantasies, which will be taken up by new generations of children.

  5. To the Spanish Young People: Don Quixote Dreyfussard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramírez Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.

  6. Azorín y Don Juan (1922): vidas paralelas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Bustamante Mourier, Ana Sofía

    1998-01-01

    Análisis de la novela "Don Juan" (1922), de José Martínez Ruiz (a) Azorín, dentro de la tradición del Tenorio arrepentido y redimido. En este caso la ejemplaridad cristiana se une a la perspectiva regeneracionista, y el tema del arrepentimiento se desarrolla a través de una estética impresionista y simbolista.

  7. Don Giovanni Goes to Prison: Teaching Opera behind Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Pierpaolo Polzonetti

    2016-01-01

    Teaching opera in prison presents challenges, such as limits imposed on printed and recorded material to study it, or the audio-visual technology in the classroom space, yet, no other experience can be so inspiring and rewarding for everybody involved. This essay focuses on teaching opera, in particular Mozart’s Don Giovanni, to imprisoned students in America. It addresses pedagogical challenges on how to teach opera in prison and advocates for the need to leave the ivory tower of academia an...

  8. Aspectos literarios de la obra de don Joan de Castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available Capítulo X. Latines de las elegías. El ilustre humanista don José Manuel Rivas Sacconi tiene el mérito de haber sido el primero en pedir una revaluación del juicio que de Castellanos tiene formado la crítica. En su obra El latín en. Colombia estudió a fondo la cultura latina del Beneficiado.

  9. Polarized Light Experiment, Presa Don Martin, Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This is a single scene from a pair (frames 021 and 024) to study the effects of polarized light in Earth Observations. One scene was exposed with vertically polarized light, the other, horizontally. The subject in this study, is a lake behind Presa (dam) Don Martin (27.5N, 100.5W) on the edge of the Rio Grande Plain near it's boundry with the Sierra Madre Orientral in Coahuila, Mexico.

  10. Polarized Light Experiment, Presa Don Martin, Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This is a single scene from a pair (frames 021 and 024) to study the effects of polarized light in Earth Observations. One scene was exposed with vertically polarized light, the other, horizontally. The subject in this study, is a lake behind Presa (dam) Don Martin (27.5N, 100.5W) on the edge of the Rio Grande Plain near it's boundry with the Sierra Madre Orientral in Coahuila, Mexico.

  11. El último neogranadino. Don Tomás Rueda Vargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available Pronto se cumplirá un cuarto de siglo de la muerte de don Tomás Rueda Vargas. En un claro día de julio se nos fue el inolvidable maestro. La sabana era un idilio verde con sol. La dulce curva de los cerros, apenas violeta, apenas víspera de azul, se afinaba entre la neblina de nácar.

  12. Embezzlement--don't let it happen to you!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capko, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Poor financial record keeping and blind trust are invitations for embezzlement. Clever thieves lure you into a false sense of security and complacency. They gain your trust, test the waters, and then go in for the kill. Don't be the victim of an embezzlement scheme that has your practice financing someone else's vacation. Embezzlement is often the result of a casual attitude toward handling finances, general neglect, or perhaps too much trust.

  13. The influence of familiarity on life jacket donning performance: implications for participant selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Conor Vaughan; Brooks, Christopher James; Kozey, John William; Habib, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories and test houses keep a "pool" of test subjects that volunteer to be participants in life jacket approval testing, which is believed to be an incorrect procedure. Fifty-six participants donned 8 child/infant life jackets onto 4 infant manikins in random order with time and accuracy of donning recorded. Average donning time for all 8 life jackets decreased significantly after the first donning experience. The findings show that the effect of familiarity occurs immediately after the first test, regardless of life jacket type, thus "contaminating" the subject and making them unsuitable for further tests. These observations are important for life jacket standards where the life jacket must be donned by a naïve participant. Currently, a poorly designed life jacket may receive a pass as a result of the learning effect as shown by participants with previous donning experiences.

