Cooper, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to replicate the American Dental Education Association 2007 Dental Faculty Perceptions of Workplace Environment survey at A Southeastern University, College of Dentistry. The study examined dental faculty perceptions of academic workplace variables including culture and environment, as well as professional development…
Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Fournier, Suzanne E; Townsend, Janice A; Ballard, Mary B; Armbruster, Paul C
Uncivil behavior by a faculty member or student can threaten a classroom environment and make it less conducive to learning. The aim of this study was to explore faculty behaviors that dental faculty and students perceive to be uncivil when exhibited in the classroom and clinic. In 2015, all faculty, administrators, and students at a single academic dental institution were invited to participate in an electronic survey that used a five-point Likert scale for respondents to indicate their agreement that 33 faculty behaviors were uncivil. Response rates were 49% for faculty and 59% for students. Significant differences were found between student and faculty responses on 22 of the 33 behavioral items. None of the three category composite scores differed significantly for students compared to faculty respondents. The category composite scores were not significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, or age for faculty or students. Overall, this study found significant differences between students and faculty about perceived uncivil faculty behaviors, though not for categories of behaviors.
Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine
The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.
Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine
A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)
Arnett, Michelle; Korte, Dina; Richards, Philip S; Saglik, Berna; Taichman, L Susan; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne E
The aims of this pilot study were to assess dental hygiene faculty members' perceptions of the importance of motivational interviewing (MI) and their confidence in teaching students about MI and to determine the effect of MI training sessions on those perceptions. Participants were a convenience sample of all 16 dental hygiene faculty members who teach in the clinic at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Participants' perceptions were assessed prior to a workshop in MI (pretest), immediately after the workshop (posttest 1), and eight months after the workshop, at the end of the academic year (posttest 2). During the same period, some of the workshop participants took part in team grading sessions of audio recordings of student-patient MI interactions. The results showed that the majority of the faculty members perceived it was important to personally embrace the overall spirit of MI during patient care, and they were confident supporting students as well. Their ratings for embracing the spirit of MI increased from pretest to posttest 1, but slightly decreased at posttest 2. This trend was also seen in their assessment of the importance of and their confidence in teaching the eight MI strategies over time. Among the workshop participants, 56% were part of team grading; they reported the most helpful professional development activities overall were team grading (58%) and the workshop (25%). These results suggest the importance of making use of a variety of faculty development activities and of introducing appropriate follow-up to training sessions over time to ensure long-lasting effects. Future research using carefully designed, multi-institution, longitudinal studies is needed to determine the most effective ways to prepare dental hygiene faculty members to educate their students about MI.
Full Text Available Introduction: Students and faculty members in the health professions classroom are expected to exhibit professional behaviors that are conducive to maintaining a positive learning environment. Aim: To assess the perception of uncivil classroom behavior among the students and the faculty members in a private dental institute in Hyderabad city, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among the dental students and the faculty members. The mean perceptions of uncivil classroom behavior were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire of Rowland and Srisukho containing 18 items. Results: A statistically significant difference was noted between the students and the faculty members for mean perception of uncivil classroom behavior (P = 0.002. When based on gender, no significant difference was observed among the students and the staff, but when individual items were considered, most of the male students and the faculty members perceived uncivil behaviors. Among all students, the mean perception of uncivil classroom behavior was significantly high among the undergraduates (68.17 ± 14.5 and least in postgraduates (62.67 ± 22.7, and among the faculty members, it was more among the professors (82.63 ± 4.0. Conclusion: Overall, the issue of uncivil classroom behavior remains a major concern, because 88.6% of the students agreed that they were involved in uncivil classroom behavior previously.
Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S; Gritz, Ellen R
Rates of tobacco use are increasing in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of the dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in the dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and six supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into the dental curricula using a five-point Likert scale ("1" = strongly disagree to "5" = strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66 % South America, 18 % Mexico/Central America, 16 % the Caribbean). Of the respondents, 2, 12, and 83 % reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated into the dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools.
Corum, Kathrine A; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Johnson, Kerry; Strait, Tia M
The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of full-time, entry-level dental hygiene educators regarding the ability to achieve interaction in their distance education courses and the impact of interaction on learning outcomes. The specific interactions explored were student-instructor, student-content, and student-student. A survey was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 287 educators across the United States, generating an overall response rate of 22.3 percent. The majority of respondents perceived interaction to be achievable in their distance courses, to increase through technology, and to positively influence learning outcomes. Nearly 90 percent reported student-instructor interaction as achievable, 95.3 percent reported student-content interaction as achievable, and 79.7 percent reported student-student interaction as achievable. Learning outcomes were defined in this study as the student's achievement of course objectives and competencies at course completion. Approximately 81 percent of the respondents reported a positive influence from student-instructor interaction, 79.7 percent from student-content interaction, and 70.3 percent from student-student interaction. This study also examined which modalities were perceived as being most influential in achieving interaction. The results demonstrated a prevalence of discussion board posting in an environment in which numerous Web 2.0 tools are available and respondents were not as positive about their ability to achieve student-student interaction in the distance learning environment. The authors conclude that faculty development is critical in achieving quality outcomes in dental hygiene distance education courses.
Alcota, M; Ruiz de Gauna, P; González, F E
The authors argue that dental curricula in Latin America are noted for providing highly technical and individualistic training that may fail to address society's problems or instil in the dentist the idea that he/she has a social responsibility to contribute to his/her community. This study's main objectives were to determine whether the curriculum and the faculty teaching practices of the School of Dentistry at the University of Chile contribute to its students' commitment to ethical and social responsibility. This was a qualitative study that investigated the perceptions of sixteen subjects (eight students and eight faculty members). Data were collected in thorough deep interviews. The interview process model conceptualised and organised the information into sets of dimensions and categories. The dimensions studied were ethical commitment and social responsibility. The categories assessed within ethical commitment were honesty, tolerance, responsibility and respect. In the social responsibility dimension, the categories were solidarity, teamwork and concern for and communication with the patient. Analysis of the textual data was performed using a method of content analysis based upon constructed qualitative matrices. Our results show that students and scholars alike realise that ethical commitment and a sense of social responsibility are not promoted in the curriculum. They do, however, recognise the importance of these qualities in dental practitioners. These results indicate that the current curriculum and teaching practices used in our School of Dentistry need to be reviewed and that programmes promoting professionals' commitment to their role in society need to be implemented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Gal, Gilad Ben; Weiss, Ervin I; Gafni, Naomi; Ziv, Amitai
Virtual reality force feedback simulators provide a haptic (sense of touch) feedback through the device being held by the user. The simulator's goal is to provide a learning experience resembling reality. A newly developed haptic simulator (IDEA Dental, Las Vegas, NV, USA) was assessed in this study. Our objectives were to assess the simulator's ability to serve as a tool for dental instruction, self-practice, and student evaluation, as well as to evaluate the sensation it provides. A total of thirty-three evaluators were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of twenty-one experienced dental educators; the second consisted of twelve fifth-year dental students. Each participant performed drilling tasks using the simulator and filled out a questionnaire regarding the simulator and potential ways of using it in dental education. The results show that experienced dental faculty members as well as advanced dental students found that the simulator could provide significant potential benefits in the teaching and self-learning of manual dental skills. Development of the simulator's tactile sensation is needed to attune it to genuine sensation. Further studies relating to aspects of the simulator's structure and its predictive validity, its scoring system, and the nature of the performed tasks should be conducted.
Batra, Manu; Gupta, Mudit; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant
Biostatistics is becoming an integral part of dental sciences. Awareness regarding the subject is not thoroughly assessed in the field of dentistry. So the study was conducted to assess dental professionals' knowledge, attitude, and perception toward biostatistics at an academic dental institution. An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among all the faculty and postgraduate students of two dental colleges in Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. The responses were assessed on 5-...
Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A
The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.
Cameron, Cheryl A.; And Others
Dental and dental hygiene faculty should maintain their clinical skills through regular practice, to improve their ability to relate to students through instruction, provide an additional source of income, and improve their image in the community. Institutional policies fostering and regulating faculty practice plans are suggested. (Author/MSE)
McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R
The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (ppeer teaching (ppeer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.
O'Sullivan, E M
International studies suggest that dental faculty are resistant to the concept and practice of faculty development. This paper analyses the demographic and educational profile of Irish Dental Faculty, exploring their attitudes to educational initiatives.
Premkumar, Kalyani; Moshynskyy, Anton; Sakai, Damon H.; Fong, Sheri F. T.
Faculty Development (FD) is a vital component across the medical education continuum of undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing medical education. However, the positioning of FD in medical institutions varies widely. The perceptions of faculty on FD should be examined in order to provide effective FD. The perceptions of faculty involved in…
Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R
In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.
Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Townsend, Janice A; Ballard, Mary B; Armbruster, Paul C
Students and faculty members in the health professions classroom are expected to exhibit professional behaviors that are conducive to maintaining a positive learning environment, but there is little published research concerning incivility in the area of dental education. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in perceptions of incivility between dental faculty and students, between students in different courses of study, and between students in different years of dental study. The study utilized an anonymous electronic survey of all dental faculty and administrators and all dental, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology students at a single institution. The survey instrument contained questions concerning perceived uncivil behavior in the classroom and clinical settings. Response rates were 54% for faculty and administrators and ranged from 60% to 97% for students in various years and programs. The results were analyzed based on gender, course of study, year of study, and ethnicity. Significant differences were found regarding perceptions of civil behaviour between faculty and students, male and female students, the year of study, and the course of study. These differences point to the need for further research as well as administrative leadership and faculty development to define guidelines in this area in order to ensure a positive learning environment.
Galbraith, Quinn; Garrison, Melissa; Hales, Whitney
This study measures the opinions of ARL librarians concerning the benefits and disadvantages of faculty status in academic librarianship. Average responses from faculty and nonfaculty librarians, as well as from tenured and tenure-track librarians, are analyzed to determine the general perceptions of each group. Overall, faculty librarians…
Muliira, Joshua K; Natarajan, Jansi; van der Colff, Jacoba
Incivility in nursing education can adversely affect the academic environment, the learning outcomes, and safety. Nursing faculty (NF) and nursing students (NS) contribute to the academic incivility. Little is known about the extent of NF academic incivility in the Middle East region. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions and extent of NF academic incivility in an undergraduate nursing program of a public university in Oman. A cross sectional survey was used to collect data from 155 undergraduate NS and 40 NF about faculty academic incivility. Data was collected using the Incivility in Nursing Education Survey. The majority of NS and NF had similar perceptions about disruptive faculty behaviors. The incidence of faculty incivility was low (Mean = 1.5). The disruptive behaviors with the highest incidence were arriving late for scheduled activities, leaving schedule activities early, cancelling scheduled activities without warning, ineffective teaching styles and methods, and subjective grading. The most common uncivil faculty behaviors reported by participants were general taunts or disrespect to other NF, challenges to other faculty knowledge or credibility, and general taunts or disrespect to NS. The relatively low level of NF academic incivility could still affect the performance of some students, faculty, and program outcomes. Academic institutions need to ensure a policy of zero tolerance to all academic incivility, and regular monitoring and evaluation as part of the prevention strategies.
Batra, Manu; Gupta, Mudit; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant
Biostatistics is becoming an integral part of dental sciences. Awareness regarding the subject is not thoroughly assessed in the field of dentistry. So the study was conducted to assess dental professionals' knowledge, attitude, and perception toward biostatistics at an academic dental institution. An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among all the faculty and postgraduate students of two dental colleges in Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. The responses were assessed on 5-point likert scale. The survey response rate was 73.71%. Two-thirds of respondents believed biostatistics to be a difficult subject and at the same time half of them did not consider it to be more difficult than other subjects in dentistry. Females were less competent than males in applying biostatistical skills which was found to be statistically significant. Results suggested that dentists with research or academics as an adjunct to their clinical practice had better command over the subject. The current study shows that there is lack of command over the subject of biostatistics among dental professionals although they were aware of its importance in dentistry. There is a need of changing the training pattern of biostatistics for dental professionals which would make them confident enough to apply biostatistics in their clinical practice.
This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took…
Masella, Richard S
A career in dental academics offers ample rewards and challenges. To promote successful careers in dental education, prospective and new dental faculty should possess a realistic view of the dental school work environment, akin to the informed consent so valuable to patients and doctors. Self-assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses provides helpful information in matching faculty applicants with appropriate dental schools. Essential prehiring information also includes a written job description detailing duties and responsibilities, professional development opportunities, and job performance evaluation protocol. Prehiring awareness of what constitutes excellence in job performance will aid new faculty in allotting time to productive venues. New faculty should not rely solely on professional expertise to advance careers. Research and regular peer-reviewed publications are necessary elements in academic career success, along with the ability to secure governmental, private foundation, and corporate grant support. Tactful self-promotion and self-definition to the dental school community are faculty responsibilities, along with substantial peer collaboration. The recruitment period is a singular opportunity to secure job benefits and privileges. It is also the time to gain knowledge of institutional culture and assess administrative and faculty willingness to collaborate on teaching, research, professional development, and attainment of change. Powerful people within dental schools and parent institutions may influence faculty careers and should be identified and carefully treated. The time may come to leave one's position for employment at a different dental school or to step down from full-time academics. Nonetheless, the world of dental and health professional education in 2005 is rapidly expanding and offers unlimited opportunities to dedicated, talented, and informed educators.
Muliira, Joshua K.; Natarajan, Jansi; van der Colff, Jacoba
Background Incivility in nursing education can adversely affect the academic environment, the learning outcomes, and safety. Nursing faculty (NF) and nursing students (NS) contribute to the academic incivility. Little is known about the extent of NF academic incivility in the Middle East region. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions and extent of NF academic incivility in an undergraduate nursing program of a public university in Oman. Methods A cross sectional survey was used to coll...
Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E
Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time.
Hicks, Jeffery L; Hendricson, William D; Partida, Mary N; Rugh, John D; Littlefield, John H; Jacks, Mary E
Academic dentistry, as a career track, is not attracting sufficient numbers of new recruits to maintain a corps of skilled dental educators. The Faculty Development Program (FDP) at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School received federal funds to institute a 7-component program to enhance faculty recruitment and retention and provide training in skills associated with success in academics including:(1) a Teaching Excellence and Academic Skills (TExAS)Fellowship, (2) training in research methodology,evidence-based practice research, and information management, (3) an annual dental hygiene faculty development workshop for dental hygiene faculty, (4) a Teaching Honors Program and Academic Dental Careers Fellowship to cultivate students' interest in educational careers, (5) an Interprofessional Primary Care Rotation,(6) advanced education support toward a master's degree in public health, and (7) a key focus of the entire FDP, an annual Career Transition Workshop to facilitate movement from the practice arena to the educational arm of the profession.The Career Transition Workshop is a cap stone for the FDP; its goal is to build a bridge from practice to academic environment. It will provide guidance for private practice, public health, and military dentists and hygienists considering a career transition into academic dentistry. Topics will be addressed including: academic culture, preparation for the academic environment,academic responsibilities, terms of employment,compensation and benefits, career planning, and job search / interviewing. Instructors for the workshop will include dental school faculty who have transitioned from the practice, military, and public health sectors into dental education.Objectives of the Overall Faculty Development Program:• Provide training in teaching and research skills,career planning, and leadership in order to address faculty shortages in dental schools and under representation of minority
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
Fulgham, Julie Cordell
This study investigated the faculty perception of the use of a student evaluation of faculty instrument. The areas considered were use of the current Student Evaluation of Faculty (SEF) instrument to measure teaching effectiveness; use of the current instrument for annual faculty review; faculty involvement in developing the instrument; utilizing…
Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori
Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Preventive approach in dental practice has been cited as a reason for the decline in oral diseases and as a predominant part of the service-mix of dental practices in the future. Dental faculty′s knowledge and attitude toward prevention are important, since they have exceptionally important direct and indirect roles in shaping student′s preventive orientation and also potentially influencing their patient′s ability to take care of their teeth. Thus, this study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care among dental faculties and their relation to demographic and professional characteristics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental faculties in Bangalore city. Of 17 dental colleges, 4 were selected by simple random sampling. A total of 218 dental faculties was individually asked to complete a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire requested information on dental faculty′s demographic and professional characteristics and their knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care. Descriptive, Chi-square tests, and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest knowledge was seen among dental faculties regarding prevention of malocclusion (3.51 ± 1.02 followed by oral cancer (2.95 ± 1.09 and periodontal diseases (2.86 ± 1.02. The least knowledge was seen for the prevention of caries (2.63 ± 1.35. The most positive attitudes regarding preventive dentistry was characterized as being essential (6.34 ± 1.05, useful (6.32 ± 1.07 and valuable (6.27 ± 1.00. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to knowledge and attitudes for all demographic and professional characteristics except for gender and Department of Teaching. Conclusion: Dental faculty seems to have differing levels of knowledge regarding oral diseases with positive attitudes seen regarding preventive dentistry. Continuing education activities and
Tower, Leslie E.; Bowen, Elaine; Alkadry, Mohamad G.
This article provides a snapshot of the perceptions of workplace climate of Extension faculty at a land-grant, research-high activity university, compared with the perceptions of non-Extension faculty at the same university. An online survey was conducted with a validated instrument. The response rate for university faculty was 44% (968); the…
Albino, Judith E.
Career advancement in academic dentistry appears to demand success in teaching, scholarship, and service, but foremost in research or scholarship. As a result, many dental faculty believe they are forced to choose between providing excellent professional preparation for their students or ensuring their academic careers. (MLW)
Eaton, Charissa K.; Osgood, Aurea K.; Cigrand, Dawnette L.; Dunbar, Ann-Marie L.
Research has commonly suggested that adequate and appropriate mentoring and faculty perception of support for a work-life balance are important factors in the recruitment, development, and retention of university faculty. To better understand the role of these factors in faculty job performance at teaching universities, faculty from such a…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying
Failure to receive proper oral health care including both prevention and maintenance is influenced by myriad and complex social, economic, and dental factors, including access to care. Reducing oral health disparities requires changes in the preparation of future dentists as well as measuring and influencing the attitudes and knowledge of practicing dentists. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that future dentists (students and residents) and faculty members at one U.S. dental school would treat Medicaid participants. Attitudes were measured using the Deamonte Driver scenario survey, which assesses factors affecting dentists' participation in Medicaid. In October 2012, all 113 full-time faculty members were invited to participate, and 60 completed the survey, for a response rate of 53.1%. In January and February 2013, all 18 residents in the dental clinics and university hospital were invited to participate, and 16 completed the survey, for a response rate of 88.9%. From 2013 to 2015, all 267 students in three classes were invited to participate: first-year students in the Classes of 2017 and 2018 and fourth-year students in the Class of 2015. A total of 255 students completed the survey, for an overall student response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the students were more likely to participate in caring for Medicaid patients than the faculty and residents. The white and male students had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the females and underrepresented minority students, while residents had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the students and faculty. Overall, the cultural competency skills, beliefs, and attitudes of these faculty members and residents were less developed than those of their students, signaling a need for broad educational and faculty development programs to fully prepare the future dental workforce to care for these patients.
Tricio, Jorge A; Montt, Juan E; Ormeño, Andrea P; Del Real, Alberto J; Naranjo, Claudia A
The aim of this study was to assess, after one year, the impact of faculty development in teaching and learning skills focused on a learner-centered approach on faculty members' perceptions of and approaches to teaching and on their students' learning experiences and approaches. Before training (2014), all 176 faculty members at a dental school in Chile were invited to complete the Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) to assess their teaching approaches (student- vs. teacher-focused). In 2015, all 496 students were invited to complete the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) to assess their learning approaches (deep or surface) and the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) to measure their teaching quality perceptions. Subsequently, faculty development workshops on student-centered teaching methodologies were delivered, followed by peer observation. In March 2016, all 176 faculty members and 491 students were invited to complete a second ATI (faculty) and R-SPQ-2 and CEQ (students). Before (2014) and after (2016) the training, 114 (65%) and 116 (66%) faculty members completed the ATI, respectively, and 89 (49%) of the then-181 faculty members completed the perceptions of skills development questionnaire in September 2016. In 2015, 373 students (75%) completed the R-SPQ-2F and CEQ; 412 (83%) completed both questionnaires in 2016. In 2014, the faculty results showed that student-focused teaching was significantly higher in preclinical and clinical courses than in the basic sciences. In 2016, teacher-focused teaching fell significantly; basic science teaching improved the most. Students in both the 2015 and 2016 cohorts had lower mean scores for deep learning approaches from year 1 on, while they increased their scores for surface learning. The students' perceptions of faculty members' good teaching, appropriate assessment, clear goals, and e-learning improved significantly, but perception of appropriate workload did not. Teaching and learning skills development
Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H
The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.
Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; pschools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; pschool administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.
Partido, Brian B
Dental and dental hygiene clinical faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction, especially since most procedures involve clinical judgment. Although instructional variations frequently translate into variations in student performance, the effect of inconsistent instruction is unknown, especially related to ergonomics. The aim of this study was to determine whether photography-assisted calibration training would improve interrater reliability among dental hygiene faculty members in ergonomics evaluation. The photography-assisted ergonomics calibration program incorporated features to improve accessibility and optimize the quality of the training. The study used a two-group repeated measures design with a convenience sample of 11 dental hygiene faculty members (eight full-time and three part-time) during the autumn 2016 term at one U.S. dental school. At weeks one and seven, all participants evaluated imaged postures of five dental students using a modified-dental operator posture assessment instrument. During weeks three and five, training group participants completed calibration training using independent and group review of imaged postures. All pre-training and post-training evaluations were evaluated for interrater reliability. Two-way random effects intraclass coefficient (ICC) values were calculated to measure the effects of the training on interrater reliability. The average measure of ICC of the training group improved from 0.694 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.001 to 0.965 (F(4,8)=3.465, p>0.05) to 0.766 with a 95% CI of 0.098 to 0.972 (F(4,8)=7.913, p<0.01). The average measure of ICC of the control group improved from 0.821 with a 95% CI of 0.480 to 0.978 (F(4,28)=7.702, p<0.01) to 0.846 with a 95% CI of 0.542 to 0.981 (F(4,28)=8.561, p<0.01). These results showed that the photography-assisted calibration training with the opportunity to reconcile different opinions resulted in improved agreement among these faculty members.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare faculty and student perceptions of "student engagement" at a mid-Atlantic community college to determine the level of correlation between student experiences and faculty practices in five benchmark areas of student engagement: "academic challenge, student-faculty interaction,…
Gidman, Lori Kathleen
The leadership style of academic leaders was studied through the eyes of faculty members. This empirical study looked at faculty perceptions of academic leadership with the use of a numerical survey as the basis for observation. Faculty members at six private liberal arts institutions completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in…
Charissa K. Eaton, PhD
Full Text Available Research has commonly suggested that adequate and appropriate mentoring and faculty perception of support for a work-life balance are important factors in the recruitment, development, and retention of university faculty. To better understand the role of these factors in faculty job performance at teaching universities, faculty from such a university were surveyed about their experiences with these forms of support and the factors that influenced their perception of the ability to do their job well. Results indicate that faculty mentoring was an important predictor for support at the department level. Additionally, perceived work-life balance was a significant factor at the college and university levels.
Dhima, Matilda; Petropoulos, Vicki C; Salinas, Thomas J; Wright, Robert F
The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the perceptions and experiences of predoctoral dental students and advanced standing students on mentorship, exposure to prosthodontics, and future need for the specialty, and (2) establish a baseline of students' perceptions of the impact of prosthodontics on salary, personal and patient quality of life, and the profession of dentistry. A survey was distributed to 494 predoctoral and advanced standing students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Questions focused on the perceptions and experiences with the specialty of prosthodontics. A total of 410 surveys were analyzed using Chi Square tests and univariate and multivariate analysis with statistical software. Response rate was 83%. A positive initial introduction to prosthodontics was reported by 57% of students. Most students had positive experiences with prosthodontic faculty and enjoyed laboratory work and challenging/complex dentistry. A greater need for prosthodontists in the future was perceived by 82% of respondents, with 63% reporting that the future of prosthodontics had been emphasized. Students reported (1) a preclinical course directed by prosthodontists and (2) working in the clinic with prosthodontic faculty (p salary (7(th) ), personal quality of life (5(th) ), patient quality of life (4(th) ), and strengthening of the dental field (7(th) ). Reasons few students are interested in prosthodontics as a career, despite a positive first introduction and high perceived future need for prosthodontists may be attributed to a number of factors. These include insufficient prosthodontically, trained faculty, lack of a mentorship program, lack of an advanced graduate program, a perception of feeling unprepared upon graduation, and misconception of potential income in prosthodontics. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Navazesh, Mahvash; Rich, Sandra K; Keim, Robert G
The triple jump examination (TJE) is an oral examination that poses challenges for objective assessment. Student satisfaction levels with faculty assessment can provide information on quality of teaching and students' perceptions of the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine scale and interrater reliability of an instrument used by approximately 576 first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for assessment of their faculty evaluators following midterm and final TJEs over a three-year period. One hundred and one faculty members served as administrators of the TJE with a range of one to 187 times (mean=44.10, median=29, mode=11). The grand mean for six items on a six-point Likert scale was 5.39 with a pooled standard deviation of 1.01. Results indicate positive agreement toward performance of examiners with strong interrater reliability (Average Measures ICC=0.936, Single Measures ICC=0.708) (F5,23475 = 51.564, pperform acceptable assessment from the students' perspective. Overall, these students expressed a high level of satisfaction with TJE faculty performance.
Mafla, A C; Villalobos-Galvis, F H; Heft, M W
To assess individuals' perception of dental caries, in order to explain how illness representations might influence their coping with the disease. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 520 consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) of the General Dentistry Clinic at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia who had experienced dental caries. Illness perception of dental caries was assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R). The most frequent self-reported symptoms associated with dental caries were "toothache" (56.2%), "tooth sensitivity" (53.8%) and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking" (51.2%). The dimensions of illness perception were related to socio-economic status (SES). Symptoms of "loose or separating teeth" and "pus in your tooth" were associated with dental caries by low SES participants, while "bleeding while brushing, flossing or eating hard food" and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold" were related more to higher SES. Perceptions of caries were related to socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote health literacy in order to improve the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information could increase an early detection of caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Shuman, D; Tolle, S L
Despite anti-discriminatory legislation, academic women in the 1980s have not achieved equality, and continue to face diverse problems advancing in an academic system based on a patriarchal paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to provide dental hygiene faculty with insight, awareness, and understanding into four major problem areas that influence women's academic success: values and attitudes learned through socialization; blocks to administrative positions; the male locus of decision making; and double standards of performance evaluation. Additionally, examples of solutions to these problems are discussed in three categories: individual, internal to the university, and external to the university; in an effort to better prepare women in dental hygiene education to succeed in academia despite discriminatory practices.
Bigatti, Sylvia M.; Gibau, Gina Sanchez; Boys, Stephanie; Grove, Kathy; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie; Khaja, Khadiji; Springer, Jennifer Thorington
As college graduates face an increasingly globalized world, it is imperative to consider issues of multicultural instruction in higher education. This study presents qualitative and quantitative findings from a survey of faculty at a large, urban, midwestern university regarding perceptions of multicultural teaching. Faculty were asked how they…
Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James P.
Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents continue to be featured frequently in the news. The authors of this study compare the perceptions of faculty and students on cyberbullying at an urban university. From the findings of surveys distributed to faculty and students in all schools of the university,…
Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya
This is a qualitative study of faculty perceptions of the relationship between pedagogy, liberal education, and multiculturalism. The incompatibility of liberal education and multiculturalism ground this study along with the assertion that teaching and learning are central to the liberal education mission. Nineteen faculty members participated in…
Rowles, Joie; Morgan, Christine; Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine
The fostering of critical thinking skills has become an expectation of faculty, especially those teaching in the health sciences. The manner in which critical thinking is defined by faculty impacts how they will address the challenge to promote critical thinking among their students. This study reports the perceptions of critical thinking held by…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…
Garland, Kandis V; Newell, Kathleen J
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the impact of faculty calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability regarding calculus detection. After IRB approval, twelve dental hygiene faculty members were recruited from a pool of twenty-two for voluntary participation and randomized into two groups. All subjects provided two pre- and two posttest scorings of calculus deposits on each of three typodonts by recording yes or no indicating if they detected calculus. Accuracy and consistency of calculus detection were evaluated using an answer key. The experimental group received three two-hour training sessions to practice a prescribed exploring sequence and technique for calculus detection. Participants immediately corrected their answers, received feedback from the trainer, and reconciled missed areas. Intra- and interrater reliability (pre- and posttest) was determined using Cohen's Kappa and compared between groups using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA. The groups did not differ from pre- to posttraining (intrarater reliability p=0.64; interrater reliability p=0.20). Training had no effect on reliability levels for simulated calculus detection in this study. Recommendations for future studies of faculty calibration when evaluating students include using patients for assessing rater reliability, employing larger samples at multiple sites, and assessing the impact on students' attitudes and learning outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between physical appearance and perception of an esthetic deviation, and the impact of such deviation on self-esteem and body image are important issues in determining the benefits of orthodontic treatment. Aim: To assess dental students′ perception of orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 undergraduate dental students of Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka formed the study group. Each classroom of the participants was visited, and self-administered questionnaire was given. An analysis of variance was done between the groups to test for statistical difference. Categorical variables were evaluated using a Chi-square test with the level of significance of P < 0.001. Results: About 75% of the students were aware of their dental esthetics. About 75% of females were satisfied with the attractiveness of their teeth when compared to 69% in males. House surgeons had more positive attitude compared to the 1 st year students. Conclusion: The dental students had good knowledge about the orthodontic treatment and had a positive attitude toward it. Females had very good knowledge, satisfaction and positive attitude compared to the males regarding dental esthetics and treatment. House surgeons were much more aware, very much satisfied and had a more positive attitude than 1 st year students.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Catalanotto, Frank A; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse
This study reports and compares dental student and dental faculty scores to national norms for the Defining Issues Test 2, a measure of ethical decision-making competency. The findings showed that dental students and faculty tend to make decisions that promote self-interest, paralleling the ethical orientation of business professionals. Differences associated with gender, language, and norms from previous studies were observed. The findings underscore the importance of raising dental faculty and student awareness of their own ethical decision-making approaches. More importantly, the findings highlight the need to ensure that dental faculty have both the knowledge and skills to train dental students about the central role that ethical decision-making must play in patient care.
When research-based resources are well aligned with the perceived needs of faculty, faculty members will more readily take them up. We used phenomenographic interviews of ordinary physics faculty and department chairs to identify four families of issues that faculty have around research-based assessments (RBAs). First, many faculty are interested in using RBAs, but need help with the practicalities of administering RBAs: how to find them, which ones there are, and how to administer them. Second, at the same time, many faculty think that RBAs are limited and don't measure many of the things they care about, or aren't applicable in their classes. They want assessments to measure skills, perceptions, and specific concepts. Third, many faculty want to turn to communities of other faculty and experts to help them interpret their assessment results and suggest other ways to do assessment. They want to better understand their assessment results by comparing to others and interacting with faculty from other schools to learn about how they do assessment. Fourth, many faculty consider their courses in the broader contexts of accountability and their departments. They want help with assessment in these broader contexts. We also discuss how faculty members' roles in their departments and institutions influence their perceived wants and needs around assessment. Supported by NSF DUE-1256354, DUE-1256354, DUE-1347821, DUE-1347728.
Faculty may perceive many barriers to active learning in their classrooms. Four groups of participants in a faculty development workshop were asked to list their perceived barriers to active learning. Many of the problems identified were present on more than one list. The barriers fall into three categories: student characteristics, issues…
Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.
Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…
Jarosz, Krystian F; Ziccardi, Vincent B; Aziz, Shahid R; Sue-Jiang, Shuying
fracture repair. Almost all the dental classes believed that the specialty of OMS was both medical and dental in nature and that it is a very important dental specialty. Dental student perceptions of OMS change throughout their undergraduate training. The reasons for such a change are multivariate and might include factors such as the amount of didactic training and clinical exposure. It is vital to both recognize and address this change at an undergraduate level of training in an effort to increase educated referrals to a surgeon who might provide the best treatment options for the patient. A stronger understanding of the dental students' perception of OMS provides an opportunity for the oral and maxillofacial academic faculty to better educate students and, ultimately, strengthen our specialty. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khalil Ibraheem Zaidan
Full Text Available Infection control and knowledge of common "infectious diseases" is essential for safe dental practice. Conveyance of infectious diseases is likely "from one individual to another during dental procedures", thorough" blood-borne" viruses and bacteria "such as hepatitis" , human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thence in dental practice, the sterilization and particular protection is of most importance Process in dental procedures, and patient sponsor settings seek specific strategies guide to prevent the transmission of diseases among dental students , oral verdure care staffs and their patients. Aim: Current study highlight the methods and behavior to evaluate the benefits of awareness, stance and pursuit of infection control between dental students in training dental clinic at Babylon dental collage . Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional wipe using a rear ordered questionnaire was executed. The reconnaissance consisted of 38 closed-ended questions that included the key areas of infection control, including hand hygiene, personal preservation, sterilization and disinfection and ecological infection monitoring. There were also questions to elicit perceptions regarding the treatment of HBV and HIV/AIDS patients. Results: Survey study was done for dental students replied to the reconnaissance. Their situation and realization across infection control in college teaching clinic .The results were assorted between 100% were orderly using gloves and 96% mask with patient to 6% were orderly wore eye glasses. The type of sterilization of instrument was 90% autoclave and 10% oven and from analysis of data revealed most teaching clinics devoid of instruction post about control of infection control measures Conclusion: "Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists" and graduated dental students predestined in the existing project. Enduring instruction "programs and short
Community-based dental education offers a variety of positive learning experiences for students while providing needed dental services for the underserved. More dental students are being instructed by a growing body of largely volunteer community-based faculty who practice in a wide range of community settings including community hospitals and clinics, nursing homes, and private practices. These geographically dispersed instructors may have little experience as educators. Their practice styles and their motivation to improve teaching effectiveness are likely to differ from the styles and motivation of school-based faculty members. Moreover, many dental schools have begun to emphasize practices that may be unfamiliar to community-based faculty such as evidence-based practice. Providing faculty development for them is challenging, yet crucial to the success of these programs and dental education in general. Fundamental elements that must be considered for effective community faculty development programming include fostering a culture of respect between school-based and community faculty members, basing programs on the actual needs of these educators, integrating principles of adult learning theory, and establishing ongoing institutional support. This article provides background on this movement, reviews the literature for faculty development programs geared specifically to community-based educators, makes recommendations for development programs for these dental educators, and includes suggestions for future research.
Smith, Lauren; Walsh, Margaret
To assess California dental hygiene educators' perceptions of an application of the American Dental Hygienists' Association's (ADHA) advanced dental hygiene practitioner model (ADHP) in medical settings where the advanced dental hygiene practitioner collaborates in medical settings with other health professionals to meet clients' oral health needs. In 2014, 30 directors of California dental hygiene programs were contacted to participate in and distribute an online survey to their faculty. In order to capture non-respondents, 2 follow-up e-mails were sent. Descriptive analysis and cross-tabulations were analyzed using the online survey software program, Qualtrics™. The educator response rate was 18% (70/387). Nearly 90% of respondents supported the proposed application of the ADHA ADHP model and believed it would increase access to care and reduce oral health disparities. They also agreed with most of the proposed services, target populations and workplace settings. Slightly over half believed a master's degree was the appropriate educational level needed. Among California dental hygiene educators responding to this survey, there was strong support for the proposed application of the ADHA model in medical settings. More research is needed among a larger sample of dental hygiene educators and clinicians, as well as among other health professionals such as physicians, nurses and dentists. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire
To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple dimensions, each of which needs further investigation with regard to their mutual
Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.
Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…
Liu, Min-Chieh; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Vargas, Marcos A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang
This study evaluated the relationship between instrumental measurements and subjective visual assessment of differences in dental porcelain translucency. Unshaded feldspathic porcelain was used with controlled amounts of tin oxide to create two groups of 12-mm diameter disks with incremental changes in opacity. Contrast ratio (CR = Yb/Yw) was determined with a spectrophotometer, and used as a measure of porcelain translucency (Group A = 0.20 to 0.40; Group B = 0.6-0.8). Within each group, there were 14 specimens with 11 CRs. Three observer groups (first year dental students, residents, faculty with >10 years of shade matching experience) were recruited to assess the translucency between porcelain disks under two lighting conditions (reflected light, transmitted light). Each subject's ability to distinguish between specimens of differing translucency was determined. Descriptive statistics and three-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test were used to evaluate the translucency perception threshold (TPT) of subjects (alpha= 0.05). The overall mean TPT (DeltaC) was 0.07, while 50% of the subjects could perceive a 0.06 CR difference between porcelain specimens. Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in translucency perception among the observer groups (p or =10 years) significantly improved the ability to perceive differences in translucency; however, neither the viewing condition nor porcelain opacity affected the perceived translucency threshold.
Butali, A; Adeyemo, W L; Akinshipo, A O; Fashina, A; Savage, K O
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of information technology amongst dental students, dental nursing students and resident doctors in training at the faculty of dental Surgery University of Lagos. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 58 clinical dental students in 4 th and 5 th years of training in the 2010/2011 academic year, 36 dental nursing students and 63 resident doctors undergoing specialist training. All participants have access to the computers, 2.5% within the University and 31% at home and internet cafes and about 50% have the basic skills required. A significant difference was observed between the resident doctors and clinical dental students (P = 0.003), between resident doctors and dental nursing students (P = 0.0001) when the use of computer for study was compared. Over 95% of participants have access to internet and about 50% of them use the internet for their studies. A significant difference (P = 0.005) was observed between clinical dental students and dental nursing students that use the internet and word processing. The resident doctors used the computers for multimedia and MedLine search tools more than clinical dental students (P = 0.004) and dental nursing students (0.0006). The findings of the study show that dental students and resident doctors in training have the requisite knowledge to operate the computer for use in their study and personal activities.
Esmer, Elif; Güven, Gülçin; Aydin, Oktay; Özden, Bülent; Efe, Kadriye; Sener, Nurcan
Individual differences have an influence on a wide range of education fields. These differences can range from organizing teaching environments to the techniques and strategies that the teacher uses. This study focused on individual differences of pre-service teachers and aimed to investigate the perceptions of Education Faculty students on…
Kopcha, Theodore J.; Rieber, Lloyd P.; Walker, Brandy B.
The purpose of this research is to understand faculty perceptions about innovation in teaching and technology in a college of education in a research-intensive university. This study was motivated by the creation of a new initiative begun in a large college of education at a Carnegie Research-Intensive university to promote innovation in teaching…
Marcus, Sara; Beck, Sheila
The researchers surveyed English and Speech & Theater faculty members at Queensborough Community College on their perceptions of and attitudes toward plagiarism. The researchers used the Queensborough Community College Academic Integrity Policy as the basis for their analysis. Based on the responses received, it was determined that 50% of the…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…
Royal, Kenneth D.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Flammer, Keven
A study was conducted to assess veterinary students' and faculty perceptions of a variety of academic and classroom behaviors, and the degree to which these are acceptable or not. Two instruments were developed for this purpose: 1) The Exams and Assignments Scale (EAS), consisted of 23 items measuring the extent to which a variety of examination…
Sheridan, Lynn; Murdoch, Natasha Hubbard; Harder, Emily
The purpose of this non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive research was to survey faculty and staff perceptions of mentorship in a postsecondary institution in order to determine gaps and strengths in the current mentorship environment. The anecdotal activities we present reflect our educational practice environment through the work of our…
Kowitlawakul, Y; Chan, S W C; Wang, L; Wang, W
The use of electronic health records in nursing education is rapidly increasing worldwide. The successful implementation of electronic health records for nursing education software program relies on students as well as nursing faculty members. This study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of nursing faculty members using electronic health records for nursing education software program, and to identify the influential factors for successful implementation of this technology. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted using in-depth individual interviews at a university in Singapore. Seven faculty members participated in the study. The data were gathered and analysed at the end of the semester in the 2012/2013 academic year. The participants' perceptions of the software program were organized into three main categories: innovation, transition and integration. The participants perceived this technology as innovative, with both values and challenges for the users. In addition, using the new software program was perceived as transitional process. The integration of this technology required time from faculty members and students, as well as support from administrators. The software program had only been implemented for 2-3 months at the time of the interviews. Consequently, the participants might have lacked the necessary skill and competence and confidence to implement it successfully. In addition, the unequal exposure to the software program might have had an impact on participants' perceptions. The findings show that the integration of electronic health records into nursing education curricula is dependent on the faculty members' experiences with the new technology, as well as their perceptions of it. Hence, cultivating a positive attitude towards the use of new technologies is important. Electronic health records are significant applications of health information technology. Health informatics competency should be included as a required competency
Girlaine Nunes Alves
Full Text Available This study proposed evaluates the perception of smile attractiveness between the patients dentistry and the influence of the media in the same opinion. The patients were randomly selected and interviewed using a direct approach while waiting for care. After answering the questionnaire, patients rated ten photographs extraoral of smile. The pictures were selected so that the lips, teeth and gingival tissue could be seen clearly, each picture having a different characteristic. Among the patients interviewed, 66.67% reported being satisfiedwith the aestheticsof the smile.Of the participants, 80% emphasized thewhitish color, the shape of teeth and the dental alignmentas factorsthat leavethe most beautiful smile. The teethamounted to55% of the answersgivenregarding themost attractivefacial feature, followedbyface shape(18.33%, mouth(15% and the eyes(11.67%. The patients interviewed admiring smiles showing teeth whitened and well aligned. Furthermore, the media have greatly influenced the patients' opinion regarding dental esthetics and smile.
Girlaine Nunes Alves
Full Text Available This study proposed evaluates the perception of smile attractiveness between the patients dentistry and the influence of the media in the same opinion. The patients were randomly selected and interviewed using a direct approach while waiting for care. After answering the questionnaire, patients rated ten photographs extraoral of smile. The pictures were selected so that the lips, teeth and gingival tissue could be seen clearly, each picture having a different characteristic. Among the patients interviewed, 66.67% reported being satisfiedwith the aestheticsof the smile.Of the participants, 80% emphasized thewhitish color, the shape of teeth and the dental alignmentas factorsthat leavethe most beautiful smile. The teethamounted to55% of the answersgivenregarding themost attractivefacial feature, followedbyface shape(18.33%, mouth(15% and the eyes(11.67%. The patients interviewed admiring smiles showing teeth whitened and well aligned. Furthermore, the media have greatly influenced the patients' opinion regarding dental esthetics and smile.
Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R
The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.
