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Sample records for dental examination compared

  1. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Dentistry, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique.

  2. Comparative effectiveness study to assess two examination modalities used to detect dental caries in preschool urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Billings, Ronald J

    2013-11-01

    Dental caries affecting the primary dentition of U.S. children continues to be the most prevalent chronic childhood disease. Preventive screening for dental caries in toddlers by dental professionals is labor-intensive and costly. Studies are warranted to examine innovative screening modalities that reduce cost, are less labor-intensive, and have the potential to identify caries in high-risk children. Two hundred ninety-one children were randomized into two groups: Group 1 received a traditional, visual tactile examination initially and follow up-examinations at 6 and 12 months, and Group 2 received a teledentistry examination initially and follow-up examinations at 6 and 12 months. The mean primary tooth decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) scores were calculated for all children at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At baseline, the mean dfs score for children examined by means of teledentistry was 2.19, and for the children examined by means of the traditional method, the mean was 1.27; the means were not significantly different. At the 12-month examination, the mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 3.02, and for the children examined by means of the clinical method, the mean dfs was 1.70; the means were not significantly different. At 12 months the mean fillings score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.43 and for the children examined by means of the clinical method was 0.51; the means were statistically significantly different (pearly childhood caries in preschool children. The data further showed that color printouts of teeth with cavities provided to parents of children who received teledentistry screenings promoted oral healthcare utilization, as children from the teledentistry study group received more dental care than children from the clinical study group.

  3. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

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    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  4. The Validity of Subjects in Korean Dental Technicians' Licensing Examination

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    Woong-chul Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study prepared a basic framework for the development and improvement of Korean Dental Technicians' Licensing Examination, based on actual test questions. A peer review was conducted to ensure relevance to current practices in dental technology. For the statistical analysis, 1000 dental laboratory technicians were selected; specialists in dental laboratory technology (laboratory owners, educators, etc. were involved in creating valid and reliable questions. Results indicated that examination subjects should be divided into three categories: basic dental laboratory theory, dental laboratory specialties, and a practical examination. To ensure relevance to current practice, there should be less emphasis on basic dental laboratory theory, including health-related laws, and more emphasis on dental laboratory specialties. Introduction to dental anatomy should be separated from oral anatomy and tooth morphology; and fixed prosthodontics should be separated from crown and bridge technology and dental ceramics technology. Removable orthodontic appliance technology should be renamed 'orthodontic laboratory technology'. There should be less questions related to health related law, oral anatomy, dental hygiene, dental materials science and inlay, while the distribution ratio of questions related to tooth morphology should be maintained. There should be a decrease in the distribution ratio of questions related to crown and bridge technology, dental ceramics technology, complete dentures and removable partial dentures technology, and orthodontic laboratory technology. In the practical examination, the current multiple choice test should be replaced with tooth carving using wax or plaster. In dental laboratory specialties, subjects related to contemporary dental laboratory technology should be included in the test items.

  5. Dental Care Utilization for Examination and Regional Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Sin; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Receiving proper dental care plays a significant role in maintaining good oral health. We investigated the relationship between regional deprivation and dental care utilization. Methods: Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between the regional deprivation level and dental care utilization purpose, adjusting for individual-level variables, in adults aged 19+ in the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey (n=220 258). Results: Among Korean adults, 12.8% used dental care to undergo examination and 21.0% visited a dentist for other reasons. In the final model, regional deprivation level was associated with significant variations in dental care utilization for examination (pdental care utilization for other reasons in the final model. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that policy interventions should be considered to reduce regional variations in rates of dental care utilization for examination. PMID:26265665

  6. Group therapy compared with individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of group therapy (GT) for extreme dental anxiety were compared with individual treatment (IT). Scales used measured dental anxiety, beliefs or trust in dentists, and fear of the next dentist after specialist treatment which showed reduced dental anxiety and improved dental beliefs compare...

  7. Examining the cost-effectiveness of early dental visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica Y; Bouwens, Thomas J; Savage, Matthew F; Vann, William F

    2006-01-01

    The subject of early dental visits as an integral dimension of anticipatory guidance and the related supporting scientific evidence for this concept is a critical and timely issue for the dental profession. The purpose of this paper was to review the scientific evidence and rationale for early dental visits. In theory, early dental visits can prevent disease and reduce costs. During the age 1 dental visit, there is strong emphasis on prevention and parents are given: (1) counseling on infant oral hygiene; (2) home and office-based fluoride therapies; (3) dietary counseling; and (4) information relative to oral habits and dental injury prevention. There is evidence that the early preventive visits can reduce the need for restorative and emergency care, therefore reducing dentally related costs among high-risk children. Preschool Medicaid children who had an early preventive dental visit by age 1 were more likely to use subsequent preventive services and experienced less dentally related costs. These finding have significant policy implications, and more research is needed to examine this effect in a low-risk population.

  8. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

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    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  9. Understanding Comparability of Examination Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Much of the argument about comparability of examination standards is at cross-purposes; contradictory positions are in fact often both defensible, but they are using the same words to mean different things. To clarify this, two broad conceptualisations of standards can be identified. One sees the standard in the observed phenomena of performance…

  10. Examining the relationship between skull size and dental anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Krecioch, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This study, reporting the results of a 2012 Master’s dissertation, of 131 skulls from 6 Classical to Medieval populations in Macedonia and England examined the relationship between craniometric variables and dental anomalies of shape, number, and position. Standard craniometric landmarks were measured and dental anomalies of shape, number, and position were recorded and tested for associations using SPSS. Rotations were the most common anomaly and were associated significantly with reduced ...

  11. Triple jump examinations for dental student assessment.

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    Navazesh, Mahvash; Rich, Sandra K; Chopiuk, Nasrin Bahari; Keim, Robert G

    2013-10-01

    The triple jump examination (TJE) attempts to assess a higher level of learning with demand for analysis, critical thinking, and resolution of problems presented by written scenarios based on patient care situations. The purpose of this study was to examine the internal consistency, scale reliability, and interrater reliability of the TJE used at the Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California. On the sample of 2,227 examinations administered by seventy-seven raters across a three-year time period, the Cronbach's coefficient alpha for internal consistency of the overall TJE was found to be good (a=0.869). The internal consistency of the three subscales was found to be acceptable (a=0.731), good (a=0.820), and good (a=0.820). Average and single measures intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for scale reliability were significant at p<0.001, indicating strong interrater reliability. There were no statistically significant differences (p≤0.05) in the mean scores assigned on the TJE between rater groups defined by rater experience level with the TJE. A very high level of agreement among rater pairs was also observed. Across the entire three-year study period, with over 19,152 ratings, the seventy-seven raters were in general agreement 99.5 percent of the time and in exact agreement 77.2 percent of the time.

  12. Utilization of Radiographs for a State Dental Hygiene Board Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Brad G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study documented the number of x-rays acquired during screening and subsequent treatment of patients for a state dental hygiene licensing examination for 109 candidates. Results indicate that patient exposure guidelines attempt to minimize radiographic exposure but that some exposures should be reevaluated for need and effect on patients. (MSE)

  13. Predictors of recall assignment decisions by general dental practitioners performing routine oral examinations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettes, Th.G.P.H.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Mulder, J.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the decision-making behavior of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in performing routine oral examinations (ROEs). Change over time was studied by comparing data from a cohort sample of participants in two surveys in 2000 and 2005. A written questionnaire was se

  14. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilisation in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T; Billings, R J

    2011-06-01

    To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilisation in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative effectiveness study. Cross-sectional study. Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomised into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0-34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. The data showed that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilisation by inner-city preschool children.

  15. The influence of examiner type on dental students' OSCE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang E; Kim, Arthur; Kristiansen, Joshua; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in grading of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) at Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) by full-time faculty examiners, part-time faculty examiners, and postgraduate resident examiners. The OSCE is an evaluation of clinical competence and is used as a multidisciplinary examination at HSDM. Two examiners are selected for each of ten disciplines. Evaluators meet to review the case before the OSCE is given, and faculty examiners are given the opportunity to write exam questions based on the students' expected level of knowledge and ability. All examiners also meet on the day of the OSCE to review the case and discuss relevant issues. Students are randomly assigned to examiners and meet with one examiner at a time in each discipline during the examination. Analysis of OSCE scores on four exams given to HSDM students between 2012 and 2013 suggests that part-time faculty members tended to score students significantly higher than full-time faculty members or postgraduate residents. This may be a result of reduced contact time between students and the part-time faculty although it may also point to a need for more efforts in calibration of the part-time faculty members who take part in the OSCE.

  16. The Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Roseanna

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this…

  17. DENTAL STUDENTS' PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING DURING EXAMINATION PERIOD AND HOLIDAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Imre, Marina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being is recognized as an important health component, which influences the behavior, ability to cope with stressful events, work performance, and generally the ability to achieve one's full potential. To comparatively assess the psychological well-being of dental students during the summer semester examination period and summer holiday. A single-arm, prospective study was conducted in second year dental students from the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Bucharest. The psychological well-being was assessed using the WHO-Five Well-being Index. Students' psychological well-being was statistically significantly better during the summer holiday (median=19) than during the summer semester examination period (median = 11.5), Z = 3.69, p semester examination period and summer holiday, but it was significantly correlated with the WHO-Five Well-being Index score corresponding to the summer holiday, and no association was observed with the WHO-Five Well-being Index score corresponding to the summer semester examination period. Within the limits of this study, psychological well-being is likely to be negatively influenced, on a fairly large scale, by the semester examination period. Therefore, it is recommended to identify the most appropriate methods of examination with regards to the psychological load that might be a threat to the validity of students' evaluation. Additionally, training students about adequate coping strategies, designed as interventions at individual or group level, may be required.

  18. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 1: Gross and computed axial tomography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-01

    Post-mortem examination of 19 donkey skulls showed that donkeys have a greater degree of anisognathia (27% width difference between upper and lower jaws) compared to horses (23%). Teeth (n=108) were collected from 14 skulls and examined grossly and by computed axial tomography (CAT). A greater degree of peripheral enamel infolding was found in mandibular cheek teeth (CT) compared to maxillary CT (P16 years) than in the younger (dental anatomy was shown to be largely similar to that described in horses.

  19. Triple jump examination evaluation of faculty examiners by dental student examinees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, Mahvash; Rich, Sandra K; Keim, Robert G

    2014-05-01

    The triple jump examination (TJE) is an oral examination that poses challenges for objective assessment. Student satisfaction levels with faculty assessment can provide information on quality of teaching and students' perceptions of the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine scale and interrater reliability of an instrument used by approximately 576 first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for assessment of their faculty evaluators following midterm and final TJEs over a three-year period. One hundred and one faculty members served as administrators of the TJE with a range of one to 187 times (mean=44.10, median=29, mode=11). The grand mean for six items on a six-point Likert scale was 5.39 with a pooled standard deviation of 1.01. Results indicate positive agreement toward performance of examiners with strong interrater reliability (Average Measures ICC=0.936, Single Measures ICC=0.708) (F5,23475 = 51.564, p<0.001) and consistency across all items (Cronbach's α=0.936). The a priori assumption that students would rate faculty higher as they gained experience over time was rejected (r=0.018, p=0.429). Indications are that faculty members, who are relatively inexperienced with TJE examining, can perform acceptable assessment from the students' perspective. Overall, these students expressed a high level of satisfaction with TJE faculty performance.

  20. CAMBRA: An Examination of Change in the Dental Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease process, one that will not be eliminated by tooth repair alone. Caries is the most prevalent disease of children and the primary reason for most restorative dental visits in both adults and children. A risk-based approach to managing caries targets those in greatest jeopardy for contracting the disease and provides…

  1. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina Castro; Chalub, Loliza; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67) and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49%) compared with the photographic method (36.7%). The photographic method presented higher specificity (96%) than sensitivity (70.8%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.

  2. Dental Undergraduate Views of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Puryer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs are widely used in dental undergraduate assessment, often determining progression or graduation. Student evaluation of this assessment process is important, and this includes identifying the views of the student. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the current literature regarding dental student perceptions of OSCEs. A search of the PubMed database covering the period 1975 to 2015 identified 121 possible papers from which only six were suitable for review. The remaining papers were excluded due to them not reporting on dental undergraduate views. Students perceived the OSCE to be a valid assessment in three studies, but not in one. The educational benefit of an OSCE is well supported by these studies. OSCEs can induce high levels of anxiety compared to other forms of assessments, but this did not affect student performance. The majority of students would chose to have a similar format of assessment again, showing support for OSCEs. Further research using larger cohorts of students could be undertaken in order to support these finding which would give added evidence for the continuing use of OSCEs as a valid method of both dental undergraduate education and assessment.