  14. Don Quijote in Nineteenth-Century English Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Garrido Ardila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to light a group of Cervantine English literary works hitherto unknown to present-day Cervantes studies: seven theatrical adaptations of Don Quixote (two anonymous ones in addition to those by Charles Dibdin, Joseph Moser, G. A. Macfarren, C. A. Maltby and P. Milton, a comedy with a Quixotic title (by George Dance, and five Quixotic fictions (two anonymous, in addition to those by Lily Spender, Maurice Hewlett and A. T. Quiller-Couch. Three of these plays, had been noted by Leopoldo Rius in 1899 (Moser, Macfarren, Maltby; the other four are presented for the first time here. In order to chart a fuller and more complete history of Don Quixote on the English stage, this article provides relevant information on those seven plays. An examination of these works reinforces the previous theses that underscore the essentially comical nature of Quixotic plays in nineteenth-century England, a fact of relevance in the study of the English reception of Don Quixote in the course of that century.

  15. Simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, P G; Han, Z; Cai, Z X; Wu, Y J; Ren, Y P

    2010-12-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain was developed. The selected mycotoxins were: deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, moniliformin, zearalenone, zearalanone, ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B. The samples were extracted with aqueous acetonitrile (84 : 16, v/v) and purified by reliable laboratory-made mixed cartridges. The analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) and eluted with a mobile phase of water containing 0.2% aqueous ammonia and acetonitrile/methanol (90 : 10, v/v). All mycotoxins were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in negative electrospray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. Accurate determination was achieved by employing commercial ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard, which compensated for target loss and eliminated matrix effects. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R² > 0.9990), average recovery (75.8-106.5%), sensitivity (limit of quantitation 0.09-8.48 µg kg⁻¹) and precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 6.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain. Finally, a total of 69 corn samples randomly collected from eastern and northern China were analyzed. The results showed that deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected contaminant, whilst 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, zearalanone, fusarenon X and moniliformin also occurred frequently. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B were present only in trace amounts in a small number of samples.

  16. Las parodias dramáticas de Don Juan Tenorio en el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Noh Kang, Sook-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Zorrilla was, undoubtedly, the one who approached the myth of Don Juan the closest. Tirso has paternity. Madariaga thinks the Don Juan of Moliere lacks spontaneity and displays a conscious rebellion against the laws. That of Byron is a reflective character. The Don Giovanni created by Da Ponte for Mozart's opera is very civilised and lacks spontaneity, as well. Madariaga does not forgive Pushkin for the appearance of Laura on a balcony in Madrid and not in Seville. Obviously Madariaga is righ...

  17. [Removal of DON in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption using activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Yu, Guo-Zhong; Gu, Li; Zhao, Cheng-Mei; Li, Qing-Fei; Zhai, Hui-Min

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen as a precursor of new type nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water attracted gradually the attention of scholars all over the world. In order to explore the mechanism of DON removal in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption, water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N, UV254, pH and dissolved oxygen, were determined in raw water and the molecular weight distribution of the DON and DOC was investigated. The variations in DON, DOC and UV254 in the coagulation and adsorption tests were investigated, and the changes of DON in raw water were characterized using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that DON, DOC and UV254 were 1.28 mg x L(-1), 8.56 mg x L(-1), 0.16 cm(-1), and DOC/DON and SUVA were 6.69 mg x mg(-1), 1.87 m(-1) x (mg x L(-1))(-1) in raw water, respectively. The molecular weight distribution of the DON in raw water showed a bimodal distribution. The small molecular weight ( 20 000) fractions accounted for about 22%. The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 20%, 26% and 70%, respectively, in the coagulation test and the dosage of coagulant was 10 mg x L(-1). The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 60%, 35% and 100%, respectively, in the adsorption test and the dosage of activated carbon was 1.0 g. In the combination of coagulation and adsorption, the removal of DON and DOC reached approximately 82% and 64%, respectively. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON in the coagulation and adsorption tests depended intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances.