Suda, Katie J; Bell, Gillian C; Franks, Andrea S
To evaluate faculty members' and students' perceptions of study strategies and materials. Focus groups were conducted with course directors and first- and second-year students to generate ideas relating to use of course materials, technology, class attendance, and study strategies for mastering class concepts. Students and faculty members differed in their opinions about the utility of textbooks and supplemental resources. The main learning method recommended by students and faculty members was repeated review of course material. Students recommended viewing classroom lectures again online, if possible. Course directors reported believing that class attendance is important, but students based their opinions regarding the importance of attendance on their perceptions of lecture and handout quality. Results did not differ by campus or by student group (first-year vs. second-year students). Students and faculty members have differing opinions on the process that could influence learning and course design. Faculty members should understand the strategies students are using to learn course material and consider additional or alternative course design and delivery techniques based on student feedback.
van der Hoeven, Dharini; van der Hoeven, Ransome; Zhu, Liang; Busaidy, Kamal; Quock, Ryan L
Although dental education has traditionally been organized into basic sciences education (first and second years) and clinical education (third and fourth years), there has been growing interest in ways to better integrate the two to more effectively educate students and prepare them for practice. Since 2012, The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston (UTSD) has made it a priority to improve integration of basic and clinical sciences, with a focus to this point on integrating the basic sciences. The aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of basic and clinical science faculty members regarding basic and clinical sciences integration and the degree of integration currently occurring. In October 2016, all 227 faculty members (15 basic scientists and 212 clinicians) were invited to participate in an online survey. Of the 212 clinicians, 84 completed the clinician educator survey (response rate 40%). All 15 basic scientists completed the basic science educator survey (response rate 100%). The majority of basic and clinical respondents affirmed the value of integration (93.3%, 97.6%, respectively) and reported regular integration in their teaching (80%, 86.9%). There were no significant differences between basic scientists and clinicians on perceived importance (p=0.457) and comfort with integration (p=0.240), but the basic scientists were more likely to integrate (p=0.039) and collaborate (p=0.021) than the clinicians. There were no significant differences between generalist and specialist clinicians on importance (p=0.474) and degree (p=0.972) of integration in teaching and intent to collaborate (p=0.864), but the specialists reported feeling more comfortable presenting basic science information (p=0.033). Protected faculty time for collaborative efforts and a repository of integrated basic science and clinical examples for use in teaching and faculty development were recommended to improve integration. Although questions might be raised about
O'Sullivan, Eleanor M
AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience. This study also explores staff views of various faculty roles. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a benchmark profile of Irish dental school faculty members. It reflects on the heavily skewed age groups of our current dental educators and the impending retirement of many senior academics. Educational organisations need to explore ways to make a career in dental education financially and sociologically attractive and provide adequate support for existing faculty to ensure their development during these challenging times.
Coffman, Tammie J.
Servant leadership characteristics and caring converged in exploration of faculty and students of private, Christian nursing schools. Faculty assessed their servant leadership behaviors while students disclosed their perceptions of faculty as caring persons. Students evaluated faculty positively on a six-point Likert scale (mean 5.26).…
Zheng, M; Bender, D; Nadershahi, N
Innovative pedagogies have significantly impacted health professions' education, dental education included. In this context, faculty, defined in this study as instructor in higher education, has been increasingly required to hone their instructional skills. The purpose of this exploratory study was to share the design, implementation and preliminary outcomes of two programmes to enhance dental faculty's instructional skills, the Teaching and Learning Seminar Series and the Course Director Orientation. Data sources included faculty and student surveys developed and administered by the researchers; data extracted from the learning management system; reports from the learning analytics tool; and classroom observations. Participants' satisfaction, self-reported learning, instructional behavioural change, and impact on student learning behaviours and institutional practice were assessed borrowing from Kirkpatrick's 4-level model of evaluation of professional development effectiveness. Initial findings showed that faculty in both programmes reported positive learning experiences. Participants reported that the programmes motivated them to improve instructional practice and improved their knowledge of instructional innovation. Some faculty reported implementation of new instructional strategies and tools, which helped create an active and interactive learning environment that was welcomed by their students. The study contributes to literature and best practice in health sciences faculty development in pedagogy and may guide other dental schools in designing professional development programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tomás, I; Aneiros, A; Casares-de-Cal, M A; Quintas, V; Prada-López, I; Balsa-Castro, C; Ceballos, L; Gómez-Moreno, G; Llena, C; López-Jornet, P; Machuca, M C; Palés, J
To compare the perceptions of students and teachers of the "Educational Climate" (EC) in Spanish public dental schools. A group of 1064 students and 354 teachers from six Spanish public dental schools responded to the DREEM questionnaire. This has 50 items grouped into five subscales: perception of learning (Learning); perception of teachers (Teachers); academic self-perceptions (Academic); perception of the atmosphere in the faculty (Atmosphere); and social self-perceptions (Social). The DREEM scale provides results for each item, each subscale and the overall EC. The EC scores were 123.2 (61.6%) for the students and 134.1 (67.0%) for the teachers (Peducational aspects. Both groups agreed on the need to: improve support systems for students who suffer from stress and reduce teaching based on "factual learning." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Butters, Janice M.; And Others
This article reviews issues and circumstances surrounding the death of a University of Louisville (Kentucky) dental school faculty member found to be positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. it addresses administrative aspects including public relations, patient relations, epidemiological review, and staff counseling. (MSE)
Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M
Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute
In this exploratory descriptive study an investigator-developed survey tool was used to describe military clinical faculty's perception of characteristics nurse anesthesia students need for success...
This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took their core BS dental hygiene (BSDH) courses completely online were compared and contrasted with the perceptions of dental hygiene students who had taken a portion of the BSDH courses online and a portion in a traditional face-to-face classroom setting. Furthermore, this study compared and contrasted the perceptions of faculty on these same four dimensions based on the position held by the faculty member and the course format they are teaching in: online or a combination of online and a traditional face-to-face classroom setting. This study revealed several important differences and similarities between students who had taken their courses online and those who had taken a portion of the BSDH courses online and a portion in a traditional face-to-face classroom setting. The results showed students who had taken their courses online described factors related to the instructor as important to the quality of the learning experience such as: the experience and qualifications of the professor, the examples they provided and the instructors prompt response to questions. Students who had taken courses in both formats described factors related to the amount of effort they put into the course, their classmates' preparedness, the course materials and assignments as important to the quality of the learning experience. Although students who completed courses online reported difficulty participating in group activities, they were more positive regarding the level of interaction they experienced with their classmates online Findings indicated students who had taken their courses in both formats would have liked more opportunities to interact
Full Text Available The goal of the study was to examine the political ideology and perceptions of bias among the faculty in a university in the southeast U.S.A. Findings regarding the overall dominance of a liberal political ideology as well as ideological differences among disciplines are consistent with previous research. Respondents did distinguish between political dominance and political bias and were relatively accurate in their perceptions of a liberal dominance. Reports of bias were much lower overall but all groups were more likely to report a bias against conservatives than against Liberal and Moderates. Reports of bias against conservatives were quite high among conservatives themselves (48.7%. Conservatives were more likely to report a need to conceal their political beliefs, while Moderates and Liberals were slightly more likely to report harassment or attacks for their political beliefs. The gender differences in political ideology show that women are significantly more likely to hold a liberal political ideology.
Full Text Available Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants (n=11 included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role.
Full Text Available In order to prepare students for the workforce, academic programs incorporate a variety of tools that students are likely to use in their future careers. One of these tools employed by business and technology programs is the integration of live software applications such as SAP through the SAP University Alliance (SAP UA program. Since the SAP UA program has been around for only about 10 years and the available literature on the topic is limited, research is needed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the SAP UA program. A collaborative study of SAP UA faculty perceptions of their SAP UAs was conducted in the fall of 2011. Of the faculty invited to participate in the study, 31% completed the online survey. The results indicate that most faculty experienced difficulty implementing SAP into their programs and report that a need exists for more standardized curriculum and training, while a large percentage indicated that they are receiving the support they need from their schools and SAP.
Asiry, Moshabab A
To identify the readiness of students for online learning, to investigate their preference and perception, and to measure the quality of online tutorials. A 14-statement questionnaire was administered to fourth year undergraduate dental students in male campus at King Saud University who completed preclinical orthodontic course. The students responded to each statement by using Likert scale. The results reveal a high agreement of students (27.8-31.5% agree and 38.9-50% strongly agree) on a possession of necessary computer skills and access to internet. 59.2% and 64.8% of the students replied that online flash lectures and procedural videos were helpful to their learning, respectively. With respect to students' learning preferences, few students preferred online flash lectures (31.5%) and procedural videos (17.1%). Most students (38.9% agree and 31.5% strongly agree) preferred a combination of traditional teaching methods and online learning. Overall, student attitudes were positive regarding online learning. The students viewed online learning helpful as a supplement to their learning rather than a replacement for traditional teaching methods.
Henry, Rachel K; Gibson-Howell, Joan
Research has shown that Millennial students are different than students in previous generations. This study compares the expectations of the didactic environment of faculty and students in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Expectations of faculty and students were examined, and comparisons between Millennial and non-Millennial students and faculty were made in order to improve the educational experience of dental hygiene students. Students and faculty completed a survey adapted from McCargar's role expectations survey. Items were chosen from the survey to cover such areas as technology, group work and authority. The survey consisted of a Likert-type scale including strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. Data was entered into SPSS 15.0 database. Scoring on negative questions was reversed so that the score would be positive. Individual answers are given the following scoring assignments: Strongly Agree (+2), Agree (+1), Neutral (0), Disagree (-1) and Strongly Disagree (-2). Scores were added together to create a summative score for each item. Descriptive statistics and an unpaired t-test comparing responses were used to analyze data. Cronbach's alpha was run to measure the internal consistency of the instrument. Twelve faculty and 94 students returned surveys. Students felt strongly that copies of course notes should be available online and faculty should return emails within 24 hours. Statistically significant differences in the expectations of Millennial and non-Millennial students were found in regards to issues of authority, community service, attendance and evaluation. The majority of significant differences were found between Millennial students and faculty. Significant differences were found in interaction, community service, technology and homework. Faculty should examine the expectations of their students and should use the findings to create learning experiences that are more effective for students. Expectations change with
Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin; Cansoy, Ramazan
Perceptions of pre-service teachers on burnout, occupational anxiety and faculty life quality were investigated in this research. The research group consisted of 461 pre-service teachers in total studying at Afyon Kocatepe University faculty of education. "Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form," "Faculty Life Quality Scale"…
Mendez, Jeanette Morehouse; Mendez, Jesse Perez
Utilizing Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a conceptual framework, this study examines student perception of faculty of color in academia from student professor preference. Using an experimental design to test the effect of race on selection of faculty with whom to take a course, we showed student participants two types of pairings of faculty: first,…
Adams, Brooke N; Kirkup, Michele L; Willis, Lisa H; Reifeis, Paul E
At Indiana University School of Dentistry, a New Clinical Faculty Training (NCFT) program was created with the primary goals of informing new part-time faculty members of clinical policies and assessment guidelines and thus developing qualified and satisfied faculty members. The aim of this study was to determine if participation in the training program improved the participants' satisfaction and competence in comparison to their colleagues who did not participate in the program. Two cohorts were compared: a control group of part-time faculty members who did not receive formal training when they were hired (n=21; response rate 58.3%); and the intervention group, who had participated in the NCFT program (n=12; response rate 80%). A survey of faculty members in the control group gathered information on their experiences when initially hired, and a pretest was administered to measure their knowledge of clinical policies. After the control group was given an overview of the program, their feedback was collected through post surveys, and a posttest identical to the pretest was given that found statistically significant increases on questions one (p=0.003) and four (p=0.025). In February 2014, 15 new faculty members participated in the pilot implementation of the NCFT program. Of those 15, 12 (the intervention group) completed follow-up surveys identical to the pre survey used with the control group. Statistically significant differences were found for the factors clinical teaching (p=0.005) and assessment training (p=0.008) with better responses for the NCFT group. These results suggest that participation in the program was associated with improved clinical teaching knowledge and job satisfaction.
Palmer, Marila Dollahite
This study examined differences in faculty perceptions of organizational leadership at Christian institutions with servant leadership missions. The study evaluated faculty members' perceptions based on the independent variables of employment status (full- or part-time/adjunct), number of years employed at the institution, and attendance at an…
Orsini, Cesar A; Jerez, Oscar M
The importance of developing good dentist-patient relationships has been well documented, but previous studies have focused on social techniques, not considering the psychological and behavioral characteristics of patients, and have used definitions and instruments that were not dental-specific. Therefore, the aims of this study were to propose a definition of dentist-patient relationship skills, derived from dental faculty members' criteria and informed by Emotional Intelligence concepts, and to propose a preliminary dental-specific, face-valid, and reliable self-assessment instrument. The study was conducted in three phases. Phases I and II defined dentist-patient relationship competence through literature analysis and semi-structured interviews with expert key informants, establishing the outcome skills. In Phase III, the instrument was constructed and piloted. Communication skills and basic psychological tools resulted in core topics for use in practice. The definition both specifies and broadens social interactions in dentistry by including dental faculty members' criteria and topics such as psychological tools and pre-, intra-, and postoperative topics appropriate for use during consultation, examination, and treatment. The instrument was found suitable, reasonable, and accessible with a Cronbach's alpha level of 0.95. Future studies are needed to confirm the definition, as well as the instrument's validity, reliability, transference, and sensitivity to the dental educational environment.
Dhima, Matilda; Petropoulos, Vicki C; Han, Rita K; Kinnunen, Taru; Wright, Robert F
The goals of this study were to 1) evaluate dental students' perceptions of dental specialties, 2) identify factors that play an important role in students' decision to pursue specialty training or career choices, and 3) establish a baseline of students' perceptions of the dental fields with the best future in terms of salary, personal and patient quality of life, and overall impact on the dental profession. Surveys were distributed to 494 students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Data were collected from 380 traditional four-year students and thirty advanced standing students. Chi-square tests, multivariate analysis, and logistic regressions were used to determine associations and independent contributions of student demographics to their perceptions of dental specialties and factors influencing specialty training or career choices. Debt was a statistically significant factor (p<0.001) in choosing specialty training or career independent of gender, age, or class year. Enjoyment of providing care in a specialty or field was identified as the single most important factor in choosing a specialty career. Half of the respondents had decided not to specialize. Pursuing postdoctoral general dentistry training and private practice in general dentistry were the most commonly reported plans after completion of dental school. Suggestions are made for ways to inform students about specialty training.
DeAngelis, Susan; Dean, Kim; Pace, Cherin
As the number of dental hygiene programs across the country continues to increase, educational opportunities for prospective students have flourished, resulting in increased competition among dental hygiene programs for qualified applicants. The purpose of this study was to provide a current description of dental hygiene students and applicants, assess the reasons for choosing the career, and evaluate the perceptions of both applicants and enrolled students with regard to specific aspects of the profession. A questionnaire was mailed to 142 prospective dental hygiene students who met the minimal requirements for admission to either of the two dental hygiene programs in Arkansas. The prospective students had been invited for an admissions interview. The questionnaire also was administered during class to 80 students currently enrolled in one of the two programs. An overall response rate of 71% (n = 157) was achieved. The average respondent was 22 years old, female, and Caucasian with a grade point average of 3.5 and a composite ACT score of 23. Dental hygiene was also the first career choice and most respondents had prior dental assisting experience. Dental hygienists and dentists were reported as providing the most career guidance, while high school and college guidance counselors were least influential. Respondents chose the profession in order to work with and help people, have flexible work schedules, and receive good salaries. Respondents typically viewed dental hygiene as offering a bright future in terms of job security, good salaries, flexible work schedules, diverse career opportunities, and personal responsibility. No significant difference in overall perceptions of the profession was found between applicants and those enrolled in dental hygiene programs, although the strength of individual perceptions of the profession differed between applicant and first-year students compared to second-year students. Dental hygiene programs can use the findings of this
Ballard, Erin; Metz, Michael J; Harris, Bryan T; Metz, Cynthia J; Chou, Jang-Ching; Morton, Dean; Lin, Wei-Shao
The aims of this study were to evaluate dental students' clinical shade-matching outcomes (from subjective use of shade guide) with an objective electronic shade-matching tool (spectrophotometer); to assess patients', students', and supervising faculty members' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcomes; and to assess clinicians' support for use of the spectrophotometer to improve esthetic outcomes. A total of 103 volunteer groups, each consisting of patient, dental student, and supervising faculty member at the University of Louisville, were recruited to participate in the study in 2015. Using the spectrophotometer, clinical shade-matching outcome (ΔE clinical ) and laboratory shade-matching outcome (ΔE laboratory ) were calculated. Two five-point survey items were used to assess the groups' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcome and support for an objective electronic shade-matching tool in the student clinic. The results showed that both ΔE clinical (6.5±2.4) and ΔE laboratory (4.3±2.0) were outside the clinical acceptability threshold ΔE values of 2.7, when visual shade-matching method (subjective usage of shade guide) was used to fabricate definitive restorations. Characteristics of the patients, dental students, supervising faculty members, and restorations had minimal to no effect on the ΔE clinical The patients, dental students, and supervising faculty members generally had positive opinions about the clinical shade-matching outcome, despite the increased ΔE clinical observed. Overall, clinical shade-matching outcomes in this school need further improvement, but the patients' positive opinions may indicate the need to revisit the acceptability threshold ΔE value of 2.7 in the academic setting.
von Bergmann, HsingChi; Walker, Judith; Dalrymple, Kirsten R; Shuler, Charles F
The aims of this exploratory study were to explore dental faculty members' views and beliefs regarding knowledge, the dental profession, and teaching and learning and to determine how these views related to their problem-based learning (PBL) instructional practices. Prior to a PBL in dental education conference held in 2011, all attendees were invited to complete a survey focused on their pedagogical beliefs and practices in PBL. Out of a possible 55 participants, 28 responded. Additionally, during the conference, a forum was held in which preliminary survey findings were shared and participants contributed to focus group data collection. The forum results served to validate and bring deeper understanding to the survey findings. The conference participants who joined the forum (N=32) likely included some or many of the anonymous respondents to the survey, along with additional participants interested in dental educators' beliefs. The findings of the survey and follow-up forum indicated a disconnect between dental educators' reported views of knowledge and their pedagogical practices in a PBL environment. The results suggested that the degree of participants' tolerance of uncertainty in knowledge and the discrepancy between their epistemological and ontological beliefs about PBL pedagogy influenced their pedagogical choices. These findings support the idea that learner-centered, inquiry-based pedagogical approaches such as PBL may create dissonance between beliefs about knowledge and pedagogical practice that require the building of a shared understanding of and commitment to curricular goals prior to implementation to ensure success. The methods used in this study can be useful tools for faculty development in PBL programs in dental education.
Knevel, Rjm; Gussy, M G; Farmer, J; Karimi, L
This study investigates student and stakeholder perceptions of the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal. The impact of these perceptions on the professionalization of dental hygienists is described whilst exploring the consequences for oral health workforce planning. Dentistry and dental hygiene students from one dental college in Nepal were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire; 171 students returned the questionnaire containing a mix of forced response and open-ended items. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS ® 22. These data were complemented with qualitative information from survey open questions and from semi-structured interviews with key informants from several relevant organizations. Qualitative data were manually analysed and coded. Data were triangulated to contextualize quantitative data. A high level of positive regard for the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal was evident amongst dentistry and dental hygiene students in this college. Both groups believe that the dental hygienist can play a major role in raising oral health awareness in Nepal. The scope of practice of the dental hygienist was unclear with issues surrounding the scope of practice and reports of illegal practice by dental hygienists. Significant differences (P dental hygiene and dentistry students in relation to their opinion regarding independent practice and the need of supervision by a dentist. Supervision of the dental hygienist by dentists and issues surrounding the scope of practice are polarizing the relationship between dentists, dental hygienists and the relevant professional organizations. This could hinder cooperation between these oral health professionals and might lead to underutilization of the dental hygienist. To improve the understanding about the roles of each oral health professional, establishing functional relationships and intraprofessional education involving dentistry and dental hygiene students needs to be introduced. This will benefit the
Brame, Jennifer L; AlGheithy, Demah Salem; Platin, Enrique; Mitchell, Shannon H
Purpose: Dental hygiene educators often provide inconsistent instruction in clinical settings and various attempts to address the lack of consistency have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if the use of a use of a self-instructional, radiographic anatomy (SIRA) module improved DH faculty calibration regarding the identifica-tion of normal intraoral and extraoral radiographic anatomy and whether its effect could be sustained over a period of four months. Methods: A convenience sample consisting of all dental hygiene faculty members involved in clinical instruction (N=23) at the University of North Carolina (UNC) was invited to complete the four parts of this online pilot study: a pre-test, review of the SIRA module, an immediate post-test, and a four-month follow-up post-test. Descriptive analyses, the Friedman's ANOVA, and the exact form of the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test were used to an-alyze the data. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Participants who did not complete all parts of the study were omitted from data analysis comparing the pre to post-test performance. Results: The pre-test response rate was 73.9% (N=17), and 88.2% (N=15) of those initial participants completed both the immediate and follow-up post-tests. Faculty completing all parts of the study consisted of: 5 full-time faculty, 5 part-time faculty, and 5 graduate teaching assistants. The Friedman's ANOVA revealed no statistically significant difference (P=0.179) in percentages of correct responses between the three tests (pre, post and follow-up). The exact form of the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test revealed marginal significance when comparing percent of correct responses at pre-test and immediate post-test (P=0.054), and no statistically significant difference when comparing percent of correct responses at immediate post-test and the follow-up post-test four months later (P=0.106). Conclusions: Use of a SIRA module did not significantly affect DH
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Pyle, Marsha A; Van Ness, Christopher J; Overman, Pamela R; West, Karen P
The aim of this first national study of women in academic dentistry was to explore factors and perceived barriers for why administrative/leadership positions were or were not sought via data collected from full-time women dental faculty members in the U.S. In fall 2015, the researchers conducted a survey that employed a combination of response formats: forced choice from a menu, multiple allowable answers, and open-ended written comments. The overall response rate for the survey was 35.6% (537/1504). Respondents were from 48 of the 65 U.S. dental schools. Half of the respondents indicated their primary appointment was in clinical sciences, 22.9% were in administration, 7.3% in research, 7.1% in basic science, and 2.5% in behavioral science. While a quarter of the respondents indicated administration as their primary appointment, over half reported holding administrative positions, and nearly all (92.4%) reported currently holding leadership roles at their institutions. For those not currently in administrative/leadership roles, 52.6% indicated a desire for an administrative role and 70.7% a leadership role. Of those in administrative/leadership roles, 62.1% indicated not receiving extra remuneration for those responsibilities. Half of the respondents perceived that they were paid less in their current position than men doing the same work. The most dominant theme emerging from qualitative analysis of barriers the respondents experienced was the difficulty women in dental education have in a traditionally male-dominated profession. The results confirmed that women faculty members are "leaning in" to seek administrative/leadership roles in academic dentistry. However, pay equity remains an issue, and faculty development and mentoring are needed for the advancement of academic dentistry and ultimately the dental profession.
Varthis, S; Anderson, O R
"Flipped" instructional sequencing is a new instructional method where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking during the in-person class session; a novel approach studied in this research. The purpose of this study was to document dental students' perceptions of flipped-based blended learning and to apply a new method of displaying their perceptions based on Likert-scale data analysis using a network diagramming method known as an item correlation network diagram (ICND). In addition, this article aimed to encourage institutions or course directors to consider self-regulated learning and social constructivism as a theoretical framework when blended learning is incorporated in dental curricula. Twenty (second year) dental students at a Northeastern Regional Dental School in the United States participated in this study. A Likert scale was administered before and after the learning experience to obtain evidence of their perceptions of its quality and educational merits. Item correlation network diagrams, based on the intercorrelations amongst the responses to the Likert-scale items, were constructed to display students' changes in perceptions before and after the learning experience. Students reported positive perceptions of the blended learning, and the ICND analysis of their responses before and after the learning experience provided insights into their social (group-based) cognition about the learning experience. The ICNDs are considered evidence of social or group-based cognition, because they are constructed from evidence obtained using intercorrelations of the total group responses to the Likert-scale items. The students positively received blended learning in dental education, and the ICND analyses demonstrated marked changes in their social cognition of the learning experience based on the pre- and post-Likert survey data. Self-regulated learning and social constructivism
Grobgeld, Esther; Teichman-Weinberg, Ariela; Wasserman, Egoza; Barchilon Ben-Av, Mercedes
The goal of this study was to examine how faculty members at academic colleges of education perceive their role and to consider elements of their work that need to be included in a professional profile definition. All faculty of one college of education were asked: "What are the tasks/obligations of a faculty member at a college of education?…
Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally
Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group exposed to the risk of acquiring infections through occupational injuries.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions with regard to their occupational exposure to potentially infectious biologic materials.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Interviews were conducted by means of a script with open questions. The speeches were recorded, transcribed and qualitative analysis was performed with the aid of QUALIQUANTISOFT® software. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD was obtained.RESULT: The feeling most frequently experienced was related to the fear of contagion. Most accidents occurred during the handling of sharp dental instruments. Respondents attributed the occurrence of accidents especially the lack of attention, carelessness while handling sharp instruments, and lack of use of Personal Protective Equipment. As regards the measures taken right after the exposure, they "washed the local area". Other respondents reported they "continued the dental treatment". They complained mostly about the fear of having been infected, and because they had to leave the faculty to take blood exams for HIV screening. As part of the learning experience the injured reported they paid more attention when handling sharp instruments. The students informed that any type of injury due to contact with contaminated material must be notified. However, they were neglectful about reporting their own injury.CONCLUSION: Education strategies for preventive measures related to occupational exposure must be restructured, because the knowledge and the fear of contagion among dental students were not always sufficient for a complete adherence to treatment protocols and notification.
Price, Eboni G; Powe, Neil R; Kern, David E; Golden, Sherita Hill; Wand, Gary S; Cooper, Lisa A
To assess perceptions of underrepresented minority (URM) and majority faculty physicians regarding an institution's diversity climate, and to identify potential improvement strategies. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of tenure-track physicians at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from June 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005; they measured faculty perceptions of bias in department/division operational activities, professional satisfaction, career networking, mentorship, and intentions to stay in academia, and they examined associations between race/ethnicity and faculty perceptions using multivariate logistic regression. Among 703 eligible faculty, 352 (50.1%) returned surveys. Fewer than one third of respondents reported experiences of bias in department/division activities; however, URM faculty were less likely than majority faculty to believe faculty recruitment is unbiased (21.1% versus 50.6%, P = .006). A minority of respondents were satisfied with institutional support for professional development. URM faculty were nearly four times less likely than majority faculty to report satisfaction with racial/ethnic diversity (12% versus 47.1%, P = .001) and three times less likely to believe networking included minorities (9.3% versus 32.6%, P = .014). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the quality of mentorship. More than 80% of respondents believed they would be in academic medicine in five years. However, URM faculty were less likely to report they would be at their current institution in five years (42.6% versus 70.5%, P = .004). Perceptions of the institution's diversity climate were poor for most physician faculty and were worse for URM faculty, highlighting the need for more transparent and diversity-sensitive recruitment, promotion, and networking policies/practices.
Saffarpour, Aida; Ghavam, Maryam; Saffarpour, Anna; Dayani, Rozita; Fard, Mohammad Javad Kharazi
Objectives: This study aimed to assess and compare the perception of laypersons and dental professionals of smile esthetics based on two factors namely gingival display and alignment of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 females were randomly selected among dental students in the International Campus of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) with no previous history of esthetic dental work. Frontal photographs were obtained and cropped from the subnasal to menton areas of subjects to standardize the size of pictures. Three series of slides were prepared of the pictures using Microsoft PowerPoint software. The first series of slides were shown to familiarize the observers with the images. The second and third series were displayed for the observers and they were then asked to fill out a questionnaire. The group of observers included 10 dental specialists and 10 laypersons. Each observer was given a visual analog scale (VAS) chart for scoring (1–10). After completion of the questionnaires, data were transferred to a computer and the differences in judgments of professionals and laypeople were analyzed using the Mann Whitney test. Results: No significant difference was found in the judgments of professionals and laypeople on evaluating overall smile esthetics, gingival display and alignment of teeth except for the slide showing a reverse smile arc. Conclusions: Laypeople and professionals had similar perceptions of smile esthetics. Thus, it appears that clinicians can rely on the judgment of laypersons in esthetic dental treatments. PMID:27928236
Saffarpour, Aida; Ghavam, Maryam; Saffarpour, Anna; Dayani, Rozita; Fard, Mohammad Javad Kharazi
This study aimed to assess and compare the perception of laypersons and dental professionals of smile esthetics based on two factors namely gingival display and alignment of teeth. A total of 32 females were randomly selected among dental students in the International Campus of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) with no previous history of esthetic dental work. Frontal photographs were obtained and cropped from the subnasal to menton areas of subjects to standardize the size of pictures. Three series of slides were prepared of the pictures using Microsoft PowerPoint software. The first series of slides were shown to familiarize the observers with the images. The second and third series were displayed for the observers and they were then asked to fill out a questionnaire. The group of observers included 10 dental specialists and 10 laypersons. Each observer was given a visual analog scale (VAS) chart for scoring (1-10). After completion of the questionnaires, data were transferred to a computer and the differences in judgments of professionals and laypeople were analyzed using the Mann Whitney test. No significant difference was found in the judgments of professionals and laypeople on evaluating overall smile esthetics, gingival display and alignment of teeth except for the slide showing a reverse smile arc. Laypeople and professionals had similar perceptions of smile esthetics. Thus, it appears that clinicians can rely on the judgment of laypersons in esthetic dental treatments.
Ciabocchi, Elizabeth; Ginsberg, Amy; Picciano, Anthony
This article reports the findings of a study on the perceptions of faculty governance leaders to online and blended learning. For the purposes of this study, faculty governance was defined as formally established bodies in colleges and universities such as senates, councils, and collective bargaining organizations that are affiliated with the…
Johnson, Jamie R.
This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…
Joseph M. Blankush, MD
Conclusions: Resident perception of feedback is not correlated with number of faculty evaluations. An emphasis on faculty summative evaluation of resident performance is important but appears to miss the mark as a replacement for on-going, data-driven, structured resident feedback. Understanding the difference between evaluation and feedback is a global concept that is important for all medical educators and learners.
Chawdhry, Adnan A.; Paullet, Karen; Benjamin, Daniel
Current trends indicate that an increasing number of Universities have been offering online classes without assessing the faculty perspective of the online learning management tools. When a University understands the faculty perception they can implement an online education environment that is both conducive to student learning and faculty…
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Miller, Paul C.; Peeples, Tim
Although an increasing number of studies have examined students' participation in undergraduate research (UR), little is known about faculty perceptions of mentoring in this context. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate four aspects of mentoring UR, including how faculty define high-quality UR mentoring and operationalize it in…
Ozcan, Kenan; Balyer, Aydin; Servi, Tayfun
As members of academic team, faculty behaviors have vital influence on students' lives at universities. This study purposes to discover students' perceptions about faculty behaviors concerning their professional responsibilities, dating/sexual harassment, behaviors inside and behaviors outside the classroom and relationship based on self-interest.…
Biddix, J. Patrick; Chung, Chung Joo; Park, Han Woo
The purpose of this study was to consider faculty use and perception of mobile information and communication technology (m-ICT) for teaching practices. The researchers examined qualitative responses about specific m-ICT use and efficiency amongst Korean and US faculty (n = 59) at three different institutions. Findings from multi-level textual…
Mehmet A Ocak
Full Text Available This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a satisfaction with blended teaching, (b perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c perceived impact on student learning, (d perceived impact on student motivation, (e advantages of blended teaching, and (f disadvantages of blended teaching. Findings indicated that faculty members were likely to agree that blended teaching provides a high degree of satisfaction and that it requires more time and commitment from the faculty. The faculty members perceived that blended teaching improves student learning and, to some extent, improves motivation. The faculty members also emphasized the importance of institutional support and the use of technology to mitigate student problems. This study presents these faculty members’ perceptions, which are helpful for those planning to implement a blended teaching approach, and makes suggestions for trouble-shooting and taking advantage of the opportunities in a blended environment successfully.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess and compare the perception of laypersons and dental professionals of smile esthetics based on two factors namely gingival display and alignment of teeth.Materials and Methods: A total of 32 females were randomly selected among dental students in the International Campus of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran with no previous history of esthetic dental work. Frontal photographs were obtained and cropped from the subnasal to menton areas of subjects to standardize the size of pictures. Three series of slides were prepared of the pictures using Microsoft PowerPoint software. The first series of slides were shown to familiarize the observers with the images. The second and third series were displayed for the observers and they were then asked to fill out a questionnaire. The group of observers included 10 dental specialists and 10 laypersons. Each observer was given a visual analog scale (VAS chart for scoring (1-10. After completion of the questionnaires, data were transferred to a computer and the differences in judgments of professionals and laypeople were analyzed using the Mann Whitney test.Results: No significant difference was found in the judgments of professionals and laypeople on evaluating overall smile esthetics, gingival display and alignment of teeth except for the slide showing a reverse smile arc.Conclusions: Laypeople and professionals had similar perceptions of smile esthetics. Thus, it appears that clinicians can rely on the judgment of laypersons in esthetic dental treatments.Keywords: Smiling; Perception; Esthetics, Dental
Muirhead, Vanessa; Locker, David
In this paper, we report the results of a survey on dental student stress carried out in April 2005. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 171 students (62% response rate). Identified stressors were academic, clinic-related, social and financial. "Examination and grades" produced the most academic stress, and inconsistent feedback from instructors created the most clinic-related stress. Students found that having a dual role--wife or husband and dental student--was the most burdensome social stressor. Approximately 60% of students reported marital problems and stress associated with "relations with members of the opposite sex." Survey results showed that students who expected a high graduating debt had higher total and academic stress scores. Total stress was not related to age, gender or marital status. Students living with parents during term time had significantly higher total stress scores than students living in other arrangements. Students residing with parents also had significantly higher debts on entry to dental school. Students with more predental education had (non-significantly) lower stress scores but also had higher student debts. Undergraduate subject major (biological science or non-science) had no bearing on reported stress. This study highlights the negative effects of student debt, the necessity for staff training and the need for further studies exploring relations among stress, psychological well-being and academic performance.
Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A
Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.
Cherry, Shirley J; Flora, Bethany H
To assess radiography faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses. An original survey instrument was created by selecting items from 3 instruments used in prior research and adding unique questions designed to elicit demographic data from faculty. The sample included a national dataset of radiography faculty members employed in Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology-accredited programs in the United States. Findings showed that faculty perceptions of online course effectiveness are not affected significantly by faculty position, type of institution, faculty age, or years of teaching experience. Positive perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses moderately increased with years of teaching online courses, number of online courses taught in the past 5 years, and perceived competence with the use of technology. Faculty satisfaction with interaction in online courses moderately increased as the years of teaching online courses increased. However, the number of years of teaching online courses was not related to faculty satisfaction with teaching online courses or faculty satisfaction with institutional support. Online technology acceptance had a moderately positive relationship with perceived ease of use and a strong positive relationship with perceived usefulness of online technology. In addition, the use of technology-enhanced learning methods had a strong positive relationship with technological self-efficacy. Radiography faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses improved with experience in teaching online courses and competence with use of technology. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of online technology were related directly to online technology acceptance. Furthermore, faculty members with technological self-efficacy were more likely to use technology-enhanced learning methods in the online environment.
Cox, I.C.J.; Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.
AIM: To analyse the influence of the presence of the parent in the dental operatory on their child's behaviour during dental treatment. METHODS: This study was a randomised controlled trial performed in a secondary paediatric dental care clinic. The child's perception of the dental treatment and its
V Siva Kalyan
Full Text Available Introduction: Employees are regularly offered opportunities to make their work more appealing and rewarding. These opportunities might be as simple as making fine changes to their daily tasks to boost happiness and to connect with more people at vocation. Hence, an attempt is made to assess job-crafting behavior among the dental academic faculty. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental academic faculty from five dental colleges. Job Crafting Questionnaire (JCQ was used to assess the job-crafting behavior. Mean scores were calculated for different domains of JCQ. Gender differences were analyzed using Student's “t-” test and one-way ANOVA to test the difference between different academic positions of the faculty members. Results: A total of 228 dental faculty members with a mean age of 34.43 ± 6.13 years participated in the study. The mean value of job-crafting behavior was found to be highest among female faculty (60.07 ± 8.38 and professors (61.35 ± 8.30. Male faculty scored higher in task-crafting domain and female faculty scored higher in both cognitive- and relational-crafting domains. The professors scored highest in all the three domains of job-crafting behavior as compared to that of senior lecturers and readers. Conclusion: Job crafting is an effectual workplace intervention, where employees assume an active role in shaping their work experience to enhance their job satisfaction and well-being. The overall score of job-crafting behavior was found to be highest among both professors and female faculty members. Male faculty members scored higher in task-crafting domain. With regard to individual domains, the participants scored highest in cognitive crafting followed by task and relational crafting.
Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E
The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (pStudent respondents (82.1%) preferred handouts for lecture more than did the faculty respondents (58.8%; pstudents to read before class 39.3% more than student respondents read (pStudent respondents preferred study guides for exams 39.2% more than the faculty respondents provided them (pstudents work in groups more than these students preferred (57.8%), and 92% of these faculty members used group activities in class (pstudents in this study were consistent with previous research on millennial traits. This study found areas of disagreement between students and faculty members on the use of case studies, study guides, and group work. Although these students stated they preferred lecture over group work, trends in education stress using active learning over lecture.
Mulder, B.F.; Erich, M.H.; Borleffs, J.C.; Elgersma, A.F.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.
The extent to which students feel involved in their education positively influences academic achievement. Individual student-faculty meetings can foster student involvement. To be effective, faculty acknowledgement of the benefit of these meetings is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to
Young, Katelyn A; Lane, Samantha M; Widger, John E; Neuhaus, Nina M; Dove, James T; Fluck, Marcus; Hunsinger, Marie A; Blansfield, Joseph A; Shabahang, Mohsen M
Characterize the concordance among faculty and resident perceptions of surgical case complexity, resident technical performance, and autonomy in a diverse sample of general surgery procedures using case-specific evaluations. A prospective study was conducted in which a faculty surgeon and surgical resident independently completed a postoperative assessment examining case complexity, resident operative performance (Milestone assessment) and autonomy (Zwisch model). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) reaching statistical significance (p autonomy demonstrated a moderate correlation (r = 0.56, p autonomy and operative performance, respectively. General surgery residents generally demonstrated high correlations with faculty perceptions of case complexity, technical performance, and operative autonomy. This generalized accord supports the use of the Milestone and Zwisch assessments in residency programs. However, discordance among perceptions of midlevel resident autonomy and chief resident operative performance suggests that these trainees may need more direct communication from the faculty. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
effort” required throughout the delivery of DL instruction. These 11 BPP faculty members also included increased cognitive workload as a reason of...conduct academic research. Surprisingly, only one BPP faculty member, a full professor, mentioned that increased DL workload made it more difficult to
The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…
Andresen, Nicholas S; Olson, Tyler S; Krasowski, Matthew D
Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the 'hidden' medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy have not been compared in detail. The authors surveyed first year medical students and medical school teaching faculty at one academic medical center. The response rate was 98.7% (150/152) for students and 34.2% (69/202) for faculty. Students were less likely than faculty to agree that lecturers should disclose COI to any learners (4.06 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), but more likely to agree that COI disclosure decreases the presentation of biased material (3.80 vs. 3.21, p < 0.001). Student and faculty responses for all other questions were not different. Many of these responses suggest student and faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers. Students and faculty perceptions regarding COI and COI policy are largely similar, but differ in terms of the perceived effectiveness of COI disclosure. This study also suggests that medical students and medical school teaching faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.
Duževic, Ines; Ceh Casni, Anita
The purpose of this study was to explore key attributes of service quality in the Croatian higher education system. In particular, the study aims to compare student and faculty perceptions of service quality and to identify institutional aspects that may affect the perceptions of these two customers. Principal component analysis is used to define…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to that assess the perceptions and understanding of dental practitioners in the provision of dental treatment to pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The study was a quantitative, cross-sectional type. A sample size of 200 dental practitioners were included in the study between the period of 6 months, i.e. June–December. A cluster sampling technique was employed covering four different dental institutes. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess the perception and understanding of dental practitioners in providing treatment to the pregnant women. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Chi-square test was done to analyze the association of perception of dental practitioners in treating pregnant women in relation to gender. Results: A total of 200 dental practitioners filled the questionnaire out of which 43% (86 were males and 57% (114 were females. Eighty-two percent of the total participants said that it is safe to provide dental treatment during pregnancy, almost 90.4% of the total dentist interviewed was aware of the special position in which to place a pregnant woman on a dental chair. 85.5% of the study population do not prefer taking radiographs of a pregnant woman, 63% of the entire dentist surveyed prefers to use local anesthesia before any dental procedure on a pregnant patient. 96.5% care to educate their pregnant patient about improving dental health care. 59.5% of the dental practitioners said that they would consult the patient's gynecologist as a mandatory requirement before treating the patient. 57% of the dental practitioners answered with gingivitis. 70.5% agreed on scaling. The majority of the dentists prescribed paracetamol 85.5%. Conclusion: Little is known about the perception and utilization of dental practitioners in providing dental treatment to pregnant women in Pakistan. The present survey concluded that dental practitioners lack
Santiago, Lisa J; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Teri; Bowen, Denise M
Faculty calibration studies for calculus detection use two different standards for examiner evaluation, yet the only therapeutic modality that can be used for nonsurgical periodontal treatment is scaling/root debridement or planing. In this study, a pretest-posttest design was used to assess the feasibility of faculty calibration for calculus detection using two accepted standards: that established by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Inc. (CRDTS; readily detectible calculus) and the gold standard for scaling/root debridement (root roughness). Four clinical dental hygiene faculty members out of five possible participants at Halifax Community College agreed to participate. The participants explored calculus on the 16 assigned teeth (64 surfaces) of four patients. Calculus detection scores were calculated before and after training. Kappa averages using CRDTS criteria were 0.561 at pretest and 0.631 at posttest. Kappa scores using the scaling/root debridement or planing standard were 0.152 at pretest and 0.271 at posttest. The scores indicated improvement from moderate (Kappa=0.41-0.60) to substantial agreement (Kappa=0.61-0.80) following training using the CRDTS standard. Although this result differed qualitatively and Kappas were significantly different from 0, the differences for pre- to post-Kappas for patient-rater dyads using CRDTS were not statistically significant (p=0.778). There was no difference (p=0.913) in Kappa scores pre- to post-training using the scaling/root debridement standard. Despite the small number of participants in this study, the results indicated that training to improve interrater reliability to substantial agreement was feasible using the CRDTS standard but not using the gold standard. The difference may have been due to greater difficulty in attaining agreement regarding root roughness. Future studies should include multiple training sessions with patients using the same standard for scaling/root debridement used for
Richards, John R; Stayton, Taylor L; Wells, Jason A; Parikh, Aman K; Laurin, Erik G
Determine differences between faculty, residents, and nurses regarding night shift preparation, performance, recovery, and perception of emotional and physical health effects. Survey study performed at an urban university medical center emergency department with an accredited residency program in emergency medicine. Forty-seven faculty, 37 residents, and 90 nurses completed the survey. There was no difference in use of physical sleep aids between groups, except nurses utilized blackout curtains more (69%) than residents (60%) and faculty (45%). Bedroom temperature preference was similar. The routine use of pharmacologic sleep aids differed: nurses and residents (both 38%) compared to faculty (13%). Residents routinely used melatonin more (79%) than did faculty (33%) and nurses (38%). Faculty preferred not to eat (45%), whereas residents (24%) preferred a full meal. The majority (>72%) in all groups drank coffee before their night shift and reported feeling tired despite their routine, with 4:00 a.m. as median nadir. Faculty reported a higher rate (41%) of falling asleep while driving compared to residents (14%) and nurses (32%), but the accident rate (3% to 6%) did not differ significantly. All had similar opinions regarding night shift-associated health effects. However, faculty reported lower level of satisfaction working night shifts, whereas nurses agreed less than the other groups regarding increased risk of drug and alcohol dependence. Faculty, residents, and nurses shared many characteristics. Faculty tended to not use pharmacologic sleep aids, not eat before their shift, fall asleep at a higher rate while driving home, and enjoy night shift work less.
Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kang, Youngjoon; Kim, Giwoon
Halawany, Hassan S
The purpose of this study was to determine the career motivations, perceptions of the future of dentistry and preferred postgraduate specialties of Saudi dental students. A pretested, self-administered, 16-item questionnaire was distributed to first- through fifth-year dental students at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 530 potential participants, 329 students (198 male and 131 female respondents) completed the questionnaire. High professional status (71.4%), a secure career (67.8%), a high income (78.1%), flexible working hours (54.4%), a wide range of career options after graduation (59.3%), opportunities for self-employment (69.3%) and good job opportunities abroad (65.3%) were endorsed to a great/considerable extent by the respondents. "It takes time to establish a practice" (62.3%), "Postgraduate education is a necessity" (72.4%) and "The increasing number of dental institutions is a threat to the profession" (59.3%) were endorsed to a great or considerable extent by the respondents. The most popular specialty among the male students was oral maxillofacial surgery (20.1%) and among female students was operative dentistry (23.4%). The career motivations of this group of dental students seemed to relate to socioeconomic aspects of dentistry and perceptions of the future of dentistry seemed to relate to the need for postgraduate education.
Halawany, Hassan S
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the career motivations, perceptions of the future of dentistry and preferred postgraduate specialties of Saudi dental students. Methods: A pretested, self-administered, 16-item questionnaire was distributed to first- through fifth-year dental students at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Of the 530 potential participants, 329 students (198 male and 131 female respondents) completed the questionnaire. High professional status (71.4%), a secure career (67.8%), a high income (78.1%), flexible working hours (54.4%), a wide range of career options after graduation (59.3%), opportunities for self-employment (69.3%) and good job opportunities abroad (65.3%) were endorsed to a great/considerable extent by the respondents. “It takes time to establish a practice” (62.3%), “Postgraduate education is a necessity” (72.4%) and “The increasing number of dental institutions is a threat to the profession” (59.3%) were endorsed to a great or considerable extent by the respondents. The most popular specialty among the male students was oral maxillofacial surgery (20.1%) and among female students was operative dentistry (23.4%). Conclusion: The career motivations of this group of dental students seemed to relate to socioeconomic aspects of dentistry and perceptions of the future of dentistry seemed to relate to the need for postgraduate education. PMID:25246989
Kwiatkowski, Alison C; Demirbilek, Muhammet
Lecture capture technology is becoming more pervasive in today's classrooms. Students are demanding their lectures be recorded, but many instructors remain resistant. The goal of this study was to investigate faculty perceptions of lecture capture and to understand their concerns with the technology. Through a review of the existing literature, three common reasons for not recording were identified: impact on class attendance, incompatible pedagogy, and technical concerns. To test the hypotheses, an electronic survey was created and distributed to the faculty of a veterinary college in the southeastern US. The survey included both quantitative and qualitative questions. An invitation was emailed to all 134 faculty members, garnering 50 responses. Results were consistent with the hypotheses. Impact on class attendance, teaching styles, and technical considerations have dissuaded many instructors from adopting lecture capture technology. However, a fourth theme that emerged was faculty lack of awareness/familiarity. According to the qualitative responses, many faculty either did not know lecture recording was available in their teaching spaces or were not trained in how to use the technology. Recommendations for future research include distributing the survey campus-wide and providing more opportunities for faculty training. It would also be worthwhile to repeat the survey after providing more information and training materials to faculty, or after switching from an opt-in to an opt-out approach, to see whether perceptions have changed among the college's faculty.
Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William D; Killip, John W; O'Neill, Paula N; Reed, Michael J; Weinstein, George; Williams, John N; Valachovic, Richard W
This report summarizes the history and curriculum of the American Dental Education Association/Academy for Academic Leadership Institute for Teaching and Learning (ADEA/AAL ITL) Program for Dental School Faculty, describes participant feedback, and reviews how the program serves the faculty development initiatives of the American Dental Education Association. The fifty-hour program (6.5 days), conducted in two phases at collaborating dental schools, enhances core academic competencies of new and transitional faculty, including faculty members whose responsibilities include predoctoral, allied, and postdoctoral dental education. The program's mission is to prepare participants to become more effective teachers and develop other skills that will facilitate confidence, job satisfaction, and professional growth in the academic environment. From 2005 to 2009, 174 individuals graduated from the program, representing forty-three schools of dentistry in the United States and Canada and twenty-nine private practices. A total of forty scholarships have been awarded to participants by the American Academy of Periodontology Foundation, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, and the American Association of Orthodontists. In an online survey completed by 75 percent of ADEA/AAL ITL participants, 99 percent indicated they were positive or highly positive about their learning experience in this faculty development program. Ninety-six percent stated that the program had been important or very important in their effectiveness as a teacher. In 2010, the program will be held at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry, with phase I occurring on August 19-22, 2010, and phase II on October 22-24, 2010. In summary, the ADEA/AAL ITL is addressing an unmet need through a formal professional development program designed to help new and potential faculty members thrive as educators and become future leaders in academic health care.
Maynor, Lena M; Barrickman, Ashleigh Landis; Stamatakis, Mary K; Elliott, David P
To describe students' and faculty members' perceptions of the impact of lecture recording in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Second- and third-year pharmacy students and faculty members completed an anonymous survey instrument regarding their perceptions of lecture recording with 2 classroom lecture capture software programs, Camtasia Studio and Wimba Classroom. Most students (82%) responded that Camtasia was very helpful and almost half (49%) responded that Wimba Classroom was helpful (pstudents reported being more likely to miss a class that was recorded; however, few students (10%) reported using recordings as a substitute for attending class. The most common concern of faculty members was decreased student attendance (27%). Pharmacy students consider lecture recordings beneficial, and they use the recordings primarily to review the lecture. While faculty members reported concerns with decreased attendance, few students reported using recordings as an alternative to class attendance.
Full Text Available New educational technologies and online learning environments (OLEs are infiltrating todays college classes and campuses. While research has examined many aspects of this permeation, one research gap exists. How do faculty perceive the learning experience in courses that use OLEs compared to courses that do not? One important factor that may influence faculty perceptions are their reasons for teaching with OLEs. This paper seeks to understand how faculty perceive OLEs as a function of their reasons for teaching with this educational technology. This paper also investigates whether faculty evaluations of OLEs differ based on gender and by years teaching. The results of the analysis reveal several noteworthy patterns. First, it appears that favorable opinions about the learning experiences in online learning environments are not because faculty are motivated to learn about new technologies per se, but because they want to update their vitas and teaching skills. Second, the results suggest that it may be harder to convince older and more experienced faculty to use new technologies compared to younger and less experienced faculty. These results apply to both male and female faculty and provide practical implications for universities and support services on how to recruit and then support faculty who implement educational technologies.
McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W
This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.
Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A
To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.
Joanna A Gilmore
Full Text Available Doctoral attrition consistently hovers around 50% with relevant literature identifying several mediating factors, including departmental culture, student demographics, and funding. To advance this literature, we interviewed 38 graduate faculty advisors in science, engineering, or mathematics disciplines at a research-extensive university to capture their perceptions of factors supporting graduate student success. Using a constant-comparison method, we found that faculty perceptions aligned within three major categories, termed: motivated student behaviors, formative student learning experiences, and essential student knowledge and skills. Student motivation was most prominently represented in findings. This aligns with prior studies showing that faculty tend to identify the cause of graduate student failure as lying within the students themselves and rarely discuss their role or the department’s contribution to attrition. Thus findings offer an opportunity to reflect and improve upon practice. The study also highlights actions graduate students can take to increase success, such as developing collegial relationships and early involvement in research and scholarly writing. We encourage graduate faculty advisors and others to identify ways to help graduate students overcome common obstacles to enduring and succeeding within graduate programs. Faculty perceptions are also examined by discipline and faculty rank, and directions for future research are offered.
Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Bell, Alexander; Sayre, Eleanor C.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] To help faculty use research-based materials in a more significant way, we learn about their perceived needs and desires and use this information to suggest ways for the physics education research community to address these needs. When research-based resources are well aligned with the perceived needs of faculty, faculty members will more readily take them up. We used phenomenographic interviews of ordinary physics faculty and department chairs to identify four families of issues that faculty have around research-based assessments (RBAs). First, many faculty are interested in using RBAs but need help with the practicalities of administering RBAs: how to find them, which ones there are, and how to administer them. Second, at the same time, many faculty think that RBAs are limited and do not measure many of the things they care about, or are not applicable in their classes. They want assessments to measure skills, perceptions, and specific concepts. Third, many faculty want to turn to communities of other faculty and experts to help them interpret their assessment results and suggest other ways to do assessment. They want to better understand their assessment results by comparing to others and interacting with faculty from other schools to learn about how they do assessment. Fourth, many faculty consider their courses in the broader contexts of accountability and their departments. They want help with assessment in these broader contexts. We also discuss how a faculty member's role in their department and type of institution influence their perceived wants and needs around assessment.
Huda A. Al-Shehri
Full Text Available Objectives: To probe dental students’ perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (n=460 was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05. Results: It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8% think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Ivanoff, Chris S
To probe dental students' perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. A cross-sectional survey (n=460) was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05). It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8%) think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Min Young Cha
Full Text Available This research examines contingent faculty’s perception of organizational support, workplace attitudes, and Student Ratings of Teaching (SRT in a large public research university to investigate their employee-organization relationship. According to t-tests and regression analyses for samples of 2,229 faculty and instructional staff who answered the survey and had SRT data (tenured and tenure-track faculty: 1,708, 76.6% of total; contingent faculty: 521, 23.4% of total, employment relationship of contingent faculty in this institution was closer to a combined economic and social exchange model than to a pure economic exchange model or underinvestment model. Contingent faculty’s satisfaction with work, satisfaction with coworkers, perception of being supported at work, and affective organizational commitment were higher than tenured and tenure-track faculty at a statistically significant level. In addition, contingent faculty had higher SRT mean results in all areas of SRT items in medium-size (10-30 classes and in ‘class presentation,’ ‘feedback,’ ‘deeper understanding,’ and ‘interest stimulated’ in large-size (30-50 classes than Tenured and Tenure-track Faculty. These results not only refute the misconception that contingent faculty have too little time to provide students with feedback but also support that they provide students with good teaching, at least in medium-size and large-size classes. Whereas these results might be partially attributable to the relatively stable status of contingent faculty in this study (who work for more than 50 percent FTE, they indicate that, as a collective, contingent faculty also represent a significant contributor to the university, who are satisfied with their work, enjoy the community they are in, and are committed to their institution.
Full Text Available Post-secondary educational institutions use various means to evaluate the teaching performance of faculty members. There are benefits to effective faculty evaluation, including advancing the scholarship of teaching and learning, as well as improving the functionality and innovation of courses, curriculum, departments, and ultimately the broader community (Boyer, 1990; Glassick, Huber, & Maeroff, 1997. While there is a body of research related to the evaluation of faculty in traditional settings, there have been fewer studies examining online faculty members’ perceptions of evaluation processes. Further, due to the growth of online education, the existing evaluation scales, including those used in traditional settings, have been questioned (Berk, 2013; Hathorn & Hathorn, 2010; Rothman, Romeo, Brennan, & Mitchell, 2011. This qualitative study examines one university’s online full-time faculty and their perceptions of the tools and processes used to evaluate their teaching. Through a systematic content analysis of survey data, findings indicate that online faculty members have a desire to grow as instructors, infrequently focusing on modality or job expectations as a means for growth. Participants expressed an interest in holistic, descriptive evaluation feedback by a range of stakeholders, particularly those with content knowledge. Study findings have implications for administrators and other stakeholders related to online full-time faculty, including the processes and documents through which they are evaluated.
Gignac-Caille, A M; Oermann, M H
The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of associate degree nursing (ADN) students and faculty of characteristics of effective clinical teachers and determine whether there were differences between these two groups. A survey was conducted of 292 students in various levels of their ADN programs and 59 faculty members from the same five programs, which were randomly selected from across Michigan. Data were collected using the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Inventory, which includes 48 characteristics of effective clinical instructors arranged in five subscales. Students identified "demonstrates clinical skills and judgment" as the most important characteristic of effective clinical instructors, while faculty identified "explains clearly" as the most important characteristic. There was agreement on 6 of the top 10 characteristics identified by both groups. Both groups rated "directs student to useful literature in nursing" as the least important characteristic of effective clinical instructors. The students' and faculty's perceptions of effective clinical instructors differed by subscales, with students identifying evaluation characteristics as most important (mean = 4.73, SD = .42) and faculty identifying interpersonal relationships as most important (mean = 4.72, SD = .31). A t test indicated a significant difference between student and faculty means for the interpersonal relationships subscales, with faculty rating this group of characteristics as more important than students did (t = 2.49, p = .0 14).
Full Text Available College and universities evaluate the teaching performance of faculty members in a variety of ways. Benefits to effective faculty evaluation include advancing the scholarship of teaching and learning, as well as improving the functionality and innovation of courses, curriculum, departments, and ultimately the broader community (Boyer, 1990; Glassick, Huber, & Maeroff, 1997. While there is ample research related to the evaluation of faculty in traditional settings, there have been fewer studies examining online faculty members’ perceptions of evaluation processes. Further, due to the growth of online education, the existing evaluation scales, including those used in traditional settings, have been called into question (Berk, 2013; Hathorn & Hathorn, 2010; Rothman, Romeo, Brennan, & Mitchell, 2011. This qualitative study examines one university’s online full-time faculty and their perceptions of the tools and processes used to evaluate their teaching. Through a systematic qualitative content analysis of survey data, findings indicate that online faculty members have a desire to grow as instructors, focusing little on modality or task-oriented expectations as a means for growth. Participants expressed an interest in holistic, descriptive evaluation feedback by a range of stakeholders, particularly those with content knowledge. Study findings have implications for administrators and other stakeholders related to online full-time faculty, including the processes and documents through which they are evaluated.
Carr, P L; Ash, A S; Friedman, R H; Szalacha, L; Barnett, R C; Palepu, A; Moskowitz, M M
Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment are common in medical practice and may be even more prevalent in academic medicine. To examine the prevalence of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment among medical school faculty and the associations of gender-based discrimination with number of publications, career satisfaction, and perceptions of career advancement. A self-administered mailed questionnaire of U.S. medical school faculty that covered a broad range of topics relating to academic life. 24 randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 3332 full-time faculty, stratified by specialty, graduation cohort, and sex. Prevalence of self-reported experiences of discrimination and harassment, number of peer-reviewed publications, career satisfaction, and perception of career advancement. Female faculty were more than 2.5 times more likely than male faculty to perceive gender-based discrimination in the academic environment (P productivity but lower career satisfaction scores than did other women (Padvancement (72% compared with 47%). Publications, career satisfaction, and professional confidence were not affected by sexual harassment, and self-assessed career advancement was only marginally lower for female faculty who had experienced sexual harassment (P = 0.06). Despite substantial increases in the number of female faculty, reports of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment remain common.
L. Moratis; P.J. van Baalen (Peter); L.H. Teunter (Linda); P.H.A.M. Verhaegen
textabstractDevelopments in the management education environment present business schools with several challenges. Among these, perhaps the most important to address relates to a mission-critical resource for business schools: faculty retention. In this paper, we position and examine this problem
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients’ demand for dentogingival aesthetics has increased significantly in recent years, and this is a complex concept due to numerous factors involved in obtaining patient/professional satisfaction. Some dentogingival features may alter smile harmony, such as excessive gingival display. Objective To evaluate whether the presence of gingival display has a negative influence on the perception of dentogingival aesthetics. Material and method 180 individuals (60 dentists, 60 dental students, and 60 patients evaluated images of volunteer smiles. These images were digitally altered by the Adobe Photoshop™ software, creating different situations of gingival display (4 mm, 2 mm, 0 mm, -2 mm, -4 mm, and graded by the evaluators with the following scores: (01 very pleasant smile, (02 pleasant smile, and 03 unpleasant smile. The scores assigned were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05. Result Gingival displays between 0 and 2 mm were considered aesthetically pleasing. Changes of -4 and +4 mm were defined as the most disharmonious smiles. The 0-mm female smile was considered the most harmonious for dentists (1.51 and dental students (1.77, by Student's t test (p<0.05. In the opinion of patients, the smile of +2 mm was considered the most aesthetic. In the image evaluations of men, the 0-mm smile was considered the most aesthetic (p <0.05 for dentists (1.85 and dental students (1.62. The patients considered +2 mm of gingival display the most harmonious smile. Conclusion The aesthetic perception of dental students and dentists was different when compared to the group of patients.
Silverman, Stephen; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Phillips, Sharon R.
This study examined perceived journal quality by physical education pedagogy faculty members. Participants (N = 273) were identified in three ways and recruited through e-mail. Based on research in other fields investigating journal quality and on publication patterns in physical education, a web-based survey was used to examine (a) whether…
Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.; And Others
This study examined workplace satisfaction, decision making and institutional participation of minority women faculty. Findings suggest minority women are somewhat satisfied with certain dimensions of the workplace but do perceive themselves to be excluded from institutional contexts that would promote their professional advancement. (BF)
The research area of this study is the phenomenon of grade inflation in higher educational organizations. Using a qualitative phenomenological research design, seven faculty members from a higher educational organization were purposefully selected to participate in a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. The participants were of various ages,…
AMIDON, EDMUND; BLUMBERG, ARTHUR
THE EFFECTS OF FACULTY MEETINGS ON TEACHER MORALE WERE INVESTIGATED VIA A SIX-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDED TO BY 40 ELEMENTARY AND 49 SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ENROLLED IN GROUP DYNAMICS WORK AT ONE UNIVERSITY AND BY 74 ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM A STATE EDUCATIONAL DIRECTORY. RESPONSES WERE ON A NINE-STEP,…
Karpilo, Lacy N.
Student academic success is a top priority of higher education institutions in the United States and the trend of students leaving school prior to finishing their degree is a serious concern. Accountability has become a large part of university and college ratings and perceived success. Retention is one component of the accountability metrics used by accreditation agencies. In addition, there are an increasing number of states allocating funds based in part on retention (Seidman, 2005). Institutions have created initiatives, programs, and even entire departments to address issues related to student academic success to promote retention. Universities and colleges have responded by focusing on methods to retain and better serve students. Retention and student academic success is a primary concern for high education institutions; however, engineering education has unique retention issues. The National Science Board (2004) reports a significant decline in the number of individuals in the United States who are training to become engineers, despite the fact that the number of jobs that utilize an engineering background continues to increase. Engineering education has responded to academic success issues by changing curriculum and pedagogical methods (Sheppard, 2001). This descriptive study investigates the perception of engineering students and faculty regarding teaching methods and faculty involvement to create a picture of what is occurring in engineering education. The population was the engineering students and faculty of Colorado State University's College of Engineering. Data from this research suggests that engaging teaching methods are not being used as often as research indicates they should and that there is a lack of student-faculty interaction outside of the classroom. This research adds to the breadth of knowledge and understanding of the current environment of engineering education. Furthermore, the data allows engineering educators and other higher
Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.
Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…
DiVall, Margarita V; Hayney, Mary S; Marsh, Wallace; Neville, Michael W; O'Barr, Stephen; Sheets, Erin D; Calhoun, Larry D
To gather and evaluate the perceptions of students, faculty members, and administrators regarding the frequency and appropriateness of classroom technology use. Third-year pharmacy students and faculty members at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the type, frequency, and appropriateness of using technology in the classroom. Upper-level administrators and information technology professionals were also interviewed to ascertain overall technology goals and identify criteria used to adopt new classroom technologies. Four hundred sixty-six students, 124 faculty members, and 12 administrators participated in the survey. The most frequently used and valued types of classroom technology were course management systems, audience response systems, and lecture capture. Faculty members and students agreed that faculty members appropriately used course management systems and audience response systems. Compared with their counterparts, tech-savvy, and male students reported significantly greater preference for increased use of classroom technology. Eighty-six percent of faculty members reported having changed their teaching methodologies to meet student needs, and 91% of the students agreed that the use of technology met their needs. Pharmacy colleges and schools use a variety of technologies in their teaching methods, which have evolved to meet the needs of the current generation of students. Students are satisfied with the appropriateness of technology, but many exhibit preferences for even greater use of technology in the classroom.
Mauldin Pereira, Mary; Artemiou, Elpida; McGonigle, Dee; Conan, Anne; Sithole, Fortune; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen
Virtual worlds are emerging technologies that can enhance student learning by encouraging active participation through simulation in immersive environments. At Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM), the virtual world of Second Life was piloted as an educational platform for first-semester students to practice clinical reasoning in a simulated veterinary clinical setting. Under the supervision of one facilitator, four groups of nine students met three times to process a clinical case using Second Life. In addition, three groups of four clinical faculty observed one Second Life meeting. Questionnaires using a 4-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 4=strongly agree) and open-ended questions were used to assess student and clinical faculty perceptions of the Second Life platform. Perception scores of students (M=2.7, SD=0.7) and clinical faculty (M=2.7, SD=0.5) indicate that Second Life provides authentic and realistic learning experiences. In fact, students (M=3.4, SD=0.6) and clinical faculty (M=2.9, SD=1.0) indicate that Second Life should be offered to future students. Moreover, content analyses of open-ended responses from students and faculty support the use of Second Life based on reported advantages indicating that Second Life offers a novel and effective instructional method. Ultimately, results indicate that students and clinical faculty had positive educational experiences using Second Life, suggesting the need for further investigation into its application within the curriculum.
Kim, Sujeong; Park, Chang; O'Rourke, Jennifer
Best practice standards of simulation recommend standardized simulation training for nursing faculty. Online training may offer an effective and more widely available alternative to in-person training. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study evaluated the effectiveness of an online simulation training program, examining faculty's foundational knowledge of simulation as well as perceptions and intention to adopt. One-group pretest-posttest design. A large school of nursing with a main campus and five regional campuses in the Midwestern United States. Convenience sample of 52 faculty participants. Knowledge of foundational simulation principles was measured by pre/post-training module quizzes. Perceptions and the intention to adopt simulation were measured using the Faculty Attitudes and Intent to Use Related to the Human Patient Simulator questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in faculty knowledge after training and observable improvements in attitudes. Attitudes significantly influenced the intention to adopt simulation (B=2.54, p<0.001). Online simulation training provides an effective alternative for training large numbers of nursing faculty who seek to implement best practice of standards within their institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lento, Camillo; Sayed, Naqi; Bujaki, Merridee
We examine differences between male and female accounting faculty members' perceptions of academic dishonesty and their uses of controls to prevent academically dishonest behaviour. We use socialization concepts to motivate our examination of these differences. Specifically, we find that females generally perceive academic dishonesty to be a more…
Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya
The incompatibility of American liberal education and multiculturalism ground this qualitative study. Given this assertion and that teaching and learning is central to the liberal educational mission, we explore faculty perceptions of the relationship between multiculturalism and liberal educational pedagogy. The findings of this study suggest…
Karaferye, Figen; Agaoglu, Esmahan
This study aims to examine the perceptions of the middle management (deans and heads of departments) and academicians on the dilemma order versus freedom at faculty management. It discusses how this dilemma is seen at an operational level and how it can be managed at university where both parties--with a managerial role or not--are…
McMillan, Stephanie Renee
This study explored undergraduate teaching faculty's perceptions regarding using biometric-based technologies to reduce academic dishonesty in online classes. The first objective was to develop a baseline of the respondents' concerns toward and experience with using biometrics; attitudes, experience, and mitigation strategies used to…
Woolfolk, Willie A.
The study addressed the problem of a critical increase in campus crime between 1999 and 2009, a period during which overall crime in the United States declined. Further the research explored the perceptions of campus safety among faculty and staff at an institution where campus safety initiatives are nationally ranked as exemplary and incidents of…
This article presents the results of a case study at a Canadian university that used a combination of surveys and focus groups to explore faculty members' and students' perceptions of plagiarism. The research suggests that the globalization of education and remix culture have contributed to competing and contradictory understandings of plagiarism…
Godonoga, Ana; Güney, Isil; Kopelyan, Sofya; Yasmin, Nowreen; Holz, Oliver; Aleksandrovich, Maria; Zoglowek, Herbert
The paper promotes awareness of innovation pedagogy in European higher education by presenting the results of a mixed methods exploratory case study on faculty perceptions of innovation pedagogy standards in a Joint Master Degree program in Research and Innovation in Higher Education (MaRIHE) and on
Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others
Research on attrition of university students has recently examined "dropping out" as the culmination of a complex interactive process. In order to examine differences between successful students (persisters) and students who officially withdrew from a major university, and to examine the accuracy of faculty and staff perceptions of students'…
Jacquemin, Stephen J.; Smelser, Lisa K.; Bernot, Melody J.
Social networking has become a prominent communication method in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess social media use and perception of utility in higher education classrooms among faculty, graduate, and undergraduate cohorts. As a case study, Twitter was included into a semester course to disseminate relevant course…
Minifie, Fred D.; Robey, Randall R.; Horner, Jennifer; Ingham, Janis C.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Alldredge, Elham-Eid; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.
Purpose: Two Web-based surveys (Surveys I and II) were used to assess perceptions of faculty and students in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) regarding the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Method: Survey questions addressed 9 RCR domains thought important to the responsible conduct of research: (a) human subjects protections; (b)…
Patrick, Lorelei E.; Howell, Leigh Anne; Wischusen, William
There have been numerous calls recently to increase the use of active learning in university science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) classrooms to more actively engage students and enhance student learning. However, few studies have investigated faculty and student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of active learning or the…
Human patient simulation is an innovative teaching strategy that can facilitate practice development and preparation for entry into today's healthcare environment for nursing students. Unfortunately, the use of human patient simulation has been limited due to the perceptions of nursing faculty members. This project sought to explore those…
Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik
This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.
Al-Qarni, Mohammed A; Shakeela, Nasim Vahid; Alamri, Mohammed Abdullah; Alshaikh, Yahya A
Eco-friendly or green dentistry can be a reality by effectively designing dental clinics and using more eco-friendly materials in the clinical practice. To determine the awareness of eco-friendly dentistry among dental faculty and students in preparation for future implementation. Assessment of knowledge regarding eco-friendly dentistry was done using an 18 item self-administered questionnaire among 160 participants. After baseline data collection, the intervention was done by educating participants with a power point presentation. The post-intervention data was then collected for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon's signed rank test and one-way ANOVA. The educational intervention increased the knowledge about eco-friendly dentistry confirming the importance of continuing education. There was a statistically significant gain in knowledge among the participants after the presentation. The gain was highest for department of Preventive Dental Sciences (PDS) followed by Substitute Dental Sciences (SDS), No specialty, Maxillofacial Dental Sciences (MDS), and Restorative Dental Sciences (RDS) respectively. (F=5.5091, p<0.05). Lack of knowledge of green dentistry amongst the dental fraternity is highly prevailing. The same can be substantiated with effective training in the respective fields if channelized through the curriculum in an educational set-up.
Champine, J M; Inglehart, M R; Furgeson, D; Halaris, J F; Fitzgerald, M; Danciu, T E; Kinney, J S
The dental hygiene profession in the U.S. is in the process of establishing a direct access model of care and contributing to the creation of the profession of a dental therapist. The objectives were to analyse the professional role perceptions of dental hygiene students and registered dental hygienists in these times of change. Specifically, it was explored whether dental hygiene students' current professional identities differ (i) from their expected future identities, and (ii) from dental hygienists' current and (iii) past identities. Survey data were collected from 215 dental hygiene students concerning their present and future role perceptions, and from 352 registered dental hygienists concerning their present and past professional identity perceptions. Students' future professional identity perceptions were even more positive than their very positive current perceptions of their professional role components. Students' current perceptions of professional pride, professional ambition, work ethic and patient relations were more positive than dental hygienists' current perceptions of these professional role components. A comparison of students' current perceptions with dental hygienists' current and retrospective descriptions showed that students were more positive than dental hygienists in each case. The fact that dental hygienists had less positive role perceptions than dental hygiene students might lead to the conclusion that a loss of idealism occurs over the course of a professional lifespan. However, dental hygienists actually improved their role perceptions over time and students' future descriptions were more positive than their current descriptions, supporting the interpretation that realistic optimism dominates professional role perceptions in these times of change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Myrtati Dyah Artaria
Full Text Available Background: Dental anthropology is a new field of study in Indonesia, hence there are few numbers of research that can be found in this field. Knowledge in this field is needed due to the large area and diversity of the people. Moreover, knowledge regarding the possibility to differentiate the sexes of skeletons is still needed for the purpose of identification. Purpose: This research intended to study the differences in mesio-distal measurements of the teeth of Deuteromalayid Javanese males and females studying in the Faculty of Dentistry in Airlangga University. Methods: This study used mesiodistal metric dental data, using dental caliper, to test the existence of sexual dimorphism. Sample were teeth of freshman students of the Airlangga University, from 52 individuals comprising 26 males and 26 females Deuteromalayid originated from Java (Indonesia studying in the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. Measurements were not performed on damaged casts due to caries or other reasons. Differences between males and females were tested using independent t-test. Results: The mean of mesiodistal measurements in males and females differs, where the males have greater size of mesiodistal measurements. The results showed that there were significant differences between sexes in the sample, in all field of teeth except the second upper and lower premolars. Reverse sexual dimorphism-female teeth measurement is larger than those of males-has not been found in these samples. The result of this study revealed that the range of mesiodistal measurements of every tooth in males and females overlapped. Conclusion: It is concluded that teeth measurement of males is bigger than females, except maxillary and mandibular second premolars. Latar belakang: Antropologi dental adalah bidang studi baru di Indonesia, dan karenanya penelitian di bidang ini masih sedikit dijumpai di Indonesia. Apalagi masih dibutuhkan pengetahuan mengenai apakah jenis kelamin dapat
Faktor pendorong motivasi orang tua merawatkan gigi anak di klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Unair (Stimulating factor of parents' motivation to take their children's dental health for treatment in the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University)
Anggriana, Dita; Musyrifah, Musyrifah
Children dental health is very beneficial for children's growth Parent’s motivation for taking their children dental for treatment before more serious dental damage can help to decrease the prevalence of children's dental damage, especially for patients who came to pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. This study aimed to know the parents' motivation to take their children dental for treatment in Pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University ...
Steele, Margaret M; Fisman, Sandra; Davidson, Brenda
This study explored the views of junior faculty toward informing mentorship program development. Mixed sampling methodologies including questionnaires (n = 175), focus groups (female, n = 4; male, n = 4), and individual interviews (female n = 10; male, n = 9) of junior faculty were conducted in clinical departments at one academic health sciences center. Questionnaire results indicated that having role models increased commitment to an academic career; mentorship experience during residency training was a high incentive to pursue an academic career; and junior faculty did have identifiable mentorship experiences. Focus group results revealed that mentoring as well as the presence of role models a few years ahead of the junior faculty would promote career development. Females preferred similar age role models who spoke the same language, particularly in the area of promotion. Females identified several challenges and issues including a lack of researcher role models, a range of perceptions regarding the merits of formal versus informal mentoring, and the idea that mentors should provide advice on promotion and grants. Males valued advice on finances while females wanted advice on work-life balance. Mentorship emerged as an important factor in academic faculty recruitment and retention, with varying perceptions of how it should be institutionalized. Role models were viewed as important for retention, and a paucity of mid-career, female researcher role models suggests a gap to be filled in future programmatic efforts.
Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley
To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected from a stratified sample to vary in location, proximity to Indian reservations, size, and type. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. In 9 of 11 schools, neither faculty nor students voiced overwhelming concerns about safety. When asked what makes school safe, students tended to report physical security features. School climate and staff actions also increased feelings of safety. Faculty reported that relationships and climate are key factors in making schools safe. High student performance on standardized tests does not buffer students from unsafe behavior, nor does living in a dangerous neighborhood necessarily lead to more drug use or violence within school walls. School climate seemed to explain the difference between schools in which students and faculty reported higher versus lower levels of violence and alcohol and other drug use. The findings raise provocative questions about school safety and provide insight into elements that lead to perceptions of safety. Some schools have transcended issues of location and neighborhood to provide an environment perceived as safe. Further study of those schools could provide insights for policy makers, program planners, and educational leaders. © 2011, American School Health Association.
McGrew, M C; Skipper, B; Palley, T; Kaufman, A
The value of problem-based learning (PBL) in the preclinical years of medical school has been described widely in the literature. This study evaluates student and faculty perceptions of PBL during the clinical years of medical school, on a family medicine clerkship. Students used a 4-point scale to rate clerkship educational components on how well learning was facilitated. Faculty narratives of their perceptions of PBL were reviewed. Educational components that involved active learning by students--clinical activity, independent learning, and PBL tutorials--were ranked highest by students. Faculty perceived that PBL on the clerkship simulated "real-life" learning, included more behavioral and population issues, and provided substantial blocks of student contact time for improved student evaluation. Students and faculty in a family medicine clerkship ranked PBL sessions higher than any other nonclinical component of the clerkship. In addition to providing students with opportunities for self-directed learning, the PBL sessions provide faculty with more contact time with students, thereby enhancing the assessment of students' learning and progress.
James Kleshinski, MD
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future
Carapinha, René; McCracken, Caitlin M; Warner, Erica T; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y
Gender inequalities in the careers of faculty in academic medicine could partially be attributed to an organizational climate that can exclude or be nonsupportive of women faculty. This study explores the climate for women faculty from a systems perspective at the organizational and individual levels based on the perceptions of women faculty. Race differences were also investigated. Cross-sectional survey data from women faculty (N = 3127) at 13 purposively sampled medical schools and an institutional assessment of organizational characteristics were used. Organizational factors related to the climate for women were identified using bivariate statistics. The association between perceived climate for women and organizational characteristics, individual perceptions of the work environment and individual career, and personal characteristics with control variables were investigated using hierarchical linear regression models. Organizational effects by race/ethnicity were estimated using interaction terms. The climate for women faculty varied across institutions and by classification as minority-serving institutions (MSIs). Respondent's report of existence of an office for women's affairs, trust in leadership, and satisfaction with mentoring were positively associated with the climate for women. Perceived workplace discrimination and work-family conflict were inversely associated with a positive climate. No race/ethnicity differences were observed in the multivariable analysis. The climate for women faculty in academic medicine should not be regarded constant across organizations, specifically between MSIs and non-MSIs. Efforts to advance a positive climate for women could focus on improving trust in leadership, increasing support for structures/offices for women, and mitigating perceived discrimination and work-family conflict.
Tsang, Alexander; Harris, David M
Patients expect physicians to be lifelong learners who are able to interpret and evaluate diagnostic tests, and most medical schools list the development of lifelong learning in their program objectives. However, lecture is the most often utilized form of teaching in the first two years and is considered passive learning. The current generation of medical students has many characteristics that should support active learning pedagogies. The purpose of this study was to analyze student and faculty perceptions of active learning in an integrated medical curriculum at the second-year mark, where students have been exposed to multiple educational pedagogies. The first hypothesis of the study was that faculty would favor active learning methods. The second hypothesis was that Millennial medical students would favor active learning due to their characteristics. Primary faculty for years 1 and 2 and second-year medical students were recruited for an e-mail survey consisting of 12 questions about active learning and lecture. Students perceived that lecture and passive pedagogies were more effective for learning, whereas faculty felt active and collaborative learning was more effective. Students believed that more content should be covered by lecture than faculty. There were also significant differences in perceptions of what makes a good teacher. Students and faculty both felt that lack of time in the curriculum and preparation time were barriers for faculty. The data suggest that students are not familiar with the process of learning and that more time may be needed to help students develop lifelong learning skills. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
John, Vanchit; Lee, Seung-Jun; Prakasam, Sivaraman; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo
Considerable disagreements and variations exist in diagnosis and treatment planning of periodontal disease. Achieving high interrater periodontal diagnosis can prove challenging. The objectives of this study were to measure variations in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among predoctoral periodontics faculty members after consensus training and to compare such variation with those identified in third- and fourth-year dental students. Nine electronically stored case vignettes and survey instruments were made available to eighteen faculty members and twenty dental students under standardized conditions. A chi-square test was used to compare responses between groups, and multirater kappa tests were used to evaluate interrater agreement/reliability. Of the nine cases, only one differed between groups significantly in terms of treatment. Also, third-year students differed from fourth-year students on the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis versus chronic periodontitis. Most respondents were able to distinguish clearly among diagnoses of chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and gingivitis. This study established a baseline assessment of the current status of consensus after training. We will reassess variations after addressing the specific challenges identified. Programs designed and implemented to help decrease the variation in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among faculty members may ultimately translate into better agreement and better standardization of dental instruction.
Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita
To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3 rd -year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P life-threatening emergencies.
Strouse, Susan M; Nickerson, Carolyn J
Socialization, or formation of students to the professional nurse role, is an expectation of nursing education. This process is complex and challenging for students, who continue to experience culture shock moving from academe to practice settings. Viewing formation as enculturation is one way to address culture shock. Nursing faculty are key figures in this process, yet their views are not known. This focused ethnography study explored nursing faculty's perceptions about the culture of nursing and how they bring students into that culture. Data collected at two accredited, undergraduate pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing programs were analyzed using Leininger's four phases of data analysis. Four themes emerged: 1. The culture of nursing is multifaceted, multivalent and at times contradictory 2. Many factors interact and have influence on the culture of nursing 3. Navigating the subcultures (academia, service and organizational culture) is challenging for faculty, and 4. Nursing faculty believe that the right conditions facilitate the enculturation of students. Nursing faculty believe nursing has a professional culture and they bring students into that culture. Viewing the faculty role in enculturation to professional nursing as a culture broker can facilitate the process for students and mitigate the culture shock new graduate nurses experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marcelo Marcos de Oliveira Meira Filho
Full Text Available Objectives: To verify the maternal perception of and behavior towards children’s dental treatment, as well as to analyze the opinion of the mothers on the need of their presence in the clinical attendance room and acceptance with regard to the techniques of behavioral management.Methods: The study involved interviews with 100 mothers whose children between 3 and 12 years old, had been in the Family Health Program of Vila Lacasa, in the city of Cachoeirinha, Pernambuco, Brazil, in the period from November to December of 2006. Data were collected from forms validated by the face-to-face method, and a descriptive analysis of the data was performed. The mothers were divided into groups considering the number of years of schooling and social-economic level. Results: It was verified that a significant number of the mothers were not afraid of dental treatment (68%, exerting a strong influence on the children’s opinion and behavior.The main causes of fear in the mothers was pain (45.8%. Irrespective of the educational level, the majority of the mothers preferred to be present in the attendance room (85%, since they believed their presence improved the child’s behavior (64%. The main reason why the mother sought dental treatment for her child was the prevention of caries (51%, followed by pain (29%. Conclusion: The interviewed mothers were shown to have a strong influence on the behaviour of the children and irrespective of their educational level most mothers preferred to be present in the attendance room,accepting the management techniques, provided that they were adequately informed.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.
Eisenberg, Ronald L; Cunningham, Meredith L; Siewert, Bettina; Kruskal, Jonathan B
Virtually all radiologists participate in peer review, but to our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of their opinions toward various aspects of the process. The study qualified for quality assurance exemption from the institutional review board. A questionnaire sent to all radiology faculty at our institution assessed their views about peer review in general, as well as case selection and scoring, consensus section review for rating and presentation of errors, and impact on radiologist performance. Of 52 questionnaires sent, 50 were completed (response rate, 96.2%). Of these, 44% agreed that our RADPEER-like system is a waste of time, and 58% believed it is done merely to meet hospital/regulatory requirements. Conversely, 46% agreed that peer review improves radiologist performance, 32% agreed that it decreases medical error, and 42% believed that peer review results are valuable to protect radiologists in cases referred to the medical board. A large majority perform all peer reviews close to the deadline, and substantial minorities frequently or almost always select more than one previous examination for a single medical record number (28%), consciously select "less time intensive" cases (22%), and intentionally avoid cases requiring more time to peer review (30%). Almost one-half of respondents agreed that peer review has value, but as currently performed is a waste of time. The method for selecting cases raises serious questions regarding selection bias. A new approach is needed that stresses education of all radiologists by learning from the mistakes of others. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical competencies are learning outcomes the student should display by the end of the program and competency based instruction measures what participants have learned as opposed to what instructors think they have thought. Objective of this study was to compare student and faculty perceptions of the importance and achievement of clinical competencies in rehabilitation programs. Methods: The survey instrument was a dual-response 5-point Likert-type questionnaire consisting of 29 competencies based on content and skill areas in the management of patient with chronic illnesses. The instrument was administered to all faculty members and final year undergraduate students of three rehabilitation programs including Speech therapy, physiotherapy and occupational therapy at the University of Rehabilitation and Social Welfare in Iran. Results: 45 students and 19 faculty members participated in the study. Overall, most of the students (81% rated themselves as moderately competent (mean between 2 to 4. Perceived self-efficacy of male students was significantly higher than female students. (P=0.014 Differences between perceived importance and perceived achievement were statistically significant in each subject group. (P=0.000. Discussion: Faculty members and students shared very similar perceptions on the importance & achievement of competencies. Difference between importance and achievement of competencies may suggest a failure in consideration of required competencies or successful implementation of them in the current curriculum.
KAYA ÖZBAĞ, Gönül
Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) concept has attracted considerable interest in recent years byresearchers and practitioners. Due to an increased awareness of theneed for CSR this study examines corporate social responsibility perceptions ofmaritime faculty students (MFS). MFSwere chosen for this research since these students are usually employed by aninternational organization and have diffuculties in interpreting ethical issuesin a business context because of...
Bearor, Dawn E.
The clinical education component provided to dental hygiene students is an essential part of their development as competent practitioners. Instructor approaches to clinical teaching are therefore critical in providing quality clinical learning experiences. This study sought to identify dental hygiene students' perceptions of "best" and…
Berg, Christine M.
Dental hygiene students' perceptions of themselves and the "typical dental hygienist" were assessed in relation to feminist attitudes at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dempewolff's (1972) 56-item Feminism II Scale was administered to all first-year, second-year, and…
Boka, V.; Arapostathis, K.; Karagiannis, V.; Kotsanos, N.; van Loveren, C.; Veerkamp, J.