  3. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS USED IN DENTAL IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yegorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is a review of some characteristics of dental implants’ products and an analysis of prospects of using them in modern medicine.Dental implantation as a high-technology method of restoring the natural anatomical structure has no competitors at present. The advantages of dental implants consist in their high operational dependability, a longer life time, a higher functionality and a lesser rate of complications as compared to the use of complete or bridge prostheses.The materials used in dental implantation for this purpose are rather diverse. Doctors using them rely on extensive clinical experience, a developed industry of accessory materials, instruments, that is everything that ensures comfortable work and conveniences for the patient.At the same time, the data mentioned in the article testify to the effect that ceramic implants as compared to titanium alloy implants have comparable or better indices. This is guaranteed, for example, by the requirements of the new international standard ISO6474-2:2012: first-rate strength and wear resistance; thermal stability and corrosion resistance; ceramics’ four point bending strength over 750 MPa.The result of the conducted analysis is a review of using various materials in dental implantation. The author compares the aesthetic indices and durability of titanium or metal alloy implants to those of ceramic ones. The comparison shows that, under the current level of ceramic materials’ structural property, it is actual for dentistry to develop its own methodological approaches in relation to a wide use of ceramic implants and creation of various ceramic mono-implants with the purpose of improving the results of treatment of patients, suffering from secondary partial or complete adentia accompanied by bone tissue deficiency, by applying the methods of dental implantation.

  4. Examination of social networking professionalism among dental and dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy L

    2013-11-01

    Becoming a dental professional requires one to apply ethical decision making skills and demonstrate high standards of professionalism in practice, including the way professionals present themselves to the public. With social media as an evergrowing part of personal and professional communications, this study aimed to determine the accessibility, amount, and type of unprofessional content on Facebook profiles of dental hygiene and dental students in a college of dentistry. The authors evaluated the online profiles of all 499 dental and dental hygiene students at The Ohio State University using objective measures that included existence of a profile, current privacy settings, and access to personally identifiable information. A sample of profiles were evaluated for unprofessional content including photos, comments, and wall posts. The majority of these students were found to use Facebook, with 61 percent having Facebook profiles. Dental hygiene students were more likely to have a Facebook profile than were dental students: 72.6 percent and 59.1 percent, respectively (p=0.027). The majority of the students' profiles had some form of privacy setting enabled, with only 4 percent being entirely open to the public. Fewer than 2 percent of the students allowed non-friends access to personal information. Based on in-depth analysis of the profiles, fourteen (5.8 percent) instances of unprofessionalism were recorded; the most common unprofessional content involved substance abuse. This study found that these dental and dental hygiene students frequently possessed an identifiable Facebook account and nearly half had some kind of personal information on their profile that could potentially be shared with the public. In some instances, the students gave patients, faculty, and potential employers access to content that is not reflective of a dental professional. Academic institutions should consider implementing policies that bring awareness to and address the use of social media

  5. A new approach to reliability assessment of dental caries examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarakemah, Yacoub; Al-Sane, Mona; Lim, Sungwoo; Kingman, Albert; Ismail, Amid I

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate reliability of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and identify sources of disagreement among eight Kuwaiti dentists with no prior knowledge of the system. A 90-min introductory e-course was introduced followed by an examination of extracted teeth using the ICDAS coding system on the first day. Then three sessions of clinical examinations were performed. This study only used the data from the last session where 705 tooth surfaces of 10 patients were examined to assess bias in caries examination and on which codes the examiners had the highest disagreement. Compared with the gold standard, we evaluated bias of the ICDAS coding using three approaches (Bland-Altman plot, maximum kappa statistic, and Bhapkar's chi-square test). Linear weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess interexaminer reliability. Marginal ICDAS distributions for most examiners were significantly different from that of the gold standard (bias present). The primary source of these marginal differences was misclassifying sound surfaces as noncavitated lesions. Interexaminer reliability of the 3-level ICDAS (codes 0, 1-2, and 3-6) classification ranged between 0.43 and 0.73, indicating evidence of substantial inconsistency between examiners. The primary source of examiner differences was agreeing on diagnosing noncavitated lesions. This study highlights the importance of assessing both systematic and random sources of examiner agreement to correctly interpret kappa measures of reliability. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Examining dental expenditure and dental insurance accounting for probability of incurring expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, Dana; Smith, Valerie; Gnanamanickam, Emmanuel; Brennan, David

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies of dental service expenditure in Australia. Although dental insurance status is strongly associated with a higher probability of dental visiting, some studies indicate that there is little variation in expenditure by insurance status among those who attend for care. Our objective was to assess the overall impact of insurance on expenditures by modelling the association between insurance and expenditure accounting for variation in the probability of incurring expenses, that is dental visiting. A sample of 3000 adults (aged 30-61 years) was randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll. Dental service expenditures were collected prospectively over 2 years by client-held log books. Questionnaires collecting participant characteristics were administered at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Unadjusted and adjusted ratios of expenditure were estimated using marginalized two-part log-skew-normal models. Such models accommodate highly skewed data and estimate effects of covariates on the overall marginal mean while accounting for the probability of incurring expenses. Baseline response was 39%; of these, 40% (n = 438) were retained over the 2-year period. Only participants providing complete data were included in the analysis (n = 378). Of these, 68.5% were insured, and 70.9% accessed dental services of which nearly all (97.7%) incurred individual dental expenses. The mean dental service expenditure for the total sample (those who did and did not attend) for dental care was AUS$788. Model-adjusted ratios of mean expenditures were higher for the insured (1.61; 95% CI 1.18, 2.20), females (1.38; 95% CI 1.06, 1.81), major city residents (1.43; 95% CI 1.10, 1.84) and those who brushed their teeth twice or more a day (1.50; 95% CI 1.15, 1.96) than their respective counterparts. Accounting for the probability of incurring dental expenses, and other explanatory factors, insured working-aged adults had (on average) approximately 60% higher individual

  7. Comparative Clinical Study of Conventional Dental Implants and Mini Dental Implants for Mandibular Overdentures: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunmeungtong, Weerapan; Kumchai, Thongnard; Strietzel, Frank P; Reichart, Peter A; Khongkhunthian, Pathawee

    2017-04-01

    Dental implant-retained overdentures have been chosen as the treatment of choice for complete mandibular removable dentures. Dental implants, such as mini dental implants, and components for retaining overdentures, are commercially available. However, comparative clinical studies comparing mini dental implants and conventional dental implants using different attachment for implant-retained overdentures have not been well documented. To compare the clinical outcomes of using two mini dental implants with Equator(®) attachments, four mini dental implants with Equator attachments, or two conventional dental implants with ball attachments, by means of a randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients received implant-retained mandibular overdentures in the interforaminal region. The patients were divided into three groups. In Groups 1 and 2, two and four mini dental implants, respectively, were placed and immediately loaded by overdentures, using Equator(®) attachments. In Group 3, conventional implants were placed. After osseointegration, the implants were loaded by overdentures, using ball attachments. The study distribution was randomized and double-blinded. Outcome measures included changes in radiological peri-implant bone level from surgery to 12 months postinsertion, prosthodontic complications and patient satisfaction. The cumulative survival rate in the three clinical groups after one year was 100%. There was no significant difference (p dental implants with Equator attachments. However, there was a significant difference in marginal bone loss and patient satisfaction between those receiving mini dental implants with Equator attachments and conventional dental implants with ball attachments. The marginal bone resorption in Group 3 was significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 2 (p dental implants can be immediately used successfully for retaining lower complete dentures, as shown after a 1-year follow up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy; Dental-CT: Untersuchungstechnik, Strahlenbelastung und Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T. [AKH Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Krennmair, G. [Praxis fuer Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde und Implantologie, Marchtrenk (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [German] Die Einfuehrung im Bereich der Computertomographiesoftware (Dental-CT) ermoeglicht dem Radiologen zusaetzlich zu den ueblichen, von den Zahnaerzten durchgefuehrten Roentgenuntersuchungen eine ueberlagerungs- und verzerrungsfreie Darstellung des Ober- und Unterkiefers. In der Implantologie ist mit dieser Darstellung eine exakte Planung moeglich. Weiterhin haben sich Duennschicht-CT-Untersuchungen auch bei der Abklaerung von Zysten, Tumoren, Frakturen, tiefen Parodontitiden und retinierten Zaehnen bewaehrt. In dieser Zeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Anatomie, die Untersuchungstechnik des Dental-CT und die auftretende Strahlenbelastung gegeben. Basierend auf rezente Literaturangaben kann eine Reduktion der absorbierten Dosis bei gleichbleibender Bildqualitaet durch einfache Protokollmodifikationen erzielt werden. (orig.)

  9. Examiner training and reliability in two randomized clinical trials of adult dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, David W; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gullion, Christina M; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V; Singh, Mabi L; Vollmer, William M

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra-examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Study examiners were trained to use a modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2), and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3,604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4 percent to 13.5 percent of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23-0.35), but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42-0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 versus D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90. Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classifications employed. The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Cognitive and learning styles as predictors of success on the National Board Dental Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, L S; Garvan, Cynthia W; Bowman, B J; Bulosan, M; Hancock, S; Johnson, M; Mutlu, B

    2011-04-01

    Using a deidentified retrospective dataset of three cohorts of matriculated dental students, we measured the degree to which selected student attributes, the Learning Type Measure, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Dental Admission Test subtests scores predicted passage on the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. Gender, Myers-Briggs Type Indicators, and the Dental Admission Test subtests for academic average and biology were found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part I. Gender, a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (thinking over feeling), and the Dental Admission Test subtests on reading and biology were found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part II. The Learning Type Measure was not found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part I or Part II. This study holds implications for heightening faculty members' awareness of students' aptitude and cognitive attributes, for teaching, and for the admissions process.

  11. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...

  12. Oral health attitude, knowledge, and behaviour of dental students of Jaipur, Rajasthan: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attitudes of dental students toward their own oral health affect their oral health habits and also have a possible influence on the improvement of the oral health of their patients and society. Aim: To evaluate self-reported oral health attitude, knowledge, and behavior among a group of dental students of one of the dental colleges of Rajasthan and to compare differences in oral health attitudes between years of study and gender. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 19 questions on attitudes toward dental care, oral health practice and knowledge of oral health was distributed to 200 dental students of different years of course. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In the present study, 142 students were from preclinical years and 58 students were from clinical years. Most of the students brush their teeth once daily for 2 min following roll technique of brushing before breakfast using only toothpaste as a cleaning aid. All students from clinical years routinely examined their oral cavity while most of the students visited the dentist only when required. Majority of students considered oral health as important as general health and believed that oral health affects the general health. Students were also aware of the harmful effects of tobacco while only few of them were indulged in them. Conclusions: With increasing years of the study, some aspects of dental student's oral health attitude and behavior improved but this improvement was limited. Thus, the students should be motivated to become an example of oral health for the society, for which few steps to motivate them toward better oral health are proposed.

  13. [The routine oral examination in The Netherlands. An orientation from the perspective of general dental practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettes, T.G.P.H.; Bruers, J.J.M.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Verdonschot, E.H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In The Netherlands the routine oral examination (ROE) can be characterized as an important tool in dental care. As a result of the changing prevalence of oral diseases of the Dutch population the content of the routine oral examination has changed over time. A representative survey among general den

  14. Discussing a Forensic Dental Examination of 1861--A Scientific and Historic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mânica, Scheila

    2016-01-01

    This work is a discussion on a report of dental examination and exclusion made by a British dentist Francis Robertus Lloyd on 30th April 1861. The report entitled: 'Dentistry as a means of Identification' was published in the 'British Journal of Dental Science' under the section 'Miscellanea' in 1861; Mr. Lloyd was contacted by the Indian authorities in order to identify a skull. He may well be the first British dentist to officially report a dental examination in an academic journal. The aims of this discussion are to briefly analyze the difficulties of access to scientific techniques in that century and to provide Mr. Lloyd recognition of his report in the history of Forensic Dentistry.

  15. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  16. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  17. Thickness, permeability and tactile perception of commercial latex examination gloves used in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Ashish Warhekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentists are at an increased risk of being infected. Some patients may be unaware of their infected status while some patients are unwilling to tell the dentists their disease status. Gloves should be worn in almost all patient procedures. Aim: To assess association between thickness, tactile perception, and permeability of commercial latex examination gloves used in dental practice. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was conducted in Central India. A total of 600 gloves, 120 each from five brands (Kaltex, Nulife, Smartcare, Handshield, Medi-image were used. Thickness was measured using stereomicroscope. Permeability to fluids was evaluated through 0.2% erythrosine dye. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923 was used to check for microbial permeability. Tactile sensibility was assessed by 2-point discriminator test using 2-point-calipers on 30 volunteers. Chi-square test and Binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: Mean thickness of gloves was 0.1333 (range: 0.1028-0.1799. Dye and microbial test showed 10.6% and 43.3% permeability of gloves, respectively. No significant difference was observed among brands. Thicker gloves (0.1285-0.1542 yielded lower touch sensibility (odds ratio: 0.783, P < 0.05. Decrease in tactility was recorded in 78.6% of volunteers with gloves compared to no gloves. Conclusion: Considerable microbial permeability suggests commercial examination gloves are unsafe. Balance between thickness, permeability and touch sensation should be established to decrease permeability maintaining same touch sensibility.