  18. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

  19. On pattern matching with k mismatches and few don't cares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Marius; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2017-02-01

    We consider the problem of pattern matching with k mismatches, where there can be don't care or wild card characters in the pattern. Specifically, given a pattern P of length m and a text T of length n, we want to find all occurrences of P in T that have no more than k mismatches. The pattern can have don't care characters, which match any character. Without don't cares, the best known algorithm for pattern matching with k mismatches has a runtime of [Formula: see text]. With don't cares in the pattern, the best deterministic algorithm has a runtime of O(nk polylog m). Therefore, there is an important gap between the versions with and without don't cares. In this paper we give an algorithm whose runtime increases with the number of don't cares. We define an island to be a maximal length substring of P that does not contain don't cares. Let q be the number of islands in P. We present an algorithm that runs in [Formula: see text] time. If the number of islands q is O(k) this runtime becomes [Formula: see text], which essentially matches the best known runtime for pattern matching with k mismatches without don't cares. If the number of islands q is O(k(2)), this algorithm is asymptotically faster than the previous best algorithm for pattern matching with k mismatches with don't cares in the pattern.

  20. Don Quichotte, un don quichotte ? Déprogrammation d’un stéréotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuenca-Godbert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En réaction à la publication de la suite apocryphe de Don Quichotte de la Manche, Cervantès utilise dans sa seconde partie les ressorts narratifs de la stéréotypie littéraire pour montrer à quel point son personnage diffère de ce qu'en a fait Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuateur peu respectueux de sa personne et de son personnage. Le refus de voir en don Quichotte un simple stéréotype du chevalier errant chimérique est particulièrement manifeste dans la série d'aventures se déroulant au château des ducs, où don Quichotte, par sa renommée littéraire littéralement reconnue, est traité en chevalier par des personnages manipulateurs de situations, qui visent à produire chez lui des réactions programmées pour s’en amuser. Il apparaît alors que le simple agrégat d'ingrédients propres au stéréotype littéraire chevaleresque finit par ne pas produire l'issue escomptée.En la Segunda parte del Quijote, Cervantes reacciona ante la publicación de la de Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuador poco respetuoso con la persona del autor primigenio y su personaje. Recurriendo a los procedimientos narrativos de la estereotipia literaria deja bien claro qué diferente resulta ser el personaje original respecto al del continuador. La negativa de ver a don Quijote como un mero estereotipo del caballero andante loco se pone particularmente de manifiesto en la serie de aventuras que transcurren en el palacio de los duques. Allí, los personajes reconocen literalmente la fama literaria de don Quijote. Generan, desde situaciones ficticias, tipos de tratamiento que se dispensarían a un verdadero caballero andante. Como resultado, se desencadena una serie de reacciones programadas con las que pretenden divertirse. Sin embargo, queda claro que la mera acumulación de ingredientes propios del estereotipo literario caballeresco no produce el resultado esperado.

  1. Detection of zearalenone,fumonisin,aflatoxin,ochratoxin,deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in fermented tea and plant perfume by ELISA%ELISA法测定发酵茶和植物香料真菌毒素的污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳其芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To probe into the feasibility of detecting zearalenone,fumonisin,aflatoxin,ochratoxin,deoxynivadenol and T-2 toxin in fermented tea and plant perfume by ELISA. Methods The competitive ELISA was used to detect contamination of zearalenone,fumonisin,aflatoxin,ochratoxin,deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in fermented tea and plant perfume. Results The concentrations of zearalenone/umonisin,aflatoxin,ochratoxin,deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in fermented tea and plant perfume were in the range of 40.0-1 000.0μg/kg, 1.0-20.0μg/kg, 1.0~20.0μg/kg,2.0~40.0μg/kg, 0.25-5.0 mg/kg and 75.0~500.0μg/kg with recovery in the range of 87.5%~111.1%,90.0%~107.2%,85.0%~115.0%,87.5% ~120.0% ,90.0% ~110.0% and 86.6%~106.6%. Conclusion ELISA is suitable for rapid detection of mycotoxin in fermented tea and plant perfume.%目的 探讨以ELISA法检测发酵茶、植物香料中玉米赤霉烯酮、伏马菌素、黄曲霉毒素(AFB1)、赭曲霉毒素、脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)、T-2毒素的可行性及污染状况.方法 采用竞争酶联免疫吸附法,检测发酵茶、植物香料中玉米赤霉烯酮、伏马菌素、黄曲霉毒素、赭曲霉毒素、脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇、T-2毒素.结果 玉米赤霉烯酮浓度为40.0~1 000.0μg/kg之间的变异系数为1.5%~6.5%,回收率为87.5%~111.1%,r=0.998;伏马菌素浓度为0.25~5.0mg/kg之间的变异系数为2.0%~6.5%,回收率为90.0%~107.2%,r=0.992;黄曲霉毒素浓度为1.0~20.0μg/kg之间的变异系数为2.2%~7.8%,回收率为85.0%~115.0%,r=0.997;赭曲霉毒素浓度为2.0~40.0μg/kg之间的变异系数为1.8%~7.0%,回收率为87.5%~120.0%,r=0.998;脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇浓度为0.25~5.0 mg/kg之间的变异系数为1.5%~8.0%,回收率为90.0%~110.0%,r=0.996;T-2毒素含量浓度为75.0~500.0μg/kg之间的变异系数为2.8%~7.5%,回收率为86.6%~106.6%,r=0.996.结论 ELISA法检测发酵