Aim This was to study the influence of parental presence during dental treatment on children’s behaviour and perception. Methods Parents of 100 patients (mean age 7 ± 2.2 years) who visited the Postgraduate Paediatric Dental Clinic were randomly divided into two equal groups during one
Çaglayan, Hakan Salim; Gül, Özgür
The objective of this study is to reveal the perceptions of the students of the sports sciences faculty regarding the concept of "Fair-Play" by means of metaphors. 275 students [male[subscript (n = 173)], female [subscript (n = 102)
Lyon, Lucinda; Itaya, Lisa E; Hoover, Terry; Booth, Mark T; Nadershahi, Nader
In today's dental education environment, a humanistic culture is an expectation for all U.S. dental schools, codified in 2013 by its inclusion in the Commission on Dental Accreditation's standards for accreditation. The University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry has made an active commitment to humanism since the mid-1970s. The aim of this study was to determine how well the school's students and faculty and staff members perceived the school was living up to its formal aspirational values and who was benefitting from the humanistic culture. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a total of 195 students, faculty members, and staff members in 2014. Respondents were 15% of the 492 full- and part-time faculty members; 9% of the total student population of 540; and 29% of 255 staff members. In the responses, humanism was described as manifest by attributes such as caring, understanding, respect, and compassion. Although the findings confirmed the value of a humanistic culture, some portions of the school's formal definition and goals, such as good work ethic, professional responsibility, high ethical standards, increasing independence, and attainment of competence, appeared less frequently in responses. Authentic assessment of institutional culture proved challenging. Focus groups offered additional ways to assess how effectively the school lives its core value of humanism. There was recognition that more varied, robust methods were needed to assess institutional alignment with stated goals for a humanistic learning environment.
O'Neill, Marie; Musto, Lara
Using a mixed methods research approach this study explores faculty perceptions of LORLS at DBS. Data generated by the study will inform advocacy, marketing and training initiatives to promote the platform. The study concludes with a number of deductive and inductive findings. The first is that although DBS faculty are highly predisposed to using…
Li, Yan; Li, Jessica; Sun, Ye
Chinese higher education is undergoing fundamental changes to meet the demand of producing high quantity and quality college students. These changes have significantly impacted the work lives of Chinese faculty members. This study investigated Chinese young faculty's job perceptions using four variables: intrinsic motivation, job burnout, job…
Ateyat, Khaled A.; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.
The purpose of study was to investigate Jordanian higher education faculty members' perceptions of the phenomenon of globalization and its effect on higher education. The participants in this study were 6 faculty members from a Jordanian university. Four of the participants have leadership positions at the university. Two of them were deans, one…
Turner, Paul D.; Monaghan, Michael S.; Walters, Ryan W.; Merkel, Jennifer J.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Lenz, Thomas L.
Objective To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Methods Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Results Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. Conclusion E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students. PMID:21436932
Hancks, Meredith L.
This study examines the perceptions of faculty members regarding conflict experiences with administrators. It is driven by the question, "To what extent are faculty perceptions of positive and negative outcomes of faculty-administrator conflict associated with domain, nature and disciplinary context of the conflict," where domain refers…
Tanalp, Jale; Güven, Esra Pamukçu; Oktay, Inci
The aim of this study was to obtain information about senior dental students' perceptions and self-confidence levels regarding endodontic practice. Anonymous survey forms were handed out to senior students at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry. The students were asked to score their level of confidence using a 5-point scale and comment about future practices. The response rate of the survey was 88%. 11.9% expressed endodontics as the first branch in terms of difficulty. The majority (90.5%) indicated they would perform root canal treatments within their expertise limit in the future but refer difficult cases to an endodontist. Bleaching of endodontically treated teeth, managing flare-ups, placement of a rubber dam were procedures in which students reported the lowest confidence (2.55 ± 1.17, 3.24 ± 0.96, 3.24 ± 1.19, respectively). On the other hand, students felt the lowest confidence in the treatment of maxillary molars followed by mandibular molars (3.43 ± 1.02 and 3.93 ± 0.97, respectively). Students also reported the lowest confidence in root resorptions, endo-perio lesions, traumas, retreatments and apexifications (2.93 ± 1.16, 3.07 ± 0.89, 3.24 ± 0.85, 3.33 ± 1.7 and 3.36 ± 1.1, respectively). The results showing students' lower confidence in more challenging aspects of dentistry may be related with the attitude of dental schools to refer these cases to post graduate students and instilling information about these cases on a theoretical basis only. Though there seems to be a tendency for students to refer challenging cases to a specialist in future, authorities should give priority to enhance the way information and experience is conveyed regarding various aspects of endodontic treatment.
Tanalp, Jale; Güven, Esra Pamukçu; Oktay, Inci
Objectives: The aim of this study was to obtain information about senior dental students’ perceptions and self-confidence levels regarding endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Anonymous survey forms were handed out to senior students at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry. The students were asked to score their level of confidence using a 5-point scale and comment about future practices. Results: The response rate of the survey was 88%. 11.9% expressed endodontics as the first branch in terms of difficulty. The majority (90.5%) indicated they would perform root canal treatments within their expertise limit in the future but refer difficult cases to an endodontist. Bleaching of endodontically treated teeth, managing flare-ups, placement of a rubber dam were procedures in which students reported the lowest confidence (2.55 ± 1.17, 3.24 ± 0.96, 3.24 ± 1.19, respectively). On the other hand, students felt the lowest confidence in the treatment of maxillary molars followed by mandibular molars (3.43 ± 1.02 and 3.93 ± 0.97, respectively). Students also reported the lowest confidence in root resorptions, endo-perio lesions, traumas, retreatments and apexifications (2.93 ± 1.16, 3.07 ± 0.89, 3.24 ± 0.85, 3.33 ± 1.7 and 3.36 ± 1.1, respectively). Conclusions: The results showing students’ lower confidence in more challenging aspects of dentistry may be related with the attitude of dental schools to refer these cases to post graduate students and instilling information about these cases on a theoretical basis only. Though there seems to be a tendency for students to refer challenging cases to a specialist in future, authorities should give priority to enhance the way information and experience is conveyed regarding various aspects of endodontic treatment. PMID:24883030
Gunn, Christine M; Freund, Karen M; Kaplan, Samantha A; Raj, Anita; Carr, Phyllis L
The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge and perceptions of family leave policies and practices among senior leaders including American Association of Medical College members of the Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) to identify perceived barriers to career success and satisfaction among female faculty. In 2011 and 2012, GWIMS representatives and senior leaders at 24 medical schools were invited to participate in an interview about faculty perceptions of gender equity and overall institutional climate. An inductive, thematic analysis of the qualitative data was conducted to identify themes represented in participant responses. The research team read and reviewed institutional family leave policies for concordance with key informant descriptions. There were 22 GWIMS representatives and senior leaders in the final sample. Participants were all female; 18 (82%) were full professors with the remainder being associate professors. Compared with publicly available policies at each institution, the knowledge of nine participants was consistent with policies, was discrepant for six, with the remaining seven acknowledging a lack of knowledge of policies. Four major themes were identified from the interview data: 1) Framing family leave as a personal issue undermines its effect on female faculty success; 2) poor communication of policies impairs access and affects organizational climate; 3) discrepancies in leave implementation disadvantage certain faculty in terms of time and pay; and 4) leave policies are valued and directly related to academic productivity. Family leave policies are an important aspect of faculty satisfaction and academic success, yet policy awareness among senior leaders is lacking. Further organizational support is needed to promote equitable policy creation and implementation to support women in medical academia. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Gabrys, Robert E.
Noting that a major problem confronting competency based teacher education (CBTE) programs was the development of mutually acceptable perceptions of teacher education among college faculty, school personnel, and prospective teachers, a cluster of competencies developed by the State University College at Oneonta (SUCO), New York, was critiqued by…
Wallin, Desna C.
Examines the appropriate roles of community college faculty and administration in assuring access to meaningful faculty development opportunities. Describes this three-state study as using the motivational theories of Maslow and Porter to determine faculty qualities as perceived by college presidents. Contains seven references. Survey instrument…
Background. The creating, maintenance and storage of patients' medical records is an important competence for the professional training of a dental student. Objective. Owing to the unsatisfactory state of dental records at the students' clinic, the objective of this study was to obtain information from undergraduate dental ...
Esan, T A; Oziegbe, E O
The World Health Organization in 1994 recommended that dental education should be problem based, socially and culturally relevant, and community oriented. To explore the perceptions of Pre-phase II (pre-clinical II) dental students on three methods of teaching used during two academic sessions. All part IV dental students in two consecutive sessions undergoing pre phase II course in the Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife were recruited into the study. Three different modes of teaching that is, Problem based learning (PBL), hybrid PBL and traditional teaching were used to teach the students. A twenty two itemed anonymous questionnaire on a five point Likert scale was administered to the students at the end of the course. Six perceived factors were extracted from the questionnaire using factor analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (p method compared to the other methods of teaching. The perceived factor "communication with peers" had the highest mean score for PBL in both sessions (4.57 ± 0.58 and 4.09 ± 0.93 respectively). However, PBL method was very helpful in all the six perceived factors while the students perceived that the traditional method of teaching was not helpful in "interaction with tutors" and "challenge to critical thinking". The findings showed that students preferred the PBL method to other forms of teaching. PBL enhanced the students' communication skill, was very useful as pedagogic tool and improved their critical thinking.
Syed I Shehnaz
Full Text Available Objectives: In 2008, the Gulf Medical College in the United Arab Emirates underwent a curricular change from a discipline-based to an organ-system-based integrated curriculum. In this context, this study aimed to compare the faculty and students’ perceptions of the student experiences with the new curriculum. Methods: Data were collected from faculty and second-year students in the integrated curriculum using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Data collected were transferred to Predictive Analytics Software, Version 18. Global and domain scores were assessed with the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Percentage agreement, disagreement and uncertainty were assessed by the z-test for proportion. Results: There were no significant differences between the total DREEM scores of faculty (139/200 and students (135/200. The faculty perceived that the students were experiencing significantly more positive learning as indicated by the domain score of “Students' Perceptions of Learning”. Proportions of agreement between faculty and students showed that more faculty members than students perceived the need for increased feedback to students and a greater emphasis on long term learning. Conclusion: The study showed that the faculty and students had similar perceptions about the student experiences in the integrated curriculum. Areas necessitating remedial measures were the need for faculty to learn constructive feedback techniques and an emphasis on long term learning in the new curriculum.
... Interest Groups ADEA Governance Documents and Publications ADEA Dental Faculty Code of Conduct ADEA Bylaws ADEAGies Foundation ... Benefits for Faculty ADEA Member Benefits for Allied Dental Programs ADEA Member Benefits for Dental Schools ADEA ...
Burch, Sharlee Shirley
The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…
Beistle, Kimberly S.
This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…
Ostapczuk, M S; Hugger, A; de Bruin, J; Ritz-Timme, S; Rotthoff, T
The educational climate in which future doctors are trained is an important aspect of medical education. In contrast to human medicine, it has been rather neglected in dental educational research. The aim of the study was to supplement this lack by applying and validating the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) for the first time in a German-speaking sample of dental students. All dental students at the Medical Faculty of Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf were asked to complete a German adaptation of the DREEM and the Düsseldorf Mission Statement Questionnaire (DMSQ) in a paper-pencil survey. Data from 205 participants were analysed. Psychometric validation included analysis of item homogeneity and discrimination, test reliability, criterion and construct validity (convergent, factorial). DREEM item parameters were satisfactory, reliability (α = 0.87) and convergent validity (r = 0.66 with DMSQ) were also high. Factor analyses, however, yielded dimensions which did not fully correspond to the original DREEM subscales. Overall perception of the educational environment was positive (DREEM total score = 122.95 ± 15.52). Students in the clinical part of course rated the atmosphere more negatively, but their academic self-perception more positively than preclinical students. Showing satisfactory psychometric properties, DREEM proved suitable for assessing educational environments among dental students. Given the right circumstances, e.g., small and early clinically oriented classes, traditional curricula can generate positive environments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.
Project-based learning (PjBL) has been shown to improve students' performance and satisfaction with their coursework, particularly in science and engineering courses. Specific aspects of PjBL that contribute to this improvement are student autonomy, course scaffolding, and instructor support. This study investigates two PjBL courses required for engineering majors at a small technical school, Introductory Mechanics Laboratory and Introductory Engineering Design. The three data sources used in this work are classroom observations (one laboratory and four design sessions) and semi-structured in-depth interviews with twelve students and six faculty. Grounded theory approach is used in a two-step fashion by (1) analyzing each data set individually and (2) performing full triangulation of all three data sets. In this talk, we demonstrate the relationship between faculty intentions and student perceptions regarding the three PjBL aspects -- student autonomy, course scaffolding, and instructor support -- within the context of these two courses. We further discuss implications for the course design and professional development of faculty.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Yaneva, Krassimira; Hottel, Timothy L; Proctor, Hannah L
In this study, 491 dental students at one dental school in the United States and one in Bulgaria were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy. The study included questions about prior involvement in charitable dental missions. Many respondents felt that their dental school does not advance global dentistry nor adequately teaches students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. The majority agreed, however, that dental schools have a moral obligation to raise the level of oral health care worldwide and help underserved communities access basic dental care. They reported that an opportunity to spend a semester at a foreign dental school would enhance their dental education in ways that are not presently fulfilled; help them better understand cultural diversity; and teach them about philanthropy and volunteerism. In their opinion, international exchange programs that provide clinical rotations and field experiences in economically challenged and underserved areas of the world would a) foster the global advancement of dentistry; b) promote an appreciation for cultural diversity and socioeconomic disparity in the communities that graduates will be serving; and c) teach students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. This study may contribute to understanding factors affecting student involvement in programs to advance global dentistry.
Yao, Jie; Li, Ming; Tang, Hua; Wang, Peng-Lai; Zhao, Yu-Xiao; McGrath, Colman; Mattheos, Nikos
While research in terms of patient-centered care in implant therapy is growing, few studies have investigated patients' initial perceptions prior to consultation with the implant dentist. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to capture patients' initial information level, perceptions, as well as expectations from the implant therapy. A 34-item questionnaire was developed to investigate patients' preoperative information, perceptions and expectations from treatment with Dental Implants. The study was conducted in three locations (Hong Kong, SiChuan and JiangSu) during 2014-2015 with 277 patients. The main information source about implant therapy was the dentist or hygienist for less than half of the patients (n = 113, 42%). About 62.8% of participants considered that they were in general informed about implants, but only 17.7% felt confident with the information they had. More than 30% of the sample appeared to maintain dangerous misperceptions about Dental Implants: "Dental Implants require less care than natural teeth"; "Treatment with Dental Implants is appropriate for all patients with missing teeth"; "Dental Implants last longer than natural teeth"; and "Treatments with Dental Implants have no risks or complications." Patients were divided when asked whether "Dental Implants are as functional as natural teeth" (agreement frequency = 52.7%). Expectations from treatment outcome were commonly high, while there was a significant correlation between the overall mean of perception scores and outcome expectation scores (r = 0.32, P dental team would need to diagnose and correct prior to initiating implant treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Alshahrani, Obaid Abdullah; Jhugroo, Chitra; Tashery, Hamed Mohammed; Mathews, Jacob; Chavan, Khechari
Background: Organized dentistry has recognized the role of oral health professionals in discouraging tobacco use. Unexplored level of knowledge regarding the benefits and prescription of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have aroused interest among us which initiated us to assess the knowledge and perception of dental students toward NRT among various dental colleges in Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was done among 16 selected colleges in Karnataka. It ...
Burden, Joe W; Harrison, Louis; Hodge, Samuel R
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African American tenure-track faculty members from various kinesiology-based programs at PW-IHE. Data were gathered via interviewing and analyzed within the framework of critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 2000). Findings are presented using storytelling and thematic narratives. Interviews with the participants revealed four major recurring themes with regard to: (a) resources, opportunities, and power structures; (b) programmatic neglects and faculty mentoring needs; (c) social isolation, disengagement, and intellectual inferiority issues; and (d) double standards, marginalization, and scholarship biases. This study suggests that faculty and administrators at PW-IHE should develop sensitivity toward organizational socialization issues relevant to faculty of color.
Fassiotto, Magali; Li, Jie; Maldonado, Yvonne; Kothary, Nishita
Similar to women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines, women in medicine are subject to negative stereotyping when they do not adhere to their sex-role expectations. These biases may vary by specialty, largely dependent on the gender's representation in that specialty. Thus, females in male-dominated surgical specialties are especially at risk of stereotype threat. Herein, we present the role of gender expectations using trainee evaluations of physician faculty at a single academic center, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Using Graduate Medical Education evaluation data of physician faculty from MedHub, we examined the differences in evaluation scores for male and female physicians within specialties that have traditionally had low female representation (e.g., surgical fields) compared to those with average or high female representation (e.g., pediatrics). Stanford Medicine residents and fellows' MedHub ratings of their physician faculty from 2010 to 2014. A total of 3648 evaluations across 1066 physician faculty. Overall, female physicians received lower median scores than their male counterparts across all specialties. When using regression analyses controlling for race, age, rank, and specialty-specific characteristics, the negative effect persists only for female physicians in specialties with low female representation. This finding suggests that female physicians in traditionally male-dominated specialties may face different criteria based on sex-role expectations when being evaluated by trainees. As trainee evaluations play an important role in career advancement decisions, dictate perceptions of quality within academic medical centers and affect overall job satisfaction, we propose that these differences in evaluations based merely on gender stereotypes could account, in part, for the narrowing pipeline of women promoted to higher ranks in academic medicine. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published
Lee, Wei Wei; Alkureishi, Maria A; Ukabiala, Obioma; Venable, Laura Ruth; Ngooi, Samantha S; Staisiunas, Daina D; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Arora, Vineet M
While concerns remain regarding Electronic Medical Records (EMR) use impeding doctor-patient communication, resident and faculty patient perspectives post-widespread EMR adoption remain largely unexplored. We aimed to describe patient perspectives of outpatient resident and faculty EMR use and identify positive and negative EMR use examples to promote optimal utilization. This was a prospective mixed-methods study. Internal medicine faculty and resident patients at the University of Chicago's primary care clinic participated in the study. In 2013, one year after EMR implementation, telephone interviews were conducted with patients using open-ended and Likert style questions to elicit positive and negative perceptions of EMR use by physicians. Interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively to develop a coding classification. Satisfaction with physician EMR use was examined using bivariate statistics. In total, 108 interviews were completed and analyzed. Two major themes were noted: (1) Clinical Functions of EMR and (2) Communication Functions of EMR; as well as six subthemes: (1a) Clinical Care (i.e., clinical efficiency), (1b) Documentation (i.e., proper record keeping and access), (1c) Information Access, (1d) Educational Resource, (2a) Patient Engagement and (2b) Physical Focus (i.e., body positioning). Overall, 85 % (979/1154) of patient perceptions of EMR use were positive, with the majority within the "Clinical Care" subtheme (n = 218). Of negative perceptions, 66 % (115/175) related to the "Communication Functions" theme, and the majority of those related to the "Physical Focus" subtheme (n = 71). The majority of patients (90 %, 95/106) were satisfied with physician EMR use: 59 % (63/107) reported the computer had a positive effect on their relationship and only 7 % (8/108) reported the EMR made it harder to talk with their doctors. Despite concerns regarding EMRs impeding doctor-patient communication, patients reported largely positive
Kirkup, Michele L; Adams, Brooke N; Meadows, Melinda L; Jackson, Richard
A traditional summative grading structure, used at Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) for more than 30 years, was identified by faculty as outdated for assessing students' clinical performance. In an effort to change the status quo, a feedback-driven assessment was implemented in 2012 to provide a constructive assessment tool acceptable to both faculty and students. Building on the successful non-graded clinical evaluation employed at Baylor College of Dentistry, IUSD implemented a streamlined electronic formative feedback model (FFM) to assess students' daily clinical performance. An important addition to this evaluation tool was the inclusion of routine student self-assessment opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine faculty and student response to the new assessment instrument. Following training sessions, anonymous satisfaction surveys were examined for the three user groups: clinical faculty (60% response rate), third-year (D3) students (72% response rate), and fourth-year (D4) students (57% response rate). In the results, 70% of the responding faculty members preferred the FFM over the summative model; however, 61.8% of the D4 respondents preferred the summative model, reporting insufficient assessment time and low faculty participation. The two groups of students had different responses to the self-assessment component: 70.2% of the D4 respondents appreciated clinical self-assessment compared to 46% of the D3 respondents. Overall, while some components of the FFM assessment were well received, a phased approach to implementation may have facilitated a transition more acceptable to both faculty and students. Improvements are being made in an attempt to increase overall satisfaction.
Baumgarten, Alexandre; Veiga, Rochelle Santos Da; Bulgarelli, Patricia Tavora; Diesel, Vitor Motta; Bulgarelli, Alexandre Favero
The Unified Health System (SUS) is the Brazilian set of public health services that offers global access to health care and disease treatments for all citizens. These services have been evaluated by means of a national survey assessing the users' perceptions.AimTo explore and characterize the SUS users' perceptions regarding primary dental team practices in the five Brazilian geographical regions. Descriptive study. The sample consisted of 37 262 subjects. Data were collected by means of the Ministry of Health survey, conducted between 2012 and 2014. Variables used in the present study are associated with SUS users' perspectives of satisfaction, access, and use of services. The study utilized bivariate data analysis, and dichotomous variables were derived for analysis following 95% reliability.FindingsThis study observed similarities and proportionality of perceptions in the Brazilian territory. In most macro-regions, dental teams did not develop an active search for dental treatment absentees. However, the SUS users reported very good and good perceptions, which were homogeneously distributed across five Brazilian regions, thereby showing an overall positive perception of primary dental treatment.
Hoover, Terry E.; Lyon, Lucinda J.
This essay examines the collateral benefits to faculty from a guided learning literature review project for students. We describe a 3-year continuum of project creation and refinement designed to foster critical thinking and writing for second year dental students at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. We discuss…
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, especially after Bulgaria accession to the EU on 1st January 2007, new scientific horizons have appeared in front of the academic community in our country. Medical universities work in a really competitive environment both on a national and global scale, where the high quality of lecturing, research and medical activities is a key factor for success.Aim: The purpose of this study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to define the most distinctively expressed lecturers’ opinions regarding the research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The questionnaire including 13 questions was completed by 75 lecturers from Faculties of Dental Medicine in Sofia, Varna and Plovdiv. The questionnaire was anonymous so that maximum objectivity and reliability of the collected information can be achieved. The questionnaires were filled in between January and May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion:Lecturers from all three faculties of dental medicine are partially aware of the procedures and various types of project financing. They express their willingness to participate in research project activities although their implementation is rather difficult. Lecturers estimate the advantages and disadvantages of participation in projects and in their opinion the unit in charge of project activities at the relevant Faculty of Dental Medicine should comprise of various experts who are to ensure up-to-date information on current or future projects.
Conclusion: Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health.
Barber, Michael; Wiesen, Robert; Arnold, Sara; Taichman, Russell S; Taichman, Linda Susan
Many graduating dentists leave dental school feeling that they are not prepared to start and run a dental practice. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge and perceptions dental graduates have in the area of practice management. A twenty-item survey was mailed in the fall of 2008 to nearly half of the University of Michigan dental school alumni who had graduated between the years of 1997 and 2007. Respondents were asked about their demographics, practice characteristics, and perceptions of knowledge/experience regarding practice management skills at the present time as well as at graduation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The majority of respondents were general practitioners (84 percent) aged thirty to thirty-nine practicing between six and ten years with practice incomes reported to be greater than $300,000 per year (79 percent). Most dentists reported being either an owner or co-owner of the practice (57 percent), and 33 percent reported being an associate in the practice. Upon graduation, 7 percent of the respondents felt that they had a strong knowledge of accounting or human resource issues; this perception increased to 47 percent at the present time. Similarly, less than 6 percent of respondents felt they understood issues pertaining to dental insurance upon graduation; this perception increased to 68 percent after having spent time in the workforce. In contrast to the large increase in knowledge/experience in business aspects of dentistry that had accrued since graduation, most alumni reported only a 7 percent increase in their knowledge of the legal aspects of dental practice. Results from this study indicate that interventions are needed to increase graduating dentists' knowledge of practice management and close the gap between their knowledge and its application in real life. The majority of alumni believed there is a need to improve the curriculum focused on these aspects of dental practice.
Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.
Objective To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Methods As part of the Iowa Fluoride Study, 550 adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with the adolescents’ dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between fluorosis and non-fluorosis subjects was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher’s Exact tests. Results Excluding subjects with orthodontic treatment, 376 adolescents were included and 26% of them had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about the tooth color (45%) and alignment (35%). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (P0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P=0.014) and color (P<0.001) than other parents. The number of maxillary anterior zones exhibiting fluorosis was negatively associated with both adolescent (P=0.03) and parent (P=0.002) satisfaction. Conclusion Adolescents generally had less satisfaction with dental appearance and color and they were more concerned with tooth shape than parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. PMID:22364682
Full Text Available Background: Dental students constitute a stakeholder group that is able to provide unique information concerning the effectiveness of the dental curriculum. The purpose of this study was to determine students′ perceptions of the learning environment, intellectual climate and teacher student relationships in dental school. Methods : This study was conducted among 341 dental students of two dental college of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Response rate was 85%. In this study, the dental version of Medical Student Learning Environment Survey has been used. The questionnaires were divided in to 7 subscales like flexibility, student to student interaction, emotional climate, meaningful experience, organization, supportiveness, and breadth of interest. The students were divided in to two groups of preclinical and clinical for the purpose of comparison. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and t-test. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and differentiated in to preclinical and clinical phases. The preclinical and clinical students rated the student to student interaction as the most favorable whereas the lowest score was given to flexibility by both preclinical and clinical students. Preclinical students rated emotional climate as the lowest after flexibility whereas clinical students rated breadth of interest and meaningful experience as the lowest score after flexibility. Conclusion: This study emphasized the areas of improvement in dental school learning environment based on students′ perspective by making these required and much needed changes in the curriculum. Students′ satisfaction with their dental education can be increased.
Chadwick, Barbara L; Groves, Gemma; Dransfield, Kathryn
To identify the advice given by piercing parlours prior to orofacial piercing and to determine how many dental practitioners see complications from orofacial piercings. Administered questionnaire to 19 piercing parlours and postal questionnaire to 400 dental practitioners in south-east Wales. Ninety-nine per cent of 227 dental practitioners in south-east Wales had treated patients with orofacial piercings, over three-quarters had seen a patient for a complication caused by the piercing, and over half (N=120) had treated a patient for a complication of piercing. Tongue (N=225) and lip (N=209) piercings were most frequently seen and the most commonly occurring complication was fractured or cracked teeth (N=176). Almost all practitioners wanted more information on orofacial piercing and its sequelae. All 19 piercing parlours in south-east Wales warned clients about pain following piercing and 18 mentioned swelling; only four discussed possible damage to teeth and none discussed the risk of airway obstruction. Despite the concerns of dental and medical professionals orofacial piercing remains popular and the complications it causes are frequently seen by dental practitioners. There is a need for literature to assist both dental practitioners and piercers in advising and safeguarding patients.
Boyd, Linda D; Bailey, Angela
To advance the profession of dental hygiene, graduate education is necessary to support growth in research, education, administration, and practice in the discipline and to sustain credibility in a climate in which other health professions require entry-level master's and doctoral degrees. The purpose of this study was to explore what dental hygienists perceive as barriers to pursuing a graduate degree. A survey was developed based on the literature and other national surveys. Data were collected from 160 respondents to the survey: 50 percent held an entry-level baccalaureate degree in dental hygiene, while the rest held an entry-level associate degree (48 percent) or certificate (2 percent) in dental hygiene. All respondents had completed a bachelor's degree. The top five barriers these respondents identified in pursuing graduate education were as follows: 1) cost of graduate education, 2) family responsibilities are too great, 3) concerns about personal funding to pay for graduate education, 4) finding time for graduate school while working, and 5) fear of thesis research. Dental hygiene is one of the few health professions that still have entry-level degrees at the associate and baccalaureate levels. The profession needs to reduce such barriers to enable dental hygienists to pursue graduate education and thus ensure an adequate supply of future leaders, educators, and researchers.
Wondwossen, Fantaye; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bårdsen, Asgeir; Bjorvatn, Kjell
This study was conducted in three Ethiopian Rift Valley villages known for endemic fluorosis. Three-hundred-and-six adolescents (12-15 years) and 233 mothers participated. The aim was to study dental fluorosis in the youngsters and to assess the extent of agreement between clinical and self-rated discoloration and pitting of teeth, and also the level at which dental fluorosis is perceived as a problem both by children and their mothers. The children (154 M and 152 F) gave a simple self-assessment of tooth-color and quality of their teeth, and were subsequently examined for dental fluorosis. Finally, four color photographs of teeth with dental fluorosis (TF-scores 2, 3, 5, and 7) were used as references during a structured oral interview of the children, as well as their mothers. At TF score > or = 2, the prevalence of dental fluorosis on maxillary central incisors was 72% and 37% at TF score > or = 4. The mean TF score was significantly higher among boys than among girls of unemployed fathers compared to children of employed fathers. The likelihood of reporting problems with dental appearance increased with increasing individual TF scores. The child/mother pairs found teeth with TF scores 2 and 3 esthetically acceptable, while teeth with TF scores 5 and 7 were considered unacceptable. Mothers were more critical of severe fluorosis than were their children.
Sirisinha, Stitaya; Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Wittayawuttikul, Ruchareka
This communication analyzed research publications in dentistry in the Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science databases of 10 dental faculties in the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) from 2000 to 2009. The term used for the "all-document types" search was "Faculty of Dentistry/College of Dentistry." Abstracts presented at regional meetings were also included in the analysis. The Times Higher Education System QS World University Rankings showed that universities in the region fare poorly in world university rankings. Only the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University appeared in the top 100 in 2009; 19 universities in the region, including Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, appeared in the top 500. Data from the databases showed that research publications by dental institutes in the region fall short of their Asian counterparts. Singapore and Thailand are the most active in dental research of the ASEAN countries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Vuletic, L; Spalj, S; Peros, K
The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposing dental students to visual stimuli related to dental profession during the medical physiology seminar could affect their perception of the clinical relevance of the topic. A self-administered questionnaire on attitudes towards medical physiology was conducted amongst 105 students of the School of Dental Medicine in Zagreb, Croatia, aged 19-24 years (80% females) following a seminar on respiratory system physiology. Power-point presentation accompanying the seminar for a total of 52 students (study group) was enriched with pictures related to dental practice in order to assess whether these pictures could make the topic appear more clinically relevant for a future dentist. The results of the survey indicated that dental students in the study group perceived the topic of the seminar as more important for them as future dentists when compared to the perception of the control group (P = 0.025). The results of this survey encourage physiology lecturers to present medical physiology as clinically relevant for dental students whenever possible as this could increase students' interest in the subject and their motivation for learning. Such an approach could be particularly beneficial if there is a significant time gap between basic courses and involvement of students into clinical training for it could promote meaningful learning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela; Vodanović, Marin
Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process.
AlFaris, E.; Naeem, N; Irfan, F.; Qureshi, R.; Saad, H.; Sadhan, R. Al; Abdulghani, H.M.; Vleuten, C. van der
Long training workshops on the writing of exam questions have been shown to be effective; however, the effectiveness of short workshops needs to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a one-day, seven-hour faculty development workshop at the College of Dentistry, King
Надежда Алексеевна Кудинова
Full Text Available Purpose to examine the motivational space, values and health-social and psychological portrait of patients who rated the quality of dental care.Methodology historical, sociological, statistical. Results: In a market economy, patients’ satisfaction is of one of the most important regulators of demand. Estimate of the quality of dental services (QDS depends on the patients having stable socio-psychological status being in a certain system of values, in space of some motives and needs. Got data have revealed that nearly 17.5% of patients dissatisfied with the quality of dental care, but the size of the motivational area of this group by nearly 20% higher than that of their opponents. With the structure of the motives are no such positions as "visiting the dentist enters my behavior stereotype", "I want to know the details of my dental health" and "The process of dental treatment gives me pleasure" In the group of patients who are satisfied QDS, relevance value orientation "good health" is 1.5 times the value of "education" in 2.5 times, and the value of "high social security" is 4.5 times higher than among the dissatisfied patients.Practical implications public health and health care.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-22
Kudinova Nadezhda Alekseevna
Full Text Available Purpose to examine the motivational space, values and health-social and psychological portrait of patients who rated the quality of dental care. Methodology historical, sociological, statistical. Results: In a market economy, patients’ satisfaction is of one of the most important regulators of demand. Estimate of the quality of dental services (QDS depends on the patients having stable socio-psychological status being in a certain system of values, in space of some motives and needs. Got data have revealed that nearly 17.5% of patients dissatisfied with the quality of dental care, but the size of the motivational area of this group by nearly 20% higher than that of their opponents. With the structure of the motives are no such positions as "visiting the dentist enters my behavior stereotype", "I want to know the details of my dental health" and "The process of dental treatment gives me pleasure" In the group of patients who are satisfied QDS, relevance value orientation "good health" is 1.5 times the value of "education" in 2.5 times, and the value of "high social security" is 4.5 times higher than among the dissatisfied patients. Practical implications public health and health care.
Full Text Available Tooth loss is a kind of handicap and losing a number of teeth makes an individual susceptible to this disability. Having knowledge about the prevalence of partial tooth loss, provides us with a better understanding of social hygiene. On the other hand, having access to such an information, students can be led properly to treat more prevalent cases. The goal of this retrospective study is to investigate the frequency of partial prosthesis classifications, among patients, referred to Shiraz dental faculty. Sexuality, tooth loss classification and its reason and the presence of additional space were studied about all patients (371 females, 205 males from (97-98 to the end of (99-2000. The results showed that females were more than males (64.4%, the lower jaw was treated more than the upper jaw (67.9%, dental caries were the most important reason for extraction (55.5%, class I among females (28.79% and class II mod I among males (29.73% had the most frequency, meaning that the most cases were free end, so more attention should be paid for the education of free end partial prosthesis, however, preventive steps should be taken to retain abutment teeth.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on dimensions of the perceived service quality measurement for business schools. We propose an adapted SERVQUAL measure of expected and perceived quality, where employees at business schools are split into two groups: faculty and administrative staff, and assessed separately. This measure represents a tool for comparable service quality assessment at business schools. Empirical data were collected among undergraduate students in a developing economy. A total of 282 respondents were used to assess the overall fit of the proposed model and to test the differences between the expectations and the perceptions of service quality in a business school. The results support usability of the proposed adapted SERVQUAL measure. Therefore, the study contributes to the existing literature reporting the findings on service quality in an educational context.
Coplen, Amy E; Bell, Kathryn; Aamodt, Gail L; Ironside, Lynn
Purpose: Many states are exploring alternative provider models and examining the role of the dental hygienist to address access to care challenges as the United States continues to face increasing demands for oral healthcare services. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists' opinions in the state of Oregon regarding the current limitations of dental hygienists' scope of practice, perceived need for a mid-level provider in Oregon, and personal interest in becoming a mid-level provider. Methods: In December 2013 a survey was mailed to a sample of 1,231 dental hygienists registered in Oregon representing 30% of the licentiates. All licentiates holding expanded practice permits (EPP) were included in the sample (n=351). The following categories were included in the 32-question survey: scope of practice, mid-level provider, current practice, and demographics. Results: A total of 440 surveys were returned for a response rate of 36%. Of the EPP holders, 51% responded to the survey. Over half of respondents (59%) believe that a mid-level provider is needed in the state. Respondents holding membership in the American Dental Hygienists' Association, as well as EPP holders, were significantly more likely to respond that a mid-level dental provider was needed in the state (plevel provider was introduced in Oregon, the new provider should be a registered dental hygienist model. Forty-three percent (n=186) of respondents were interested in becoming mid-level providers and 47% (n=203) of respondents believed that the minimum education for a mid-level provider should be a bachelor's degree. The majority, 74% (n=137), of those interested in becoming a mid-level provider indicated a preference in completing their education through online teaching combined with a clinical internship. Conclusion: There is strong support from dental hygienists in Oregon that a need exists for a mid-level dental provider and that this provider model should be dental hygiene based
Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth
Increasing faculty use of active-learning (AL) pedagogies in college classrooms is a persistent challenge in biology education. A large research-intensive university implemented changes to its biology majors’ two-course introductory sequence as outlined by the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report. One goal of the curricular reform was to integrate core biological concepts and competencies into the courses using AL pedagogical approaches. The purpose of this study was to observe the instructional practices used by faculty (N = 10) throughout the 3-year process of reform to determine whether the use of AL strategies (including student collaboration) increased, given that it can maximize student learning gains. Instructors participated in yearly interviews to track any change in their perceptions of AL instruction. Instructors increased their average use of AL by 12% (group AL by 8%) of total class time throughout the 3-year study. Interviews revealed that instructors shifted their definitions of AL and talked more about how to assess student learning over the 3 years of the project. Collaboration, feedback, and time may have been important factors in the reform, suggesting that small shifts over time can accumulate into real change in the classroom. PMID:29146663
Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey
This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields.
Kwame Bediako Asare
Full Text Available This study examined some dimensions of discipline as perceived by lecturers, administrators, and students in the Faculty of Education, University of Cape Coast. It sought to find out whether differences exist in their perceptions regarding the importance of discipline, forms of indiscipline, and causes of indiscipline in the Faculty of Education. We adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey for the study involving 358 students, 11 lecturers, and 8 administrators. A customized Likert-type questionnaire was used for data collection to help answer the research questions and hypothesis formulated to guide the study. We found that there was no statistically significant difference in the perceptions lecturers, students, and administrators hold about disciplinary issues in the Faculty of Education. The need for university authorities to continuously use learning dialogue to engage students in decision making was highlighted so as to continue to achieve and enjoy a conducive environment for learning—as efforts are made to focus on students’ learning.
Minor, Tameika D.
This study investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, perceptions of the academic climate, and the employment continuation plans of tenured and tenure-track faculty of color in CORE accredited rehabilitation counselor education (RCE) programs. Furthermore, this study aims to identify which factors best predict the…
Royer, Danielle F.
Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…
Ferrari, Joseph; Janulis, Patrick
This study compared the perceptions of the mission identity and mission-driven campus activities of faculty (n = 305) and staff (n = 584) at a large urban Catholic university. Moreover, it compared employees who were self identified as Catholic (n = 375), Christian (n = 204), other faiths (n = 161), or no religious preference (n = 159).…
Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore faculty's perceptions of quality management activities (QMA) within their departments, attention being paid to relevant quality aspects and whether quality management contributes to control or improvement of higher education. Furthermore, it examines differences between departments and relationships…
Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…
Wingo, Nancy Pope; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Moss, Jacqueline A.
Academic leaders can better implement institutional strategic plans to promote online programs if they understand faculty perceptions about teaching online. An extended version of a model for technology acceptance, or TAM2 (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), provided a framework for surveying and organizing the research literature about factors that…
Wolusky, G. Anthony
This quantitative study used a web-based questionnaire to assess the attitudes and perceptions of online and hybrid faculty towards student-centered asynchronous virtual teamwork (AVT) using the technology acceptance model (TAM) of Davis (1989). AVT is online student participation in a team approach to problem-solving culminating in a written…
Stevens, Chad M.; Schneider, Elizabeth; Bederman-Miller, Patricia
This paper explores post-secondary faculty perceptions of awareness and preparedness relating to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Institutions of higher education are businesses. The largest threat to sustained viability for many businesses is litigation. Business-related litigation is often the result of non-employment discrimination or…
Chretien, Katherine C; Farnan, Jeanne M; Greysen, S Ryan; Kind, Terry
To assess faculty perceptions of professional boundaries and trainee-posted content on social networking sites (SNS). In June 2010, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine conducted its annual survey of U.S. and Canadian member institutions. The survey included sections on demographics and social networking. The authors used descriptive statistics and tests of association to analyze the Likert scale responses and qualitatively analyzed the free-text responses. Of 110 institutional members, 82 (75%) responded to the survey. Of the 40 respondents who reported current or past SNS use, 21 (53%) reported receiving a "friend request" from a current student and 25 (63%) from a current resident. Of these, 4 (19%) accepted the student request and 12 (48%) accepted the resident request. Sixty-three of 80 (79%) felt it was inappropriate to send a friend request to a current student, 61 (76%) to accept a current student's request, 42 (53%) to become friends with a current resident, and 61 (81%) to become friends with a current patient. Becoming friends with a former student, former resident, or colleague was perceived as more appropriate. Younger respondents were less likely to deem specific student behaviors inappropriate (odds ratio [OR] 0.18-0.79; adjusted OR 0.12-0.86, controlling for respondents' sex, rank, and SNS use), although none reached statistical significance. Some internal medicine educators are using SNSs and interacting with trainees online. Their perceptions on the appropriateness of social networking behaviors provide some consensus for professional boundaries between faculty and trainees in the digital world.
Murdoch-Kinch, C A; Duff, R E; Ramaswamy, V; Ester, T V; Sponseller, S A; Seeley, J A
-focused PPE process using mixed methods was effective for evaluating the dental school's climate for diversity and inclusion, as well as the learning environment for faculty, staff, and students.
Metz, Michael J.
Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. PMID:25179615
Miller, Cynthia J; Metz, Michael J
Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most common oral health problems in childhood. As a child depends entirely on the parents, its dental visit could be influenced by various psychosocial factors such as parental perceptions of the child’s oral health and maternal anxiety. Aim: To assess the influence of children’s clinical condition, mothers’ dental anxiety and their use of dental services, maternal perception of child’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL on the child’s utilization of dental services. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 mothers of children between 2 and 5 years of age. The questionnaire included the background characteristics, mothers and child’s dental visit, mothers’ dental anxiety using Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale and maternal perceptions of the child’s OHRQoL using Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. Clinical examination for assessing the dental caries among the children was performed. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.1 software. Results: Using the final model of Poisson regression analysis with robust variance and forward stepwise procedure, it was found that the age of mother, the age of child, the income of the family, poor OHRQoL, the presence of caries and pain in child significantly influenced the visit of the child to dentist (P ≤ 0.05. No statistically significant association was found between the anxiety of mother and the child’s visit. Conclusion: Lack of maternal knowledge, low socio-economic reasons and maternal perception of child’s oral health could be the important reasons for a child’s less number of dental visits.
Reports from the USA and Australia, however, show that it may be problematic because joint basic science curricula are mostly tailored around the needs of the medical students only, which may lead to prejudice and marginalisation of dental students. There are no local studies to inform decision-making in this regard.