  18. Comparing medical and dental providers of oral health services on early dental caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Weinberger, Morris; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-07-01

    Most state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children. We examined the association between who (PCP, dentist, or both) provides these services to Medicaid enrollees before age 3 years and oral health at age 5 years. We linked North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) to oral health surveillance data (2005-2006). Regression models estimated oral health status (number of decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and untreated disease (proportion of untreated decayed teeth), with adjustment for relevant characteristics and by using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to address confounding. We analyzed data for 5235 children with 2 or more oral health visits from a PCP, dentist, or both. Children with multiple PCP or dentist visits had a similar number of overall mean decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth in kindergarten, whereas children with only PCP visits had a higher proportion of untreated decayed teeth. The setting and provider type did not influence the effectiveness of preventive oral health services on children's overall oral health. However, children having only PCP visits may encounter barriers to obtaining dental treatment.

  19. Comparative study of dental arch width in plaster models, photocopies and digitized images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rosseto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively assess dental arch width, in the canine and molar regions, by means of direct measurements from plaster models, photocopies and digitized images of the models. The sample consisted of 130 pairs of plaster models, photocopies and digitized images of the models of white patients (n = 65, both genders, with Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions, treated by standard Edgewise mechanics and extraction of the four first premolars. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar widths were measured by a calibrated examiner, prior to and after orthodontic treatment, using the three modes of reproduction of the dental arches. Dispersion of the data relative to pre- and posttreatment intra-arch linear measurements (mm was represented as box plots. The three measuring methods were compared by one-way ANOVA for repeated measurements (α = 0.05. Initial / final mean values varied as follows: 33.94 to 34.29 mm / 34.49 to 34.66 mm (maxillary intercanine width; 26.23 to 26.26 mm / 26.77 to 26.84 mm (mandibular intercanine width; 49.55 to 49.66 mm / 47.28 to 47.45 mm (maxillary intermolar width and 43.28 to 43.41 mm / 40.29 to 40.46 mm (mandibular intermolar width. There were no statistically significant differences between mean dental arch widths estimated by the three studied methods, prior to and after orthodontic treatment. It may be concluded that photocopies and digitized images of the plaster models provided reliable reproductions of the dental arches for obtaining transversal intra-arch measurements.

  20. Subpicosecond and picosecond laser ablation of dental enamel: comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Andrei V.; Madsen, Nathan R.; Kolev, Vesselin Z.; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Dawes, Judith M.; Chan, A.

    2004-06-01

    We report the use of sub-picosecond near-IR and ps UV pulsed lasers for precision ablation of freshly extracted human teeth. The sub-picosecond laser wavelength was ~800nm, with pulsewidth 150 fs and pulse repetition rate of 1kHz; the UV laser produced 10 ps pulses at 266 nm with pulse rate of ~1.2x105 pulses/s; both lasers produced ~1 W of output energy, and the laser fluence was kept at the same level of 10-25 J/cm2. Laser radiation from both laser were effectively absorbed in the teeth enamel, but the mechanisms of absorption were radically different: the near-IR laser energy was absorbed in a plasma layer formed through the optical breakdown mechanism initiated by multiphoton absorption, while the UV-radiation was absorbed due to molecular photodissociation of the enamel and conventional thermal deposition. The rise in the intrapulpal temperature was monitored by embedded thermocouples, and was shown to remain low with subpicosecond laser pulses, but risen up to 30°C, well above the 5°C pain level with the UV-laser. This study demonstrates the potential for ultra-short-pulsed lasers to precision and painless ablation of dental enamel, and indicated the optimal combination of laser parameters in terms of pulse energy, duration, intensity, and repetition rate, required for the laser ablation rates comparable to that of mechanical drill.

  1. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovaris, Karla; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco [Div. of Oral Radiology, Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  2. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain.

  3. The reliability, validity, and usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Roseanna

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this study included CDM's class of 2010 which consisted of 78 students. The overall reliability of the examination was measured via calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Content validity was examined through evaluation of the OSCE by three experienced clinical faculty members. Predictive validity was evaluated by correlating student grades on the OSCE to future clinical performance as measured by number of clinical points achieved during the third year of training. Student perceptions regarding the educational usefulness of the examination were evaluated through a 12-question Liken-type survey and focus group interviews analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Findings of the study indicated the OSCE was a highly reliable examination (alpha=0.86) with high content validity and a moderately high correlation to future clinical performance (r=.614, p<.0001). Overall, student perceptions of the educational usefulness of the OSCE were positive as based on their responses to a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree). They reported that the exam required the ability to think critically and problem-solve (4.0 +/- 0.85), assessed clinically relevant skills (4.59 +/- 0.69), helped identify clinical weaknesses (4.16 +/- 0.90), and was a learning experience (4.58 +/- 0.84). Findings from the qualitative portion of the study identified four main themes including the student perception that the OSCE is a unique assessment experience that required integration and application of knowledge. Recommendations for the use of the OSCE to improve clinical teaching and the implications of this study relating to the expanded use of

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  5. Predicting academic and National Board Dental Hygiene Examination performance based on Academic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchmoyer, Susan M; Carr, Michele P; Clutter, Jill E; Hoberty, Phillip D

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have explored reliable variables that predict student success in dental hygiene programs and on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). However, no studies were found using data collected since the NBDHE format changed in 1998 to investigate if traditional predictors hold true. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between pre-admission requirements, basic college science requirements, site of academic preparation, cumulative dental hygiene grade point average (CDHYGPA) and the NBDHE score. Data from the academic records of 173 graduates of the dental hygiene program at The Ohio State University from 1998 through 2002 were entered into an Excel spreadsheet using identification numbers. Demographic information for the description of the subjects, course transfer data, course grades in program prerequisites and basic science requirements, CDHYGPA, and NBDHE scores were entered. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social sciences (SPSS-version 10), Pearson's r correlations, regression analysis, and ANOVA with a predetermined level of significance at .05. Of the 173 records entered, 132 had complete data (76.3%). Results indicate the existing prerequisites for the dental hygiene program remain strong predictors for success. A strong correlation was noted between human nutrition courses and the CDHYGPA. Other core science courses completed while in the program-anatomy, physiology and microbiology--also rendered a moderately strong correlation to the CDHYGPA. The greatest predictors for success on the NBDHE were the student's CDHYGPA and the prerequisite three science GPA. Consistency in site of science preparation also revealed a positive correlation to the CDHYGPA. This study confirmed the continued use of the three science GPA pre-requisite and entering GPA for predicting success in this dental hygiene program and on the NBDHE even after the format changed to include case-based items. Other

  6. Breast self-examination: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among female dental students in Hyderabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolar Doshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding breast self-examination (BSE in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12. Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68. The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.

  7. The cost of dental implants as compared to that of conventional strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, P; Bouma, J; van Waas, MAJ; van Oort, RP; Rutten, FFH

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of dental implants is widely studied, especially in terms of their clinical outcomes. However, from the policymaker's point of view, variables other than safety and efficacy such as the costs and effectiveness of dental implants as compared to other treatment alternatives, are

  8. Examining whether dental therapists constitute a disruptive innovation in US dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2011-10-01

    Dental therapists-midlevel dental providers who are roughly analogous to nurse practitioners in medicine-might constitute a disruptive innovation within US dentistry. Proponents tend to claim that dental therapists will provide more equitable access to dental care; opponents tend to view them from a perspective that focuses on retaining the current attributes of the dental profession. Therapists display traits similar to those of disruptive innovations: their attributes are different from dentists', they may not initially be valued by current dental patients, they may appeal to current dental underutilizers, and they may transform the dental delivery system. Whether dental therapists constitute a disruptive innovation will only be determined retrospectively.

  9. Caries risk assessment in young adults using Public Dental Service guidelines and the Cariogram-a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel; Ericson, Ewa; Isberg, Per-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To investigate the caries risk profiles in young adults and to compare the risk classification using the Public Dental Service (PDS) guidelines with a risk assessment program, the Cariogram. Materials and methods. All 19-year-old patients registered at eight public dental...... classification was predominantly based on past caries and/or present caries activity. The majority was classified as 'some risk', while 16.7% were assessed as being of 'high' or 'very high risk'. The corresponding value for the two highest risk groups in the Cariogram model was 17.4%. The agreement between...... clinics were invited to participate (n = 1699). The study group who completed the baseline examination consisted of 1295 subjects representing 10% of all 19 year-olds attending dental care at the PDS in Skåne, Sweden. A risk classification of each patient was made by the patient's regular team according...

  10. Dental caries experience in high risk soft drinks factory workers of South India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Vasthare, Ramprasad; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Debnath, Nitai

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of soft-drinks has been associated with dental caries development. The aim was to evaluate dental caries experience amongst the workers working in soft-drink industries located in South India and compare it with other factory workers. To evaluate the validity of specific caries index (SCI), which is newer index for caries diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 420 workers (210 in soft-drinks factory and 210 in other factories), in the age group of 20-45 years of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Index used for clinical examination was decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) index and SCI. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of decayed surface (5.8 ± 1.8), missing surface (4.3 ± 2) and filled surface (1.94 ± 1.95) and total DMFS score (12.11 ± 3.8) in soft-drinks factory workers were found to be significantly higher than the other factory workers. The total SCI score (mean and SD) was found to be significantly higher in soft-drinks factory workers (5.83 ± 1.80) compared with other factory workers (4.56 ± 1.45). There was a high correlation obtained between SCI score and DMFS score. The regression equation given by DMFS = 1.178 + 1.866 (SCI scores). The caries experience was higher in workers working in soft-drinks factory and this study also showed that specific caries index can be used as a valid index for assessing dental caries experience.

  11. Accuracy of Teledentistry for Diagnosing Dental Pathology Using Direct Examination as a Gold Standard: Results of the Tel-e-dent Study of Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyroux, Alain; Saricassapian, Bernard; Herzog, Daniel; Müller, Karin; Herafa, Isabelle; Ducoux, Dorothée; Marin, Benoît; Dantoine, Thierry; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Tchalla, Achille

    2017-06-01

    Dental neglect and high levels of unmet dental needs are becoming increasingly prevalent among elderly residents of long-term care facilities, although frail, elderly, and dependent populations are the most in need of professional dental care. Little is known about the validity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology in nursing home residents. To evaluate the accuracy of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology, assessing the rehabilitation status of dental prostheses, and evaluating the chewing ability of older adults living in nursing homes (using direct examination as a gold standard). Multicenter diagnostic accuracy study performed in France and Germany. Eight nursing homes in France and Germany. Nursing home residents with oral or dental complaints, self-reported or reported by caregivers, willing to receive oral or dental preventive care. In total, 235 patients were examined. The mean age was 84.4 ± 8.3 years, and 59.1% of the subjects were female. The patients were examined twice. Each patient was his or her own control. First, the dental surgeon established a diagnosis by reviewing a video recorded in the nursing home and accessed remotely. Second, within a maximum of 7 days, patients were examined conventionally (face-to-face) by the same surgeon who established the initial diagnosis. All residents received a comprehensive clinical examination in their home by a trained geriatrician and underwent a dental hygiene evaluation that used the Silness-Loe and Greene-Vermillion dental hygiene assessment indices. The diagnoses established via the video recording and in the face-to-face setting were compared. The main outcome measure was number of dental pathologies. In total, 128 (55.4%) patients had a dental pathology. The sensitivity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology was 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.7-96.9), and the specificity was 94.2% (95% CI 91.2-97.2). Among the 128 cases of dental pathology identified by

  12. Comparative In Vitro Evaluation of Human Dental Pulp and Follicle Stem Cell Commitment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razieh Karamzadeh; Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad; Ali Sharifi-Zarchi

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, we have compared the expression levels of pluripotency factors along with immunological and developmentally-related markers in the culture of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs...

  13. Millennial Dental Hygiene Students' Learning Preferences Compared to Non-Millennial Faculty Members' Teaching Methods: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (pmillennial dental hygiene students in this study were consistent with previous research on millennial traits. This study found areas of disagreement between students and faculty members on the use of case studies, study guides, and group work. Although these students stated they preferred lecture over group work, trends in education stress using active learning over lecture.

  14. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  15. Breast Self-examination: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Female Dental Students in Hyderabad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Karunakar, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (Pbreast cancer screening behavior.

  16. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaranta, Anna; Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were <1% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv for a member of the public. Albeit the relative shielding effect, the exposure-induced increase in the risk of breast cancer death for the pregnant patient (based on the breast dose only) and the exposure-induced increase in the risk of childhood cancer death for the unborn child are minimal, and therefore, need for foetal and breast lead shielding was considered irrelevant. Most important is that pregnancy is never a reason to avoid or to postpone a clinically justified dental radiographic examination.