  2. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations.

  3. Galacto-oligosaccharides Protect the Intestinal Barrier by Maintaining the Tight Junction Network and Modulating the Inflammatory Responses after a Challenge with the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol in Human Caco-2 Cell Monolayers and B6C3F1 Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari, Peyman; Braber, Saskia; Alizadeh, Arash; Verheijden, Kim; Schoterman, Margriet Hc; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The integrity of the epithelial layer in the gastrointestinal tract protects organisms from exposure to luminal antigens, which are considered the primary cause of chronic intestinal inflammation and allergic responses. The common wheat-associated fungal toxin deoxynivalenol acts as a sp

  4. 脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇对小鼠的胚胎毒性和致畸作用%Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Deoxynivalenol on Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于爱莲; 李晓霞; 朱小明; 张忠

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(deoxynivalenol,DON)致小鼠胚胎毒性和致畸作用.方法将34只健康妊娠SPF级昆明小鼠随机分为空白对照(不做任何处理)组、溶剂对照(30%丙二醇)组和低(4mg/kg)、中(6.4mg/kg)组,每组6只小鼠,高(10mg/kg)剂量DON染毒组10只小鼠.小鼠于孕期第7~10天连续进行腹腔注射染毒,染毒容量分别为11.4、18.3、28.6ml/kg.于妊娠第18天处死孕鼠,记录活胎数、吸收(死)胎数、胎鼠体重.肉眼观察有无畸形;采用阿尔新蓝和茜素红进行活胎鼠骨骼、软骨双重染色,镜下观察骨骼发育情况.结果与溶剂对照组比较,高、中、低剂量DON染毒组活胎数、产仔数和胎鼠体重均较低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而吸收胎数均较高,但差异无统计学意义.随着DON染毒剂量的升高,活胎数、产仔数和胎鼠体重呈下降趋势,吸收胎数呈上升趋势.高剂量DON染毒组胎鼠出现尾部畸形(包括短尾、卷尾、短尾合并卷尾),发生率为58.06%(18/31).各DON染毒组均不同程度地出现骨骼畸形,以中轴骨骼畸形为主,伴随四肢畸形.高剂量DON染毒组31只胎鼠均出现多发性骨骼畸形,且常出现多种畸形并存,以胸骨及肋骨畸形最为常见,其肋骨缺失率高达96%.空白对照组仅出现一例肢体(六趾)畸形,溶剂对照组未出现任何畸形.结论高剂量(10 mg/kg)DON对小鼠具有明显的胚胎毒性和致畸作用,可导致小鼠多发性骨骼畸形.