Davies, E Bethan; Buchanan, Heather
Behaviour management techniques (BMTs) are utilised by dentists to aid children's dental anxiety (DA). Children's perceptions of these have been underexplored, and their feedback could help inform paediatric dentistry. To explore children's acceptability and perceptions of dental communication and BMTs and to compare these by age, gender, and DA. A total of sixty-two 9- to 11-year-old school children participated in the study. Children's acceptability of BMTs was quantified using a newly developed Likert scale, alongside exploration of children's experiences and perceptions through interviews. anova and t-tests explored BMT acceptability ratings by age, gender, and DA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interviews. Statistical analyses showed no effect of age, gender, or DA upon BMT acceptability. Children generally perceived the BMTs as acceptable or neutral; stop signals were the most acceptable, and voice control the least acceptable BMT. Beneficial experiences of distraction and positive reinforcement were common. Children described the positive nature of their dentist's communication and BMT utilisation. Dental anxiety did not affect children's perceptions of BMTs. Children were generally positive about dentist's communication and established BMTs. Children's coping styles may impact perceptions and effectiveness of BMTs and should be explored in future investigations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.
Hirano, Alison Izawa
The processes of globalization have an impact on society in numerous ways. As a result, higher education institutions around the world attempt to adjust to these changes through internationalization efforts. Amongst the key stakeholders who play an important role in assuring that these efforts are successful is the faculty because it is this body…
Miura, Miwa; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Matsuda, Naoki
Although a variety of radiation-related education courses are provided in universities, information on faculty and student perceptions of radiation risk is limited. To obtain quantitative data on this issue, we conducted a written questionnaire survey at Nagasaki University on the perceived risks of 13 health hazards, of which six related to radiation exposure. The respondents were asked to estimate the risk of the various items to health on a rating scale of 1 to 5. 'Living near a nuclear plant' received the highest rating of 4, followed by 'not using solar UV protection in midsummer'. 'X-ray diagnostic tests' were rated at only 2, which was lower than the rating for 'air travel'. Among the respondents, undergraduate students showed the highest average risk rating across all items followed by nurses, and staff and graduate students, with doctors and dentists producing the lowest scores. These results suggest that level of specialist knowledge is associated with risk perception, and therefore that radiation education should be carefully planned to improve levels of understanding. (author)
Chhabra, Namrata; Kukreja, Sahiba; Chhabra, Sarah; Chhabra, Sahil; Khodabux, Sameenah; Sabane, Harshal
Team-based learning (TBL) strategy has been widely adapted by medical schools all over the world, but the reports regarding the perceptions and the attitudes of faculty and undergraduate medical students towards TBL approach have been conflicting. The study aimed to introduce TBL strategy in curriculum of Biochemistry after evaluating its effectiveness through perceptions and attitudes of faculty and 1 st -year medical students. One hundred and fifty students of first professional M.B.B.S and five faculty members participated in the study. Their responses regarding perceptions and attitudes towards TBL strategy were collected using structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired sample t -test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. Majority of the students expressed satisfaction with team approach and reported improvement in the academic scores, learning styles, and development of problem-solving, interpersonal, and professional skills. The faculty, however, recommended a modified TBL approach to benefit all sections of the students for the overall success of this intervention. TBL is an effective technique to enable the students to master the core concepts and develop professional and critical thinking skills; however, for the 1 st -year medical students, a modified TBL approach might be more appropriate for the effective outcomes.
The field of dental medical education is one of the most rapidly evolving fields in education. Newer teaching methods are being evaluated and incorporated in dental institutions. One of the promising new methods is the blended learning approach that may involve a "flipped" instructional sequencing, where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking. The author conducted a mixed method, experimental study that focused on second year dental students' perceptions of blended learning and its effectiveness. A sample size of 40 dental students in their second year from a Northeastern Regional Dental School were invited to participate in this study to evaluate a blended learning approach in comparison to a more traditional lecture format. Students who participated in the study, participated in group problem-solving, responded to Likert-type surveys, completed content exams, and were interviewed individually. Based on Likert survey data and interview responses, the participants in the blended learning treatment reported very positive opinions including positive perceptions of the organization, support of meaningful learning and potential merits for use in dental education. There also was evidence that the blended learning group achieved at least as well as the traditional lecture group, and excelled on certain content test items. The results of this study support the conclusion that blended instruction promotes active, in-depth and self-regulated learning. During blended learning, students set standards or goals regarding their learning, evaluate their progress toward these goals, and then adapt and regulate their cognition, motivation, and behavior in order to accomplish their goals. Overall, the results of this research on blended learning, including the use of problem-based learning in group discussions, supports the merits of incorporating blended earning in dental education curricula.
Tsirogiannis, Panagiotis; Neophytou, Sophia; Reul, Anika; Heydecke, Guido; Reissmann, Daniel R
To develop a reliable and valid instrument for the comprehensive assessment of patients' burdens during dental impression making, the Burdens in Dental Impression Making Questionnaire, BiDIM-Q. The item pool was generated in a convenience sample of 20 prosthodontic patients using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The final instrument was tested in 145 consecutively recruited patients, and psychometric properties of the BiDIM-Q were determined. Four different impression materials were used according to the manufacturers' instructions and indications: alginate, c-silicone, polyvinylsiloxane, and polyether. The final BiDIM-Q consisting of 12 items showed sufficient reliability, indicated by Cronbach's alpha of .82 and an average inter-item correlation of .29. Validity was supported by Pearson correlation coefficients for the correlation between the instrument's total score with the patients' overall satisfaction rating (r=.63), and by the correlation matrix for the correlations of the patients' perceptions with the practitioners' satisfaction ratings. Overall, patient perceived burdens were low with highest burdens observed when using polyether in partially dentate patients for pick-up impressions, while lowest burdens were reported when using c-silicone for impressions of edentulous jaws. The BiDIM-Q is a reliable and valid tool for assessing patient-based process-related quality of care in dentistry allowing a deeper insight into patients' perspective during dental impression making. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck
Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ8-10 overall score (partial r = 0.15, P caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14. PMID:25675410
Lisa Di Valentino
Full Text Available This article describes the background, methodology, and results of a study undertaken in 2014 to determine university faculty awareness and perceptions of copyright as it affects their teaching. An online survey questionnaire was distributed to teaching faculty across Canada, seeking feedback about the copyright policies and training opportunities at their institutions, where they go for copyright assistance, and how they would respond to various copyright-related scenarios that may arise in the course of teaching. Most of the respondents are aware of the copyright policies or guidelines at their universities, but much fewer know whether or not their institution offers copyright training. Of those who are aware of training opportunities, only one third have taken advantage of them. When needing assistance, faculty members are most likely to go to a librarian or to the institution’s copyright policy. Responses to the four scenarios suggest that faculty members are more likely to share digital copyrighted materials (including online works with their students, whereas they are more likely to ask permission or guidance when it comes to print materials. Comments from the respondents touch upon issues of the complexity of copyright, and the often time-consuming process of obtaining permissions for the use of copyrighted materials in teaching. This study was supported by an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. Cet article décrit le contexte, la méthodologie, et les résultats d’une étude préliminaire entreprise en 2014 pour déterminer la sensibilisation et les perceptions du personnel universitaire du droit d’auteur en ce qui concerne l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Un questionnaire d’un sondage en ligne était distribué (via les associations universitaires à l’équipe enseignante dans tout le Canada, cherchant des commentaires sur les politiques du droit d’auteur et les possibilités de formation aux institutions, où elle recherche
Moore, Rod; Birn, H.; Brødsgaard, I.
anxiety by the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) indicated significant associations between high dental anxiety and gender (women) (Table 2) and low education (Table 3), but not income or age (Table 2). Other significant relationships with high dental fear were fear of specific dental procedures, negative......English summary: This telephone survey showed that 4.2% of Danish adults over 16 years old have extreme dental anxiety and 6% have moderate fear in a sample of 565 adults from Århus (Table 1). Common perceptions as to the causes of dental fear indicated that most believed it to be due to pain......, especially from drilling and thereafter trauma or negative experiences leading to distrust of the dentist (Table 1). It was interesting to note that although up to 40% of the sample expressed some degree of fear for dentistry, 81.1% said that they know of at least two persons who have dental fear (16.2% know...
Perceptions from Library School Faculty on Meaningful Matters to Academic Librarians: Additional Degrees, Sabbaticals, Evaluation, and Governance.A Review of: Wyss, P. A. (2010. Library school faculty member perceptions regarding faculty status for academic librarians. College & Research Libraries, 71(4, 375-388.
Full Text Available Objective – To survey the faculty members of American Library Association (ALA-accredited library schools to gain insight into their perceptions on academic librarians obtaining faculty status and how the library school curricula prepare academic librarians for faculty roles.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – An e-survey was distributed online to 57 ALA-accredited library schools during April 2007, using Zoomerang.Subjects – The population consisted of 906 tenure-track or tenured faculty members.Methods – The 24 item survey was designed to answer eight specific research questions and evoke responses scored on a five-point Likert scale that corresponded to (1 Strongly Disagree, (2 Disagree, (3 Neutral, (4 Agree, and (5 Strongly Agree. For the analysis of data in questions 1 and 3 through 8, the perceptions of faculty members of ALA-accredited library schools were determined by calculating the mean and standard deviation. For the analysis of question 2 a t test was used to determine differences in faculty members’ perceptions based on gender and tenure. A one-way analysis of variance, or ANOVA, was used to determine library school faculty members’ perceptions based on academic rank. Main Results – A total of 906 individuals were sent the link to the survey, and 187 individuals completed the survey, making the response rate 20.6%. Of the respondents, 38.5% were professors, 25.7% were associate professors, 33.7% were assistant professors, and 2.1% were lecturers. The majority of respondents were female (60.0% and tenured (65.0%.Faculty members of the ALA-accredited library schools agreed that courses in statistical concepts, procedures, and research (both experimental and non-experimental should be required of those seeking a master’s or doctoral degree. They agreed that the Master of Library Science (MLS degree is insufficient in preparing librarians for faculty status, and that additional graduate degrees improve performance
Reis, Clarice M R; Rodriguez, Charo; Macaulay, Ann C; Bedos, Christophe
This qualitative case study was conducted in a Canadian dental school using a participatory approach and was based on Paulo Freire's theoretical concept of conscientização, a form of critical consciousness that involves awareness of social reality and fosters action towards social justice. The aim of the study was to understand dental students' perceptions of and attitudes about poverty and dental care provided to people living in poverty. It also examined how these perceptions shape students' plans for their professional careers, as well as their opinions on educational strategies to prepare them to work with poor patients. The sources of data generation were semistructured interviews, participant observations, and document analysis. A deductive-inductive thematic strategy was used to analyze the data. Out of a class of thirty-five senior dental students, the authors interviewed a convenience sample of twelve: five male and seven female. The findings suggest that the students had incipient conscientização about poverty-related themes. They perceived poverty as a distant issue and as the responsibility of the government or of the poor individuals themselves. The students did not have plans to work with patients living in poverty in the future and struggled to envision ways to address these patients' needs other than volunteer work. This research supports the need for academic dental institutions to adopt strategies to increase students' critical consciousness about oral health inequities. Reducing oral health inequities is a matter of social justice, and dental care providers are key actors in this endeavor.
Kuhn, Kristine L.
The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to understand how faculty perceive and experience students' use of coercive power in faculty-student relationships. Interviews were used to gather data from faculty members who had experienced students' use of coercive power. Data reveal that students' use of coercive power can negatively impact…
YouTube's accessibility, ease of use, and depth of content are strong lures for music students. But do music teaching faculty and librarians encourage this and do they use it in their own research, teaching, and work? This study surveyed over 9,000 music faculty and over 300 music librarians in the United States. It discovered that faculty rank is…
Eveslage, Sonja A.; And Others
People and relationships that have helped faculty to develop their careers were studied, along with the impact of these relationships on faculty careers. Successful faculty were asked to: identify their career helpers, assess the relative impact of various career helping relationships on their professional identities, and describe the…
Hamilton, J. Brooke, III; And Others
Survey responses from 36 of 61 business faculty and 53 of 139 nonbusiness faculty found that both groups considered it unethical to give noncontributors authorship credit. However, business faculty reported the practice to be more prevalent and considered their colleagues more likely to do it. (SK)
Shaffer, Christine E.
As colleges and universities increase the focus on student learning, faculty development has taken a more prominent role in higher education (Barr & Tagg, 1995; Fink, 2003; Lieberman & Guskin, 2002). While a significant body of work on the practice of faculty development exists, research on faculty developers as professionals is limited. Several…
Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise
The understanding and detection of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is linked to its recognition by clinicians. No study has investigated dental clinicians' level of perception regarding MIH in the Middle East region including Iraq. To determine the perception of Iraqi academic clinicians about MIH prevalence, severity and aetiological factors. A questionnaire, based on previous European and Australian/New Zealand studies was administered to the academic dental staff of Mosul University. A response rate of 77.7% was reported. General dental practitioners represented 30.8% of the total respondents, whilst 65.1% were dentists with post-graduate qualification. The majority of the respondents (81.2%) encountered MIH in their clinical activities and 37.3% of them identified that the prevalence appeared to have increased in recent years. Fewer than half of the respondents observed MIH affected teeth on a monthly basis. The condition was less commonly seen in primary second molars than the first permanent molars. A variation in views was recorded about MIH specific aetiological factor/s. Respondents advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation is a condition commonly diagnosed by Iraqi dental academics. No apparent consensus existed between the general and specialist dentists regarding the anticipated prevalence, severity and aetiology of this condition. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gautami S Penmetsa; Kavyamala Dubba; Zabirunnisa Mohammad
Introduction: Biostatistics is a discipline concerned with how we ought to make decisions when analysing biomedical data. As statistics is desirable at every stage of research to obtain scientifically important information and reliable results, the importance of biostatistics should definitely be informed to the researchers in health sciences. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of dental professionals towards biostatistics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study w...
Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.
Van der Berg-Cloete, Sophy E; Snyman, Lorraine; Postma, Thomas C; White, John G
Recent developmental frameworks suggest that dental curricula should focus on developing nonclinical skills in dental students. The aim of this study was to qualitatively map students' perceptions of the most important nonclinical skills against the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF). A representative sample of second- to fifth-year students (n=594; overall response rate 69%) from all four dental schools in South Africa participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2014-15 enquiring about nonclinical skills and dental practice management. One of the questions required students to list the four most important nonclinical skills required for a dentist. Students (n=541) most frequently noted competencies related to working with others (97.9%), personal qualities (72.3%), and managing services (42.9%) as the most important nonclinical skills. Very few students mentioned competencies related to the improvement of services (14.1%) and the provision of strategic direction (10.9%). The students' attention appeared to be on nonclinical skills generally required for clinical care with some realization of the importance of managing services, indicating a need for a stronger focus on leadership and management training in dental schools in South Africa. The results also helped to unravel some of the conceptual ambiguity of the MLCF and highlight opportunities for leadership research using the MLCF as a conceptual framework.
Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay
Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.
Stubbs, Barbara; Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola
To collect information about the types, frequency, importance, and quality of mentorship received among academic family medicine faculty, and to identify variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Web-based survey of all faculty members of an academic department of family medicine. The Department of Family and Community Medicine of the University of Toronto in Ontario. All 1029 faculty members were invited to complete the survey. Receiving mentorship rated as very good or excellent in 1 or more of 6 content areas relevant to respondents' professional lives, and information about demographic and practice characteristics, faculty ratings of their local departments and main practice settings, teaching activities, professional development, leadership, job satisfaction, and health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. The response rate was 66.8%. Almost all (95.0%) respondents had received mentorship in several areas, with informal mentorship being the most prevalent mode. Approximately 60% of respondents rated at least 1 area of mentoring as very good or excellent. Multivariate logistic regression identified 5 factors associated with an increased likelihood of rating mentorship quality as very good or excellent: positive perceptions of their local department (odds ratio [OR] = 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.54, P teachers, family medicine faculties will need to develop strategies to support effective mentorship across a range of settings and career stages. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Full Text Available This is contribution no. 16-114-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.The Kansas State University Open/Alternative Textbook Initiative provides grants to faculty members to replace textbooks with open/alternative educational resources (OAERs that are available at no cost to students. Open educational resources are available for anyone to access, while alternative educational resources are not open. The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions towards OAERs and the initiative, of students enrolled in, and faculty members teaching, courses using OAERs. A survey was sent out to 2,074 students in 13 courses using the OAERs. A total of 524 (25.3% students completed the survey and a faculty member from each of the 13 courses using OAERs was interviewed. Students rated the OAERs as good quality, preferred using them instead of buying textbooks for their courses, and agreed that they would like OAERs used in other courses. Faculty felt that student learning was somewhat better and it was somewhat easier to teach using OAERs than when they used the traditional textbooks. Nearly all faculty members preferred teaching with OAERs and planned to continue to do so after the funding period. These results, combined with the tremendous savings to students, support the continued funding of the initiative and similar approaches at other institutions.
Ramani, Subha; Könings, Karen D; Mann, Karen V; Pisarski, Emily E; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
To explore resident and faculty perspectives on what constitutes feedback culture, their perceptions of how institutional feedback culture (including politeness concepts) might influence the quality and impact of feedback, feedback seeking, receptivity, and readiness to engage in bidirectional feedback. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, five focus group discussions with internal medicine residents, three focus group discussions with general medicine faculty, and eight individual interviews with subspecialist faculty were conducted at Brigham and Women's Hospital between April and December 2016. Discussions and interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim; concurrent data collection and analysis were performed using the constant comparative approach. Analysis was considered through the lens of politeness theory and organizational culture. Twenty-nine residents and twenty-two general medicine faculty participated in focus group discussions, and eight subspecialty faculty participated in interviews. The institutional feedback culture was described by participants as: (1) a culture of politeness, in which language potentially damaging to residents' self-esteem was discouraged, and (2) a culture of excellence, in which the institution's outstanding reputation and pedigree of trainees inhibited constructive feedback. Three key themes situated within this broader cultural context were discovered: normalizing constructive feedback to promote a culture of growth, overcoming the mental block to feedback seeking, and hierarchical culture impeding bidirectional feedback. An institutional feedback culture of excellence and politeness may impede honest, meaningful feedback and may impact feedback seeking, receptivity, and bidirectional feedback exchanges. It is essential to understand the institutional feedback culture before it can be successfully changed.
Shipman, Cheri Deann
This qualitative study examined the perceptions of faculty members who use technology in undergraduate higher education traditional classrooms in research-focused regional universities in South Texas. Faculty members at research-focused regional universities are expected to divide time judiciously into three major areas: research, service, and…
Rocha, Juliana; Pinto, Andres; Batista, Marilia; Paula, Janice Simpson de; Ambrosano, Glaucia
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of SERVQUAL to assess service quality in Dentistry, by evaluating patients' expectations and perceptions of dental care and their association to patients' sociodemographic data. Design/methodology/approach The sample constituted of 379 subjects in the first assessment and 155 in the second phase. All employees of the companies that were clients of the dental insurance participated, a total of four companies in two states (São Paulo and Minas Gerais) of Brazil. SERVQUAL questionnaires about expectations and sociodemographic data were dispatched in the first phase, and in a second phase SERVQUAL questionnaires about perceptions. Those who had not yet received dental treatment and had agreed to participate filled out their survey in the first phase. In the second phase, the respondents had to have completed their treatment. Findings When the value gap is considered, Reliability (as a dimension) had the smallest score (-3.71). This means that it was the worst result, i.e. there is a higher difference between expectations and perceptions, and problems can be identified here. t-test confirmed that all the dimensions had some statistically significant difference with p<0.05 in relation to expectations and perceptions. Women presented higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (Tangible and Reliability dimensions), as well as the oldest participants (Empathy dimension) and those with lower parental literacy (Assurance and Empathy dimensions). The only dimension that was not significantly associated was Responsiveness. Originality/value This research suggests that the patients evaluated the physical characteristics of the premises and the interaction with the staff as the priority issues that need special attention in this service. Moreover, the use of SERVQUAL was extremely relevant for the oral health service, because it assessed the users' subjective perceptions.
Full Text Available Dental caries are largely preventable, and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between diet and oral health is abundant. To date, however, dentists' perceptions about the role of diet and dentists' practice patterns regarding diet counseling have not been clarified.THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1 examine discordance between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual provision of diet counseling to patients, and (2 identify dentists' characteristics associated with their provision of diet counseling.The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey in Japan.The study queried dentists working in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan (JDPBRN, which aims to allow dentists to investigate research questions and share experiences and expertise (n = 282.Dentists were asked about their perceptions on the importance of diet and their practice patterns regarding diet counseling, as well as patient, practice, and dentist background data.The majority of participants (n = 116, 63% recognized that diet is "more important" to oral health. However, among participants who think diet is "more important" (n = 116, only 48% (n = 56 provide diet counseling to more than 20% of their patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that several variables were associated with providing diet counseling; dentist gender, practice busyness, percentage of patients interested in caries prevention, caries risk assessment, and percentage of patients who receive blood pressure screening.Some discordance exists between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual practice pattern regarding diet counseling to patients. Reducing this discordance may require additional dentist education, including nutritional and systemic disease concepts; patient
Price, James H; Braun, Robert E; McKinney, Molly A; Thompson, Amy
In recent years, it has become commonplace for universities to hire part-time and non-tenure track faculty to save money. This study examined how commonly part-time faculty are used in health education and how they are used to meet program needs. The American Association of Health Education's 2009 "Directory of Institutions Offering Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Health Education" was used to send a three-wave mailing to programs that were not schools of public health (n = 215). Of the 125 departments (58%) that responded, those that used part-time faculty averaged 7.5 part-time faculty in the previous academic year, teaching on average a total of 10 classes per year. A plurality of departments (38%) were currently using more part-time faculty than 10 years ago and 33% perceived that the number of part-time faculty has resulted in decreases in the number of full-time positions. Although 77% of department chairs claimed they would prefer to replace all of their part-time faculty with one full-time tenure track faculty member. As colleges downsize, many health education programs are using more part-time faculty. Those faculty members who take part-time positions will likely be less involved in academic activities than their full-time peers. Thus, further research is needed on the effects of these changes on the quality of health education training and department productivity.
Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others
A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)
Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites
Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the
Rigo, Lilian; Basso, Kenny; Pauli, Jandir; Cericato, Graziela Oro; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Garbin, Raissa Rigo
The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between satisfaction with quality of life, self-perception of oral health and experience with dental surgeons. The study is cross-sectional epidemiological in structure with a sample of 326 elderly individuals over 60 years of age living in a city in the north of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire with queries relating to self-perception in oral health (OHIP - Oral Health Impact Profile), Quality of Life Satisfaction scale and sociodemographic issues. The findings showed that the elderly with higher levels of quality of life satisfaction manifested an enhanced perception of their own oral health as well as a better perceived image of dental surgeons and less anxiety about their experiences with the dentist. It was proven that both the self-perception that the elderly have about oral health as well as their experience with dentists is associated with the quality of life satisfaction of the elderly. The results have important implications for decision-makers and formulators of public policy.
Reddington, Amanda R; Egli, Amy J; Schmuck, Heather M
Health professions students are often unaware of other health care providers' roles or professional expertise due to most education taking place within their single profession. This pattern may be even more prevalent for baccalaureate and associate degree programs since most interprofessional education (IPE) occurs in predoctoral programs and, when IPE is incorporated into allied health professions education, it often utilizes simulation instead of live patient experiences. The aim of this study was to determine if radiologic technology and dental assisting students' perceptions changed regarding interprofessional practice and teamwork after an IPE activity with actual patients. The participants were students in the University of Southern Indiana (USI) radiologic technology and dental assisting programs. This mixed-methods pilot study conducted in 2017 collected quantitative and qualitative data from pre and post surveys, the researchers' observations of student interactions during live patient assessment and acquisition of panoramic images, and large-group discussion. Twenty-five of the 26 students who participated in the IPE program completed both pre and post surveys, for a 96% response rate. The results showed significant differences in the participants' perceptions from the pre to post surveys on a wide variety of survey items. Most notable were the positive changes in perceptions related to trust in judgment of others within their profession (p=0.001), relationships with other professions (p=0.002), and thinking highly of other professions (p=0.002). Overall, this study found that incorporating the IPE activity with a live patient into these radiologic technology and dental assisting programs improved the students' perceptions of other allied health professionals. Future research should include more participants to increase sample size and add quantitative data collection.
Presoto, Cristina D; Wajngarten, Danielle; Domingos, Patrícia A S; Campos, Juliana A D B; Garcia, Patrícia P N S
The aims of this study were to adapt the Job Factors Questionnaire to the field of dentistry, evaluate its psychometric properties, evaluate dental students' perceptions of work/study risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders, and determine the influence of gender and academic level on those perceptions. All 580 students enrolled in two Brazilian dental schools in 2015 were invited to participate in the study. A three-factor structure (Repetitiveness, Work Posture, and External Factors) was tested through confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was estimated using the average variance extracted (AVE), discriminant validity was based on the correlational analysis of the factors, and reliability was assessed. A causal model was created using structural equation modeling to evaluate the influence of gender and academic level on students' perceptions. A total of 480 students completed the questionnaire for an 83% response rate. The responding students' average age was 21.6 years (SD=2.98), and 74.8% were women. Higher scores were observed on the Work Posture factor items. The refined model presented proper fit to the studied sample. Convergent validity was compromised only for External Factors (AVE=0.47), and discriminant validity was compromised for Work Posture and External Factors (r 2 =0.69). Reliability was adequate. Academic level did not have a significant impact on the factors, but the women students exhibited greater perception. Overall, the adaptation resulted in a useful instrument for assessing perceptions of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Gender was found to significantly influence all three factors, with women showing greater perception of the risk factors.
Gautami S Penmetsa
Full Text Available Introduction: Biostatistics is a discipline concerned with how we ought to make decisions when analysing biomedical data. As statistics is desirable at every stage of research to obtain scientifically important information and reliable results, the importance of biostatistics should definitely be informed to the researchers in health sciences. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of dental professionals towards biostatistics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception regarding biostatistics among 721 postgraduate students in dental institutions of Andhra Pradesh. All the participants were provided with a pre-structured questionnaire comprising 21 questions, and answering was completely self-paced. Results: Among the respondents, 86% were aware of the importance of biostatistics in research. Forty-five percent of the respondents attempted to perform statistical analysis on their own. Of all the students, 53% were unable to identify the commonly used parametric tests in clinical trials. Conclusion: Majority of the participants were aware of the importance of biostatistics, but only a few of them attempted to perform statistical analysis. Therefore, dental institutions should take initiatives in organising workshops and training programmes for learning and application of biostatistics, concomitantly encourage research activity to conduct valuable research and add up evidence to literature.
Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereira; Amaral, Cassia Cardoso; Goettems, Marília Leão; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Demarco, Flávio Fernando
Adolescent mothers may have an inaccurate perception and awareness of dental trauma occurrence in children, which may influence whether or not they seek treatment. This study evaluated maternal perception of traumatic dental injury (TDI) occurrence and related factors in children, 24-36 months of age, of adolescent mothers from a cohort in the city of Pelotas/RS, Brazil. Clinical data from 508 children were collected through physical examination; demographic variables (including socio-economic status) and maternal perception of trauma occurrence were collected through interviews with the children's mothers. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. The prevalence of dental trauma was 12.6% (64). A total of 291 (57.9%) mothers reported that their child had hit his or her teeth/mouth at least once. Only 69 (24.8%) mothers who perceived a TDI sought care. The maternal perception of dental trauma experienced by children showed no relationship with diagnosis on clinical examination. Enamel fracture was the most prevalent type of trauma (71.6%), and the maxillary central incisors were the teeth most affected. Owing to lack of awareness about TDI, the adolescent mothers in this study sample did not seek treatment for their children. Awareness campaigns for parents and caregivers about the possible consequences of TDI and the importance of follow up after dental trauma are required. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Watanabe, Takeshi; Hanioka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Mito; Haresaku, Satoru; Shimada, Kaoru; Naito, Toru
The perception that there is a surplus of dentists may be an opportunity to explore attractive career options in dentistry in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 2,114 graduates of a private dental school in Japan. We asked about the perception of oversupply, rated by a visual analogue scale, work environment factors, potential areas of dentistry and necessary medical subjects for their dental practice. The association of a strong perception of dentist oversupply with work environment factors, dental areas and medical subjects was examined by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The response rate was 66%, and data from 1,203 community dentists were analysed. Most respondents (76%) perceived either a strong or very strong surplus of dentists. A very strong perception was significantly associated with work environment factors, including practising in large cities and earning the second lowest of four levels of annual income, but no further associations were found with either the number of patients treated or with the other two ranges of income. This perception was negatively associated with the number of necessary medical subjects, specifically otorhinolaryngology, but no significant association was seen with the number of potential areas of dentistry. The negative correlation between the aspiration to acquire medical knowledge and the perception of dentist oversupply under the circumstance of the possibly excessive perception among community dentists invites further research on the benefits of teaching oral medicine to graduate entry students to build future working satisfaction. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.
Lases, S. S. Lenny; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M. Robert; Heineman, Erik; Lombarts, M. J. M. H. Kiki
Faculty members rely on residents' feedback about their teaching performance. The influence of residents' characteristics on evaluations of faculty is relatively unexplored. We aimed to evaluate the levels of work engagement and empathy among residents and the association of both characteristics
Kitsis, Elizabeth A; Milan, Felise B; Cohen, Hillel W; Myers, Daniel; Herron, Patrick; McEvoy, Mimi; Weingarten, Jacqueline; Grayson, Martha S
Social media use by physicians offers potential benefits but may also be associated with professionalism problems. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine and compare characteristics of social media use by medical students and faculty; 2) to explore the scope of self- and peer-posting of unprofessional online content; and 3) to determine what actions were taken when unprofessional content was viewed. An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to medical students and faculty in October, 2013 at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, New York. Three-quarters of medical students reported using social media "very frequently" (several times a day), whereas less than one-third of faculty did so (p < .001). Medical students reported using privacy settings more often than faculty (96.5 % v. 78.1 %, p < .001). Most medical students (94.2 %) and faculty (94.1 %) reported "never" or "occasionally" monitoring their online presence (p = 0.94). Medical students reported self-posting of profanity, depiction of intoxication, and sexually suggestive material more often than faculty (p < .001). Medical students and faculty both reported peer-posting of unprofessional content significantly more often than self-posting. There was no association between year of medical school and posting of unprofessional content. Medical students reported spending more time using social media and posting unprofessional content more often than did faculty.
Locher, Holley M.
Academic freedom is a cornerstone principle to the U. S. system of higher education and is intended to exist for all faculty. Thus, the dominant discourse is that academic freedom is neutral. Utilizing the framework of critical race theory, this research demonstrates that faculty of color can differentially experience and perceive their academic…
Peacock, Jessica; Covino, Ralph; Auchter, Jessica; Boyd, Jennifer; Klug, Hope; Laing, Craig; Irvin, Lindsay
This article discusses results of a survey on the utilization of and attitudes and beliefs towards the use of popular culture among faculty in higher education. A total of 212 faculty members from a mid-sized public regional university provided responses, with the majority indicating that they utilize popular culture in their classroom teaching…
Gonyo, Claire P.; Cantwell, Brendan
This qualitative study involved interviews of 32 faculty principle investigators at three research institutions and explored how they view the role of students within physical and life science labs. We used socialization theory and student engagement literature to analyze faculty views, which can contribute to student investment in STEM fields.…
Akbulut, Yavuz; Odabasi, H. Ferhan; Kuzu, Abdullah
This study explored the views of pre-service teachers regarding the indicators of information and communication technologies (ICT) at Turkish education faculties. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented with graduating students enrolled in Turkish education faculties. A combination of stratified random sampling and systematic sampling was…
Moshiri, Farrokh; Cardon, Peter Wilson
For decades, business schools in the United States have attempted to increase faculty diversity. The goals and benefits of increasing faculty diversity include improved educational outcomes, social justice, and economic competitiveness. While Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business data shows that a gender gap still exists in…
Kilcrease, Kelly M.
The author surveyed over 1,600 business faculty from 395 AACSB-accredited schools to ascertain their opinions about business advisory boards. The findings reveal that vast majorities of faculty were not directly involved with their business advisory boards, but they received updates through documentation and administrative feedback. Most felt,…
There has been a remarkable improvement in access and rate of adoption of technology in higher education. Even so, reports indicate that faculty members are not integrating technology into instruction in ways that make a difference in student learning (Cuban, 2001; McCannon & Crews, 2000). To help faculty make informed decisions on student…
Lases, S. S. Lenny; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M. Robert; Heineman, Erik; Lombarts, M. J. M. H. Kiki
Faculty members rely on residents' feedback about their teaching performance. The influence of residents' characteristics on evaluations of faculty is relatively unexplored. We aimed to evaluate the levels of work engagement and empathy among residents and the association of both characteristics
Eschenfelder, Mark J.; Bryan, Lois D.; Lee, Tanya M.
The emphasis of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) on improving student learning through Assurance of Learning (AOL) makes faculty involvement in the process at AACSB accredited schools important. This study examines the attitudes of accounting and economics faculty at AACSB accredited institutions toward the AOL…
Saffari, Shawheen S; Frederick Lambert, R; Dang, Lucy; Pagni, Sarah; Dragan, Irina F
The future of dental education is at crossroads. This study used the parameter of the 2016 Dental Curriculum Hack-a-Thon to assess intra- and inter-institutional agreement between student and faculty views regarding dental curriculums to determine if there is an impact in student perceptions towards dental education from before and after the event. This exploratory, cross-sectional study involved two surveys, with Survey 1 being distributed among four faculty-student pairs of the four participating dental schools answering 14 questions. Survey 2 assessed the views of 20 participating dental students through 26 questions in a pre- and post- event survey design. Descriptive statistics were used to explore differences in perceptions towards dental education across both instrument surveys. The results revealed valuable student insights regarding intra- and inter-institutional agreement relevant for the change in dental curriculum that needs to occur. Survey 2 revealed that mandatory attendance in didactic courses, electronic based examination preferences, and the preference of preclinical courses being held in the first and second years of a four-year dental curriculum were of particular importance to student participants. The results of this study indicate that exposure and participation in subjects pertaining to dental education can be influential on student preferences and opinions on how dental education should be delivered in a four-year curriculum.
Faktor pendorong motivasi orang tua merawatkan gigi anak di klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Unair (Stimulating factor of parents' motivation to take their children's dental health for treatment in the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University
Full Text Available Children dental health is very beneficial for children's growth Parent’s motivation for taking their children dental for treatment before more serious dental damage can help to decrease the prevalence of children's dental damage, especially for patients who came to pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. This study aimed to know the parents' motivation to take their children dental for treatment in Pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University by giving questionnaire to 42 patient’s parents. The result of this study suggested that clinic’s facilities (scored: 2.86 as the stimulating factor had the biggest influence in motivating patient’s parents.
DiVall, Margarita V; Zgarrick, David P
To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns.
Handal, Boris; Groenlund, Catherine; Gerzina, Tania
This paper reports an explorative study about academic educators' perceptions towards learning management systems (LMS) and eLearning tools as used in dental education. Fifty-five educators participated in an online survey which explored their views on eLearning tools within the context of their own professional training background and teaching needs. In general, educators felt that the eLearning LMS (also known as WebCT/Blackboard) was a tool that suited their teaching and learning needs in terms of flexibility, interactivity and accessibility despite a significant level of self-reported lack of competence in the technology. The paper describes current eLearning professional development initiatives in light of these findings. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.
Kasim, Siti Kamilah Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd
To assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian government dentists regarding the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept and its application in clinical practice. The SDA concept refers to a specific type of dentition with intact anterior teeth and a reduction in posterior occlusal pairs. Dentists' knowledge and perceptions of the SDA concept can influence its application in clinical practice. A self-administered questionnaire on the SDA concept was distributed to 326 government dentists in the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were analysed using SPSS version 22 software. The response rate was 84.0%. The majority of respondents had good knowledge on five of six knowledge items and good attitudes towards 10 of 17 perception items. However, only one-fifth (20.4%) reported having applied the SDA concept in the clinic. A larger number of participants who graduated locally than who graduated abroad perceived that patients 5 years of work experience perceived that the SDA concept enables simpler treatment planning (P concept, it is not widely applied in the clinic. Concerted efforts in SDA training of dentists are needed to help to shorten denture waiting lists and reduce costs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.
Olubukola Olamide Olatosi
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The rubber dam is used in dentistry to create saliva-free working environment during operative procedures. Despite its numerous advantages, utilization is poor in dental schools. We sought to determine undergraduate dental students' perception, educational satisfaction, and attitude regarding the use of rubber dam. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out among 5th and 6th year undergraduate dental students. A structured questionnaire was developed that sought their perception, educational satisfaction, and attitude regarding the use of rubber dam. Data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred and nine students participated in the study; 66 (60.6% females and 43 (39.4% males with a mean age of 23.4 ± 2.02. Most of the students, i.e., 73 (67% were satisfied with their classroom experience with regard to the use of rubber dam but were least satisfied with their laboratory and clinical training. There was a statistically significant association between the students' satisfaction with their training in the use of rubber dam and the confidence to use the rubber dam on their patients (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The students agreed to the importance of rubber dam but were not satisfied with their hands-on clinical training. The use of rubber dam postgraduation may be influenced by the dental educator's method of training, motivation, and consistency in its use. Students who acquire competence and are confident in the use of rubber dam during their undergraduate training are more likely to continue to use the skills following graduation.
S van der Berg-Cloete
Full Text Available Background. The inclusion of â€˜managementâ€™ competencies in medical curricula is widely propagated. There is some evidence in the literature that undergraduate dental students regard clinical skills as more important than management skills. Objective. To investigate student perceptions regarding Dental Practice Management (DPM as a subject in the undergraduate dental curriculum at the University of Pretoria, South Africa (SA and to relate these perceptions to their future career aspirations. Method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 by means of an anonymous questionnaire among second-, third-, fourth- and fifth-year dental students (N=228 at the University of Pretoriaâ€™s School of Dentistry. Results. Of the 192 respondents, 92% (n=177 agreed that DPM should be a subject in an undergraduate curriculum, but there was no correlation with their career aspirations. Leadership and management skills (77.6%, people skills (64.6%, communication and listening skills (46.4% and personal style (42.2% were seen as the most important non-clinical skills. Students indicated their career aspirations as follows: private practice owners (45.3%, n=81, public sector and military (15.1%, n=27, working abroad (13.4%, n=24 and Medicross/Intercare (11.2%, n=21. There were statistically significant differences (p=0.001 among the study years with regard to private practice aspirations. Most students (81.7%, n=156 indicated that they would specialise if afforded the opportunity. Conclusion. In light of the prospects of the National Health Insurance (NHI in SA, management and leadership skills will be vital to the successful long term implementation of the NHI; hence, academic institutions and government should address these issues as a priority in their undergraduate curricula.
Kimbrough-Walls, Vickie J.
Student success is dependent on effective instruction. Yet, effective teaching is difficult to define and described differently by students, faculty, and administrators. Nursing and dental hygiene education programs require faculty to teach in both classroom and clinical environments. However, accreditation agencies for these programs mandate…
Evans, J; Henderson, A J; Sun, J; Haugen, H; Myhrer, T; Maryan, C; Ivanow, K N; Cameron, A; Johnson, N W
The ability to function as an effective member of a dental care team is a highly desirable--frequently mandated--attribute of dental technology (DT) graduates. Currently, there is little rigorous examination of how the learning of team-working skills might best be structured in a DT curriculum. This research compares DT curricula, and students' attitudes and perceptions regarding collaboration in practice, from four countries. Students (n=376) were invited to complete an education profile questionnaire, and the standardised measure--the shared learning scale. There were 196 (52%) responses. Students given opportunities to engage with others had better perceptions of inter-professional learning (IPL). Most believed that team-work and collaborative skills were best acquired by learning together with other dental care professionals, preferably sharing cases for real patients. Curricula should maximise opportunities for dental technology students to experience authentic IPL. Collaboration and team-work needs to be embedded through the whole undergraduate programme.
Full Text Available Linguistic, literary, and feminist studies define translation as a process of rendering a new version of an original with attention to context, power, and purpose. Processes of translation in the context of student-faculty co-inquiry in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning offer examples of how this re-rendering can play out in the realm of academic development. In this article, translation serves as a conceptual framework that allows us to bring a fresh interpretation to the collaborative work of participants in a student-faculty pedagogical partnership program based at two colleges in the mid-Atlantic United States. We argue that faculty members and student consultants who participate in this program engage in processes of translation that lead to transformed perceptions of classroom engagement, transformed terms for naming pedagogical practices, and, more metaphorically, transformed selves. Drawing on data from an ongoing action research study of this program and on articles and essays we and other participants in the program have published, we use a form of narrative analysis as it intersects with the conceptual framework offered by translation to illustrate how, through their collaboration, faculty and students engage in never-finished processes of change that enable mental perceptions, linguistic terms, and human selves to be newly comprehended, communicated, and expressed. We touch upon what is lost in translation as well and the necessity of ongoing efforts to make meaning through collaborative explorations, analyses, and re-renderings. Finally, we provide examples of how the changes participants experience and effect endure beyond the time of partnership and in other realms of their lives.