  17. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Methods: Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. Results: The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. Conclusions: The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were shielding effect, the exposure-induced increase in the risk of breast cancer death for the pregnant patient (based on the breast dose only) and the exposure-induced increase in the risk of childhood cancer death for the unborn child are minimal, and therefore, need for foetal and breast lead shielding was considered irrelevant. Most important is that pregnancy is never a reason to avoid or to postpone a clinically justified dental radiographic examination. PMID:26313308

  18. Frequency of medical and dental x-ray examinations in the UK. 1997/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.; Wall, B.; Shrimpton, P. [and others

    2000-12-01

    A survey has been performed to assess the numbers of all types of radiological x-ray examination conducted in the UK during the period from April 1997 to March 1998. The survey covers all diagnostic and interventional procedures using x-rays for medical and dental purposes, both within and outside the National Health Service (NHS), but excludes a detailed analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and nuclear medicine. This is the first such national survey conducted by NRPB since 1983. The results provide a current picture of the pattern of medical x-ray imaging practice in the UK and will allow revised estimates to be made of the collective dose to the population from these procedures. The survey has utilised detailed information available from radiology management systems at a selected sample of 38 English NHS trusts. The different classifications of x-ray procedure have been re-arranged into 62 standardised categories based on anatomical location and whether they were conventional, computed tomography (CT) or interventional procedures. Extrapolation of the sample data to the whole of England was carried out using broad NHS radiology statistics (KH12 returns) for the period of the survey from the Department of Health. Additional data have been obtained covering NHS radiology practice in Wales and Northern Ireland and also for x-ray imaging practice outside NHS hospitals such as that performed in independent hospitals and by dentists and chiropractors. Results are presented giving the annual numbers and relative frequencies of x-ray examinations in the 62 categories and the contributions from radiology practice outside NHS hospitals and from the whole of the UK. Altogether, about 41.5 million medical and dental x-ray examinations were conducted in the UK in 1997/98, corresponding to 704 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. The increase since 1983 for medical examinations conducted in NHS hospitals has just kept pace with the increase in population

  19. Classification of written examinations in dental education in Norway according to educational aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogedal, O; Lauvas, P

    1976-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess to what extent retention of factual knowledge or higher cognitive abilities, such as analytical/critical evaluation, were required by the students in the written examinations in clinical departments of dental schools in Norway in 1973-1975. A modified version of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives was used to classify the examination questions. Most of the questions were covered by the teaching program and concerned factural knowledge. When clinical examinations included a complete patient history and/or radiographs, judgment of the available information was demanded from the students. A great number of minor questions usually represented a lower taxonomic level than the use of a few essay questions.

  20. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing...

  1. Reproducibility and accuracy of linear measurements on dental models derived from cone-beam computed tomography compared with digital dental casts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, O. de; Rangel, F.A.; Fudalej, P.S.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Breuning, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility and accuracy of linear measurements on 2 types of dental models derived from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans: CBCT images, and Anatomodels (InVivoDental, San Jose, Calif); these were compared with digital models gene

  2. Radiation exposure of the UK population from medical and dental x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D.; Wall, B.F

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of recent trends in the radiation doses from x-ray examinations and their distribution for the UK population provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimise the protection of the population in a cost-effective manner. In this report, the results of a recent survey of the frequency of medical and dental x-ray examinations in the UK and contemporary data on the radiation doses typically received by patients, are used to assess trends in the extent and the pattern of the population exposure. Individual patient doses, expressed in terms of the effective dose, range from a few microsieverts for simple radiographic examinations of the teeth, limbs or chest to tens of millisieverts for prolonged fluoroscopic procedures or some computed tomography (CT) examinations. A total of about 41.5 million medical and dental x-ray examinations are now conducted each year in the UK (0.70 examination per head of population) resulting in an annual per caput effective dose of 330 {mu}Sv. This is not significantly different from the previous rough estimate of 350 {mu}Sv for 1991. However, over the last ten years CT has more than doubled its contribution and is now responsible for 40% of the total dose to the population from medical x-rays. In contrast, the contribution from conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations has nearly halved to about 44%. Interventional and angiographic procedures together contribute the remaining 16%. The annual per caput dose of 330 {mu}Sv is low in comparison with other countries having similarly developed systems of health care. This is due to both a lower frequency of x-ray examinations per head of population and generally lower doses in the UK than in other developed countries. However, the much increased contributions of CT, angiography and interventional procedures to the UK population dose indicate an urgent need to develop radiation protection and optimisation activities

  3. Comparative In Vitro Evaluation of Human Dental Pulp and Follicle Stem Cell Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Karamzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulp and periodontal tissues are well-known sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that provide a promising place in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The molecular mechanisms underlying commitment and differentiation of dental stem cells that originate from different dental tissues are not fully understood. In this study, we have compared the expression levels of pluripotency factors along with immunological and developmentally-related markers in the culture of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs, human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs, and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, isolated human dental stem cells were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, immunostaining, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Additionally, we conducted gene ontology (GO analysis of differentially expressed genes and compared them between dental stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. Results: The results demonstrated that pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2 and immunological (IL-6 and TLR4 factors had higher expressions in hDFSCs, with the exception of the JAGGED- 1/NOTCH1 ratio, c-MYC and NESTIN which expressed more in hDPSCs. Immunostaining of OCT4, SOX2 and c-MYC showed cytoplasmic and nucleus localization in both groups at similar passages. GO analysis showed that the majority of hDFSCs and hDPSCs populations were in the synthesis (S and mitosis (M phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed different status of heterogeneous hDPSCs and hDFSCs in terms of stemness, differentiation fate, and cell cycle phases. Therefore, the different behaviors of dental stem cells should be considered based on clinical treatment variations.

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  6. Craniofacial and dental characteristics of patients with vitamin-D-dependent rickets type 1A compared to controls and patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Haubek, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of both calcium and phosphate to be critical in periods of enamel formation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge on craniofacial and dental aberration in patients with rare diseases, e.g., inherited rickets, is of importance to the dental practitioner, especially during diagnostics and treatment in special care......ᅟOBJECTIVES: Vitamin-D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) is a rare inherited disease caused by defective activation of vitamin D. The aim of the study was to describe the craniofacial characteristics and the dental phenotype of patients with genetically confirmed VDDR1A. The VDDR1A findings were...... of dental findings was 30 adults with XLH. Clinical examination, clinical photos, and radiographs were obtained. Cephalometric analysis was performed. Photos and radiographs were visually evaluated. RESULTS: The depth of the posterior cranial fossa (d-p and d-s-iop) in VDDR1A adults was reduced compared...

  7. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  8. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders : A comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Dolores R. R.; Bottino, Marco C.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To synthesize 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. Methods.

  9. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders : A comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Dolores R. R.; Bottino, Marco C.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To synthesize 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. Methods.

  10. Comparability of Examination Standards between Subjects: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2009-01-01

    Heated discussions about the comparability of standards between examination subjects have kept Qualification Authorities, Testing Services, independent researchers and academics around the world busy for many years. As a result, many countries have adopted statistical techniques which aspire to make aggregated scores based on different subjects…

  11. A Comparative Study on Dental Caries Prevalence in Diabetic Children in Isfahan in the Summer of 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Samimi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relationship between dental caries and high blood sugar. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among diabetic children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Diabetic children from pediatric ward of hospitals were compared to a control healthy group of children. Results: The mean DMFT was significantly higher in diabetic children compared to the control group. Conclusion: The result of this study confirms previous researches on prevalence of dental caries in children. Keywords: Dental Caries, Diabetes Mellitus, Pediatrics

  12. Routine oral examination: differences in characteristics of Dutch general dental practitioners related to type of recall interval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettes, Th.G.P.H.; Bruers, J.J.M.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Verdonschot, E.H.A.M.; Mulder, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore differences in behaviour (characteristics and opinions) among general dental practitioners (GDPs), using either a fixed (Fx) or an individualized recall interval (Iv) between successive routine oral examinations (ROEs). METHODS: In the year 2000, data

  13. Comparative study of physical properties of zirconia based dental ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Pittayachawan, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of commercial yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics, which have generated interest in restorative dentistry because of their high strength and high resistance to fracture. Mechanical properties of three commercial Y-TZP ceramics (Lava™, Cercon® and Invizion™) were investigated including the biaxial flexural strength, hardness, fatigue, and subcritical crack growth....

  14. Surface characteristics and cell adhesion: a comparative study of four commercial dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruohong; Lei, Tianhua; Dusevich, Vladimir; Yao, Xiamei; Liu, Ying; Walker, Mary P; Wang, Yong; Ye, Ling

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to compare surface properties of four commercial dental implants and to compare those implant systems' cell adhesion, which may be affected by the surface properties, and to provide scientific information on the selection of implants for clinicians. The surface properties of four commonly used dental implants (3i Nanotite™, Astra OsseoSpeed™, Nobel Biocare TiUnite®, and Straumann SLActive®) were studied using MicroSpy profiler, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman microspectroscopy. Primary mouse alveolar bone cells were cultured on the surface of implants from the four companies. After 48-hour culture, SEM in combination with a quantitative analysis of SEM images was used to examine the cell adhesion. Cell adhesion rates (ratios of cell surface to implant surface) among different systems were compared. Distinct differences were found among these implants. Comparisons of roughness among three locations: flank, top, and valley within the same implant system, or in the same location among different implants were made. Generally Astra and Straumann systems showed the roughest surface, whereas 3i showed the smoothest surface. Multiple cracks were found on the surface of the Nobel Biocare system, which also had a dramatically lower level of titanium. In addition, rutile phase of titanium oxide was found in 3i, Astra, and Straumann systems, and anatase phase of titanium oxide was only detected in the Nobel Biocare system. After 48-hour culture, Astra and Straumann systems displayed the highest cell adhesion at the areas of flank, top, and valley of the implant surface. Primary cells also reached confluence on the valley, but significantly less in the 3i system. Nobel Biocare showed the least cell adhesion on the flank and valley. Implant systems have distinct differences in surface properties, leading to different cell adhesion results. Further in vivo study is needed to study the impact of

  15. Intraoral laser welding: ultrastructural and mechanical analysis to compare laboratory laser and dental laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca; Villa, Elena; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Merigo, Elisabetta; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco; Manfredi, Maddalena; Nammour, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser has been used since 1970 in dental laboratories to weld metals on dental prostheses. Recently in several clinical cases, we have suggested that the Nd:YAG laser device commonly utilized in the dental office could be used to repair broken fixed, removable and orthodontic prostheses and to weld metals directly in the mouth. The aim of this work was to evaluate, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), the quality of the weld and its mechanical strength, comparing a device normally used in dental laboratory and a device normally used in the dental office for oral surgery, the same as that described for intraoral welding. Metal plates of a Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy and steel orthodontic wires were subjected to four welding procedures: welding without filler metal using the laboratory laser, welding with filler metal using the laboratory laser, welding without filler metal using the office laser, and welding with filler metal using the office laser. The welded materials were then analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA. SEM analysis did not show significant differences between the samples although the plates welded using the office laser without filler metal showed a greater number of fissures than the other samples. EDS microanalysis of the welding zone showed a homogeneous composition of the metals. Mechanical tests showed similar elastic behaviours of the samples, with minimal differences between the samples welded with the two devices. No wire broke even under the maximum force applied by the analyser. This study seems to demonstrate that the welds produced using the office Nd:YAG laser device and the laboratory Nd:YAG laser device, as analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA, showed minimal and nonsignificant differences, although these findings need to be confirmed using a greater number of samples.

  16. Age estimation in fossil hominins: comparing dental development in early Homo with modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Liversidge, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have used molar tooth eruption as a comparative marker of maturation in early fossil hominins. However, tooth eruption and tooth formation are independent maturational processes. To determine whether estimates of age for entering a stage of dental development in three early hominin fossils fell within the distribution of a modern human sample. This study used a comparative model of dental development to identify the stages of dental development most likely to provide information about length of the growth period in early fossil hominins. Age estimates for stages of dental development in fossils were superimposed onto a normal distribution of the same radiographically defined stages derived from a sample of 6540 children of diverse geographical origin. Both within the dentition of S7-37, from Sangiran, Java, but also for stages of two other specimens (KNM-WT 15000 from Kenya and StW 151 from South Africa), all age estimates for later stages of tooth formation fell within the modern sample range. A pattern appears to exist in early Homo where, both within and between developing dentitions, age estimates for stages of P4, M2 and M3 tooth formation fell consistently among the more advanced individuals of the modern human sample.

  17. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. METHODS: A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine.

  18. Construct Validity of the Korean Dental Licensing Examination using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Yim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Confirmatory factor analysis based on a measurement model of a structural equation model was used to test the construct validity of 13 subjects in the Korean Dental Licensing Examination (KDLE. The results of 1,086 examinees who wrote the KDLE in 2004 were analyzed. The thirteen subjects were classified into 62 major categories and 122 intermediate categories. There were 364 items. A hierarchical model was constructed, including major and intermediate categories. The impact of the variables was determined by the standardized regression coefficient that related latent and measured variables in the measurement model. The KDLE showed a high goodness-of-fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.030 and a non-normed fit index of 0.998. When the latent variables for the major and intermediate categories were analyzed, the standardized regression coefficients of all of the subjects, with the exception of Health and Medical Legislation, were significant. From the result, we concluded that the 13 subjects showed constructive validity. In addition, the study model and data were very compatible. The subject Health and Medical Legislation had a low explanatory impact with respect to testing the ability of dentists to perform their jobs. This study suggests that similar psychometric studies are needed before integrating or deleting subjects on the KDLE, and to improve item development.

  19. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sathler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40, Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32 and Mongoloid (n = 33. The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. RESULTS: Statistical differences (P < 0.05 indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. CONCLUSION: The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample.