  5. Simultaneous and rapid determination of deoxynivalenol and its acetylate derivatives in wheat flour and rice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Bai-Fen; Cai, Zeng-Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple and reliable method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detection has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in wheat flour and rice, especially focusing on the optimization of sample extraction, cleanup, and chromatographic separation conditions. Sample pretreatment consisted of a first step using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe based extraction procedure and a subsequent cleanup step based on solid-phase extraction. The method was extensively validated in wheat flour and rice, obtaining satisfactory analytical performance with good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.999), acceptable recoveries (80.0-104.4%), and repeatability (RSDs 1.3-10.7%). The limits of detection (21.7-57.4 μg/kg) and quantitation (72.3-191.4 μg/kg) for deoxynivalenols were lower than those usually permitted by various countries' legislation in these food matrices. The method was applied to 34 wheat and rice samples. The results were further compared with results of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

  6. Don Quijote en Brasil: de la mitología a las historietas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Almeida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una pequeña reflexión sobre el libro El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, de Miguel de Cervantes, publicada en 1605. Esta obra ha sido considerada como una de las mejores novelas de todos los tiempos. En ella podemos transitar de lo popular a lo erudito. Esta narrativa está llena de antítesis y metáforas barrocas que contienen desde los refranes populares hasta la erudición de los mitos griegos, así como de la locura y jocosidad de Don Quijote y también de la mediocridad y lucidez de Sancho Panza.

  7. Please Don't Make Me Draw!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a software tool to support rich pictures creation for Object Oriented Analysis (OOA). This software should be useful both as an e-learning tool for bachelor-level students, as well as for practitioners working with agile methodologies. Since the transposition...... of manual rich picture practise into software proved dif?cult, we decided to follow a user-centered approach, design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated the design of our prototype......, and forced us to re-consider the relationship between concrete examples and abstract concepts in rich pictures and in our tool. This unexpectedly helped us realize how to implement support for behavioral description (i.e. events), an elusive feature before the test. Moreover we gained a deeper insight...

  8. Don Juan, de Gonzalo Torrente Ballester: el monstruo en su laberinto

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Estudio de la novela "Don Juan" (1963), de Gonzalo Torrente Ballester, dentro de la tradición del mito de Don Juan y como relato de técnica impecable que consigue el reto de hacer una novela fantástica larga.

  9. El don de traducir. Ensayo sobre Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers

    OpenAIRE

    Ilg, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    El estudio del "don" como "intercambio cultural" ofrece un enfoque distinto para una nueva aproximación al ensayo Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers de Walter Benjamin. Desde esa perspectiva, se reubica la tarea del traductor como un envío que devuelve la palabra donada. De ahí resulta que se trata de un "don de traducir".

  10. The Generation of 1898 and Cervantes : The invention of Don Quixote as a national symbol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.; Achiri, N.; Baraibar, A.; Schmelzer, F.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Don Quixote became a Spanish national symbol thanks to the authors the Generation of 1898, such as Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín and Francisco Navarra Ledesma, who published their new interpretations during the 1905 commemoration of the publication of Cervantes', The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of L

  11. The Generation of 1898 and Cervantes : The invention of Don Quixote as a national symbol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.; Achiri, N.; Baraibar, A.; Schmelzer, F.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Don Quixote became a Spanish national symbol thanks to the authors the Generation of 1898, such as Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín and Francisco Navarra Ledesma, who published their new interpretations during the 1905 commemoration of the publication of Cervantes', The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of L

  12. A patient with donning-related stump wounds : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, E. C. T.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2008-01-01

    A patient suffering from diabetes and a trans-tibial amputation presented with stump wounds caused by improper donning of the liner. His diminished hand function resulted in improper donning, with air being trapped between the liner and stump. This caused blisters on the skin after loading the prost

  13. An Interview with Don Meyer on Siblings of Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, Effie; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an interview with Don Meyer, an advocate for the siblings of children with disabilities. Don Meyer has conducted "SibShops," a peer support and information for school-age siblings of children with disabilities, and written extensively on the difficult situation of children in this underserved demographic. Here,…

  14. The Generation of 1898 and Cervantes : The invention of Don Quixote as a national symbol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.; Achiri, N.; Baraibar, A.; Schmelzer, F.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Don Quixote became a Spanish national symbol thanks to the authors the Generation of 1898, such as Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín and Francisco Navarra Ledesma, who published their new interpretations during the 1905 commemoration of the publication of Cervantes', The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of

  15. A patient with donning-related stump wounds : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, E. C. T.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2008-01-01