In this thesis the procedures of radiation protection used by students of dentistry, also the infrastructure of equipment, protective barriers and protective devices at the clinic of the faculty was evaluated. A sample of 76 students and two technicians were evaluated, also 7 dental units with x-ray tubes were evaluated. The conclusions are that only 2 equipment of x-rays meets the requirements of radiation safety and radiology techniques used by the students need to be improved to obtain good image quality and therefore better diagnostic by the students could be made
Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Evidence - based medicine (EBM is defined as the „conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence‟. It i s an important tool for lifelong learning in medicine, and medical students can develop the skills necessary to understand and use EBM. The teaching of EBM in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth is as part of Evidence Based Education System (EBES. The university has imp lemented the 16 hours of teaching with project work on Evidence Based Medicine in 1st MBBS and 2nd MBBS curriculum in addition to MBBS syllabus. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: This study was planned to take feedback from all the faculties those who are involved in Evi dence based Medicine teaching to evaluate their attitude and perception towards this innovative teaching method and to recommend improvements. MATERIAL & METHODS: A Descriptive, self - structured , pilot pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted in the year 2013 - 2014 among 40 faculties from 7 Departments like Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Pathology and Forensic Medicine teaching Evidence Base d Medicine to students at S.B.K.S MI & RC, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. Data was expressed as percentage. RESULTS: The response rate for the study was 75%. Almost 87% of faculties agreed that teaching EBM is a welcoming development during pre and para clinical ye ars. About 80% faculties agreed that it will help them in future clinical learning. 87% faculties agreed that literature and research searching improves their day to day teaching. About 77% of faculties have attended workshop and training held in Universit y and 83% of faculties agreed that they are interested in more learning and improving skills necessary to incorporate Evidence based medicine into their discipline. Barriers included shortage of time and need for training in teaching EBM. CONCLUSION: Facul ties of this University teaching Pre - clinical and Para - clinical medical students recognized
Heath, Elizabeth M; English, Jeryl D; Johnson, Cleverick D; Swearingen, Elizabeth B; Akyalcin, Sercan
Our aims were to assess the perceptions of orthodontic case complexity among orthodontists, general dentists, orthodontic residents, and dental students and to compare their perceptions with the American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI). Orthodontists, general dentists, orthodontic residents, and dental students (n = 343) participated in a Web-based survey. Pretreatment orthodontic records of 29 cases with varying DI scores were obtained. Respondents were asked to evaluate case complexity on a 100-point visual analog scale. Additional information was collected on participants' orthodontic education and orthodontic treatment preferences. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the average complexity score and the DI score. Repeated measures analysis with linear mixed models was used to assess the association between the average complexity score and the DI score and whether the association between the 2 scores varied by level of difficulty or panel group. The level of significance for all analyses was set at P clear aligners. DI score was significantly associated with complexity perceptions (P = 0.0168). Associations between average complexity and DI score varied significantly by provider group (P = 0.0033), with orthodontists and residents showing the strongest associations. When the DI score was greater than 15, orthodontists and residents perceived cases as more complex than did the other provider groups. Orthodontists and orthodontic residents had better judgments for evaluating orthodontic case complexity. The high correlation between orthodontic professionals' perceptions and DI scores suggested that additional orthodontic education and training have an influence on the ability to recognize case complexity. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilkinson, Denise M; Smallidge, Dianne; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori
Health care education requires students to connect classroom learning with patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions of teaching tools, activities and teaching methods useful in closing the gap between theory and practice as students transition from classroom learning into the clinical phase of their training. This was an exploratory qualitative study design examining retrospective data from journal postings of a convenience sample of dental hygiene students (n=85). Open-ended questions related to patient care were given to junior and senior students to respond in a reflective journaling activity. A systematic approach was used to establish themes. Junior students predicted hands-on experiences (51%), critical thinking exercises (42%) and visual aids (27%) would be the most supportive in helping them connect theory to practice. Senior students identified critical thinking exercises (44%) and visual aids (44%) as the most beneficial in connecting classroom learning to patient care. Seniors also identified barriers preventing them from connecting theory to patient care. Barriers most often cited were not being able to see firsthand what is in the text (56%) and being unsure that what was seen during clinical practice was the same as what was taught (28%). Students recognized the benefits of critical thinking and problem solving skills after having experienced patient care and were most concerned with performance abilities prior to patient care experiences. This information will be useful in developing curricula to enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Suryakant C Deogade
Full Text Available Introduction: Infection control practices are crucial and important elements in clinical dentistry as there is an enormous increase in the prevalence of infectious diseases among dental patients. This necessitates the application of recommended procedures for infection control in the dental schools and clinics. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess patients' perception toward the use of protective barriers (such as gloves, face masks, and eye goggles by working dentists in a private dental teaching school in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenient sample of patients visiting the dental school of RDU was conducted in 2015. A structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 700 patients and a response rate of 89% was obtained. The questionnaire consisted of a series of questions related to awareness, knowledge, attitude, and perception of patients toward infection control measures. Data analysis included frequency distribution tables. Results: Of 664 patients (298 males and 366 females, 97.7%, 93.5%, and 43.6% of the patients believed that dentist should wear gloves, face masks, and eye goggles, respectively, when treating patients. The majority of them (95.3% refused to undergo treatment if the dentist is not wearing gloves and face masks. More than two-thirds (73.3% denied receiving treatment from a dentist, who is not immunized against hepatitis B. Nearly 79.2% of patients refused to attend school if they knew that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV patients treated there. The majority of patients (92.7%, 72.3%, and 23.1% believed that gloves, facemasks, and eye goggles protect both dentist and patient, respectively. Only 44.9% said that autoclave is the best method of sterilization. A significantly higher knowledge of infection control was observed among the previous dental visitors compared to the first-time visitors
Anania B. Aquino
Full Text Available The assessment of student learning is a continuous process geared towards understanding and improving student learning hence an assurance of providing quality education. It is a fundamental function of higher education and one of the primary roles of its faculty. This research investigated perceptions, practices and skills of faculty of a university extension campus on assessment of student learning. It relied on descriptive survey method to investigate responses of 77 teachers. The respondents regard assessment as useful, important and should be integrated with learning process. Faculty also place importance on purposes of evaluation in student learning and use varied assessment tools. In spite of various assessment tools used, majority of respondents are only somewhat skilled in performing tasks incident to assessment. University academic guidelines, applicable professional licensure examination, qualifying / classification test, university grading standard and their immediate academic supervisor affect faculty’s assessment practices. The respondents specify some problems and concerns on assessment. The results serve as basis in coming up with proposed strategies for continuous enhancement of assessment are conceptualized for possible implementation.
de Sousa, Emerson Tavares; da Silva, Beatriz Feitosa; Maia, Fabiana Barros Marinho; Forte, Franklin Delano Soares; Sampaio, Fábio Correia
The normative orthodontic treatment need, established by dental professionals during the dental appointment, becomes ineffective when it does not evaluate all the factors that influence the decision-making process, including individuals' perception and satisfaction with their dental appearance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of children and their mothers as regards orthodontic treatment need and satisfaction with dental aesthetics and test if these variables are associated with the objective orthodontic treatment needs, assessed by the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 308 children aged 12 years, and their mothers were randomly selected by cluster sampling (primary schools). The variables "orthodontic treatment need," "satisfaction with chewing," and "dental appearance" were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The questions were answered individually at school or home, in cases of children or mothers, respectively. DAI was assessed to make an objective clinical assessment. The variables were dichotomized and statistically analyzed by the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, contingency coefficient C, and logistic regression. The results of the clinical evaluation (DAI) were statistically associated with the perception of orthodontic treatment need and satisfaction with dental appearance in children (p ≤ 0.01). However, no association was observed with regard to satisfaction with chewing and DAI (p = 0.10). The children's perception of orthodontic treatment need and satisfaction with the appearance of their teeth was statistically associated (p ≤ 0.01) with their mothers' perception. Maxillary overjet, maxillary and mandibular misalignment, and dental crowding were associated with the orthodontic treatment need by children and their mothers, with p value -0.05 and 5 % level of significance. Maxillary overjet was a significant predictor for the perception of orthodontic
Olga Maria Belikov
Full Text Available In this paper, 218 U.S faculty responses regarding Open Educational Resources (OER were qualitatively analyzed. Ten categories emerged in the coding process. The top three categories that indicated barriers to the adoption of OER were need more information (faculty wanted more information before they would be willing to adopt OER, lack of discoverability (faculty wanted to be able to easily find repositories of OER, and confusing OER with digital resources (faculty were unaware of the difference between digital resources and OER. The top incentives identified in this analysis to overcome these barriers include student cost benefits (saving students money, student pedagogical benefits (faculty being able to make changes to OER to improve course content and instruction, and institutional support for the adoption of OER (whether in the form of course load reduction, curricular research assistance, or library support for finding and adopting OER. Future research is needed to better understand how to address and overcome these barriers to OER adoption.
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 217 teaching faculty from four Visveswarapura Group of Institutions namely Arts and Commerce, Law, Science College and Engineering College. The study population was subjected to a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire inquiring about their socioeconomic status, Oral health status and treatment needs. Clinical examinations, employing WHO dentition status and community periodontal index were performed to determine normative status and needs. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using Kappa statistics. Results: The degree of agreement (κ values and sensitivity was seen in filled teeth (0.839, 80%, missing teeth (0.696, 85.2%, and mobile teeth (0.57, 55.6%. However, the disagreement was seen with all other questions with average κ = 0.20. Regarding overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self-perceived and normative needs for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusion: Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status and treatment needs compared with clinical examination.
Tan, A S; Anderson, V R; Foster Page, L A
To explore and compare the ways dental and oral health students characterise their future professional work (FPW) at the end of their second and third professional years. Questionnaires were given to a cohort group of 48 dental students and 31 oral health students at the end of their second and third professional years at the University of Otago. Students' characterisations of their FPW were identified using an inductive approach, and the emphasis on each characterisation was confirmed using a 'weighted' table. Dental student response rates were 92% (in 2010) and 85% (in 2011); and oral health student response rates were 100% (in 2011) and 97% (in 2011). Students characterised their FPW in ten broad ways: in reference to treatment-related concerns, patient-related concerns, oral health promotion, oral health education, disease prevention and monitoring, communication, teamwork, maintaining an ideal clinical environment, maintaining a sense of self and improving quality of life. In both years, dental students emphasised treatment-related concerns as central to their FPW and dealing with patient-related concerns as a primary source of difficulty. Oral health students emphasised oral health promotion, oral health education, disease prevention and monitoring and restorative tasks as central to their FPW and dealing with patient-related concerns as a primary source of difficulty. Students' broad perceptions of their FPW changed little as they progressed through their programmes; however, their responses suggested the need for greater attention within their programmes to patient management and teamwork. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Wise, Nancy; Jenkinson, Amanda
Support for research strongly predicts doctoral program faculty members' research productivity. Although academic administrators affect such support, their views of faculty members' use of support are unknown. We examined academic administrators' perceptions of institutional support and their perceptions of the effects of teaching doctoral students on faculty members' scholarship productivity and work-life balance. An online survey was completed by a random sample of 180 deans/directors of schools of nursing and doctoral programs directors. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance. Deans and doctoral program directors viewed the level of productivity of program faculty as high to moderately high and unchanged since faculty started teaching doctoral students. Deans perceived better administrative research supports, productivity, and work-life balance of doctoral program faculty than did program directors. Findings indicate the need for greater administrative support for scholarship and mentoring given the changes in the composition of doctoral program faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham
Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support.
Vasiliki, B; Konstantinos, A; Vassilis, K; Nikolaos, K; van Loveren, C; Jaap, V
This was to study the influence of parental presence during dental treatment on children's behaviour and perception. Parents of 100 patients (mean age 7 ± 2.2 years) who visited the Postgraduate Paediatric Dental Clinic were randomly divided into two equal groups during one familiarisation and two treatment sessions: (1) parent present in the surgery/operatory and (2) parent absent (with their child observed through a window). Both an independent paediatric dentist and the parent rated the child's behaviour using the Venham scale. The child's perception was measured using the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale (FPRS) at the end of every session. Statistical analysis was performed with the IBM Statistics SPSS 22.0 (p children's behaviour was worse when the parent was absent, with a significant difference only for the second restorative treatment session (p = 0.011). There was no difference on parents' rating child behaviour scores between the two groups. There was no difference of children's own perception between the two groups, except for any increased discomfort found at the second treatment (p = 0.021) when the parent was present. In both groups, the dentist rated lower Venham scores (better child behaviour), than parents did (presence: p = 0.001, absence: p = 0.038). Children recorded worse scores than both parents and the paediatric dentist. The only significant finding lay in the antithesis of how children perceived their last treatment session and how the dentist rated children's behaviour regarding parental presence. Parents' scores of their child's behaviour were unrelated to parental presence.
Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.
Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…
Wagley, Spencer A.
Educators at all levels are expected to provide instruction that promotes critical thinking, but faculty are hindered by time constraints, expertise, and the attitude that critical thinking is taught and learned automatically. From Socrates to Dewey to Bloom to Facione, a firm foundation has been set for critical thinking pedagogies. This study…
Curry, Steven P.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how faculty members, teaching in the virtual environment of higher education, perceived the effectiveness of leader actions to understand how principles of existing leadership theory in critical areas such as communication effectiveness, development of trust, and ability to motivate faculty…
Lammers, William John; Savina, Elena; Skotko, David; Churlyaeva, Maria
The majority of research that relates teacher characteristics to student learning in the university has come from Western universities. Using various methodologies, research continues to examine the characteristics of outstanding university teachers. Much of that research in the USA assesses faculty and student perspectives. However, there are…
Robinson-Zanartu, Carol; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Cook-Morales, Valerie; Pena, Anna M.; Afshani, Rosalyn; Nguyen, Lynda
Academic dishonesty and its consequences have become increasingly complex. Highly accessible electronic media, profound consequences for misconduct and reporting, and lack of standard practice intensify the issues. We surveyed 270 faculty members to determine whether they had been confronted with plagiarism and if they felt prepared to deal with…
Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Rudd, Rick D.
Volunteers play an integral role in supporting the mission of 4-H programs in the southern region. For this reason their proficiency in volunteer administration competence and perceived leadership style is important. The researchers sought to examine both the perceived proficiency of 4-H faculty in the southern region in seven competencies…
Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Wise, Nancy; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah
This focus group study was undertaken as part of a larger investigation of how the demand for increased production of nurses with doctorates affects doctoral faculty's scholarly productivity. This study provided a basis for development of the national survey questionnaire. Two focus groups that included 29 faculty teaching in doctor of philosophy and/or doctor of nursing practice programs took place at one of two national conferences. The focus group interviews were transcribed and content analyzed for the identification of themes; all members of the research team reached consensus. The three major themes were the demands of teaching, the importance of institutional structure and climate, and the sustainability of one's self, the institution, and the discipline. Participants identified strategies for enhancing scholarly productivity. Findings are limited by the small sample size and the voluntary participation of conference attendees. The strength of emotion that participants revealed underscores the need for nursing leaders to address the increasing academic expectations for faculty. If the profession does not address the needs of its current and future faculty, goals explicated by the Institute of Medicine in The Future of Nursing cannot be achieved, and the health of the nation will suffer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gawronski, Michael; Kuk, Linda; Lombardi, Allison R.
This study examined community college faculty (n = 179) and student (n = 449) attitudes and actions toward inclusive teaching practices based on tenets of Universal Design. Two online surveys, the Inclusive Teaching Strategies Inventory (ITSI) and the Inclusive Teaching Strategies Inventory-Student (ITSI-S), were administered at a medium-sized…
Paullet, Karen; Chawdhry, Adnan A.; Douglas, David M.; Pinchot, Jamie
Online Education is growing as it provides an added convenience to students, especially ones who have life circumstances that prevent them from attending traditional classes. With this growing trend, faculty and universities are facing increased risks with validating student identities in online courses and combatting unethical student behavior.…
This study analyses women faculty's discourse about feminism, themselves, and their professional experiences as scholars in the North American university context. This case study pushes at the boundaries of what we believe we know about "the gender question" in the academy, opening a discursive space for scholars to examine university…
Manning, Kim Elise
This Delphi study explored the instructional practices of community college faculty who were teaching blended or Web-assisted courses and how these practices influenced student persistence. The Delphi method provided qualitative data in the form of expert advice through consensus building on the instructional practices most likely to influence…
Social media networks are a worldwide phenomenon encompassing multiple generations of faculty and students. As the World Wide Web has developed and grown, so has the ability of individuals to communicate across hundreds and thousands of miles via these social media networks. An exploratory survey of members in the Association of Educators in…
Huang, Xiaoxia; Hsiao, E-Ling
The purpose of this study was to examine online instructors' experiences and perceptions of online teaching and their communication with students in an online environment. More specifically, the study focused on the questions regarding: (1) instructors' general experiences and perceptions of online teaching; (2) instructors' general experiences…
Bigelow, Robert W.
Within some areas of traditional legal education there has been discussion of and advocacy for greater acceptance and integration of online technology. This study addresses the enormous gap in the legal literature concerning perceptions of online legal education and adds to the robust body of literature concerning perceptions of online education…
Henson, Scott T; Lindauer, Steven J; Gardner, W Graham; Shroff, Bhavna; Tufekci, Eser; Best, Al M
The relationship between physical appearance and social attractiveness is well established in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dental esthetics influenced the perceptions of teens when judging a peer's athletic, social, leadership, and academic abilities. The frontal-face smiling photographs of 10 teenage volunteers were each altered to create 1 image with an ideal arrangement of teeth and 1 with a nonideal arrangement. Two parallel surveys were constructed with 1 photo displaying either an ideal or a nonideal smile image of each subject. If the ideal smile image appeared in 1 survey, then the nonideal smile appeared in the other. Two hundred twenty-one peer evaluators successfully rated the pictures in 1 of the surveys by indicating their perception of each subject's athletic, social, leadership, and academic abilities. The subjects' photographs with ideal smile esthetics were consistently rated higher on average than the same subjects' images with nonideal smile esthetics. The differences in ratings between ideal and nonideal smiles were significant for perceptions of athletic performance (P = 0.0141), popularity (P academic performance (P = 0.0548). On average, ratings for the ideal smiles in perceived athletic, social, and leadership skills were about 10% higher than those given for images with nonideal smiles. Based on these findings, it would be expected that orthodontic treatment resulting in improved smile esthetics can provide modest social benefits for adolescent patients. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Alkhuwaiter, Shahad S; Aljuailan, Roqayah I; Banabilh, Saeed M
The objectives of this study were to assess perceptions of the Saudi dental students of the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum and to compare their perceptions among different sex and academic years. Data was collected through a questionnaire-based survey at Qassim College of dentistry. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions regarding the perception of PBL curriculum and was distributed to 240 students. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Out of the 240 students recruited for this study, 146 returned a complete questionnaire (the response rate was 60.8%). The majority of the students perceived that PBL enhances the ability to speak in front of people (91.1%); improved the ability to find the information using the internet/library (81.5%); enhances the problem-solving skills (71.3%); increases the practice of cooperative and collaborative learning (69.2%); improves the decision-making skills (66.4%). Sixty-five percent ( n = 96) noted that some students dominate whereas others are passive during PBL discussion session. Statistically, significant differences were found in the following variables according to the academic year students assuming before responsibility for their own learning ( P learning ( P knowledge and learning to elaborate and organize their knowledge ( P weakness for improvement ( P learning environment and to take the students recommendations into consideration.
Postma, T C; White, J G
Integration is a key concern in discipline-based undergraduate dental curricula. Therefore, this study compared feedback on integration from students who participated in different instructional designs in a Comprehensive Patient Care course. The study was conducted at the University of Pretoria (2009-2011). Third-year cohorts (Cohorts A, B and C) participated in pre-clinical case-based learning, whilst fourth-year cohorts (Cohorts D and E) received didactic teaching in Comprehensive Patient Care. Cohorts A, D and E practised clinical Comprehensive Patient Care in a discipline-based clinic. Cohort B conducted their Comprehensive Patient Care patient examinations in a dedicated facility supervised by dedicated faculty responsible to teach integration. Students had to indicate on visual analogue scales whether the way they were taught at the school helped them to integrate knowledge from the same (horizontal integration) and preceding (vertical integration) year of study. The end-points of the scales were defined as 'definitely' and 'not at all'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to measure the differences between cohorts according to the year of study. Third-year case-based learning cohorts rated the horizontal integration close to 80/100 and vertical integration ranging from 64 to 71/100. In year four, Cohort B rated vertical and horizontal integration 9-15% higher (ANOVA, P horizontal integration 11-18% higher (ANOVA, P integration in the discipline-based undergraduate dental curriculum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Walker, Kimberly K; Jackson, Richard D; Maxwell, Lisa
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gather data from first- and second-year dental hygiene students concerning their perceptions of the benefits and possible impediments to effective patient communication. Additionally, the students were asked to theorize as to the impact emerging communication technologies could have on oral health promotion, practice administration and patient/provider communication. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire of 6 open-ended queries was employed. Thematic analysis was conducted to reveal themes related to their perceived ability to effectively communicate, perceived barriers to communication, possible solutions to lessen or eliminate these barriers, and the impact of emerging technologies on interpersonal communication. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 63 of 68 students (93%). Patient apathy and patient unwillingness to change detrimental health-related habits were the most frequently cited barriers to effective communication. Of the students having patient contact, many stated that they were less sure of their ability to communicate effectively if the patient differed from themselves, such as being elderly or being from another culture. While most of the students believed their fundamental communication skills were good, many noted that improving their higher-order skills, such as conveying empathy or displaying a nonjudgmental attitude, were essential to being more effective communicators. Many students felt emerging technologies such as universal translators could potentially assist them in overcoming some of their perceived deficiencies. Conclusion: While perceived inadequacies will likely diminish as the students gain more experience in school and later in private practice, dental hygiene programs may wish to consider implementing additional structured educational experiences to better prepare students to address patient apathy and to effectively convey a sense of personal compassion. Promoting student
Full Text Available The current study uses an adapted version of Cameron and Quinn’s OCAI questionnaire to test the organisational culture of the Faculty of Science and Technology at the University of Debrecen, Hungary, as it is perceived by its students, and also to discover what type of organisational culture the same students think would be ideal for them. An additional objective of this paper is to identify possible gaps between the perceived and the ideal cultures expressed by the students. Our sample includes 128 questionnaires completed by bachelor students from 6 different majors at the faculty. According to our results, the respondents perceive to a significant degree that the faculty’s organisational culture is at an average level of clan, market and hierarchy cultures, while it also exhibits a relatively low level of the adhocracy culture. Their ideal faculty culture would be one with average adhocracy, average hierarchy, high clan and low market features. Significant gaps are identified between the perceived and ideal cultures in all the four types: students would prefer an increase in clan and adhocracy cultures, and a decrease in the other two cultures.
Full Text Available One aim of higher education is to develop professional identities in students to equip them for future working life. Health professional students will work under financial pressures in a market-based environment, which can lead to conflicts with professional ethical values. This study explores how Swedish dental students perceive economic aspects of dentistry. The article is based on a study of undergraduate research projects. In the analysis of the projects, two themes were identified: (1 cost-effective organizing of dentistry and (2 costs and benefits of interventions. The students displayed socially responsible values by emphasizing the need for dentists to utilize resources effectively, which implies that professional education can support the development of the perception that economic values can be compatible with professional ethical values.Keywords: cost-effectiveness, ethics, healthcare, higher education, social responsibility
Tain, Monica; Schwartzstein, Richard; Friedland, Bernard; Park, Sang E
The aim of this study was to determine the use and perceived utility of various learning resources available during the first-year Integrated Human Physiology course at the dental and medical schools at Harvard University. Dental and medical students of the Class of 2018 were surveyed anonymously online in 2015 regarding their use of 29 learning resources in this combined course. The learning resources had been grouped into four categories to discern frequency of use and perceived usefulness among the categories. The survey was distributed to 169 students, and 73 responded for a response rate of 43.2%. There was no significant difference among the learning resource categories in frequency of use; however, there was a statistically significant difference among categories in students' perceptions of usefulness. No correlation was found between frequency of use and perceived usefulness of each category. Students seemingly were not choosing the most useful resources for them. These results suggest that, in the current educational environment, where new technologies and self-directed learning are highly sought after, there remains a need for instructor-guided learning.
Haghparast, H; Ghorbani, A; Rohlin, M
To compare dental students' perceptions of their learning approaches between different years of a problem-based learning (PBL) programme. The hypothesis was that in a comparison between senior and junior students, the senior students would perceive themselves as having a higher level of deep learning approach and a lower level of surface learning approach than junior students would. This hypothesis was based on the fact that senior students have longer experience of a student-centred educational context, which is supposed to underpin student learning. Students of three cohorts (first year, third year and fifth year) of a PBL-based dental programme were asked to respond to a questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) developed to analyse students' learning approaches, that is deep approach and surface approach, using four subscales including deep strategy, surface strategy, deep motive and surface motive. The results of the three cohorts were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P-value was set at approach than the first-year students (P = 0.020). There was a significant decrease in surface strategy from the first to the fifth year (P = 0.003). No differences were found concerning deep approach or its subscales (deep strategy and deep motive) between the mean scores of the three cohorts. The results did not show the expected increased depth in learning approaches over the programme years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Clark, Cynthia M; Werth, Loredana; Ahten, Sara
Online learning has created another potential avenue for incivility. Cyber-bullying, a form of incivility that occurs in an electronic environment, includes posting rumors or misinformation, gossiping, or publishing materials that defame and humiliate others. This is the first of 2 articles detailing a study to empirically measure nursing faculty and student perceptions of incivility in an online learning environment (OLE). In this article, the authors discuss the quantitative results including the types and frequency of uncivil behaviors and the extent to which they are perceived to be a problem in online courses. Part 2 in the September/October issue will describe challenges and advantages of the OLE, discuss specific ways to foster civility, and present strategies to promote student success and retention.
El-Sadig Yahya Ezza
Full Text Available The teacher was once considered “an educational authority”, “a dispenser of knowledge”, “someone in charge of telling”, etc. However, with the integration of information and communication technology (ICT in the classroom, knowledge resources have become accessible to the student in ways that are beyond teacher’s control. This fact has led to a new perception of teachers' roles among educational researchers. In other words, teachers have come to be conceived as facilitators, learners, collaborators, etc. In the light of these developments, the present study attempts to investigate English faculty’s view on the possible impact that ICT could have on their role at Majma’ah University. A questionnaire comprising sixteen traditional and ICT-oriented roles was administered to thirty participants in different campuses of Majma’ah University to collect data to verify two research hypotheses: (1 Most EFL faculty at Majma'ah University (MU favour ICT-oriented roles over traditional roles. (2 All ICT-oriented roles are equally valuable to EFL faculty at MU in enhancing teaching practices. Statistical analysis of the study data confirmed the first hypothesis but rejected second one.
Torbeck, Laura; Williams, Reed G; Choi, Jennifer; Schmitz, Connie C; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Dunnington, Gary L
Guidance in the operating room impacts resident confidence and ability to function independently. The purpose of this study was to explore attending surgeon guidance practices in the operating room as reported by faculty members themselves and by junior and senior residents. This was an exploratory, cross-sectional survey research study involving 91 categorical residents and 82 clinical faculty members at two academic general surgery training programs. A series of analyses of variance along with descriptive statistics were performed to understand the impact of resident training year, program, and surgeon characteristics (sex and type of surgery performed routinely) on guidance practices. Resident level (junior versus senior) significantly impacted the amount of guidance given as reported by faculty and as perceived by residents. Within each program, junior residents perceived less guidance than faculty reported giving. For senior guidance practices, however, the differences between faculty and resident practices varied by program. In terms of the effects of surgeon practice type (mostly general versus mostly complex cases), residents at both institutions felt they were more supervised closely by the faculty who perform mostly complex cases. More autonomy is given to senior than to junior residents. Additionally, faculty report a greater amount of change in their guidance practices over the training period than residents perceive. Faculty and resident agreement about the need for guidance and for autonomy are important for achieving the goals of residency training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Houser, Laura Ann Camlet
This narrative-qualitative study investigated the perceived impact that electronic communication has on the written-communication skills of undergraduate students. Open-ended survey questions queried the experiences of undergraduate students who use electronic communication, as well as the perceptions of faculty who teach undergraduate students.…
Rowland, Ronald K.
Research historically has demonstrated that a generational disconnect between the popular cultures from which students and teachers define normative behavior can impact classroom management and student learning. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of high school faculty toward the hip-hop culture and its…
Should Student Evaluation of Teaching Play a Significant Role in the Formal Assessment of Dental Faculty? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Formal Faculty Assessment Should Include Student Evaluation of Teaching and Viewpoint 2: Student Evaluation of Teaching Should Not Be Part of Formal Faculty Assessment.
Rowan, Susan; Newness, Elmer J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Prasad, Joanne L; Ko, Ching-Chang; Sanchez, Arlene
Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is often used in the assessment of faculty members' job performance and promotion and tenure decisions, but debate over this use of student evaluations has centered on the validity, reliability, and application of the data in assessing teaching performance. Additionally, the fear of student criticism has the potential of influencing course content delivery and testing measures. This Point/Counterpoint article reviews the potential utility of and controversy surrounding the use of SETs in the formal assessment of dental school faculty. Viewpoint 1 supports the view that SETs are reliable and should be included in those formal assessments. Proponents of this opinion contend that SETs serve to measure a school's effectiveness in support of its core mission, are valid measures based on feedback from the recipients of educational delivery, and provide formative feedback to improve faculty accountability to the institution. Viewpoint 2 argues that SETs should not be used for promotion and tenure decisions, asserting that higher SET ratings do not correlate with improved student learning. The advocates of this viewpoint contend that faculty members may be influenced to focus on student satisfaction rather than pedagogy, resulting in grade inflation. They also argue that SETs are prone to gender and racial biases and that SET results are frequently misinterpreted by administrators. Low response rates and monotonic response patterns are other factors that compromise the reliability of SETs.
Desselle, Shane P; Raja, Leela; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia
(1) Describe perceptions of organizational culture and prevalence of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) among faculty at United States (U.S.) colleges/schools of pharmacy; (2) determine which aspects of those phenomena are strongest and which are most problematic; (3) evaluate the psychometric properties of measures for organizational culture and OCBs in academic pharmacy; and (4) identify any relationships between organizational culture and organizational citizenship among academic pharmacy faculty. A random sample of 600 U.S. academic pharmacists acquired from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy were distributed an email survey through the use of Qualtrics technology. The procedures closely resembled the Total Design Method advocated to maximize survey response, including use of a pre-notification letter, reminders, and a nominal financial inducement. In addition to demographic questions, the survey employed multiple-item measures of organizational culture and OCBs described previously in the literature and derived from Delphi consensus-building procedures. The analysis plan incorporated use of factor and item analyses to evaluate psychometric properties of the measure and elicit the inherent domains comprising these phenomena, along with descriptive statistics to describe facets of organizational culture and OCBs that were most prevalent. A total of 177 responses were delivered. Factor analysis of organizational culture revealed a five-factor solution emphasizing achievement orientation, professionalism, stability, supportiveness, and reflectiveness. OCB domains were along the possibility of faculty being virtuous, disrespectful, sportsmanlike, and benevolent/malevolent. Even while multi-faceted and avoiding a simple typological descriptor, academic pharmacy cultures were reportedly healthy. Sportsmanship, while still somewhat commonly observed, was seen less frequently than other behaviors. The measures demonstrated logical, cogent factor
Beistle, Kimberly S; Palmer, Louann Bierlein
This qualitative study explores the perceptions of dental hygiene faculty regarding issues surrounding critical thinking skills integration within their associate degree dental hygiene programs. Twenty faculty participated in the study, as drawn from 11 accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs in one Midwest state. Multiple sources of data were collected, including email questionnaires, individual follow-up phone interviews and artifacts. Interpretive analysis was conducted. Data analysis revealed that faculty generally understood critical thinking, but interpretations varied. Most do not use varied teaching strategies to promote critical thinking skills, and focus on one particular strategy--that of case studies. The participants identified the need for allied health-focused faculty development opportunities, and noted that calibration of instruction was needed. Despite challenges, faculty felt responsible for teaching critical thinking skills, and identified the need for time to build critical thinking skills into the curriculum. This study was conducted in response to the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation's challenge for dental hygiene educators to comprehend their own knowledge on the concept of critical thinking related to research-based pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning. Findings revealed a strong desire among the dental hygiene faculty in this study to incorporate critical thinking into their work. They want to do what they believe is the right thing, but their actual knowledge of the definitional and application theories about critical thinking is still in the early stages of development. Regular and targeted faculty development opportunities are needed. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Wren, Carol T.; Keys, Christopher
This investigation examined the relationship between prior disability-focused training and university faculty members' attitudes towards students with learning disabilities (LD). A survey containing items designed to measure faculty attitudes was sent to all full-time faculty at one university. Analyses of 198 responses indicated that faculty who…
Coil, David; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Cunningham, Matthew; Dirks, Clarissa
Most scientific endeavors require science process skills such as data interpretation, problem solving, experimental design, scientific writing, oral communication, collaborative work, and critical analysis of primary literature. These are the fundamental skills upon which the conceptual framework of scientific expertise is built. Unfortunately, most college science departments lack a formalized curriculum for teaching undergraduates science process skills. However, evidence strongly suggests that explicitly teaching undergraduates skills early in their education may enhance their understanding of science content. Our research reveals that faculty overwhelming support teaching undergraduates science process skills but typically do not spend enough time teaching skills due to the perceived need to cover content. To encourage faculty to address this issue, we provide our pedagogical philosophies, methods, and materials for teaching science process skills to freshman pursuing life science majors. We build upon previous work, showing student learning gains in both reading primary literature and scientific writing, and share student perspectives about a course where teaching the process of science, not content, was the focus. We recommend a wider implementation of courses that teach undergraduates science process skills early in their studies with the goals of improving student success and retention in the sciences and enhancing general science literacy.
Ordinetz, Sue Ann
Occupational therapy educators have been encouraged to engage in the scholarship of teaching as a form of best practice in education. Despite professional documents and encouragement by leaders in the field of occupational therapy, there is very little known about occupational therapy educators' perceptions, attitudes, and engagement in the…
This article will review the design, procedures, and results of a recent study conducted to survey the perceptions of counseling students and professionals regarding the delivery of counseling instruction in online courses. Few studies have addressed the appropriateness, effectiveness, and evaluation procedures of counseling skills instruction via…
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R
Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.
Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.
A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…
T E Nottidge
Full Text Available Background. Self-directed learning (SDL is the essential mechanism of lifelong learning, which, in turn, is required for medical professionals to maintain competency because of advancing technology and constantly evolving disease care and contexts. Yet, most Nigerian medical schools do not actively promote SDL skills for medical students. Objective. To evaluate the status of SDL behaviour among final-year students, and the perceptions of faculty leadership towards SDL in a Nigerian medical school. Methods. A mixed research method was used, with a survey consisting of a validated Likert-based self-rating scale for SDL (SRSSDL to assess students’ SDL behaviour. Focus group discussions with selected faculty leaders were thematically analysed to assess their perceptions of SDL. Results. The medical students reported moderate SDL behaviour, contrary to faculty, who considered their students’ SDL behaviour to be low. Faculty leadership further defined SDL as the self-motivated student demonstrating initiative in learning under the guidance of teachers, who use interactive forums for teaching. Furthermore, teachers and students should partner towards the goal of ensuring that student learning takes place. Teachers expressed concerns about SDL methods in medical schools owing to the fear that this will require medical students to teach themselves medicine without expert guidance from teachers. Conclusion. This study suggests that final-year students have a low to moderate level of SDL behaviour. The index faculty are willing to develop teacherguided self-motivated learning for their students, rather than strict SDL. Faculty should be concerned about this behaviour and should encourage SDL in such a way that students realise its benefits to become lifelong learners. Further study of the perceptions about self-regulated learning are recommended.
Solmaz Pourzare Mehrbani
Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of dental postgraduate students about risk factors, signs, and treatment plan of oral cancer in Tabriz dental college. Method and material: A questionnaire comprised of 10 questions was designed to assess the knowledge of 87 postgraduate students regarding their knowledge on oral examination, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment of oral cancer. Result: 20 out of 87 post graduate students refused to participate in the study. The response rate is 77%.The students had acceptable knowledge about risk factors, signs and symptoms, most common oral sites and dental management of cancer patient, however their practice about clinical provisional detection of cancerous lesions at primary stages is low (only 22.4% were sure. Conclusion: Theoretical knowledge of post graduate students regarding oral cancer examination is good, however their knowledge about clinical diagnosis of early lesions is low and needed to be improved. It seems necessary to conduct educational courses systematically which helps them to diagnose precancerous lesions more confidently. Keywords: oral cancer; Knowledge; early detection;
Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L
This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.
Seth, Vikas; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Moghe, Vijay
Purpose To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT) presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP). The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students. Methods Second year medical and dental undergraduates were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about their perceptions of the three lecture delivery methods. Following analysis of the questionnaire the students were interviewed further. The results were analyzed separately for medical and dental students to see if there was any difference in their perceptions. Results The majority of the medical students (65.33%) preferred PPT presentations, while 15.16% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard, and 19.51% preferred TOHP for teaching (P lectures (P lecture delivery method. It appears that in the hands of a trained teacher any teaching aid would be appropriate and effective. This highlights the need for formal training in teaching technologies to develop good presentation skills and thus motivate the students. PMID:23745057
Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell
Objective : To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods : A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results : A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs ( p self-perception, with a 6-7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions : Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.
Cantrell, Lezlie M.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify, compile, and describe how community college graduate dental hygienists perceived their initial dental hygiene curriculum preparation and how they subsequently adapted their curriculum preparation in order to perform their responsibilities in their first clinical dental hygiene job.…
Yedidia, Michael J; Chou, Jolene; Brownlee, Susan; Flynn, Linda; Tanner, Christine A
The current and projected nurse faculty shortage threatens the capacity to educate sufficient numbers of nurses for meeting demand. As part of an initiative to foster strategies for expanding educational capacity, a survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,120 full-time nurse faculty members in 269 schools and programs that offered at least one prelicensure degree program was conducted. Nearly 4 of 10 participants reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, and one third expressed an intent to leave academic nursing within 5 years. Major contributors to burnout were dissatisfaction with workload and perceived inflexibility to balance work and family life. Intent to leave was explained not only by age but by several potentially modifiable aspects of work, including dissatisfaction with workload, salary, and availability of teaching support. Preparing sufficient numbers of nurses to meet future health needs will require addressing those aspects of work-life that undermine faculty teaching capacity. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi
Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604
Pope Zinsser, Kam Lara
Research indicates that adjunct faculty continues to grow in the higher education setting. Overall, universities continue to hire adjunct faculty to facilitate online courses and as a cost saving measure. While institutions continue to rely on adjunct faculty, a disconnection exists between the adjunct and the higher education administrators. This…
Walley, S; Albadri, S
This was to establish the level and reported value of paediatric IHS experience from the perspective of final year undergraduates and to evaluate whether those students with more experience expressed feeling better-prepared for future practice and more likely to undertake further postgraduate education in IHS. All final year students were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire designed to elicit undergraduate perceptions of IHS using visual analogue scales and free-text questions. A response rate of 77 % was achieved. Results revealed that only 21 % of participants reported acting as operator sedationist in ten or more IHS cases. Thus, the majority of undergraduates' did not meet the recommended quantity of practical IHS experiences, as outlined by the British Dental Sedation Teachers Group. In general, students felt on the value of IHS in the management of anxious children and expressed a desire to undertake further postgraduate education in conscious sedation. However, those students with more experience of practical IHS expressed feeling better able to describe the IHS experience with patients and parents, and were more satisfied with the quality of teaching. Furthermore free-text comments revealed that, regardless of experience, students wished to gain more experience of the practical administration of IHS. There is a need to increase the provision of IHS training within an undergraduate curriculum, in addition to improving the accessibility of postgraduate sedation courses.
Suyanto, T.; Zen, IM.; Prasetyo, K.; Isbandono, P.; Gamaputra, G.; Purba, IP.
News in the information age is currently supported by advanced equipment in the field of information and communication. Digital skills are required to use social media responsibly and ethically. According to citizenship perspective, this is a category of citizen skills. This research is done to four departments of education. It is named Bachelor Program of Pancasila and Citizenship Education and Bachelor Program Education of Geography. The rest are non education department. It is named Bachelor Program Public Administration and Diploma Program of Public administration. Fifty (50) students was taken from each department. There are 200 students totally were obtained. Data collection techniques used questionnaire and interviews. Data analysis technique was used in research is descriptive statistics. The results of this study indicate that freshman FISH 2017 has a negative perception of hoax in social media. The average number earned is 84% of FISH new students in 2017 have media awareness, media literacy skills, and high social responsibilities. Thus the improvement of student character in the form of social responsibility as a student needs to be done continuously as an effort to realize smart and good citizenship citizens.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Roberts, Kellie W.; Zafar, Mueen A.
The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a professional development initiative using organisational change research studies to frame the inquiry. Two faculty groups and two student groups participated in a total of four focus group interviews to ascertain their perceptions of a new model of pre-clinical dental education. Using a…
Background Health science education faces numerous challenges: assimilation of knowledge, management of increasing numbers of learners or changes in educational models and methodologies. With the emergence of e-learning, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet to improve teaching and learning in health science training institutions has become a crucial issue for low and middle income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. In this perspective, the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) of Yaoundé has played a pioneering role in Cameroon in making significant efforts to improve students’ and lecturers’ access to computers and to Internet on its campus. The objective is to investigate how computer literacy and the perception towards e-learning and its potential could contribute to the learning and teaching process within the FMBS academic community. Method A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students, residents and lecturers. The data was gathered through a written questionnaire distributed at FMBS campus and analysed with routine statistical software. Results 307 participants answered the questionnaire: 218 students, 57 residents and 32 lecturers. Results show that most students, residents and lecturers have access to computers and Internet, although students’ access is mainly at home for computers and at cyber cafés for Internet. Most of the participants have a fairly good mastery of ICT. However, some basic rules of good practices concerning the use of ICT in the health domain were still not well known. Google is the most frequently used engine to retrieve health literature for all participants; only 7% of students and 16% of residents have heard about Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The potential of e-learning in the improvement of teaching and learning still remains insufficiently exploited. About two thirds of the students are not familiar with the concept of e-leaning. 84% of students and 58% of
Bediang, Georges; Stoll, Beat; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klohn, Axel M; Stuckelberger, Astrid; Nko'o, Samuel; Chastonay, Philippe
Health science education faces numerous challenges: assimilation of knowledge, management of increasing numbers of learners or changes in educational models and methodologies. With the emergence of e-learning, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet to improve teaching and learning in health science training institutions has become a crucial issue for low and middle income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. In this perspective, the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) of Yaoundé has played a pioneering role in Cameroon in making significant efforts to improve students' and lecturers' access to computers and to Internet on its campus.The objective is to investigate how computer literacy and the perception towards e-learning and its potential could contribute to the learning and teaching process within the FMBS academic community. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students, residents and lecturers. The data was gathered through a written questionnaire distributed at FMBS campus and analysed with routine statistical software. 307 participants answered the questionnaire: 218 students, 57 residents and 32 lecturers. Results show that most students, residents and lecturers have access to computers and Internet, although students' access is mainly at home for computers and at cyber cafés for Internet. Most of the participants have a fairly good mastery of ICT. However, some basic rules of good practices concerning the use of ICT in the health domain were still not well known. Google is the most frequently used engine to retrieve health literature for all participants; only 7% of students and 16% of residents have heard about Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).The potential of e-learning in the improvement of teaching and learning still remains insufficiently exploited. About two thirds of the students are not familiar with the concept of e-leaning. 84% of students and 58% of residents had never had access to
Davies, B R; Leung, A N; Dunne, S M
This article assesses the perceived value of a simulated general dental practice centre as reported by past undergraduates over five years. Various aspects of teaching and related outcomes are explored based on responses received from anonymous questionnaires. A team based approach to cooperative learning led by current practitioners experienced in primary dental care was seen as pivotal to the huge success of the teaching model. Moreover the role of cooperative learning and its influence on building individual clinical confidence and acumen was considered highly beneficial as part of the transition from novice to expert. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students six months after qualification for a period of five years. The last registered postal address held by the Institute was used for this purpose. The years surveyed were: 2001-2002, 2002-2003, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. The questionnaire provided for both qualitative aspects of feedback and a quantitative representation of the overall perception of effectiveness of the General Dental Practice Centre, as expressed by a visual analogue scale. In total 135 questionnaires were returned representing a return rate of 53%. From the responses received 99% of the students reported that they enjoyed their sessions at the Centre with 96% expressing satisfaction with the teaching regime. The mean visual analogue scale rating the centre overall was reported as 83%, with a year on year increase ranging from 76-92%. Rich qualitative data were derived from free text responses. A simulated general dental practice centre was highly rated by past dental students in terms of the overall learning experience received and its relevance to later vocational training. By far the most consistently reported attribute was the opportunity to practise close support four handed dentistry with a nurse. Training in practice management and organisational skills were viewed as important with effective teamwork and a
Ashwini C Appaji
Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical skills training on low and high fidelity simulators have been in practice for over a decade, but due to the high cost of virtual reality simulators it is beyond the reach of institutions and trainees. Among the simulators, high fidelity simulators such as a suitably prepared human anatomical specimen would give a real feel as if doing the procedure in the living. Hence, having soft, supple cadaver with organoleptic properties is an ideal situation for training by simulation and research. To facilitate the surgical skill training and research, chemical embalming was adopted with modifications of the Thiel method, for cadaver preservation. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the perception of the surgical faculty’s experience on the utility of modified Thiel embalmed cadavers for surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a feedback was taken from practicing surgeons of broad and sub specialties such as general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, ophthalmology, ENT, OBG, Transplant surgery (n=54. A 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was used with criteria of measurements like skin color, consistency, odour, differentiation of the layers, approach to the area, joint mobility and suitability for the procedure. Results: The scores ranged from 3.9 to 4.46/5. The participants expressed satisfaction on the cadaver quality on their utility for performance of surgical procedures. They expressed that, such embalmed cadavers would be excellent for learning purpose, surgical skills training in orthopedic procedures like arthroscopy. They felt the joint mobility was good, the consistency was soft and differentiation of layers was good. Some felt the tissues were fragile and would easily give away losing their strength. Conclusion: Thiel embalmed cadavers retain their organoleptic properties and hence facilitate surgical skills training. The thiel embalmed
Dannels, Sharon; McLaughlin, Jean; Gleason, Katharine A; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn; Morahan, Page S
The authors surveyed U.S. and Canadian medical school deans regarding organizational climate for faculty, policies affecting faculty, processes deans use for developing faculty leadership, and the impact of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women. The usable response rate was 58% (n = 83/142). Deans perceived gender equity in organizational climate as neutral, improving, or attained on most items and deficient on four. Only three family-friendly policies/benefits were available at more than 68% of medical schools; several policies specifically designed to increase gender equity were available at fewer than 14%. Women deans reported significantly more frequent use than men (P = .032) of practices used to develop faculty leadership. Deans' impressions regarding the impact of ELAM alumnae on their schools was positive (M = 5.62 out of 7), with those having more fellows reporting greater benefit (P = .01). The deans felt the ELAM program had a very positive influence on its alumnae (M = 6.27) and increased their eligibility for promotion (M = 5.7). This study provides a unique window into the perceptions of medical school deans, important policy leaders at their institutions. Their opinion adds to previous studies of organizational climate focused on faculty perceptions. Deans perceive the organizational climate for women to be improving, but they believe that certain interventions are still needed. Women deans seem more proactive in their use of practices to develop leadership. Finally, deans provide an important third-party judgment for program evaluation of the ELAM leadership intervention, reporting a positive impact on its alumnae and their schools.