  20. Comparative performance of deciduous and permanent dental morphology in detecting biological relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Dental morphology plays a key role in reconstructing population history and evolutionary relationships at global, regional, and intracemetery scales. At the inter-individual level, it is assumed that close biological kin exhibit greater phenotypic similarity than non-relatives. Heritability estimates provide one measure of phenotypic resemblance but are not easily incorporated into analyses of archaeological samples. In this study we evaluate the assumption that relatives are more similar phenotypically than non-relatives. We compare results for permanent dental morphology to those obtained using deciduous dental morphology in a matched dataset (Paul & Stojanowski, ). Permanent trait expression was scored from dental casts representing 69 sibling pairs, curated as part of the longitudinal Burlington Growth Study. Simulating a biodistance approach, 22 morphological traits of permanent tooth crowns were used to generate 69 inter-relative and 2,076 non-relative Euclidean distances. Following distance ordination, family-specific dispersion values were calculated from multidimensional scaling coordinates. Output was compared to that of a previous study that focused on deciduous crown variation in the same set of individuals (Paul & Stojanowski, ). Mantel tests were used to evaluate the correlation of a proxy genetic distance matrix to both the permanent and deciduous dental distance matrices. On average, inter-relative distances generated from morphological traits of permanent tooth crowns were smaller than expected by chance based on resampling (p distance matrices are significantly correlated with a matrix of genetic relatedness coefficients; however, the magnitude of the correlations was low. Overall, morphological traits of permanent tooth crowns perform moderately well in distinguishing relatives from non-relatives, but deciduous crown variations may provide a more direct reflection of the underlying genetic structure of intra-site or intra-cemetery samples

  1. Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

    2013-12-01

    How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors.

  2. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DMFT INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S MORTAZAVI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The optimum amount of fluoride in drinking water has been determined 1ppm for special areas by WHO. In jarghoyeh the amount of fluoride in drinking water is less than optimum, but dental fluorosis has been observed in a great deal. The purpose of this comparative study is to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the mean DMFT values and their relationship among guidance school students in Jarghoyeh Olya and Jarghoyeh Sofia. Methods. The main reason of this research was to compare fluorosis prevalence in Jarghoyeh Sofia and Jarghoyeh Olya. A pilot study was carried out and 191 person for the number of specimen was determined. Since DMFT was also to be investigated, the number of specimen was incresed., Finally 256 guaidance school students in Jarghoyeh Sofia and 263 students in Jarghoyeh Olya were selected by sharing method. The DMFT and TF indices, respectively, were used to asses dental caries and dental fluorosis. Results. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Jarghoyeh Olya was 65.8 percent and in Jarghoyeh Sofia was 44.9 percent. The mean DMFT indices in these two regions were 2.2471 and 2.0508 respectively. Evaluation of amounts of DMFT in different scores of TF index, shows that from zero score to 1 score, DMFT decreases. Then it gradually increases and as a result in 5≤ score it reaches to the highest level. Discussion. Factors such as hot climate and salty drinking water causes the inhabitants to drink more water. Also they drink tea a lot. Thus in spite of the low fluoride content of drinking water, prevalence of dental fluorosis was high. During tooth mineralization, fluoride reacts with hydroxyapatite crystals and produces fluorohydroxyapatite, resulting in higher resistance to tooth caries. On the other hand, absorption of excessive fluoride, results in disorder of formation of enamel. This leads to a hypoplastic and porose enamal. This enamel has lower resistance to caries and higher potential to absorb

  3. The dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the technical condition of radiological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bekas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implementation of X-ray dental examination is associated with the patient's exposure to ionizing radiation. The size of the exposure depends on the type of medical procedure, the technical condition of the X-ray unit and selected exposure conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the assessment of the technical condition of medical equipment. Materials and Methods: The study included a total number of 79 dental X-ray units located in the region of Mazovia. The test methods for the assessment of the technical condition of dental X-ray units and measurement of radiation dose received by patients were based on the procedures elaborated in the Department of Radiation Hygiene and Radiobiology in the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland accredited for the certification of compliance with PN-EN 17025. Results: The research found that 69.6% fully meets the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 30.4% did not meet some of them. A tenfold difference in the size of the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examinations was discovered. For example, during a radiography of the canine teeth of a child, the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD ranged from 72.8 to 2430 μGy with the average value of 689.1 μGy. Cases where the dose reference level defined in Polish legislation of 5 mGy was exceeded were also found. Conclusions: It is essential to constantly monitor the situation regarding the technical condition of X-ray units which affects the size of the population's exposure to ionizing radiation as well as raising dentists' awareness about the effects of X-rays on the human body. Med Pr 2013;64(6:755–759

  4. Effect of anti-asthmatic drugs on dental health: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chellaih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Bronchial asthma constitutes important problem worldwide. This chronic lung disease has detrimental effect in the oral cavity like reduction of salivary secretion, change in salivary composition and pH. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to compare the prevalence of dental caries in asthmatic children and healthy children, and also to evaluate the correlation between the Streptococcus mutans , Lactobacillus and dental caries in both the groups. Results: In this study, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth score of children in the study group was (4.53 ± 3.38 higher than the control group (1.51 ± 1.58 (P < 0.01. The S. mutans count of the study group was (59574.47 ± 28510.67 higher than the control group (19777.78 ± 17899.83 P < 0.01. The Lactobacillus count in study group was (43553.19 ± 58776.96 higher than the control group (8843.84 ± 7982.72 P < 0.01. Subjects using inhaled corticosteroids were more prone to develop dental caries than the control group with odds ratio = 6.26 and 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: The dental caries prevalence increases with the usage of β2agonist and corticosteroid inhalers for the treatment of asthma. Thus in asthmatic children, increase in caries prevalence might be due to the drug treatment and not due to the disease by itself. It can be concluded that asthmatic children have a higher prevalence of dental caries than healthy children. Hence, special oral health care is needed for asthmatic children.

  5. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  6. Effect of anti-asthmatic drugs on dental health: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaih, P.; Sivadas, G.; Chintu, S.; Vaishnavi Vedam, V. K.; Arunachalam, Rajeev; Sarsu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Bronchial asthma constitutes important problem worldwide. This chronic lung disease has detrimental effect in the oral cavity like reduction of salivary secretion, change in salivary composition and pH. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to compare the prevalence of dental caries in asthmatic children and healthy children, and also to evaluate the correlation between the Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus and dental caries in both the groups. Results: In this study, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth score of children in the study group was (4.53 ± 3.38) higher than the control group (1.51 ± 1.58) (P S. mutans count of the study group was (59574.47 ± 28510.67) higher than the control group (19777.78 ± 17899.83) P < 0.01. The Lactobacillus count in study group was (43553.19 ± 58776.96) higher than the control group (8843.84 ± 7982.72) P < 0.01. Subjects using inhaled corticosteroids were more prone to develop dental caries than the control group with odds ratio = 6.26 and 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: The dental caries prevalence increases with the usage of β2 agonist and corticosteroid inhalers for the treatment of asthma. Thus in asthmatic children, increase in caries prevalence might be due to the drug treatment and not due to the disease by itself. It can be concluded that asthmatic children have a higher prevalence of dental caries than healthy children. Hence, special oral health care is needed for asthmatic children. PMID:27829752

  7. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  8. Examination of Alternative Fabric Joining Techniques Compared to Traditional Sewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boles, Kerrie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic seaming could soon replace the needle and thread technique with a safer, more efficient technology. In this designed experiment, the Chase FS-90 Ultrasonic Sewing Machine will be compared to the traditional sewing machine. The goal is to examine the sewing quality of textile fabric using ultrasonic methods by finding ideal parameters. The parameters are amplitude, speed, and pressure by using materials, including one thermoplastic fabric, one natural fabric, and low-melting polymer tape. The ultrasonic seam with the best properties will then be compared to the traditional needle and thread seam. The final product will be a designed dress using all ultrasonic seams. The material found to have the best seam properties will be used for the design.

  9. Dental students' opinions of preparation assessment with E4D compare software versus traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil, Lindsey M; Mennito, Anthony S; Renné, Walter G; Vuthiganon, Jompobe

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' opinions regarding the utilization of a new grading software program for student self-assessment and a faculty-grading tool in a preclinical course. Using surface mapping technology, this program, called E4D Compare, yields a digital model of a student's preparation that is color-coded to show deficient areas. The program has now been used for two years at the James B. Edwards College of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, and the students previously assessed with E4D Compare have now entered into the dental clinics. For this study, students were asked to complete an anonymous survey for the investigators to evaluate students' attitudes and opinions on the effectiveness of this software in their preclinical courses to determine if this type of feedback helped them develop clinical skills. The survey also sought to collect students' opinions on the traditional objective criteria-based grading system. The survey was distributed to all members of the Classes of 2014 and 2015; it yielded a 59 percent response rate for the two classes, with a total of eighty-one students responding. Overall, the majority of students preferred the E4D Compare grading system over traditional hand-grading methods. The grading system provided instant, objective, and visual feedback that allowed students to easily see where their deficiencies were and encouraged them to work towards an ideal final product.

  10. Examination of lifestyle factors and diseases in teaching periodontology in dental education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle and general diseases are important for the development of periodontitis and other diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, knowledge on lifestyle factors must be part of the dental curriculum. However, a search for information in the literature databases gave meagre results....... The aim of this study was to describe education of lifestyle in relation to diseases in the oral cavity with focus on periodontitis and to elucidate how education is practiced and reflected in dental education in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire, which consisted of 18 questions...... in the content across the dental schools, there were also similarities. So, at all schools smoking, medication, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2 had a high priority. Education of other factors such as alcohol, psychological stress, oral hygiene habits, hypotension and obesity varied. CONCLUSION...

  11. Comparative dental anatomy in Disaster Victim Identification: Lessons from the 2009 Victorian Bushfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Russell; Taylor, Jane; Croker, Sarah; Craig, Pamela; Graham, Jeremy

    2011-02-25

    In the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) response to the recent bushfire disasters in rural Victoria, Australia, forensic odontology played a significant role in the identification process. Particular features of this disaster were challenging to the odontologists. A characteristic of house fires is the extended time period during which the remains may be subject to heat, and their subsequent disruption as buildings collapse. This can result in dislodgement of teeth from sockets, loss of tooth crowns from roots, disruption of anatomical location of teeth and damage to bony features. Commingling of human remains also is often a feature, as is commingling of animal remains with human. Two cases which illustrate these features are described. A strategy for improving familiarity with comparative dental anatomy and improving skills in dental anatomy is suggested.

  12. Measurement of the levels anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectations for success using an objective structured clinical examination, a written examination, and a preclinical preparation test in Kerman dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mahsa; Zadeh, Nazila Lashkari; Agahi, Raha Habib; Navabi, Nader; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Nassab, Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2017-01-01

    Examinations have an important role in evaluating students' learning outcomes and their mastery of a subject. Passing or failing an examination can have far-reaching consequences for the students. Therefore, it is not surprising that international studies consistently show that dental students report examinations and grades among the highest ranking stressors in dental schools. The aim of this research was to measure the levels of anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectations for success using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination and a preclinical preparation test, and to examine the effects of the three predictive variables on the outcomes of assessments. The present research is a cross-sectional study. The population under consideration was students of Kerman Dental School in 2013. Examination anxiety was measured with Spielberger's state anxiety inventory. Preparation for the assessment (I am fully prepared = 4, I am prepared = 3, I'm not prepared = 2, I'm not fully prepared = 1) and expectation to succeed (I am quite successful = 4, I am successful = 3, I'm not successful = 2, I'm not quite successful = 1) were quantified with Likert scale. The questionnaire was completed during an OSCE, a written examination, a preclinical crown and bridge preparation test and a nonexamination situation. The study population consisted of 138 4(th), 5(th), and 6(th) year Kerman dental students (65 males and 73 females). The results showed that all the assessment methods induced a significant increase in state anxiety compared to baseline levels with the highest anxiety levels reported during an OSCE (62.4 ± 8.1, P = 0.04) and a written examination (48.8 ± 9.2, P = 0.04). The preparation levels in females were significantly higher than those in males in OSCE (P = 0.03) and written (P = 0.04). State anxiety was high in all the three assessment methods. OSCE induced more anxiety than other assessment formats. However, anxiety was

  13. Dental Care Presents The Highest Level Of Financial Barriers, Compared To Other Types Of Health Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Buchmueller, Thomas; Klein, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act is improving access to and the affordability of a wide range of health care services. While dental care for children is part of the law's essential health benefits and state Medicaid programs must cover it, coverage of dental care for adults is not guaranteed. As a result, even with the recent health insurance expansion, many Americans face financial barriers to receiving dental care that lead to unmet oral health needs. Using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey, we analyzed financial barriers to a wide range of health care services. We found that irrespective of age, income level, and type of insurance, more people reported financial barriers to receiving dental care, compared to any other type of health care. We discuss policy options to address financial barriers to dental care, particularly for adults.

  14. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelaranta, Anna; Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    .... In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary...