    A patient suffering from diabetes and a trans-tibial amputation presented with stump wounds caused by improper donning of the liner. His diminished hand function resulted in improper donning, with air being trapped between the liner and stump. This caused blisters on the skin after loading the

  16. Aspectos literarios de la obra de don Joan de Castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available Capítulo XIV Voces castizas que no figuran en el diccionario de la academia (I Con el título de Dos mil quinientas voces castizas y bien autorizadas que piden lugar en nuestro léxico, publicó don Francisco Rodríguez Marín un interesante libro en Madrid, 1922. El erudito comentador del Quijote estudió cuidadosamente los autores españoles de los siglos XV, XVI y XVII.

  17. Citazioni e autocitazioni nel “Mastro-don Gesualdo”

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This essay focuses on the use of autocitation in Giovanni Verga’s Mastro-don Gesualdo (1889) and analyses echoes of characters and scenes already outlined by the writer in Novelle rusticane (specifically, I galantuomini, Il reverendo, Pane nero, La roba) and in the novel Il marito di Elena. The second section of the article claims that in the short story La roba one might find allusions to Nicholaï Gogol’s Dead Souls. Finally, I argue for possible echoes of The Betrothed, as well as Tolstoj’...

  18. [Pica, a strange symptom unveiled even in "Don Quixote"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Camilo

    2005-05-01

    Pica, the compulsive eating of non edible substances, is known by the medical profession for centuries. In the novel by Miguel de Cervantes "Adventures of the famous knight Don Quixote de la Mancha'', there is a history in which "women that by caprice eat soil, plaster coal and other disgusting substances'' are mentioned. This description configures the clinical diagnosis of pica. This fact has not attracted the attention of the critics of Cervantes' novel, up to now. This unequivocal reference of pica suggests that iron deficiency anemia, caused by chronic hemorrhages in adults, was frequent in 1605, when the book was first published.

  19. Don, Betty and Jackie Kennedy: On Mad Men and Periodisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that we watch Mad Men and think it represents a period? Flashes of patterned wallpaper, whiskey neat, babies born that are never mentioned, contact lining for kitchen drawers, Ayn Rand, polaroids, skinny ties, Hilton hotels, Walter Cronkite, and a time when Don Draper can ask ‘What do women want?’ and dry old Roger Sterling can reply ‘Who Cares?’ This essay explores the embrace of period detail in Mad Men finding it to be both loving and fetishistic, and belonging, like all period film, to the politics of the present.

  20. Effects of memantine and donepezil on cortical and hippocampal acetylcholine levels and object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Jouni; Sarajärvi, Timo; Rasmusson, Doug; Kemppainen, Susanna; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lehtonen, Marko; Banerjee, Pradeep K; Semba, Kazue; Tanila, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    This preclinical study investigated the ability of memantine (MEM) to stimulate brain acetylcholine (ACh) release, potentially acting synergistically with donepezil (DON, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). Acute systemic administration of either MEM or DON to anesthetized rats caused dose-dependent increases of ACh levels in neocortex and hippocampus, and the combination of MEM (5 mg/kg) and DON (0.5 mg/kg) produced significantly greater increases than either drug alone. To determine whether ACh release correlated with cognitive improvement, rats with partial fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions were treated with acute or chronic MEM or DON. Acute MEM treatment significantly elevated baseline hippocampal ACh release but did not significantly improve task performance on a delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task, whereas chronic MEM treatment significantly improved DNMS performance but only marginally elevated baseline ACh levels. Acute or chronic treatment with DON (in the presence of neostigmine to allow ACh collection) did not significantly improve DNMS performance or alter ACh release. In order to investigate the effect of adding MEM to ongoing DON therapy, lesioned rats pretreated with DON for 3 weeks were given a single intraperitoneal dose of MEM. MEM significantly elevated baseline hippocampal ACh levels, but did not significantly improve DNMS task scores compared to chronic DON-treated animals. These data indicate that MEM, in addition to acting as an NMDA receptor antagonist, can also augment ACh release; however, in this preclinical model, increased ACh levels did not directly correlate with improved cognitive performance.