Pololi, Linda; Kern, David E; Carr, Phyllis; Conrad, Peter; Knight, Sharon
Energized, talented faculty are essential to achieving the missions of academic medical centers (AMCs) in education, research and health care. The alignment of individuals' values with workplace experiences are linked to meaningfulness of work and productivity. To determine faculty values and their alignment with institutional values. A qualitative hypothesis-generating interview study to understand the professional experiences of faculty and organizational approach in five AMCs that were nationally representative in regional and organizational characteristics. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Using stratified, purposeful sampling, we interviewed 96 male and female faculty at different career stages (early career, plateaued, senior faculty and those who had left academic medicine) and diverse specialties (generalists, medical and surgical subspecialists, and research scientists). Dominant themes that emerged from the data. Faculty described values relating to excellence in clinical care, community service (including care for the underserved and disadvantaged), teaching, intellectual rigor/freedom and discovery, all values that mirror the stated missions of AMCs. However, many faculty also described behaviors that led them to conclude that their AMCs, in practice, undervalued excellence in clinical care, and their social and educational missions. Themes were seen across gender, career stage, race and discipline, except that female leaders appeared more likely than male leaders to identify incongruence of individual values and organizational practices. In this study of five diverse medical schools, faculty values were well aligned with stated institutional missions; however, many perceived that institutional behaviors were not always aligned with individual faculty values.
Luna, Ana; Gomes, Monalisa; Granville-Garcia, Ana; Menezes, Valdenice
To evaluate the perception of treatment needs and the use of dental services for children/adolescents with sickle cell disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 250 children/adolescents with sickle cell disease at a reference center in the city of Recife, Brazil. Data on the use of dental services were collected using a 13-item questionnaire administered to parents/guardians. The examiner in charge of determining l caries and periodontal status had previously undergone a training and calibration exercise. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analysis were also performed (α = 5%). A total of 47.2% of the children/adolescents with sickle cell disease were diagnosed with caries and 14.0% were diagnosed with some periodontal problems. The following variables were statistically significantly associated with the perceptions of parents/guardians regarding the treatment needs of their children: caries (PR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.42), periodontal problems (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.01-1.20) and history of toothache in the previous six months (PR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.06-1.29). Only a lower level of mothers' schooling (PR = 1.64; 95%CI 1.06-2.53) was statistically significantly associated with the mean number of caries among the children/adolescents with sickle cell disease. Mean dmft/DMFT indices were higher among children/adolescents who sought dental care. Based on our results, a predomination of curative treatment was found, as seeking out dental treatment was more frequent among children/adolescents with a greater number of caries.
Visioli, Sonia; Lodi, Giovanni; Carrassi, Antonio; Zannini, Lucia
This pilot study is based on observational research of lecturing skills during the annual Oral Medicine course at the Milan Dentistry School. Our goals were to explore how teachers exhibited desirable lecturing skills, to observe how their attitudes and lecturing skills affected students' attention and thereby learning, and to provide feedback. We prepared a structured observational grid divided into four categories: explaining, questioning, visual aids, and lecturer attitude. The grid was filled in by a participant, nonactive researcher. Two main types of lecture were observed: "traditional" and "interactive". Both of these can result in a high level of attention among students. Among the categories, only "lecturer attitude" appeared to affect student attention. In particular, the skills of "speaking aloud" and "sustaining verbal communication with vocal inflection" appeared to have the greatest impact on lecturer attitude. The data were then presented blindly to the five lecturers, who were able to identify their own lesson. Our grid proved to be a valid instrument although it was very expensive. When integrated with other strategies for improving lecturing, such as student scoring, peer evaluation, and microteaching, observational research can be a cost-effective method to stimulate guided reflection and to improve the lecturing skills of faculty members.
Ashi, H; Lara-Capi, C; Campus, G; Klingberg, G; Lingström, P
Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted. The children were examined in their school setting. A sweet taste perception level was determined by the sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). The sweet test was performed with sucrose solutions varying in concentration from 1.63 to 821.52 g/L. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFS indices were used to diagnose caries. The highest mean value for TT was found for Italian children followed by Saudi and Mexican. Saudi schoolchildren showed the highest mean values for TP and DMFS, followed by Italian and Mexican. A statistically significant difference for TP, TT, DMFS, and initial caries was found between the 3 countries. A weak yet positive correlation was found between taste perception (TT and TP) versus DMFS and manifest caries in all 3 countries (r = 0.137-0.313). The findings of the present study showed a variation in sweet taste perception between the 3 countries, which may influence the caries outcome of the children in the individual countries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of perception and motivation to Students Career Interests in Taxation of Departement of Accounting Faculty of Economics at the State University of Jakarta. This study used 75 students S1 Departement of Accounting, State University of Jakarta which is still active academic year 2010. Data used in this study is primary data and selection of samples using a convenience sampling method. The analytical tool used is multiple linear regression analysis at a significance level of 5%. The first phase of testing the validity and reliability of the statement of each variable. The second stage, performing variable regression perception and motivation towards a career in the field of taxation the interest of students. The results of testing the feasibility of the model shows that the two independent variables, namely perception and motivation affect the career interests of students in the field of taxation Accounting Department of Economics at the State University of Jakarta simultaneously.
Newbrun, E. Fluoride and Dental caries (3 ed.). San francisco: Springfield. 1978. 5.Vuhahula et al. Dental fluorosis in Great Rift Valley in relation to fluoride level in water and Magadi. Desalination. 2010; 252: 193-198. 3. Group students who didn't know how fluorosis can be avoided students who knew how fluorosis can be.
Kelleher, Sheri E.
This qualitative case study was designed to investigate mentors and mentees and their relationships in a formal group-mentoring program. Results and findings were expected to contribute to the literature on how to best support future new faculty and senior faculty careers by providing data on the opinions of those who participated in the mentoring…
Martins, Renata Castro; Seijo, Marília Oliveira Saraiva; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino
This study evaluated the perceptions of Brazilian undergraduate dental students about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontic disciplines. The students were divided into 3 groups: G1, students who had treated straight canals with SS hand instruments; G2, students who had treated curved canals with SS hand instruments; and G3, students who had treated both straight and curved canals with NiTi rotary instruments. The number of endodontic treatments performed, types of treated teeth, students' learning, time spent, encountered difficulties, quality of endodontic treatment and characteristics of the employed technique were analyzed. There was a 91.3% rate of return for the questionnaires. Mandibular molars were the most frequently treated teeth, followed by maxillary incisors. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no differences in learning (p=0.528) or in the characteristics of the technique employed (p=0.560) among the three groups. G3 students performed a greater number of endodontic treatments (pendodontic treatments differed only between G1 and G2 (p=0.045). The use of NiTi rotary instruments should be included in undergraduate dental curriculum, contributing to the increase of patients assisted and consequently to improve the clinical experience of the students.
Starkey, Traci J
As the demographics of the United States change, nursing will need to become more ethnically diverse in order to provide culturally responsive healthcare. Enrollment of English as Second Language nursing students is increasing; however, these students often encounter academic difficulties. The increase in English as Second Language nursing students in the classroom and clinical setting has posed challenges for nurse faculty. To explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. A grounded theory method based on the philosophical underpinnings of symbolic interactionism and pragmatism was used to explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The study took place at various schools of nursing in the Southeast Florida area. Educators teaching in an associate, baccalaureate, and/or graduate nursing program at an accredited school of nursing. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to collect data from nurse faculty. Data segments from interviews were coded, categorized, and analyzed. Theoretical sampling and a focus group interview were used to validate the concepts, themes, and categories identified during the individual interviews. A substantive level theory was developed. The core category that developed was conscientization. The three dominant categories that emerged from the data were overcoming, coming to know, and facilitating. The theoretical framework of conscientization provided an explanation of the social processes involved in teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The theoretical framework developed from this study can be used to increase the effectiveness of teaching English as Second Language nursing students, improve their chances of success, and enhance diversity in the nursing profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell
Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102
Full Text Available Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs. Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%, TF 4–5 (45.6% and TF 6–7 (4.4% for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%, TF 4–5 (67.1% and TF 67 (20.6% for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05. The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6, smile (OR = 1.2 and appearance (OR = 3.36. Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.
Conclusion: In the integrated curriculum, our study highlights the importance of clinical training not only in making dental students competent but also in increasing their confidence in performing clinical procedures.
Kenny, Philip; Johnson, Ilona Gail
Use of social media has increased amongst health professionals. This has benefits for patient care but also introduces risks for confidentiality and professional fitness to practise. This study aimed to examine dental student attitudes towards professional behaviour on social media. The secondary aim was to establish the extent and nature of social media use and exposure to potentially unprofessional behaviours.\\ud \\ud A cross-sectional study was carried out in one dental school. Data were co...
Nascimento, Alex Rodrigues do; Andrade, Fabíola Bof de; César, Cibele Comini
This study sought to describe the agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation of dental treatment needs in adults and analyze associated factors. The sample comprised adult individuals who took part in SBBrazil 2010 and SBMinas Gerais 2012. The study's outcome was agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation of dental treatment needs. We used multiple Poisson regression in order to determine the factors associated with the outcome. Agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation was 78.8% in Brazil and 73.8% in Minas Gerais. Clinical and self-reported oral health conditions that affect function and quality of life were associated with a higher agreement, while a recent visit to the dentist was associated with a lower agreement. Identifying associated factors may enable the development of questionnaires that favor correct self-perception regarding treatment needs.
Murray, Colleen; Densie, Ian Kenneth; Morgan, Christian
Adolescents and emerging adults can provide dentists with many challenges. Little information is available on their perceptions of dental costs once they turn 18 and dentistry is no longer State-funded. The aim of this study was to explore the use of dental care by Southland students in years 12 and 13, their perceptions of the cost of four common dental procedures, self-related oral health and dental self-care habits, time off school related to dental problems, and knowledge and views regarding fluoride. After ethical approval, a 26-question survey was conducted of all Southland students in years 12 and 13. Data were statistically analysed in SPSS version 20 with the alpha value set at 0.05. The participation rate was 49.6%. Regular attendance for examinations was reported by 77.5% with non-attendance mainly related to attitudes around lack of importance or necessity. Reported dental attendance varied according to gender, ethnicity and decile rating of school attended. Although some were accurate in their estimations of dental costs, the standard deviation for all procedures was large. The majority thought that costs put people off going to the dentist. While 74.8% brushed their teeth at least twice daily, only 26.6% flossed regularly. Knowledge regarding fluoride was lacking. It may be advantageous to include education regarding costs of dental care with patients of this age. This may motivate them to improve their self-care and ensure that their oral health is of a high standard before their dental needs are no longer State-funded.
Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J
A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (peducational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Yaneva, Krassimira; Luan, Diana; Andonov, Bogomil; Kumar, Reena R; Agnihotry, Anirudha; Ivanoff, Athena E; Emmanouil, Dimitrios; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Koneski, Filip; Muratovska, Ilijana; Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Daly, Michele
Training culturally competent graduates who can practice effectively in a multicultural environment is a goal of contemporary dental education. The Global Oral Health Initiative is a network of dental schools seeking to promote global dentistry as a component of cultural competency training. Before initiating international student exchanges, a survey was conducted to assess students' awareness of global dentistry and interest in cross-national clerkships. A 22-question, YES/NO survey was distributed to 3,487 dental students at eight schools in seven countries. The questions probed students about their school's commitment to enhance their education by promoting global dentistry, volunteerism and philanthropy. The data were analysed using Vassarstats statistical software. In total, 2,371 students (67.9%) completed the survey. Cultural diversity was seen as an important component of dental education by 72.8% of the students, with two-thirds (66.9%) acknowledging that their training provided preparation for understanding the oral health care needs of disparate peoples. A high proportion (87.9%) agreed that volunteerism and philanthropy are important qualities of a well-rounded dentist, but only about one-third felt that their school supported these behaviours (36.2%) or demonstrated a commitment to promote global dentistry (35.5%). In addition, 87.4% felt that dental schools are morally bound to improve oral health care in marginalised global communities and should provide students with international exchange missions (91%), which would enhance their cultural competency (88.9%) and encourage their participation in charitable missions after graduation (67.6%). The study suggests that dental students would value international exchanges, which may enhance students' knowledge and self-awareness related to cultural competence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available Pedro Christian Aravena,1,2 Camila Barrientos,1 Catalina Troncoso,1 Cesar Coronado,3 Pamela Sotelo-Hitschfeld4 1Department of Dentistry, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; 2Department of Dental Implant Surgery, São Leopoldo Mandic School and Dental Institute, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 3Faculty of Health Science, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 4Department of Center for Interdisciplinary Studies on Nervous System (CISNe, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of warming anesthesia on the control of the pain produced during the administration of dental anesthesia injection and to analyze the role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 nociceptor channels in this effect.Patients and methods: A double-blind, split-mouth randomized clinical trial was designed. Seventy-two volunteer students (22.1±2.45 years old; 51 men from the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Austral de Chile (Valdivia, Chile participated. They were each administered 0.9 mL of lidocaine HCl 2% with epinephrine 1:100,000 (Alphacaine® using two injections in the buccal vestibule at the level of the upper lateral incisor teeth. Anesthesia was administered in a hemiarch at 42°C (107.6°F and after 1 week, anesthesia was administered by randomized sequence on the contralateral side at room temperature (21°C–69.8°F at a standardized speed. The intensity of pain perceived during the injection was compared using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS; Wilcoxon test p<0.05.Results: The use of anesthesia at room temperature produced an average VAS for pain of 35.3±16.71 mm and anesthesia at 42°C produced VAS for pain of 15±14.67 mm (p<0.001.Conclusion: The use of anesthesia at 42°C significantly reduced the pain during the injection of anesthesia compared to its use at room temperature during maxillary injections. The physiological mechanism of the
León, Soraya; Correa-Beltrán, Gloria; Giacaman, Rodrigo A
To explore the ageing stereotypes held by health students and faculty members in three health science schools in Chile. This cross-sectional study surveyed 284 students and faculty members from the dental, physical therapy and speech therapy schools of the University of Talca, Chile. A validated 15-question questionnaire about negative stereotypes was used (CENVE). The questions were divided into three categories: (i) health, (ii) social factors and motivation and (iii) character and personality. The scores for each category were grouped into the following categories: (i) positive, (ii) neutral and (iii) negative. Negative stereotypes were compared across genders, socio-economic status levels, classes, positions (student or faculty member) and schools. The majority of the participants held neutral stereotypes towards ageing, followed by positive perceptions. No differences were detected between the genders, schools or classes. While most of the students had neutral perceptions about ageing, the faculty's perceptions were rather positive (p = 0.0182). In addition, people of lower-middle socio-economic status held more positive stereotypes about ageing than the participants of high and middle status (p = 0.0496). Stereotypes about ageing held by health-related students and faculty members appear to be rather neutral. The stereotypes seem to be better among students with some clinical experience, students of lower socio-economic status and faculty members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Search, Kathryn R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle B; Arndt, Aaron
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey entry-level dental hygiene program directors in the United States (U.S.) to assess their perceptions of dental hygienists with visible tattoos as well as to determine current policies related to dress codes in U.S. dental hygiene programs. Methods: Data was collected with an online survey emailed to 340 dental hygiene program directors yielding a 43% (n=141) response rate. Participants indicated their opinions of visible tattoos on the basis of professionalism and school policy satisfaction. Results: Eighty percent of respondents reported their program as having dress code policies on visible tattoos, with the majority (97%) requiring visible tattoos to be covered. Results revealed both students (M=5.57, phygiene faculty should discuss the impact of visible tattoos on future employment opportunities, and that the community would view the school as less professional if students had visible tattoos (pPersonal tolerance toward tattoos (phygiene program dress code included policy on visible tattoos. Conclusion: Study results showed that visible tattoos were not perceived favorably and that personal perceptions of dental hygiene program directors may have influenced school dress code polices regarding visible tattoos. These findings provide evidence based information for dental hygienists, students, faculty, administrators and hiring managers for formulating policies relating to body art. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Smith, Amy N; Boyd, Linda D; Rogers, Christine Macarelli; Le Jeune, Ronald C
Increasing the knowledge base of its practitioners through formal education is vital to advancing the dental hygiene profession, ensuring practitioners' readiness for participation in future health care workforce models, and preparing future dental hygiene educators. The aim of this study was to discover the value of, barriers to, and motivations for graduate education among dental hygienists as a first step toward establishing ways to stimulate enrollment and facilitate program change. A qualitative pilot study design was used, with focus groups used for data collection. Four virtual focus groups were conducted on a video conferencing platform with dental hygienists (N=15) of varying educational levels residing in nine states. Focus group results were examined for emerging themes. The majority of participants placed a high value on graduate education as it related to expanding employment options and satisfying personal goals, but perceived it to have little value regarding advancement in clinical practice. Top barriers to education were reported to be time management, finances, and degree program options. Motivational themes for pursuing education included increased career options, benefits, and salary; personal satisfaction; potential to advance the profession; and financial support. The participants agreed that increased education can lead to more varied career opportunities and advance the profession, but their responses suggested limited motivation to pursue graduate studies. Determining ways to increase the value, reduce barriers, and enhance motivation for a graduate degree should be a priority of academic institutions and professional organizations involved in dental hygiene to ensure a workforce that is qualified for future health care initiatives and prepared to become educators.
Poppre, Beth Anne Edwards
Understanding how university medical school faculty and staff perceive the institution's mission statement, in conjunction with their person-environment fit, can provide administration with useful insight into: employee's match to the institution's mission statement, employee level of organizational commitment, and reasons for retention. This…
Rucker, Ryan; Edwards, Karen; Frass, Lydia R.
To ensure that online courses match traditional classes' quality, some institutions are implementing internal standards for online course design and quality review. The University of South Carolina created the Distributed Learning Quality Review program, based on "Quality Matters'" standards. It was designed to be faculty-guided, as…
Feldman, Devin; Sciammarella, Susan
This study surveying the six community colleges of the City University of New York reveals that there is much room for improvement in the interrelationship between librarians and teaching faculty. More effective communication and mutual respect would enhance the educational experience for students and provide a richer learning environment.…
Thompson, Gerene M.
Approximately 30% of Florida's college system (FCS) students are enrolled in distance learning courses (FLDOE, 2015). As FCS institutions continue to grow their online programs to meet demand, a lack of support from, and consensus among administrator and faculty stakeholders could undermine institutional efforts to sustain growth and quality…
Full Text Available Introduction. Forces generated in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances create tension and compression zones in the periodontal ligament resulting in a painful experience for patients. In the first phase of orthodontic treatment, when leveling of teeth is needed, nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires can be completely engaged in brackets, even in the cases of extreme crowding, exerting small forces. There is a great individual variation in the pain perception related to the application of orthodontic forces. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the pain perception among patients with dental crowding after insertion of six different NiTi orthodontic archwires as a part of fixed appliances in the first stage of orthodontic treatment. Methods. The study was conducted on a sample of 189 orthodontic patients receiving one of six different either superelastic or heat activated NiTi archwires, in the first phase of orthodontic treatment. Pain perception was evaluated in groups of patients with different degree of crowding. The modified McGill Pain Questionnaire with Visual Analogue Scale was used to evaluate the quality and intensity of pain. Statistical analysis was performed using simple descriptive statistics, and Pearson`s chi-square test with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results. Majority of patients reported pain as discomfort or pressure of moderate intensity caused by chewing or biting, started within 12 hours, carried on for 3-4 days, and decreased over time without self-medication. Conclusion. No correlation was found between pain perception among patients with different types of NiTi archwires and the degree of crowding.
Baker, Lindsay; Leslie, Karen; Panisko, Danny; Walsh, Allyn; Wong, Anne; Stubbs, Barbara; Mylopoulos, Maria
Purpose Now a mainstay in medical education, faculty development has created the role of the faculty developer. However, faculty development research tends to overlook faculty developers’ roles and experiences. This study aimed to develop an empirical understanding of faculty developer competence by digging deeper into the actions, experiences, and perceptions of faculty developers as they perform their facilitator role. Method A constructivist grounded theory approach guided observations of ...
Full Text Available Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one′s personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB index and the dental environment stress (DES questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.
Mariño, R; Ghanim, A; Morgan, M; Barrow, S
This study explored clinical supervisor's (CS) views and experiences of dental students' cultural competence (CC) at the Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Additionally, this study explored CS insights into how CC could be taught. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were organised with consenting CS. Interview topics included the following: the importance of CC, communication and rapport, the role of culture in oral health and the need for curriculum enhancement. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to identify key areas using NVivo software. A total of 12 CS participated in this study. CS acknowledged the importance of CC and felt that it was important for good patient management. CS's definition of CC focused primarily on language and communication skills. CS felt that dental students were generally able to manage culturally diverse patients. However, CS indicated that additional training in this area would be beneficial. Concerns were raised about the students' ability to establish good rapport and communication, with CS highlighting areas such as misuse of interpreters and use of jargon. CS felt that clinical experience, confidence and a positive attitude are effective tools for overcoming cultural barriers. Furthermore, some CS also felt that cultural competency was a skill that is learnt through experience. For most CS, cultural competence was an important part of the clinician-patient exchange which would benefit from enhanced curriculum. They also highlighted areas where transcultural education could be improved. The majority of CS believed dental students managed culturally diverse patients well. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Christensen Brydges, Sarah; Gwozdek, Anne E
The Boys & Girls Club of America (BGCA) requires a health curriculum be taught. With the assistance of the University of Michigan (UM) Dental Hygiene program, these requirements have been addressed at the Huron Valley Boys & Girls Club (HVBGC) through dental hygiene students presenting oral health education to club members throughout the year. This study assessed the outcomes and benefits of the service learning initiative between the UM Dental Hygiene Program and the HVBGC from both the students' and staffs' perceptions. Three surveys were distributed: one to the HVBGC staff, one to UM's Dental Hygiene class of 2012 (with no service learning experience at the HVBGC) and one to UM Dental Hygiene classes of 2010 and 2011 (most of whom had experience at the HVBGC). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and evaluated. The respondents from the class of 2012 were less knowledgeable about the BGCA and access to care issues. The members of the classes of 2010 and 2011, 79% of whom had HVBGC experience, identified they had benefitted from this service learning experience. The HVBGC staff survey indicated a high level of satisfaction with the student presentations and felt their curricular requirements were being met. Future topics of safety, orthodontics and gardening/nutrition were identified. This study indicates the service learning initiative has been beneficial for both the UM Dental Hygiene students and the HVBGC. Future studies should use a longitudinal design to obtain baseline and post-service learning data.
Journal of Dental Education, 1985
The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)
Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A
In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Williams, S A; Godson, J H; Ahmed, I A
British Asians represent a substantial proportion of the population in some parts of the United Kingdom, yet many fail to use dental services regularly. This study aimed to investigate dentists' concerns about providing care for this client group. Following a pilot study, a postal questionnaire was sent to general dental practitioners and community dental officers working in seven family health services authority localities. Of 1546 questionnaires circulated, 639 (41 per cent) were returned. The language barrier was most frequently identified as a major impediment to care (78 per cent), followed by patients' understanding of treatment proposed (67 per cent), while 64 per cent found difficulty obtaining medical histories. Only 20 per cent considered that gaining consent for treatment was a problem. Other issues concerned attendance as casual patients (65 per cent) and, in terms of treatment provided, difficulties with preventive (77 per cent), periodontal (66 per cent) and orthodontic care (27 per cent). The proportion of dentists identifying barriers to care reflected the English-speaking abilities of different Asian populations. Compared with the high percentage mentioning language, understanding and medical history, the small proportion of dentists who thought that consent was of concern suggests that concepts of consent may need to be questioned. Despite the low response rate, the high proportion of respondents identifying these issues implies that the present position may put patients' health at risk, restrict treatment options and offer a potential for litigation. Future initiatives to overcome barriers to appropriate care must address the perspectives of dentists treating British Asians, as well as that of the client group.
McKenzie, Carly T
The aim of this study was to use structured assessments to assess dental students' clinical communication skills exhibited during patient appointments. Fourth-year dental students (n=55) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham evaluated their own interpersonal skills in a clinical setting utilizing the Four Habits Coding Scheme. An instructor also assessed student-patient clinical communication. These assessments were used to identify perceived strengths and weaknesses in students' clinical communication. Both instructor assessments and student self-assessments pinpointed the following clinical communication skills as effective the most often: patient greeting, avoidance of jargon, and non-verbal behavior. There was also relative agreement between instructor assessments and student self-assessments regarding clinical communication skills that were rated as not effective most frequently: ensuring patient comprehension, identification of patient feelings, and exploration of barriers to treatment. These resulted pointed to strengths and weaknesses in the portion of the curriculum designed to prepare students for effective provider-patient communication. These results may suggest a need for the school's current behavioral science curriculum to better address discussion of potential treatment barriers and patient feelings as well as techniques to ensure patient comprehension.
Shetty, Vittaldas B; Shirahatti, Ravi V; Pawar, Prakash
This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing students' perceived learning experience at the time of graduation from a dental school in India. The domains appraised were undergraduate curriculum, student motivation and support services, institutional infrastructure, administrative services, components of teaching-learning programs, confidence level in carrying out specific clinical procedures, career choice, and postgraduate specialty preference after graduation. The authors surveyed forty-five dental interns at the end of their undergraduate course, a 100 percent response rate from the class. The results showed that over 95 percent of the graduates were satisfied with the curriculum and 60 to 95 percent reported that the various components of the teaching-learning process were adequate. Only 42 percent of the students were confident about setting up a practice; 65 percent wished to take a course on general dentistry; and 86 percent wanted to pursue postgraduate study. The principal conclusions were that although the program was satisfactory to the majority of participants, some areas of concern were identified that need improvement.
Background Oral cancer is increasing in incidence in the UK and indeed worldwide. Delay in diagnosis is common; up to half of patients are diagnosed with advanced lesions. Thus it is essential to develop methods to aid early detection. This study aimed to assess dental patients’ experiences and awareness of oral cancer and screening within general dental practice. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 184 English-speaking adults, with no previous history of oral cancer was conducted. The questionnaire collected data on participant’s knowledge of oral cancer, experience of ‘screening’, attitudes and feelings towards having a screening, anticipated help-seeking behaviours, health-related behaviours (particularly risk factors) and sociodemographics. Results Twenty percent of respondents had never heard of oral cancer; 77% knew little or nothing about it and 72% did not know that their Dentist routinely screens for oral cancer. Overall, attitudes to screening were positive. Ninety two percent of respondents would like their Dentist to tell them if they were being screened for signs of oral cancer and 97% would like help from their Dentists to reduce their risk. Conclusion Patients seem generally unaware of oral cancer screening by their dentist but are happy to take part in screening, would like to be informed, and welcome the support of their Dentist to reduce their risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:23249393
Brissette, Mark D; Johnson, Kristen A; Raciti, Patricia M; McCloskey, Cindy B; Gratzinger, Dita A; Conran, Richard Michael; Domen, Ronald E; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Roberts, Cory Anthony; Rojiani, Amyn M; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin
- Changes occurring in medicine have raised issues about medical professionalism. Professionalism is included in the Core Competencies and Milestones for all pathology residents. Previous studies have looked at resident professionalism attitudes and behaviors in primary care but none have looked specifically at pathology. - To examine behavior and attitudes toward professionalism within pathology and to determine how professionalism is taught in residency programs. - Surveys were sent to all College of American Pathologists junior members and all pathology residency program directors, and responses were compared. - Although no single behavior received the same professionalism rating among residents and program directors, both groups identified the same behaviors as being the most unprofessional: posting identifiable patient information or case images to social media, making a disparaging comment about a physician colleague or member of the support staff on social media or in a public hospital space, and missing work without reporting the time off. Faculty were observed displaying most of these behaviors as often or more often than residents by both groups. The most common means to teach professionalism in pathology residencies is providing feedback as situations arise and teaching by example. Age differences were found within each group and between groups for observed behaviors and attitudes. - As teaching by example was identified as a common educational method, faculty must be aware of the role their behavior and attitudes have in shaping resident behavior and attitudes. These results suggest a need for additional resources to teach professionalism during pathology residency.
Costello, Rebecca; Welch, S. A.
This article describes a qualitative approach in understanding factors that are evident in effective online class communities. Instructors and students in the same class were asked about their perceptions regarding what constitutes an effective online experience. The analysis was done using both Herzberg's (1962, 1965) motivator-hygiene factors…
Joy J. Burnham
Full Text Available Researchers have reported how Hurricane Katrina has affected teachers who work with Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12, yet little is known about how the natural disaster has affected other important K-12 faculty and staff (e.g., coaches, librarians, school counselors, and cafeteria workers. Missing from the literature is the impact that this natural disaster has had on these formal (school counselors and informal (coaches, librarians helpers of K-12 students. Using a focus group methodology, the authors examined the aftereffects of Hurricane Katrina on 12 school employees in New Orleans, Louisiana, 18 months after the hurricane. Informed by qualitative content analysis, three emergent themes were identified: emotion-focused aftereffects, positive coping, and worry and fear. The implications for future research and promoting hope in mental health counseling are discussed.
Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.
Researchers have reported how Hurricane Katrina has affected teachers who work with Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12), yet little is known about how the natural disaster has affected other important K-12 faculty and staff (e.g., coaches, librarians, school counselors, and cafeteria workers). Missing from the literature is the impact that this natural disaster has had on these formal (school counselors) and informal (coaches, librarians) helpers of K-12 students. Using a focus group methodology, the authors examined the aftereffects of Hurricane Katrina on 12 school employees in New Orleans, Louisiana, 18 months after the hurricane. Informed by qualitative content analysis, three emergent themes were identified: emotion-focused aftereffects, positive coping, and worry and fear. The implications for future research and promoting hope in mental health counseling are discussed. PMID:22629217
Dian Apriliana Rahmawatie
Design and Methods: This study involved 181 students of clinical internship of the year 2003, 2004 and 2005 of medical faculty of Islamic Sultan Agung University having the clinical rotation at the stage of surgery, obsgyn, pediatrics, internal medicine, ENT, neurology, dermatology and venerology, psychiatry, across the affiliated hospitals. The subject were divided into groups based on the hospital they were placed. Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument (CTEI adapted in bahasa Indonesia was used. The Descriptive and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for the data analysis. Results: Means of the effectiveness of clinical supervision for 12 affiliated hospitals ranged from 3.25 to 4.02. Kruskal-Wallis test resulted in the value of Chi-S=13.32 and p=0.27. Conclusion: Over all the clinical supervision for the 12 affiliated hospitals is perceived good and shows no significant difference. However the practice of clinical supervision varies among the hospitals (Sains Medika, 3(2:135-149.
Hill, Heather K; Stewart, Denice C L; Ash, Joan S
Health Information Technology Systems (HITS) are becoming more widely integrated into patient care in the dental school setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a chairside HITS on users in the dental school setting. Qualitative techniques, including interviews, focus groups and observations, were used. Using grounded theory, we saw 9 themes emerge. One theme of particular interest was that "training and support needs of end-users were significant." This paper explores this theme in detail and discusses the implications.
Liberman, Leila Helene
The exponential growth of online and hybrid education is most pressing and rapidly changing, increasing the need for faculty development programs for the traditional and online educator (Herman, 2012; Quinn & Kennedy-Clark, 2015). The students of today are referred to as the digital native student (DNS; Akcayir, Dundar, & Akcayir, 2016).…
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to explore the desired expectation (DE, adequate expectation (AE, zone of tolerance (ZoT, and perceived level (PL from the patients attending a preorthodontic treatment consultation at Orthodontic Clinic, Dental School, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 patients aged 15 years and older were asked to express their DE and AE before the consultation and to give their PL after the consultation. Two sets of questionnaires were used in this study. The first set was designed to gain data regarding general information and the measured level of expectation. The second set was used to measure the PL of patients after the preorthodontic consultation. Both questionnaires contained four dimensions of the service: Dentist's courtesy, dentist's care and examination, dentist's communication, and convenience of the services. Results: The communication dimension especially information regarding the orthodontic treatment need got rather low PL compared to others. Conclusion: The information regarding the orthodontic treatment need was the main item that patients need to receive in the consultation.
[Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].
Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki
It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.
Holyfield, Lavern J; Berry, Charles W
The Faculty Development Committee (FDC) at Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) is charged with providing programs and activities that facilitate the success of existing faculty in the constantly changing environment of academia. In response to concerns regarding the challenges wrought by current and projected shortages of dental faculty across the nation, the FDC was prompted to assess development opportunities available to BCD faculty. A professional development resource that we found deficient was a formal, comprehensive orientation program for newly hired faculty. To guide the efforts of the committee in developing this program, a survey was designed and administered during an annual faculty retreat. Respondents were new and junior faculty, senior faculty, and some administrators. The results of the survey to determine requirements for new faculty orientation became the basis for formalizing BCD's new faculty orientation program. This article provides an overview of the new faculty orientation process from design to program implementation and describes the development and use of a faculty survey to determine the fundamental elements of a faculty development program, identification of essential individuals for designing/implementing the program, and implementation of a new faculty orientation program at BCD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS. The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier’s education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. Results The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 – 2.72; p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. Conclusions A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception.
Claudino, Dikson; Traebert, Jefferson
Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). The chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier's education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 - 2.72); p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception.
Kershaw, S; Newton, J T; Williams, D M
Physical appearance plays a key role in human social interaction and the smile and teeth are important features in determining the attractiveness of a face. Furthermore, the mouth is thought to be important in social interactions. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between tooth colour and social perceptions. Cross-sectional survey. One hundred and eighty female participants viewed one of six images, either a male or a female digitally altered to display one of three possible dental statuses (unmodified, decayed, or whitened). The images were rated on four personality traits: social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and relationship satisfaction (RS). Decayed dental appearance led to more negative judgements over the four personality categories. Whitened teeth led to more positive appraisals. The gender of the image and the demographic background of the participant did not have a significant effect on appraisals. Tooth colour exerts an influence on social perceptions. The results may be explained by negative beliefs about dental decay, such as its link with poor oral hygiene.
Arinilson Moreira Chaves Lima
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to learn about the users' perceptions concerning the case-resolving capacity of dental care in the Unified Health System and to analyze the associations between solving capacity and both sociodemographic characteristics and access to the service. This was a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, in which 461 users responded to individual interviews. The outcome variable was the case-resolving capacity of dental care, obtained through the question: “In your opinion, is the dentist of this health center managing to solve all your oral health problems (Yes/No”. Independent variables were grouped into the following: sociodemographic and related to the access to the service. Most participants reported that their oral health problems were being solved. By using the Poisson regression, the lack of case-resolving capacity was found to be associated to the patients' not considering the dental surgeon's working hours convenient; to the long time they had to wait to get an appointment in the health center; and to the long time they had to wait in the waiting room. The results showed the positive view that users have about the case-resolving capacity of public dental care, and the relationship between access to the service and the said solving capacity.
Formicola, Allan J
This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.
Mitchell, Ann M; Riccelli, Angelina; Boucek, Lynn; Puskar, Kathryn R; Hagle, Holly; Lindsay, Dawn
Dental professionals have an opportunity to screen for substance use, provide targeted feedback based on patients' oral health, provide patient education, and refer for further assessment as needed. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on dental hygiene students of an interprofessional Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) educational intervention with standardized patients as a tool for initiating discussions on alcohol and drug use with patients. Starting in 2015, dental hygiene students in two classes at the University of Pittsburgh participated with nursing students in one and a half hours of didactic instruction followed within a ten-week period by SBIRT simulation scenarios utilizing standardized patients, with subsequent debriefing of students by faculty. Students' attitudes were assessed before and after the didactic session and immediately after the SBIRT simulation, using the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perceptions Questionnaire and the Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire. All 67 dental hygiene students in the program at the time participated in the educational intervention and surveys. The results showed significant positive changes in role security, defined as the acceptance of SBIRT delivery as part of their role identity as dental hygienists, following the intervention. This study found that the IPE intervention with dental hygiene and nursing students improved the dental hygiene students' attitudes through using SBIRT.
Banu, Ancuta; Șerban, Costela; Pricop, Marius; Urechescu, Horatiu; Vlaicu, Brigitha
Self-perception of oral health status is a multidimensional construct that includes psychological, psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. Contemporary concepts suggest that the evaluation of health needs should focus on clinical standards and socio-dental indicators that measure the impact of health/disease on the individual quality of life. Oral health cannot be dissociated from general health. This study evaluates a possible association between oral health status, body size, self-perception of oral health, self-perception of body size and dissatisfaction with body image in prepubertal children with mixed dentition, targeting the completion of children's health status assessment which will further allow the identification of individuals at risk and could be further used as an evaluation of the need for specific interventions. The present study is cross-sectional in design and uses data from 710 pre-pubertal children with mixed dentition. The outcome variables comprised one item self-perception of oral health: dmft/DMFT Index and Dental Aesthetic Index, body size, self-assessed body size and desired body size. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The level of significance was set at 5%. More than a half (53.1%) of the participants with mixed dentition reported that their oral health was excellent or very good. In the unadjusted model, untreated decayed teeth, dmft score and body dissatisfaction levels had a significant contribution to poor self-perception of oral health, but after adjustment for gender, BMI status, dmft score, DMFT score and DAI score, only untreated decayed teeth OR = 1.293, 95%CI (1.120-1.492) and higher body dissatisfaction levels had a significant contribution. It was concluded that the need for dental treatment influenced self-perception of oral health in prepubertal children with mixed dentition, especially with relation to untreated decayed teeth. Since only body dissatisfaction levels, but not BMI, were
Pololi, Linda H; Krupat, Edward; Civian, Janet T; Ash, Arlene S; Brennan, Robert T
Vital, productive faculty are critical to academic medicine, yet studies indicate high dissatisfaction and attrition. The authors sought to identify key personal and cultural factors associated with intentions to leave one's institution and/or academic medicine. From 2007 through early 2009, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 4,578 full-time faculty from 26 representative U.S. medical schools. The survey asked about advancement, engagement, relationships, diversity and equity, leadership, institutional values and practices, and work-life integration. A two-level, multinomial logit model was used to predict leaving intentions. A total of 2,381 faculty responded (52%); 1,994 provided complete data for analysis. Of these, 1,062 (53%) were female and 475 (24%) were underrepresented minorities in medicine. Faculty valued their work, but 273 (14%) had seriously considered leaving their own institution during the prior year and 421 (21%) had considered leaving academic medicine altogether because of dissatisfaction; an additional 109 (5%) cited personal/family issues and 49 (2%) retirement as reasons to leave. Negative perceptions of the culture-unrelatedness, feeling moral distress at work, and lack of engagement-were associated with leaving for dissatisfaction. Other significant predictors were perceptions of values incongruence, low institutional support, and low self-efficacy. Institutional characteristics and personal variables (e.g., gender) were not predictive. Findings suggest that academic medicine does not support relatedness and a moral culture for many faculty. If these issues are not addressed, academic health centers may find themselves with dissatisfied faculty looking to go elsewhere.