  15. Assessment of Myeloperoxidase and Nitric Levels around Dental Implants and Natural Teeth as a Marker of Inflammation: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gayithri H; Jadhav, Prashant; Kulkarni, Kiran; Shinde, Sachin V; Patil, Yojana B; Kumar, Manish

    2016-11-01

    Dental implants form the mainstay of dental treatment involving rehabilitation of missing teeth. One of the major concerns for the clinicians doing dental implants is the postsurgical failure of dental implants. Success of dental implants is dependent upon the skills of the surgeon and the amount and quality of the bone remaining at the edentulous area where dental implant has to be placed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitrites are few of the enzymes and molecules which are said to be altered in inflammation. However, their exact role in the inflammatory processes around natural tooth and dental implant is still unclear. Hence we comparatively evaluated the levels of MPO and nitrites in the areas around the dental implants and natural teeth. The present study comprises 42 patients who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants from 2011 to 2014. Depth of probing value (DP), score of plaque index (SPI), gingival index (GI), and index of gingival bleeding time (GBT) were evaluated for the assessment of the periimplant soft tissue changes. Assessment of inflammation around the dental implant surface and around natural tooth was done based on the readings of these parameters. For the measurement of the MPO levels, spectrophotometric MPO assay was used. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The mean plaque index values were 1.56 and 0.97 in periodontitis cases of natural teeth and inflamed cases of dental implants respectively. While comparing mean plaque index, mean probing depth, and mean gingival bleeding index in between the two groups, significant difference was obtained. Mean MPO concentration in periodontitis and gingivitis cases in natural teeth were 0.683 and 0.875 U/μL, while in inflamed dental implant cases, the mean value was 0.622 U/μL. While comparing the total MPO levels, total nitrite levels, and total nitrite concentration in between two study groups, significant difference was obtained

  16. 中美口腔医学教育体系比较研究%Comparing research in dental education systems between U.S and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程岘; 尹作姣; 陈卫民

    2012-01-01

    目的:强化口腔医学教育改革,缩小医生医疗水平的差距,提高整体医疗质量,从源头上扭转口腔医疗资源过度集中的局面.方法:口腔医学教育分为学校口腔医学教育,毕业后口腔医学教育,继续口腔医学教育三个阶段,及与之匹配的口腔医师执照制度共四个方面,对中美两国口腔医学教育制度的相关政策和文献归纳、比较.结果:与美国相比我国口腔医学教育在生源、学校与学制,课程设置与教学方法,研究生教育与专科医师培训,继续口腔医学教育与医师执照制度上存在明显不足.结论:建议相关部门通过缩招专科与7年制和创立新型8年制,建立出入机制和加强监管力度,调整课程设置和革新教学方法,明确区分两种类型的研究生,完善专科医师培训制度,明确规定执照的学历需求,建立非终身和专科执照制度等方法完善我国口腔医学教育体系.%Objective: The reformation of dental education can reduce the differences of clinical skills among doctors,and promote the overall quality of medical care,which can reverse the situationof over-concentration of dental resources from fountainhead. Method: Dental education candivided into three stages-dental school education,postgraduate dental education and continuing dental education and the matching license examination. Organizing the policy documents of two systems,this article compares the system of dental education between U.S. and China,explore the potential problem of dental education in our country. Result:There are obvious deficiencies in source of students,dental school,8-year schooling education,curriculum,teaching method,graduate education,specialist training,postgraduate dental education andsystem of dental board. Conclusion: In order to improve our dental education system,relevant authorities could cut back junior college and 7-year schooling education,create new 8-year schooling,establish mechanism of exit and

  17. Examination of the Quality of the Manual Pre-Sterilization Processing of Dental Instruments Using Benzidine Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoeva V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk of infections in dental practices has been attracting for decades the interest of researchers from all over the world. A serious problem related to the transmission of blood-borne viruses is the thorough removal of organic matter, and mainly blood, from dental instruments when performing manual pre-sterilization decontamination. Application of benzidine test to prove the presence of blood traces on large and small dental instruments prepared for sterilization for the purpose of assessing the quality of the manual pre-sterilization decontamination. A total of 485 benzidine tests had been performed on selected 205 large and 280 small dental instruments visibly contaminated with blood. Of the total of 485 tested samples, blood traces were found in 63 (12.99 ± 1.53%. In the group of large instruments, positive benzidine test was obtained in 7.80% compared to 16.78% in the small instruments with the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.003. All 63 positive samples were additionally processed using ultrasound. Blood traces were found in 8 instruments with all of the positive samples being obtained from the barbed broaches. The manual cleaning does not guarantee decontamination of the dental instruments unlike the ultrasonic cleaning where any blood traces are being completely removed from the large instruments. In terms of the small instruments, there are still blood traces present after the ultrasonic cleaning which requires for it to be combined with a suitable enzyme cleaner, and the barbed broaches, as a requirement, should be used on a disposable basis.

  18. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  19. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  20. Experiences in adding multiple-choice questions to an objective structural clinical examination (OSCE) in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näpänkangas, R; Harila, V; Lahti, S

    2012-02-01

    In the University of Oulu, the competencies of fourth-year dental students have traditionally been assessed with a written examination before they go to work for the first time as dentists outside the Institute of Dentistry. In 2009, the objective structural clinical examination (OSCE) modified with multiple-choice questions was introduced as a tool for assessing clinical competencies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of the modified OSCE (m-OSCE) by measuring the attitude of examiners (teachers) and dental students towards the m-OSCE and to evaluate whether the OSCE is preferred to the written examination in the assessment of knowledge and clinical skills. Additionally, the aim was to evaluate the reliability of the multiple-choice examination. Altogether 30 students (86%) and 11/12 examiners (92%) responded to the questionnaire. Most of the students considered the multiple-choice questions easy, but complained about the complex formulation of the questions. The test stations were easy for 87% of the students, but the time allocated was too short. Most of the students (73%) and examiners (91%) preferred the m-OSCE to the written examination. All students and examiners found the immediate assessment of the tasks good. Based on the evaluations of m-OSCE, it could be concluded that both students and examiners preferred the m-OSCE to the pure written examination in assessment, which indicate that m-OSCE had good face validity. Combining multiple methods in assessment of knowledge and clinical skills whilst simultaneously taking into account the feasibility and available resources provides more valid results.

  1. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-01

    Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

  2. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease...

  3. Recommendations by the EACD for examination, diagnosis, and management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain by the general dental practitioner.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boever, JA De; Nilner, M.; Orthlieb, J.D.; Steenks, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Council of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders charged the Educational Committee with the task of establishing Guidelines and Recommendations for the examination, diagnosis, and management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain by the general dental practi

  4. Effect of addition of bioactive materials on dental implantation based on the examination histology (Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tetelepta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants in alveolar bone is one method to provide retention and support the strength of the installation of dentures, denture prosthesis either fixed or removable. Long-term success of dental implants is highly dependent on rapid healing with secure integration into the jawbone. Performance of the implant is indicated by the mechanism of interaction between the implant material with the surrounding tissue. To overcome these problems, various surface modification of titanium implants have been done so are bioactive resulting in osseointegration, which are made of titanium into the bioactive surface through modification of the chemical composition and surface topography corresponding implant as retention of bone cells on the surface of titanium implants. Histology picture of microstructural characterization by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM shows the hydroxyapatite found in the outermost surface of the implant is a surface modification that aims to add the bioactivity of attachment of the implant and the bone tissue, so that the resulting mechanical and biological adhesion was good.

  5. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  6. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia with 2% lignocaine in various minor pediatric dental procedures: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Dhindsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most distressing aspects of dentistry for pediatric patients is the fear and anxiety caused by the dental environment, particularly the dental injection. The application and induction of local anesthetics has always been a difficult task, and this demands an alternative method that is convenient and effective. Electronic dental anesthesia, based on the principal of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS, promises to be a viable mode of pain control during various pediatric clinical procedures. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS and to compare its efficacy with 2% lignocaine during various minor pediatric dental procedures. Pain, comfort and effectiveness of both the anesthetics were evaluated using various scales and no significant difference was observed between 2% lignocaine and TENS in the various pain scales, while TENS was perceived to be significantly effective in comfort and efficacy as judged by the operator and quite comfortable as judged by the patient himself/herself.

  7. Drawing Links within Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines results of a practical drawing task given to a cohort of first year dental surgery students at Kings College Dental Institute, London. It compares and relates their success in drilling and removing caries and pulp tissue from a virtual tooth using the hapTEL virtual learning system, with each individuals' drawing skills.…

  8. A Dental Education Perspective on Dental Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alvin L.

    1985-01-01

    Two issues related to dental health policy are examined: the contribution of dental education to the process by which dental health policy is established, and the nature of dental education's response to established policies. (MLW)

  9. Photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence examination of demineralized and remineralized dental lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellen, A; Mandelis, A [Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Finer, Y, E-mail: mandelis@mie.utoronto.c [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1G6 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Dental caries involves continuous challenges of acid-induced mineral loss and a counteracting process of mineral recovery. As an emerging non-destructive methodology, photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM) has shown promise in measuring changes in tooth mineral content. Human molars (n=37) were subjected to demineralization in acid gel (pH 4.5, 10 days), followed by incubation in remineralisation solutions (pH 6.7, 4 weeks) without or with fluoride (1 or 1000 ppm). PTR-LUM frequency scans (1 Hz - 1 kHz) were performed prior to and during demineralization and remineralization treatments. Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) analysis followed at treatment conclusion. The non-fluoridated group exhibited opposite amplitude and phase trends to those of the highly fluoridated group: smaller phase lag and larger amplitude. These results point to a complex interplay between surface and subsurface processes during remineralization, confining the thermal-wave centroid toward the dominating layer.

  10. Association between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-08-01

    Dental pain and tooth loss are global public health concerns. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of an entire country's populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a well characterized, nationally representative, population-based study.This study analyzed data of 3924, representing 21,836,566 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows: tooth loss of up to 8 teeth without dental pain, tooth loss of up to 8 teeth with dental pain, tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain, and tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates.Among the 3924 subjects, representing an estimated 21,836,566 adults, the prevalence of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth was 24.6% and the prevalence of dental pain was 35%. The tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group showed the highest level of impaired HRQOL in all 5 dimensions, and the tooth loss up to 8 teeth without dental pain group showed the lowest level. The proportion of both groups without dental pain decreased significantly from the younger age to older age group. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, the ORs (95% CI) of mobility, self-case, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression were 1.93 (1.32-2.84), 1.90 (1.25-2.90), 1.46 (0.88-2.43), 1.48 (0.88-2.49), and 1.46 (0.85-2.51) in tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group. Although the ORs of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain group did not significantly increase.Dental pain and tooth loss has a considerable impact of HRQOL in the Korean adult population. In our study, HRQOL is more closely associated with dental pain than with

  11. Association between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dental pain and tooth loss are global public health concerns. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of an entire country's populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a well characterized, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data of 3924, representing 21,836,566 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows: tooth loss of up to 8 teeth without dental pain, tooth loss of up to 8 teeth with dental pain, tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain, and tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Among the 3924 subjects, representing an estimated 21,836,566 adults, the prevalence of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth was 24.6% and the prevalence of dental pain was 35%. The tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group showed the highest level of impaired HRQOL in all 5 dimensions, and the tooth loss up to 8 teeth without dental pain group showed the lowest level. The proportion of both groups without dental pain decreased significantly from the younger age to older age group. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, the ORs (95% CI) of mobility, self-case, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression were 1.93 (1.32–2.84), 1.90 (1.25–2.90), 1.46 (0.88–2.43), 1.48 (0.88–2.49), and 1.46 (0.85–2.51) in tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group. Although the ORs of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain group did not significantly increase. Dental pain and tooth loss has a considerable impact of HRQOL in the Korean adult population. In our study, HRQOL is more closely associated with

  12. Comparative study of knowledge about oral cancer among undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Samara Ribeiro da; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Weinfeld, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the knowledge of dental undergraduate students about oral cancer. The students were divided into two groups according to semester attended in the undergraduate course: Group A, the first semester; and Group B, seventh semester. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about epidemiology, risk factors, clinical aspects, therapeutic solutions and oral self-examination. For statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test, the Cochran's G test and Kendall's concordance test were used, with significance level set at 0.05. Regarding the prevalent sex, only 8.0% of Group A and 56.0% of Group B judged males as the frequent affected by the disease (p=0.0006). In terms of age, 84.0% of the Group B and 44.0% of the Group A estimated that most cases were diagnosed over 40 years (p=0.0072). Smoking was identified as the major risk factor for 64.0% and 91.6% of Groups A and B, respectively (p=0.0110). On issues related to sex, ethnicity, age, risk factors, self-examination, treatment, professional responsible for treatment and profile of an individual with the disease, the seventh-semester showed significantly higher correct answer percentages than first-semester undergraduates. There was significant correlation between the right and wrong answers given by first and seventh semester students, making necessary a specific approach directed to their lack of knowledge. Avaliar e comparar o conhecimento de acadêmicos de odontologia sobre câncer bucal. Os acadêmicos foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o semestre cursado na graduação: Grupo A, primeiro semestre; e Grupo B: sétimo semestre. Eles foram convidados a responderem um questionário referente a epidemiologia, fatores de risco, aspectos clínicos, soluções terapêuticas e autoexame bucal. Para a análise estatística dos resultados, foram utilizados o teste exato de Fisher, o teste G de Cochran e o teste de concordância de Kendall, com nível de significância estabelecido em 0

  13. Comparative testing of nondestructive examination techniques for concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2014-03-01

    A multitude of concrete-based structures are typically part of a light water reactor (LWR) plant to provide foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of three primary properties, its inexpensiveness, its structural strength, and its ability to shield radiation. Examples of concrete structures important to the safety of LWR plants include containment building, spent fuel pool, and cooling towers. Comparative testing of the various NDE concrete measurement techniques requires concrete samples with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. These samples can be artificially created under laboratory conditions where the various properties can be controlled. Other than NPPs, there are not many applications where critical concrete structures are as thick and reinforced. Therefore, there are not many industries other than the nuclear power plant or power plant industry that are interested in performing NDE on thick and reinforced concrete structures. This leads to the lack of readily available samples of thick and heavily reinforced concrete for performing NDE evaluations, research, and training. The industry that typically performs the most NDE on concrete structures is the bridge and roadway industry. While bridge and roadway structures are thinner and less reinforced, they have a good base of NDE research to support their field NDE programs to detect, identify, and repair concrete failures. This paper will summarize the initial comparative testing of two concrete samples with an emphasis on how these techniques could perform on NPP concrete structures.

  14. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  15. Fostering dental student self-assessment of knowledge by confidence scoring of multiple-choice examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Jones, Anne Cale; Hendricson, William D

    2014-12-01

    Creating a learning environment that fosters student acquisition of self-assessment behaviors and skills is critically important in the education and training of health professionals. Self-assessment is a vital component of competent practice and lifelong learning. This article proposes applying a version of confidence scoring of multiple-choice questions as one avenue to address this crucial educational objective for students to be able to recognize and admit what they do not know. The confidence scoring algorithm assigns one point for a correct answer, deducts fractional points for an incorrect answer, but rewards students fractional points for leaving the question unanswered in admission that they are unsure of the correct answer. The magnitude of the reward relative to the deduction is selected such that the expected gain due to random guessing, even after elimination of all but one distractor, is never greater than the reward. Curricular implementation of this confidence scoring algorithm should motivate health professions students to develop self-assessment behaviors and enable them to acquire the skills necessary to critically evaluate the extent of their current knowledge throughout their professional careers. This is a professional development competency that is emphasized in the educational standards of the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA).

  16. Comparative corrosion study of Ag–Pd and Co–Cr alloys used in dental applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Mareci; D Sutiman; A Cailean; G Bolat

    2010-08-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of two Ag–Pd alloys (Unique White and Paliag) used in dental prosthetics construction for crowns and bridges and one Co–Cr alloy (Vitallium 2000) was studied in artificial saliva using the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of the corrosion currents value and by coulometric analysis. The open circuit potential of Ag–Pd are attributed to dealloying followed by surface enrichment with Ag and the possible formation of an insoluble AgCl surface film on the respective alloy surfaces. Our results have shown that these alloys have a somewhat good corrosion resistance in artificial saliva. The corrosion current densities of Unique White and Vitallium 2000 alloys were very low (∼100 nA/cm2). For Ag–Pd alloys, when increasing the content of Cu, corrosion resistance decreases. The passivation of all samples occurred spontaneously at the open circuit potential. The electrochemical properties of the spontaneously passivated electrodes at the open circuit potential were studied by EIS. The polarization resistance (p) and the electrode capacitance (dl) were determined. The polarization resistance of all the samples increases with the immersion time. The polarization resistances are largest for Unique White (Ag–Pd) and Vitallium 2000 (Co–Cr) alloys. Because the electrochemical behaviour of the Co–Cr alloy was compared with that of Ag–Pd alloy, this type of alloy may be a suitable alternative for use in the manufacture of fixed dental prostheses. The present study, though limited, has shown that electrochemical characteristics can be used to identify such alloys. Knowledge of the in vitro corrosion behaviour of these alloys may lead to better understanding of any biologically adverse effects in vitro.

  17. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.S. van der; Vucic, S.; Marrewijk, D.J.F. van; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dental development

  18. Dental age estimation by Demirjian′s and Nolla′s method: A comparative study among children attending a dental college in Lucknow (UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Estimation of age is an important aspect of forensic science. The assessment of age is useful in forensic odontology and in treatments plans of orthodontic and pedodontic patients. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine dental age from orthopantomograph using Demirjian′s method and Nolla′s method. It was also to evaluate the interrelationship between chronological and dental age according to both these methods and to evaluate which technique was better. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of Babu Banarasi Das College of Dental Sciences (UP, Northern India. A total of 300 subjects (150 girls and 150 boys of age group from 6 years to 15 years were enrolled. These subjects were grouped by a difference of 1 year into 10 groups (each group comprised of 30 subjects: 15 males and 15 females. For every individual included in the study a panoramic radiograph was taken, with standard parameters and adequate protective measures. Results: The results imply that Demirjian′s method is applicable to all age groups and for both genders with better accuracy than Nolla′s method, which had a limited utility in younger age group. Thus Demirjian′s method is a better method when compared to Nolla′s method in Northern Indian population.

  19. Dental assisting experience as a predictor of dental hygiene academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, S; Goral, V

    1995-01-01

    Selecting dental hygiene students who ultimately will be successful in their formal education and board examinations is critical to dental hygiene education and the profession. This study examined prior dental assisting experience as a predictor of performance during dental hygiene education as well as on licensure examinations. The study included all 132 female students who graduated from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Dental Hygiene, from 1989 through 1993. The prior assisting group (n = 43) consisted of students with at least six months of dental assisting experience as reported by the student and/or previous dentist employers. The nonassisting group (n = 89) had no dental assisting experience prior to admission. Student records were used to compile evaluative data for each subject including: prerequisite college science grade-point average (GPA); dental hygiene GPA at the end of the first year of the program; dental hygiene GPA at the end of the second year; combined GPA for the three semesters of clinical dental hygiene coursework; quality points for specific dental hygiene courses including preclinical dental hygiene instrumentation, dental hygiene clinic I, dental anatomy, and dental materials; and National Board Dental Hygiene Examination Scores and performance on the Southern Regional Board Examination. Student's t-test analysis was used to compare the prerequisite college science GPA for the assisting and nonassisting groups. Multivariate analysis was used for all other measures of comparison. Student's t-test analysis revealed no significant differences in terms of the prerequisite college science GPA as a control for this extraneous variable. The results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that the prior dental assisting group had significantly higher cumulative clinic GPAs as well as clinic I quality points. No significant differences were noted in first-year GPA, cumulative program GPA, dental materials, preclinical

  20. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. RESULTS: We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system...

  1. Integration einer OSCE in das zahnmedizinische Physikum [Integration of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE into the Dental Preliminary Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratzmann, Anja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: In the pre-clinical phase of the study of dentistry at the University of Greifswald, the course “Early Patient Contact (EPC” is conducted within the framework of Community Medicine/Dentistry. The course is based on three pillars: the patient visiting program, special problem-oriented seminars, and communication training for doctors. The essential goal consists of providing students with real patient contact right at the beginning of their study of dentistry, thus making the study of dentistry patient-based very early on. Students are trained in taking comprehensive anamneses and recording clinical findings.Methods: Within the framework of the dental preliminary exams, the course is evaluated using an OSCE on a standardized patient. Furthermore, the added value of an additional training unit (conducting anamnesis and clinical examination in preparation for the OSCE was evaluated. The exam results of a group without training (control group were compared with those of a group with training (intervention group.Results: The intervention group performed significantly better than the control on the following items: the total number of points achieved on the OSCE early patient contact, and in the most important points of the anamnesis and clinical examination. In addition, the intervention group tended to score higher in terms of the item “oral health status”.Conclusion: The present study showed a positive effect of an additional training unit on students’ performance in the OSCE. Taking the limitations of the study and the results of a literature review into account, we recommend conducting such training as preparation for the OSCE.[german] Einleitung: An der Universität Greifswald wird im vorklinischen Abschnitt des Studienganges der Zahnmedizin im Rahmen der Community Medicine/Dentistry der Kurs „Der Frühe Patientenkontakt (FPK“ durchgeführt. Der Kurs basiert auf drei Prinzipien: dem Patientenbesuchsprogramm

  2. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  3. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children′s response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. Study Design: This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.

  4. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with removable partial denture: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omo, J O; Sede, M A; Esan, T A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of a measured portion of fresh raw carrot for 20 specified numbers of strokes. The raw carrot was recovered into a cup and strained through a standard mesh sieve of 5 mm by 1 mm, it was air dried for 30 min and weighed with FEM digital series weighing scale. The masticatory performance ratio was then determined. The age range of the subjects was 34-64 years with the mean age being 52.2 ± 8.2 years. The difference between the total masticatory performance score at the post- and pre-treatment phases was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The improvement in masticatory performance was marked among the younger age groups (P = 0.001), unilateral free end saddle subjects (P = 0.001), and among the male gender (P < 0.05). Masticatory performance improved with the provision of RPD. However, the improvement was marked among the younger age groups, unilateral free end saddle subjects, and the male gender; thereby supporting the need for RPDs in patients with SDA.

  5. Image quality assessment in panoramic dental radiography: a comparative study between conventional and digital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Tiau, Yu Jin

    2013-02-01

    This study is designed to compare and evaluate the diagnostic image quality of dental panoramic radiography between conventional and digital systems. Fifty-four panoramic images were collected and divided into three groups consisting of conventional, digital with and without post processing image. Each image was printed out and scored subjectively by two experienced dentists who were blinded to the exposure parameters and system protocols. The evaluation covers of anatomical coverage and structures, density and image contrast. The overall image quality score revealed that digital panoramic with post-processing scored the highest of 3.45±0.19, followed by digital panoramic system without post-processing and conventional panoramic system with corresponding scores of 3.33±0.33 and 2.06±0.40. In conclusion, images produced by digital panoramic system are better in diagnostic image quality than that from conventional panoramic system. Digital post-processing visualization can improve diagnostic quality significantly in terms of radiographic density and contrast.

  6. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message.

  7. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders: a comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Dolores R R; Bottino, Marco C; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H A

    2008-12-01

    (1) To synthesize 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. A coprecipitation route was used to synthesize a 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic processed by uniaxial compaction and pressureless sintering. Commercially available alumina or alumina/zirconia ceramics, namely Procera AllCeram (PA), In-Ceram Zirconia Block (CAZ) and In-Ceram Zirconia (IZ) were chosen for comparison. All specimens (6mmx5mmx5mm) were polished and ultrasonically cleaned. Qualitative phase analysis was performed by XRD and apparent densities were measured on the basis of Archimedes principle. Ceramics were also characterized using SEM, TEM and EDS. The hardness measurements were made employing Vickers hardness test. Fracture toughness (K(IC)) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). ANOVA revealed that the Vickers hardness (pceramic materials composition. It was confirmed that the PA ceramic was constituted of a rhombohedral alumina matrix, so-called alpha-alumina. Both CAZ and IZ ceramics presented tetragonal zirconia and alpha-alumina mixture of phases. The SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the presence of aluminum in PA ceramic. In the IZ and CAZ ceramics aluminum, zirconium and cerium in grains involved by a second phase containing aluminum, silicon and lanthanum were identified. PA showed significantly higher mean Vickers hardness values (H(V)) (18.4+/-0.5GPa) compared to vitreous CAZ (10.3+/-0.2GPa) and IZ (10.6+/-0.4GPa) ceramics. Experimental Y-TZP showed significantly lower results than that of the other monophased ceramic (PA) (pceramics (pceramic processing conditions led to ceramics with mechanical properties comparable to commercially available reinforced ceramic materials.

  8. Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efurd, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

  9. Dental fear, regularity of dental attendance and subjective evaluation of dental erosion in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, Tiril; Graugaard, Peter K

    2005-08-01

    This questionnaire study, with a response rate of 53%, examined self-induced vomiting, erosions and dental attendance in women with eating disorders (EDs) as well as dental fear and its effect on attendance and communication with the dentist. A survey of 371 responding women with EDs, who were recruited from a self-help organization, revealed that dental fear was higher in women with EDs compared to the general population. Dental fear was present in 32.1% of women with EDs, and very high dental fear was present in 16.5% of women with EDs. Of those with very high dental fear, 32.3% had not visited a dental clinic at all in the preceding 2 yr, and 43.5% only initiated contact when they had symptoms. Self-induced vomiting was especially frequent in women with bulimia nervosa (87.9%) and in those with more than one ED (the 'mixed group') (80.6%). Among those with self-induced vomiting, 45.3% thought that they had erosions, although only 28.4% had erosions diagnosed by a dentist. Of women with EDs, 61.4% failed to disclose their condition. High dental fear did not affect willingness to disclose the ED. We conclude that dentists should examine ED patients carefully for dental erosions. Moreover, they should realize that most ED patients avoid disclosing their disorder and that dental fear further complicates dental treatment in these patients.