Full Text Available Background: The aims of orthodontic treatment are to achieve the best interdigitation in centric occlusion in relation with good facial aesthetic and to get a pleasant dento-facial looked with good function as well. Nowadays, people who are seeking orthodontic treatment to fulfill those need come to orthodontist, mostly for aesthetic reason, for good teeth arrangement that will be more aesthetically favorable. However, not all people with malocclusion seek the orthodontic treatment due to the fact, they do not realize that they have orthodontic problem. On the other hand, some other feel they need orthodontic treatment but they can not afford it. Purpose: To determine the knowledge of malocclusion and demand for orthodontic treatment in related to Aesthetic Component (AC IOTN. Methods: The samples were 107 college students of Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University divided into two as 1st and 7th semester group. Both of the groups were given questionnaire about their knowledge of malocclusion and demand of orthodontic treatment. Then, they were asked to examine themselves using AC IOTN, then researcher and orthodontist examine them. Results: There was a significant difference on knowledge of malocclusion between both groups, no significant difference on demand of orthodontic treatment between both groups, and no correlation between demand and AC IOTN in both groups. There was a significant difference in AC IOTN score examined by respondent, researcher and orthodontist. Conclusion: Knowledge of malocclusion was not the only factor that determines demand of orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Tujuan perawatan ortodonti adalah untuk mendapatkan hubungan interdigitasi yang baik berhubungan dengan penampilan estetik wajah untuk mendapatkan fungsi dan penampilan dento-fasial yang baik. Saat ini, banyak orang mencari perawatan ortodonti untuk memenuhi kebutuhan fungsi dan penampilan. Tujuannya adalah susunan gigi yang rata yang lebih dapat diterima
Behbehani, J M
For a long time there has been a need to establish a dental school in Kuwait, due to the fact that the majority of dentists working in Kuwait are expatriates from various countries. An Amiri decree in 1996 made it possible, and the first dental students were admitted to the Kuwait University Faculty of Dentistry in 1998. The mission of the Faculty of Dentistry is 'to promote oral health in Kuwait through education, research and cooperation with other professional health care institutions as well as the community at large'. A 6.5-year dental curriculum was completed after 2 years of committee work and was accepted by the University Council in 2001. This curriculum incorporates current trends in medical and dental education, such as the evidence-based and community-based approaches, problem-solving methodology for outcome-based learning, and competency achieved through comprehensive patient care. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Doja, Asif; Clarkin, Chantalle; Whiting, Sharon; Moharir, Mahendranath
Pediatric neurology trainee numbers have grown considerably in Canada; recent research, however, has shown that the number of pediatric neurology graduates is outpacing the need for future pediatric neurologists. The purpose of this study was to seek the opinion of pediatric neurology program directors and trainees regarding possible solutions for this issue. Two focus groups were convened during the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation annual congress in June 2012; one consisted of current and former program directors, and the other of current pediatric neurology trainees. Groups were asked for their perceptions regarding child neurology manpower issues in Canada as well as possible solutions. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Theme-based qualitative analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Major themes emerging from both focus groups included the emphasis on community pediatric neurology as a viable option for trainees, including the need for community mentors; recognizing the needs of underserviced areas; and establishing academic positions for community preceptors. The need for career mentoring and support structures during residency training was another major theme which arose. Program directors and trainees also gave examples of ways to reduce the current oversupply of trainees in Canada, including limiting the number of trainees entering programs, as well as creating a long-term vision of child neurology in Canada. A nationwide dialogue to discuss the supply and demand of manpower in academic and community pediatric neurology is essential. Career guidance options for pediatric neurology trainees across the country merit further strengthening.
Boden, Dana W. R.
This qualitative study examined the perceptions that university library faculty members hold regarding the role of the department head in promoting faculty growth and development. Four faculty members at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln were interviewed. Axial coding of the individuals' perceptions revealed six categories of perceived roles for…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is currently accepted as a well-established risk factor for many oral diseases such as oral cancer and periodontal disease. Provision of smoking cessation care to patients with oral problems is a responsibility of health care professionals, particularly dentists and dental hygienists. This study examined the smoking-related perceptions and practices of dental school hospital-based health professionals in Japan. Findings A cross-sectional study design was used. The sample was formed from dentists, dental hygienists, physicians and nurses of a dental school hospital in Tokyo, Japan (n = 93, 72%. Participants were asked to complete an 11-item questionnaire assessing demographic variables and smoking history, provision of smoking cessation advice or care, attitudes about smoking cessation, and perceived barrier(s to smoking cessation care. Eighteen percent of participants reported being current smokers and 15% reported being ex-smokers, with higher smoking rates reported by dentists compared with other health professionals (p = 0.0199. While recognizing the importance of asking patients about their smoking status, actual provision of smoking cessation advice or care by participants was relatively insufficient. Interventions such as 'assess willingness to make a quit attempt' and 'assist in quit attempt' were implemented for less than one-quarter of their patients who smoke. Non-smokers were more likely to acknowledge the need for increased provision in smoking cessation care by oral health professionals. 'Lack of knowledge and training' was identified as a central barrier to smoking cessation care, followed by 'few patients willing to quit'. Conclusions A need for further promotion of smoking cessation activities by the health professionals was identified. The findings also suggest that dentists and dental hygienists, while perceiving a role in smoking care, do require training in the provision of smoking cessation care
Brand, H.S.; Kamell, H.; Kharbanda, A.; Dozic, A.
The aim of this study was to explore the materials and procedures used by students in dental schools across Europe for teaching fixed prosthodontics. An online questionnaire, containing twenty-eight dichotomous, multiple-choice, and Likert scale rating questions, was sent to students in forty dental
Peters, Mathilde C; Adu-Ababio, Francis; Jarrett-Ananaba, Nejay P; Johnson, Lynn A
The dearth of dental faculty members is a widely known problem that is exacerbated in countries that are attempting to begin dental education programs. This collaboration between Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and the University of Michigan investigated if dental students who have just started their clinical dental education can learn the knowledge and skills required for identifying and restoring cavitated caries lesions through compact course delivery. There were three instructional blocks: 1) didactic seminar; 2) seminar, simulated hands-on skills instruction, and clinical observation/assisting with treatment of schoolchildren; and 3) seminar, simulated skills training, and application to schoolchildren. Each dental student completed a questionnaire measuring knowledge and perceptions of knowledge, experience, and confidence at five points in time. The dental students' knowledge increased significantly as well as their perceived knowledge, experience, and confidence (p<0.0001). In general, the students showed proficiency in delivering simple treatments. The project showed that an integrated compact course delivery model may assist emerging dental schools to cope with the challenging shortage of resident faculty members.
Wallace, Juanita S; Infante, Taline D
Faculty development courses related to acquiring clinical teaching skills in the health professions are limited. Consequently, the Department of Dental Hygiene at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio conducted a series of clinical teaching workshops to address clinical teaching methodology. The goal of these workshops was to promote a problem-solving learning atmosphere for dental hygiene faculty to acquire and share sound clinical teaching strategies. To determine the value of the annual workshops on clinical teaching and evaluation, a web-based qualitative program assessment was developed using software by Survey Tracker. Four open-ended questions were designed to elicit perceptions regarding what significant changes in teaching strategies were achieved, what barriers or challenges were encountered in making these changes, and what strategies were used to overcome the barriers. The assessment was sent to dental hygiene educators representing thirty-eight dental hygiene programs who had participated in two or more of these workshops. Twenty-eight programs provided collective responses to the questions, and the narrative data were analyzed, using a qualitative methodology. Responses revealed that programs had made productive changes to their clinical education curricula and the information gained from the workshops had a positive effect on clinical teaching.
Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Javidi, Hanieh; Griffiths, Sarah Elizabeth; Shah, Anwar A; Sandler, Jonathan
Maxillary canines are generally considered important both cosmetically and functionally. Most claims on the importance of maxillary canines, however, have been based on expert opinions and clinician-based studies. There are no scientific studies in the literature reporting on their cosmetic importance or how laypeople perceive a smile treated by maxillary canine extractions. Our objective was to investigate whether there is any difference in the perceptions of patients' smiles treated by extracting either maxillary canines or first premolars, as judged by orthodontists, dentists, and laypeople. This retrospective study included 24 participants who had unilateral or bilateral extraction of maxillary permanent canines and fixed appliances in the maxillary and mandibular arches to comprehensively correct the malocclusion, selected from orthodontic patients treated at Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS trust in the United Kingdom over the last 20 years. The control group of patients had extraction of maxillary first premolars followed by fixed appliances and finished to an extremely high standard judged by the requirement that they had been submitted for the Membership in Orthodontics examination. The finished Peer Assessment Rating scores for this group were less than 5. The end-of-treatment frontal extraoral smiling and frontal intraoral views were presented for both groups. The photographs were blinded for extraction choice and standardized for size and brightness using computer software (Adobe Photoshop CC version 14.0; Adobe Systems, San Jose, Calif). The work file was converted to an editable pdf file and e-mailed to the assessors. The assessor panel consisted of 30 members (10 orthodontists, 10 dentists, and 10 laypeople), who were purposely selected. The measures were rated on a 10-point Likert scale. The attractiveness ratings were not statistically significantly different between the canine extraction and premolar extraction groups, with a mean difference of 0
Quick, Karin K
A Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standard now requires that dental schools commit to establishing a "humanistic culture and learning environment" for all members of the academic environment. The aim of this study was to identify students' perceptions of factors that affect the dental school environment and to test differences in their experiences in terms of gender and year. This picture of the existing environment was meant to serve as a first step toward creating and supporting a more humanistic academic environment. A mixed-methods approach was used for data collection during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 academic years at one U.S. dental school. Four focus groups were first conducted to explore challenges and conflicts faced by students during their dental education. A written survey informed by the focus group results was then used to obtain quantitative data. The survey response rate was 47 percent (N=188). Faculty inconsistency, cheating, and belittlement/disrespect were experienced by many of the responding dental students during their education, similar to what has been documented in medicine. These students also reported experiencing both constructive communication (90 percent) and destructive communication (up to 32 percent). The female students reported more gender discrimination and sexual harassment than their male peers, and the clinical students reported more experience with belittlement and destructive communication than the preclinical students. The results suggest that greater effort should be directed toward creating a more humanistic environment in dental schools. Based on the issues identified, steps academic institutions can take to improve these environments and student skills are outlined.
Raja, Sheela; Shah, Raveena; Hamad, Judy; Van Kanegan, Mona; Kupershmidt, Alexandra; Kruthoff, Mariela
Although the importance of empathy, rapport, and anxiety/pain awareness in dentist-patient relations has been well documented, these factors continue to be an issue with patients in many dental school clinics. The aim of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how patients at an urban, university-affiliated medical center and its dental school's clinic experienced oral health care and to generate ideas for improving the dental school's clinical curriculum and management of the clinic. Although patient satisfaction surveys are common, in-depth patient narratives are an underutilized resource for improving dental education. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 uninsured or underinsured dental patients at these sites, and the results were analyzed using content analysis. Major phenomena that participants discussed were the importance of empathy and good rapport with their oral health providers and provider awareness of dental pain and anxiety. Many patients also discussed feeling dehumanized during dental visits. Based on their positive and negative experiences, the participants made suggestions for how oral health professionals can successfully engage patients in treatment.
Reinders, Jan J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P.
Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether
Reinders, Jan J; Krijnen, Wim P; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P
Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether
Crawford, L H
The purpose of this study was to assess current use and faculty perceptions of classroom observation as a method of faculty evaluation in schools of nursing. Baccalaureate schools of nursing were surveyed to determine current use of classroom observation and its worth from the perception of administrators and faculty. Although most schools used classroom observation as a method of faculty evaluation, further clarification and research is needed in the following areas: purpose of classroom observation; number of observations necessary; weight given to classroom observation in relation to other evaluation methods; and tools used.
Hanson, Paul W.
A discussion of changeable economic issues that can affect dental general practice residency program planning includes costs and resource allocation, maximizing efficiency and productivity, ambulatory and inpatient revenue sources, management functions, faculty as practitioners, faculty appointments, and marketing. (MSE)
Mar 18, 2014 ... Results: Of all 320 patients with traumatic dental injury, 205 were boys and 115 were girls ... Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, ..... the management of traumatic dental injuries I. Fractures and luxations of.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Constant dynamic and static activities are considered as the main cause of musculoskeletal problems among dentists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal problems and related factors among dentists in specialized clinics and dental schools in Tehran in 2014 using the REBA method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the dentists from clinics of dental schools in Tehran were selected as individual targets. Nordic anddemopghrphic questionnaire were completed through interview from dentists. In order to assess the musculoskeletal disorders, REBA method (Rapid Entire Body Assessment was used. In this method, positions and postures of the dentists during their work was observed and recorded. Data was analyzed using Regression Logestic test. Results: The obtained results showed that among 100 dentist, 6% were in the very high risk (15-11 for musculoskeletal problems and 17% and 25% were in high-risk (10-8 and average risk (7-4, respectively. Based on the findings from Nordic questionnaire, the most skeletal- muscle travail were related to the neck (60%, lumbar (58% and rear (46% consequently. It seemed that factors such as gender, body mass index (BMI, height, specialty, body posture during the work (standing or sitting, smoking and using the direct or indirect vision, had an impact on the musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion: Findings from the final scoring of REBA showed that a high percentage of dentists were struggling with skeletal- muscle problems and they were in moderate to high range of risk for these type of disorders.
Abanto, Jenny; Tsakos, Georgios; Paiva, Saul Martins; Carvalho, Thiago S; Raggio, Daniela P; Bönecker, Marcelo
To assess the impact of dental caries and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of 5- to 6-year-olds according to both self- and parental reports. A total of 335 pairs of parents and children who sought dental screening at the Dental School, University of São Paulo, completed the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5), which consists of a child self-report and a parental proxy-report version. Three calibrated examiners assessed the experience of caries according to primary teeth that were decayed, indicated for extraction due to caries, or filled (def-t). TDI were classified into uncomplicated and complicated injuries. Poisson regression models were used to associate the different clinical and sociodemographic factors to the outcome. Overall, 74.6% of children reported an oral impact, and the corresponding estimate for parental reports was 70.5%. The mean (standard deviation) SOHO-5 scores in child self-report and parental versions were 3.32(3.22) and 5.18(6.28), respectively. In both versions, caries was associated with worse children's OHRQoL, for the total score and all SOHO-5 items (P children's OHRQoL, with the exception of two items of the parental version and one item of the child self-report version. In the final multivariate adjusted models, there was a gradient in the association between caries experience and child's OHRQoL with worse SOHO-5 score at each consecutive level with more severe caries experience, for both child and parental perceptions [RR (CI 95%) = 6.37 (4.71, 8.62) and 10.81 (7.65, 15.27)], respectively. A greater family income had a positive impact on the children's OHRQoL for child and parental versions [RR (CI 95%) = 0.68 (0.49, 0.94) and 0.70 (0.54, 0.90)], respectively. Dental caries, but not TDI, is associated with worse OHRQoL of 5- to 6-year-old children in terms of perceptions of both children and their parents. Families with higher income report better OHRQo
Farith González Martínez
Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la percepción de los padres sobre la ingesta de flúor a través del cepillado dental en los niños residentes en la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Métodos: el universo del estudio lo constituyeron todos los padres residentes en la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias, con hijos en edades entre uno y cinco años. La muestra estuvo integrada por 420 individuos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado, diligenciado por los participantes, con el cual se midieron tópicos relacionados con el uso de las cremas dentales a través del cepillado. Además se tuvieron en cuenta la edad, el género y el estrato socioeconómico. Los datos fueron analizados a través de pruebas de frecuencia; se asumieron intervalos de confianza al 95 %. Para encontrar significación estadística se utilizó la prueba de X². Resultados: el 88,0 % de los padres encuestados refiere usar el cepillado con crema dental. La edad promedio de cepillado es de 2,3 años (DE= 1,6. El 46 % se cepilla dos veces al día; el tipo de crema dental más usada es la de adultos. La mayoría de los encuestados afirma que los niños han ingerido la pasta durante el cepillado. Con respecto al análisis bivariado, se encontraron diferencias entre el cepillado con crema dental y la edad (p= 0,0001, y con el estrato (p= 0,04. Además, el tipo de crema dental con la edad, (p= 0,0001 y la cantidad de pasta utilizada con la edad (p= 0,0001 y el estrato (p= 0,01. Conclusión: se perciben hábitos poco favorables, asociados al cepillado con pasta dental, los cuales pueden ser responsables de la ingestión de cantidades de flúor consideradas nocivas para la salud.Objective: To describe the parents perception on the fluoride ingestion with the use of dental brushing in the children residents in the city of Cartagena de Indias. Methods: Study universe included al parents residents in the city above mentioned whose children were aged 1-5. Sample included 420 subjects. A structural
Novak, Karen F; Whitehead, Albert W; Close, John M; Kaplan, Alan L
Intercultural competence is an important component of the doctor-patient relationship in the multicultural climate evolving in the United States. We hypothesized that 1) exposure to racial and ethnic diversity in the student body, faculty, staff, and patient population in dental school and 2) a dental school curriculum that includes presentations on issues concerning racial and ethnic diversity will contribute to students' feeling more competent and confident to enter the multicultural work environment that is rapidly developing in the United States. A Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to 627 fourth-year dental students enrolled in seven dental schools representing geographically diverse regions of the United States. Of these, 376 questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 60 percent. Results indicated that both the perception of diversity in the school environment and the presentation of diversity-specific content in the curriculum had moderately positive and significant correlations with the students' perception of their competency or ability to serve and work with diverse populations. The respective Pearson correlation coefficients for diversity in the school environment and diversity curriculum were .497 (ptraining in the dental school environment are important for dental students entering a multicultural workplace.
... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...
Walther, James Harmon
As the academic library plays the roles of intermediary and adjudicator of collection purchases and cancellations, faculty involvement in library resource decisions is not only commonplace, but essential to making such decisions. Faculty involvement in cancellation projects is often enhanced by a thorough explanation of the depth of financial…
This study explored how faculty members at regular higher education institutions in China perceived the National Undergraduate Teaching and Learning Evaluation (NUTLE). Specifically, this study examined how the NUTLE influenced faculty teaching and research and how the NUTLE influenced student learning outcomes. Primarily descriptive and…
This study employed a multiple case study design to evaluate the perspectives of part-time faculties at three community colleges in the Northeast. The purpose of this study was to discover how needs, working conditions, and social networks influence the part-time faculties' job satisfaction. Maslow (1954), Bourdieu (1986), and Herzberg, Mausner,…
This study focused on exploring Illinois community college faculty development coordinators' perceptions about how they are implementing faculty technology professional development programs and providing technical support for part-time faculty in the Illinois community college systems. Also examined were part-time faculty perceptions of the degree…
Here we present an analysis of patient perceptions and expectations to dental implant placement and their prosthetic reconstruction, to then consider whether they have an effect on long-term satisfaction levels. A Post-Treatment Completion Questionnaire was designed to analyse whether patient satisfaction is influenced by age and/or gender; has an effect on patient-reported self-confidence levels; contributes to increased levels of oral hygiene; provides further insight into the average pain levels during and after the surgical intervention; or influences further acceptance of dental implant surgery. And then whether relationships exist between any of these factors. 182 consecutive patients completed the survey: 68 males and 114 females (age mean 64.68 years ± 11.23 SD); the average number of months since treatment completion was 37.4 (males) and 62.6 (females). There is a significant relationship between comfort rating and “how well informed” the patient was (p = 0.015). A significantly positive relationship exists between “considering dental implants in the future” and “overall experience” (p = 0.001). A significantly positive relationship exists between “overall satisfaction with appearance” and “satisfaction with comfort” (p = 0.011). A significant relationship exists between “overall satisfaction with appearance,” “satisfaction with comfort,” and “overall satisfaction with experience” (p = 0.001). The results amplify the need to transmit logical, truthful information to patients when dental implant treatment is being considered. The “fully informed” patient will have realistic expectations that lead to high degrees of satisfaction. PMID:28928771
Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen; Hogan, Sarah
Students' views of their educational experience can be an important source of information for curriculum assessment. Although quantitative methods, particularly surveys, are frequently used to gather such data, fewer studies have employed qualitative methods to examine students' dental education experiences. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of effective learning experiences in dental school using a qualitative method. All third-year (seventy) and fourth-year (seventy) dental students enrolled in one midwestern dental school were invited to participate. Fifty-three dental students (thirty-five male and eighteen female; thirty-two third-year and twenty-one fourth-year) were interviewed using a critical incident interview technique. Each student was asked to describe a specific, particularly effective learning incident that he or she had experienced in dental school and a specific, particularly ineffective learning incident, for comparison. Each interview was audiotaped. Students were assured that only the interviewer and one additional researcher would have access to the tapes. Data analysis resulted in identification of key themes in the data describing characteristics of effective learning experiences. The following characteristics of effective learning experiences were identified: 1) instructor characteristics (personal qualities, "checking-in" with students, and an interactive style); 2) characteristics of the learning process (focus on the "big picture," modeling and demonstrations, opportunities to apply new knowledge, high-quality feedback, focus, specificity and relevance, and peer interactions); and 3) learning environment (culture of the learning environment, technology). Common themes emerged across a wide variety of learning incidents. Although additional research is needed, the characteristics of effective learning experiences identified in this study may have implications for individual course design and for the dental school
Leslie, Karen; Panisko, Danny; Walsh, Allyn; Wong, Anne; Stubbs, Barbara; Mylopoulos, Maria
Purpose Now a mainstay in medical education, faculty development has created the role of the faculty developer. However, faculty development research tends to overlook faculty developers’ roles and experiences. This study aimed to develop an empirical understanding of faculty developer competence by digging deeper into the actions, experiences, and perceptions of faculty developers as they perform their facilitator role. Method A constructivist grounded theory approach guided observations of faculty development activities, field interviews, and formal interviews with 31 faculty developers across two academic institutions from 2013 to 2014. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified using a constant comparison process. Results Consistent with the literature, findings highlighted the knowledge and skills of the faculty developer and the importance of context in the design and delivery of faculty development activities. Three novel processes (negotiating, constructing, and attuning) were identified that integrate the individual faculty developer, her context, and the evolution of her competence. Conclusions These findings suggest that faculty developer competence is best understood as a situated construct. A faculty developer’s ability to attune to, construct, and negotiate her environment can both enhance and minimize the impact of contextual variables as needed. Thus, faculty developers do not passively experience context; rather, they actively interact with their environment in ways that maximize their performance. Faculty developers should be trained for the adaptive, situated use of knowledge. PMID:28678104
Baker, Lindsay; Leslie, Karen; Panisko, Danny; Walsh, Allyn; Wong, Anne; Stubbs, Barbara; Mylopoulos, Maria
Now a mainstay in medical education, faculty development has created the role of the faculty developer. However, faculty development research tends to overlook faculty developers' roles and experiences. This study aimed to develop an empirical understanding of faculty developer competence by digging deeper into the actions, experiences, and perceptions of faculty developers as they perform their facilitator role. A constructivist grounded theory approach guided observations of faculty development activities, field interviews, and formal interviews with 31 faculty developers across two academic institutions from 2013 to 2014. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified using a constant comparison process. Consistent with the literature, findings highlighted the knowledge and skills of the faculty developer and the importance of context in the design and delivery of faculty development activities. Three novel processes (negotiating, constructing, and attuning) were identified that integrate the individual faculty developer, her context, and the evolution of her competence. These findings suggest that faculty developer competence is best understood as a situated construct. A faculty developer's ability to attune to, construct, and negotiate her environment can both enhance and minimize the impact of contextual variables as needed. Thus, faculty developers do not passively experience context; rather, they actively interact with their environment in ways that maximize their performance. Faculty developers should be trained for the adaptive, situated use of knowledge.
Kempenich, Jason W; Willis, Ross E; Rakosi, Robert; Wiersch, John; Schenarts, Paul Joseph
Identify barriers to resident autonomy in today's educational environment as perceived through 4 selected groups: senior surgical residents, teaching faculty, hospital administration, and the general public. Anonymous surveys were created and distributed to senior residents, faculty, and hospital administrators working within 3 residency programs. The opinions of a convenience sample of the general public were also assessed using a similar survey. Keesler Medical Center, Keesler AFB, MS; the University of Texas Health Science of San Antonio, TX; and the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. A total of 169 responses were collected: 32 residents, 50 faculty, 20 administrators, and 67 general public. Faculty and residents agree that when attending staff grant more autonomy, residents' self-confidence and sense of ownership improve. Faculty felt that residents should have less autonomy than residents did (p autonomy at their institution, 47% of residents felt that they had too little autonomy and 38% of faculty agreed. No resident or faculty felt that residents had too much autonomy at their institution. The general public were more welcoming of resident participation than faculty (p = 0.002) and administrators (p = 0.02) predicted they would be. When the general public were asked regarding their opinions about resident participation with complex procedures, they were less welcoming than faculty, administrators, and residents thought (p autonomy as important for resident development. The general public are more receptive to resident participation than anticipated. However, with increasing procedural complexity and resident independence, they were less inclined to have residents involved. The general public also had more concerns regarding quality of care provided by residents than the other groups had. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Milner, Kerry A; Bradley, Holly B; Lampley, Tammy
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an essential skill and ethical obligation for all practicing health professions clinicians because of its strong association with improved health outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that faculty who prepare these clinicians lack proficiency to teach EBP. The purpose of this study was to describe; 1) health profession faculty beliefs about and confidence in their ability to teach and implement EBP, 2) use of EBP for education, 3) organizational culture and readiness for EBP; and to determine whether relationships exist among these variables. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. College of Nursing (CON) and College of Health Professions (CHP) faculty from a university located in the Northeast, United States. Faculty were defined as anyone teaching a course for the CON or CHP during the fall of 2016. Faculty were invited to complete an electronic survey measuring EBP beliefs, EBP use, and EBP organizational culture and readiness. The survey was comprised of three tools developed specifically for health professions educators in 2010 by Fineout-Overholt & Melnyk. Sixty-nine faculty returned usable surveys (25.5% response rate). Mean EBP beliefs score was 89.49 (SD = 10.94) indicating respondents had a firm belief in and confidence in their ability to implement and teach EBP. Mean EBP use was 32.02 (SD = 20.59) indicating that respondents taught and implemented EBP between 1 and 3 times in the last 8-weeks. Mean EBP culture and readiness score was 90.20 (SD = 15.23) indicating essential movement toward a sustainable culture of college-wide integration of EBP. Mean scores for beliefs/confidence were higher for full-time clinical faculty compared to other groups [F (2, 55) = 0.075, p = 0.928; ηp 2 = 0.003)]. Adjunct faculty reported higher EBP behaviors expected by health profession educators in the last 8-weeks compared to other groups [F (2, 55) = 0.251, p = 0.779; ηp 2 . =0
Marcus, Laurence R.; Smith, Richard
This report presents an examination of the use of a participative model in the strategic planning process at a publicly-supported, comprehensive institution in the middle Atlantic region of the United States. Specific attention is given to the process of developing the vision statement, an undertaking of approximately 15 months preceding Board of…
Syed Ilyas Shehnaz
Conclusion: The study showed that the faculty perceived the organ system-based integrated curriculum as providing a better educational environment for the students than the discipline based curriculum.
Valentine, Sean; Kidwell, Roland E.
Purpose: This study aims to gauge business school student perceptions of the academic conduct of college professors, to determine students' ethical evaluations of certain potential faculty behaviors. The relationships between perceived faculty misconduct and several student demographic characteristics including sex and academic classification were…
Blackburn, Robert T.; And Others
A study compared selected personal and environmental motivational variables in college faculty with allocation of work effort to teaching. Faculty represented the disciplines of English, chemistry, and psychology and various institution types. Self-valuation and perception of the environment motivators significantly accounted for the explained…
Ehizele, A O; Ojehanon, P I
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air of young adult and their self perception of malodour and also to determine the relationship between the organoleptic assessment of young adult and their perception of malodour. A total of 400 willing participants were studied and they were grouped into two based on the health of their periodontium. Subjects were asked for self perception of malodour and organoleptic assessment was done to assess the level of malodour using the Rosenberg 0-5 scoring system. The concentration of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) was determined objectively using the Halimeter. Eighty subjects reported self perception of malodour i.e. 39 males (48.7%) and 41 females (51.3%). Only 9% of the subjects without periodontal diseases reported self perception of oral malodour while 31% of subjects with periodontal disease had similar claims. Majority (86%) of those who had VSC concentration less than 181 ppb claimed to have no self perception of malodour while 41% of those who had VSC concentration greater than 250 ppb had self perception of malodour. More than half (53.8%) of subjects with VSC concentration greater than 250 ppb had organoleptic score of 3. Half of subjects with organoleptic assessment score of 3 had self perception of malodour. It can be concluded from this study that a relationship exists between self-perception of oral malodour, organoleptic assessment and the concentration of volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air of subjects.
Mylona, Elza; Brubaker, Linda; Williams, Valerie N; Novielli, Karen D; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Pollart, Susan M; Dandar, Valerie; Bunton, Sarah A
Mentoring relationships, for all medical school faculty members, are an important component of lifelong development and education, yet an understanding of mentoring among medical school clinical faculty members is incomplete. This study examined associations between formal mentoring relationships and aspects of faculty members' engagement and satisfaction. It then explored the variability of these associations across subgroups of clinical faculty members to understand the status of mentoring and outcomes of mentoring relationships. The authors hypothesised that academic clinical faculty members currently in formal mentoring relationships experience enhanced employee engagement and satisfaction with their department and institution. Medical school faculty members at 26 self-selected USA institutions participated in the 2011-2014 Faculty Forward Engagement Survey. Responses from clinical faculty members were analysed for relationships between mentoring status and perceptions of engagement by faculty members. Of the 11 953 clinical faculty respondents, almost one-third reported having a formal mentoring relationship (30%; 3529). Most mentored faculty indicated the relationship was important (86%; n = 3027), and over three-fourths were satisfied with their mentoring experience (77%; n = 2722). Mentored faculty members across ranks reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction and more positive perceptions of their roles in the organisation. Faculty members who were not receiving mentoring reported significantly less satisfaction with their workplace environment and lower overall satisfaction. Mentored clinical faculty members have significantly greater satisfaction with their department and institution. This multi-institutional study provides evidence that fostering mentoring opportunities may facilitate faculty members' satisfaction and engagement, which, in turn, may help medical schools retain high-quality faculty staff committed to the multidimensional
Profitt, William R.; Vig, Peter S.
Even though research is an integral part of quality advanced dental programs, many dental departments with postdoctoral programs lack faculty and other resources for research productivity. Programs to produce clinical faculty with research training are called for through the development of clinical research centers. (JSR)
Sanford, Rania; Kinch, Amy Fowler
Building on previous studies on the changing nature of faculty work, this article presents a conceptual framework for faculty professional success. The authors report on the perceptions of 300 faculty development professionals regarding the importance of skills in nine competency domains: teaching; research; leadership; diversity, inclusion and…
Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter J; Boillat, Miriam; Meterissian, Sarkis; Elizov, Michelle; Macdonald, Mary Ellen
Participants in faculty development workshops often comment that 'those who need faculty development the most attend the least'. The goals of this study were to explore the reasons why some clinical teachers do not participate in centralised faculty development activities and to learn how we can make faculty development programmes more relevant to teachers' needs. In 2006, we conducted focus groups with 16 clinical teachers, who had not participated in faculty development activities, to ascertain their perceptions of faculty development, reasons for non-participation and perceived barriers to involvement. Content analysis and team consensus guided the data interpretation. Focus group participants were aware of faculty development offerings and valued the goals of these activities. Important reasons for non-participation emerged: clinical reality, which included volume of work and lack of (protected) time; logistical issues, such as timing and the central location of organised activities; a perceived lack of financial reward and recognition for teaching, and a perceived lack of direction from, and connection to, the university. Clinical reality and logistical issues appeared to be greater deterrents to participation than faculty development goals, content or strategies. Moreover, when asked to discuss faculty development, teachers referred to their development as faculty members in the broadest sense, which included personal and career development. They also expressed the desire for clear guidance from the university, financial rewards and recognition for teaching, and a sense of 'belonging'. Faculty development programmes should try to address these organisational issues as well as teachers' personal and professional needs.
Furgeson, Danielle; George, Mary; Nesbit, Samuel; Peterson, Charlotte; Peterson, Diane; Wilder, Rebecca S
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the Student American Dental Hygienists' Association (SADHA) in mentoring/developing dental hygiene students for the future. This project also assessed attitudes and practices of SADHA advisors towards the utilization of SADHA as a mechanism for mentoring dental hygiene students' professional development to meet the oral health needs of the public, and the goals of the ADHA. These goals include promotion of education beyond the baccalaureate level to develop qualified faculty, encouraging dental hygiene research, and promoting leadership. The study also evaluated if geographic region and academic setting impacted the utilization of SADHA. After IRB exemption, a pilot-tested questionnaire was administered using Survey Monkey, an online survey website, to 277 individual contacts at Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) accredited dental hygiene programs. A response rate of 68% was achieved with 186 individual responses. Eighty percent of respondents indicated offering no mentoring opportunities outside of the curriculum, while incongruously, 58.3% felt they actively mentor through SADHA. When asked what the main focus of SADHA should be, SADHA advisors ranked community service/philanthropy as number one. SADHA chapters at institutions that offer a Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene (BSDH) degree completion program offer more mentoring opportunities (p= or conversion rate than other regions (p=.018). SADHA advisors do not agree on how SADHA should be utilized. The majority of SADHA chapters are not offering mentoring opportunities outside of the traditional curriculum for leadership and career development. What is clear is that both students and advisors desire more interaction with the local ADHA components and constituents. In order to address these issues, efforts should be made to provide networking support among SADHA advisors and increase faculty perception of the importance of the professional
Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.
Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…
Recent news cycles have illuminated the disparate, racialized experiences of Black people in the United States but university leadership responses have been reactionary, or worse non-responsive. This study examines how university responses to national racial incidences such as the police brutality affect how faculty of color in one discipline…
Moore, Stephanie L.
Although ethics are commonly regarded as an important characteristic and performance attribute, they are also regarded as a slippery or ill-defined topic leaving practitioners and faculty flat-footed in how to teach and assess ethics. This article reports part of the findings from an investigation on deriving an empirical definition of ethics,…
Kim, Dongbin; Song, Quirong; Liu, Ji; Liu, Qingqin; Grimm, Adam
Employing a glonacal (global, national and local) heuristic as a theoretical lens, and a qualitative analysis with interview data, this study highlights how Chinese faculty members interpret the definitions and implications of pursuing world class universities (WCUs) and struggle with the multiple dimensions of their academic lives across global,…
Shih, Ching-Lin; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua
Research in the area of educational technology has argued that the technological pedagogical content knowledge of faculty is crucial to addressing the challenge of teaching in higher education in the digital age, which is characterized by the common use of instructional technology in college classrooms and the ubiquitous presence of computing on…
Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.
Speer, Charlotte Nix
Based on Yackee's (2000) study of the perceptions of chief instructional officers (CIOs) at community colleges accredited by North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), this study identified, described, and compared the perceptions of CIOs at institutions accredited by Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on…
Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa
The study aimed to assess the awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A total of 348 dental health professionals (170 males and 178 females) were surveyed, out of which 116 were MDS faculty, 45 were BDS faculty and 187 were pursuing post graduation. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions about the awareness of consumer protection act. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, student's t test and ANOVA. A total of 84.8% (n=295) reported to be aware of consumer protection act. Amongst them, MDS faculty showed more awareness as compared to BDS faculty and those pursuing post-graduation. Considering the present scenario, MDS faculty dental professionals have more awareness of consumer protection act compared to other dental professionals. So, we must upgrade our knowledge on consumer protection act at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of consumer protection act for delivering quality dental care.
Sandro Bertazzo SILVA
Full Text Available There are few instruments available in Brazil for obtaining data on dental erosion among adults. For this reason, the interview entitled “A Survey on Hong Kong People’s Dietary Behavior in Relations to Acid Erosion”, published in English, was considered for translation. The aim of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and content validation for the Brazilian population. After obtaining the author’s permission, the interview underwent several stages: translation, back translation, review by a bilingual person and a committee of experts, administration of the English instrument and of the Portuguese version to a bilingual group, and pretesting in a convenience sample of 50 adults. The interview was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and the Brazilian culture. The analysis of the data revealed that the interview was easy to apply, conduct and understand; therefore, it was considered viable and capable of being used in different studies.
Baum, Bruce J.; And Others
A program in one of the National Institutes of Health offers clinical training fellowships as a means of training potential dental school faculty by providing both unique clinical skills and high-quality research experience. The program was developed in response to a perceived need for change in academic dentistry. (MSE)
Murakami, Shumei; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Kreiborg, Sven
The aim of this study was to investigate whether stereoscopy can play a meaningful role in dental education. The study used an anaglyph technique in which two images were presented separately to the left and right eyes (using red/cyan filters), which, combined in the brain, give enhanced depth...... perception. A positional judgment task was performed to assess whether the use of stereoscopy would enhance depth perception among dental students at Osaka University in Japan. Subsequently, the optimum angle was evaluated to obtain maximum ability to discriminate among complex anatomical structures. Finally...... practice, they did recognize its merits for education. These results suggest that using stereoscopic images in dental education can be quite valuable as stereoscopy greatly helped these students' understanding of the spatial relationships in complex anatomical structures....
Masella, Richard S
Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.
Thornley, P; Quinn, A; Elley, K
This study reports on an investigation into clinical audit (CA) educational and service delivery outcomes in a dental foundation training (DFT) programme. The aim was to investigate CA teaching, learning and practice from the perspective of foundation dentists (FDs) and to record suggestions for improvement. A qualitative research methodology was used. Audio recordings of focus group interviews with FDs were triangulated by an interview with a group of training programme directors (TPDs). The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using a 'Framework' approach within Nvivo Data Analysis Software. FDs report considerable learning and behaviour change. However, TPDs have doubts about the long-term effects on service delivery. There can be substantial learning in the clinical, managerial, communication and professionalism domains, and in the development of time management, organisational and team-working skills. Information is provided about use of resources and interaction with teachers and colleagues. CA provides learning opportunities not produced by other educational activities including 'awkward conversations' with team-members in the context of change management and providing feedback. This is relevant when applying the recommendations of the Francis report. This paper should be useful to any dentist conducting audit or team training. Suggestions are made for improvements to resources and support including right touch intervention. Trainers should teach in the 'Goldilocks Zone'.
Full Text Available Quantway is a quantitative reasoning-based pathway for developmental math that has been developed as an alternative to the traditional remedial algebra sequence. To explore the experiences of faculty involved with Quantway, we interviewed eight individuals who have taught the course in the past year to survey their attitudes and opinions about students in their classes, the materials and pedagogies in use, and the collegial interaction of networked faculty. Faculty were selected with the intention of gathering a broad set of opinions resulting from differences of location, experience, and other factors. In this paper, we summarize those interviews by identifying common themes reported by the faculty that highlight strengths and challenges of teaching Quantway. Themes include perceptions about changes in student engagement and attitudes as well as changes in their own mindset; the evolution of teaching strategies and materials used inside and outside the classroom; and the relevance of connections between faculty at different institutions involved in the project.
The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and Learners' Perceptions of Social Presence and Satisfaction in Open and Distance Education: The Case of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty
Bozkaya, Mujgan; Erdem Aydin, Irem
A significant number of studies in the literature stress the important role of teacher immediacy behaviors on learners' perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in open and distance learning environments. Yet, those studies were conducted in different open and distance education institutions than the current example of which unique…
Sever, Ivan; Verbič, Miroslav; Sever, Eva Klaric
To examine the amount of heterogeneity in patients' preferences for dental care, what factors affect their preferences, and how much they would be willing to pay for improvement in specific dental care attributes. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit patients' preferences. Three alternative dental care services that differed in the type of care provider, treatment explanation, dental staff behavior, waiting time and treatment cost were described to patients. Patients (n=265) were asked to choose their preferred alternative. The study was conducted at a public dental clinic of the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb. Mixed logit and latent class models were used for analysis. On average, the patients would be willing to pay €45 for getting a detailed explanation of treatment over no explanation. This was the most valued attribute of dental care, followed by dental staff behavior with marginal willingness-to-pay (WTP) of €28. Dental care provided by the faculty members and private dental care were valued similarly, while student-provided care was valued €23 less. Patients also disliked longer waiting time in the office, but this was the least important attribute. Four classes of patients with distinct preferences for dental care were identified. Older and/or more educated patients tended to give relatively less importance to treatment explanation. Higher education was also associated with a higher propensity to substitute faculty dental care with the private care providers. Large heterogeneity in patients' preferences was detected. Understanding their preferences may improve the delivery of dental care. Dental care providers should pay particular attention to providing a detailed treatment explanation to their patients. Dental care for older and/or more educated patients should be more attentive to interpersonal characteristics. Faculty dental care provided by faculty members could be price competitive to private care, and student
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident. A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%, understanding extraction indications (93.8%, and performing simple extractions (90.6%. Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%, extracting molars with separation (50.0% or extracting third molars (56.3%. The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55, ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003. Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.
Robinson, Michelle A; Reddy, Michael S
Decades of research have shown that organizational climate has the potential to form the basis of workplace operations and impact an organization's performance. Culture is related to climate but is not the same. "Culture" is the broader term, defining how things are done in an organization, while "climate" is a component of culture that describes how people perceive their environment. Climate can be changed but requires substantial effort over time by management and the workforce. Interest has recently grown in culture and climate in dental education due to the humanistic culture accreditation standard. The aim of this study was to use corporate climate principles to examine how organizational culture and, subsequently, workplace operations can be improved through specific strategic efforts in a U.S. dental school. The school's parent institution initiated a climate survey that the dental school used with qualitative culture data to drive strategic planning and change in the school. Administration of the same survey to faculty and staff members three times over a six-year period showed significant changes to the school's climate occurred as a new strategic plan was implemented that focused on reforming areas of weakness. Concentrated efforts in key areas in the strategic plan resulted in measurable improvements in climate perception. The study discovered that culture was an area previously overlooked but explicitly linked to the success of the organization.
Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N
With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Mackenzie, R S
Defined broadly, scholarship is the essence of academic and professional life. In several ways, however, scholarship as defined, perceived, and applied within the university has a negative impact on dental education. When scholarship is defined in terms of numbers of publications, faculty efforts are turned away from other important forms of scholarship. The review process for publication quality is unreliable, and the focus on numbers of publications encourages multiple authorship and papers of less practical significance. The proposed solution of nontenure tracks for clinicians creates its own difficulties. Broadening the definition of scholarship will encourage better clinical teaching, clinical judgment, and clinical assessment of student performance, and will result in more satisfied teachers, students, and alumni, and ultimately in better health care through improved judgments and decision processes. The perception that scholarship is a meaningless university hurdle for clinicians must be dispelled.
Shugart, Kelli Palmer
Because of the limited research on the perceptions of nursing faculty on horizontal violence, this convergent mixed method study investigated the phenomenon of bullying behaviors among nursing faculty and the faculty's intent to stay in academe following exposure to bullying. 300 nursing faculty members of the Nursing Educator Discussion list…
Adams, D A
Part-time faculty use has become more prevalent in higher education in response to enrollment shifts and budgetary constraints. This descriptive, exploratory study used a mailed survey to investigate whether full-time nursing faculty perceptions of workload and collegial support differ with changes in the proportion of part-time faculty in Comprehensive I baccalaureate nursing programs. Workload was measured by Dick's Workload Instrument. Collegial support was measured by the Survey of Collegial Communication, adapted by Beyer, which was based on Likert's organizational model. Schools were partitioned into three strata based on the proportion of part-time faculty employed (low, medium, and high). A 30% sample of schools were randomly selected from each stratum (10 schools from each). Within each selected school, six full-time undergraduate faculty were chosen by their respective deans to participate. The total response rate was 89.4%. The results of this study did not support assertions about part-time faculty use in the literature and existing accreditation standards. Findings indicated that there were significant differences in reported total faculty workload when varying proportions of part-time faculty are employed. Faculty in nursing programs with medium proportions of part-time faculty reported higher average total workloads per week than faculty in programs with low and high proportions of part-timers. Another finding demonstrated that full-time faculty in nursing programs with high proportions of part-time faculty spend fewer hours in direct clinical supervision of their students when compared with faculty in the other two strata. There were, however, no differences in perceived collegial support among full-time faculty participants. It was recommended that further research be conducted to investigate specific workload differences found in this study using more precise quantitative measures. Communication and collegiality between part-time and full