  10. Dental Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  11. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this relationship. PMID:24621226

  12. [Comparative study of immunocompetent cells of dental pulp of intact teeth, teeth with carious lesion and its complications combined with parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskiĭ, A V

    2007-01-01

    Results of the comparative immunohistochemical study of dental pulp by means of monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD20, capital ES, CD68 are described. Pulp from the patients with caries, acute and chronic pulpitis in combination with periodontitis on different stages was studied, the qualitative and quantitative feature of dental pulp immune cells--T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages was determined.

  13. Use of an Analytical Grading Rubric for Self-Assessment: A Pilot Study for a Periodontal Oral Competency Examination in Predoctoral Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, Keerthana M; Brockmann, Lorraine B; Liu, Ying; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2015-12-01

    While educators agree that using self-assessment in education is valuable, a major challenge is the poor agreement often found between faculty assessment and student self-assessment. The aim of this study was to determine if use of a predefined grading rubric would improve reliability between faculty and dental student assessment on a periodontal oral competency examination. Faculty members used the grading rubric to assess students' performance on the exam. Immediately after taking the exam, students used the same rubric to self-assess their performance on it. Data were collected from all third- and/or fourth-year students in four classes at one U.S. dental school from 2011 to 2014. Since two of the four classes took the exam in both the third and fourth years, those data were compared to determine if those students' self-assessment skills improved over time. Statistical analyses were performed to determine agreement between the two faculty graders and between the students' and faculty assessments on each criterion in the rubric and the overall grade. Data from the upper and lower performing quartiles of students were sub-analyzed. The results showed that faculty reliability for the overall grades was high (K=0.829) and less so for individual criteria, while student-faculty reliability was weak to moderate for both overall grades (Spearman's rho=0.312) and individual criteria. Students in the upper quartile self-evaluated themselves more harshly than the faculty (passessment over time in the students who took the exam in the third and fourth years. This study found only limited support for the hypothesis that a grading rubric used by both faculty and students would increase correspondence between faculty and student assessment and points to a need to reexamine the rubric and instructional strategies to help students improve their ability to self-assess their work.

  14. Examination of image information on dental application. Extraction and significance of CT values for the teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Kazuko

    1988-06-01

    The first molar tooth of the mandibule from 11 volunteers was used to determine computed tomography (CT) values in the enamel, dentine, cement, pulp cavity, and root canal. Peak CT values were 1776 for the enamel, 1525 for the dentine, 1342 for the cement, 1275 for the pulp cavity, and 1318 for the root canal. Average CT values were 1730 for the enamel, 1461 for the dentine, 1305 for the cement, 1290 for the pulp cavity, and 1297 for the root canal. When calculating CT values from 10 longitudinal images and 10 or more transverse images, the values were 1843 for the enamel, 1516 for the dentine, 1292 for the cement, 942 for the pulp cavity, and 1116 for the root canal. Ten-slice images provided more definitive discrimination of the test materials when compared with peak and average CT values. Three-dimensional CT images in 10 slices may provide visual demonstration of each tissue in the teeth. (Namekawa, K.) 61 refs.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi SB

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the sensitometric properties of screen-film systems and conventional dental receptors for intraoral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircos, L.T.; Staninec, M.; Chou, L.

    1989-12-01

    This investigation determined the sensitometric properties of 27 rare-earth screen-film combinations and compared them to E- and D-speed films and xeroradiography, the current standards for intraoral radiography. A series of exposures from base plus fog to film saturation were made to determine the Hurter and Driffield curve of each image receptor. The base plus fog, film saturation, speed, gamma, average gradient, and resolution were determined. When dental receptors and screen-film systems are compared on the basis of radiographic quality (contrast and resolution), many screen-film systems have similar resolution (greater than 10 line pairs/mm), significantly greater contrast (greater than 2.0), and a substantial speed advantage (greater than 10). Thus selected screen-film systems may be an alternative to conventional dental receptors for intraoral radiography.

  17. Job requirements compared to dental school education: impact of a case-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeve, Philip L; Gerhards, Ute; Arnold, Wolfgang A; Zimmer, Stefan; Zöllner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve dental education. The purpose of this study was to assess graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL)-based curriculum as regards to key competencies required at their professional activity. 407 graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL) dental curriculum who graduated between 1990 and 2006 were eligible for this study. 404 graduates were contacted between 2007 and 2008 to self-assess nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in dental school on a 6-point Likert scale. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. To determine whether dental education sufficiently covers the job requirements of physicians, we calculated the mean difference ∆ between the ratings of competencies as required in day-to-day work and as taught in medical school by subtracting those from each other (negative mean difference ∆ indicates deficit; positive mean difference ∆ indicates surplus). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to reveal statistical significance (statistical significance pInterdisciplinary thinking" (∆+0.47), "Dental medical knowledge" (∆+0.43), "Practical dental skills" (∆+0.21), "Team work" (∆+0.16) and "Independent learning/working" (∆+0.08), whereas "Problem-solving skills" (∆-0.07), "Psycho-social competence" (∆-0.66) and "Business competence" (∆-2.86) needed improvement in the CBL-based curriculum. CBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of dentists. Psycho-social and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  18. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  19. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Alexandre Henrique; Alves, Luana Severo; Melo, Gliciana Piovesan de; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond) and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  20. A comparative evaluation of microleakage of restorations using silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavities: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambai Sampath Kumar Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of restorations using low shrinkage silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavity at the occlusal and gingival margins. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular molars were collected and divided into three experimental groups and one negative control group. Class II slot cavity was prepared on the mesial surface. Experimental groups were restored with Group I: silorane-based microhybrid composite, Group II: methacrylate-based nanohybrid composite, and Group III: Methacrylate-based microhybrid composite, respectively. Group IV: negative control. The samples were thermocycled, root apices were sealed with sticky wax and coated with nail varnish except 1 mm around the restoration. This was followed by immersion in 2% Rhodamine-B dye solution under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h. Then, the samples were sectioned longitudinally in the mesiodistal direction and evaluated under stereomicroscope ×40 magnification. Scoring was done according to the depth of dye penetration in to the cavity. Statistical analysis of the data was done. Results: The results were that no statistically significant difference in the microleakage at the occlusal margin for all the restorative materials, whereas at the gingival margin, silorane-based microhybrid composite showed less microleakage than the methacrylate-based nano- and micro-hybrid composites. Conclusion: In general, silorane-based microhybrid composite had less microleakage among the other materials used in this in vitro study.

  1. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Machorowska-Pieniążek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic appliances modify the local environment of the oral cavity, increase the accumulation of dental plaque, and affect the condition of the gingiva. The aim of this study is assessment of Brazilian propolis toothpaste’s effect on plaque index (PLI and gingival index (GI in patients with CL/CLP treated using orthodontic appliances in the 35-day study period. The study population included 96 patients of an Orthodontic Outpatient Clinic, ACSiMS in Bytom. All the patients participated in the active phase of orthodontic treatment using buccal multibracket appliances or removable appliances. During the first examination, each patient was randomly qualified to the propolis group or control group. A statistically significant decrease in GI and PLI in the entire propolis group (P<0.01 was shown during repeated examination. Insignificant change in GI was in the entire control group during the repeated examination compared to the baseline. Similar result was obtained in patients treated with multibracket and removable appliances. The orthodontic appliance type did not affect the final dental plaque amount and gingival condition in patients using the propolis toothpaste. These results may be clinically useful to improve prevention and control oral infectious diseases during orthodontic treatment patients with oral cleft.

  2. Sparseness of the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs: visual assessment compared with semi-automated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.G.M.; Lindh, C.; Verheij, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In diagnostic imaging; human perception is the most prominent, yet least studied, source of error. A better understanding of image perception will help to improve diagnostic performance. This study focuses on the perception of coarseness of trabecular patterns on dental radiographs. Compa

  3. Sparseness of the trabecular pattern on dental radiographs: visual assessment compared with semi-automated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.G.M.; Lindh, C.; Verheij, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In diagnostic imaging; human perception is the most prominent, yet least studied, source of error. A better understanding of image perception will help to improve diagnostic performance. This study focuses on the perception of coarseness of trabecular patterns on dental radiographs. Compa

  4. Do Different Approaches to Examining Construct Comparability in Multilanguage Assessments Lead to Similar Conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Maria E.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine the degree of construct comparability and possible sources of incomparability of the English and French versions of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 problem-solving measure administered in Canada. Several approaches were used to examine construct comparability at the test- (examination of…

  5. Do Different Approaches to Examining Construct Comparability in Multilanguage Assessments Lead to Similar Conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Maria E.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine the degree of construct comparability and possible sources of incomparability of the English and French versions of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 problem-solving measure administered in Canada. Several approaches were used to examine construct comparability at the test- (examination of…

  6. Dental fluorosis and lumbar spine bone mineral density in adults, ages 20 to 49 years: results from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is an urgent public health concern. Many factors influence bone mineral density (BMD), a criterion used to diagnose osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if dental fluorosis may be a marker for osteoporosis. The association between dental fluorosis and BMD at the lumbar spine was examined. Using a cross-sectional design with 1,805 adults, ages 20 to 49 years, from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, an analysis of the association between dental fluorosis and BMD was performed, using chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Other variables included predisposing factors (gender, age and race/ethnicity), enabling factors (marital status, education, poverty status and health insurance) and lifestyle/behavioral factors (perceived health status, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and body mass index). Overall, 13.5% had fluorosis; 6.8% with fluorosis and 9.8% without fluorosis had low lumbar spine BMD. Multivariable analysis found there was not a statistically significant association between fluorosis and lumbar spine BMD (adjusted odds ratio=0.82; 95% CI (0.43. 1.56)). Dental fluorosis and lumbar spine BMD were not found to be associated in a sample of adults.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia with 2% lignocaine in various minor pediatric dental procedures: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dhindsa; I K Pandit; Nikhil Srivastava; Neeraj Gugnani

    2011-01-01

    One of the most distressing aspects of dentistry for pediatric patients is the fear and anxiety caused by the dental environment, particularly the dental injection. The application and induction of local anesthetics has always been a difficult task, and this demands an alternative method that is convenient and effective. Electronic dental anesthesia, based on the principal of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), promises to be a viable mode of pain control during various pediatri...

  8. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  9. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity.

  10. Use of laser fluorescence in dental caries diagnosis: a fluorescence x biomolecular vibrational spectroscopic comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos de; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Zanin, Fátima Antonia Aparecida; Brugnera Júnior, Aldo; Silveira Júnior, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the existence of correlation between Raman spectroscopy readings of phosphate apatite (~960 cm-1), fluoridated apatite (~575 cm-1) and organic matrix (~1450 cm-1) levels and Diagnodent® readings at different stages of dental caries in extracted human teeth. The mean peak value of fluorescence in the carious area was recorded and teeth were divided in enamel caries, dentin caries and sound dental structure. After fluorescence readings, Raman spectroscopy was carried out on the same sites. The results showed significant difference (ANOVA, pcaries. There was significant negative correlation (pcaries. It may be concluded that the higher the fluorescence detected by Diagnodent the lower the peaks of phosphate apatite and fluoridated apatite. As the early diagnosis of caries is directly related to the identification of changes in the inorganic tooth components, Raman spectroscopy was more sensitive to variations of these components than Diagnodent.

  11. Comparative evaluation of perceptions of dental students to three methods of teaching in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, T A; Oziegbe, E O

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization in 1994 recommended that dental education should be problem based, socially and culturally relevant, and community oriented. To explore the perceptions of Pre-phase II (pre-clinical II) dental students on three methods of teaching used during two academic sessions. All part IV dental students in two consecutive sessions undergoing pre phase II course in the Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife were recruited into the study. Three different modes of teaching that is, Problem based learning (PBL), hybrid PBL and traditional teaching were used to teach the students. A twenty two itemed anonymous questionnaire on a five point Likert scale was administered to the students at the end of the course. Six perceived factors were extracted from the questionnaire using factor analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (p method compared to the other methods of teaching. The perceived factor "communication with peers" had the highest mean score for PBL in both sessions (4.57 ± 0.58 and 4.09 ± 0.93 respectively). However, PBL method was very helpful in all the six perceived factors while the students perceived that the traditional method of teaching was not helpful in "interaction with tutors" and "challenge to critical thinking". The findings showed that students preferred the PBL method to other forms of teaching. PBL enhanced the students' communication skill, was very useful as pedagogic tool and improved their critical thinking.

  12. A Comparative Study of Spiral Tomograms with Different Slice Thicknesses in Dental Implant Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon Sook Ja [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    To know whether there would be a difference among spiral tomograms of different slice thicknesses in the measurement of distances which are used for dental implant planning. 10 dry mandibules and 40 metal balls are used to take total 120 Scanora tomograms with the slice thickness of 2 mm, 4 mm and 8 mm. 3 oral radiologists interpreted each tomogram to measure the distances from the mandibular canal to the alveoalr crest and buccal, lingual and inferior borders of mandible. 3 observers recorded grades of 0, 1 or 2 to evaluate the perceptibility of alveolar crest and the superior border of mandibular canal. For statistical analysis, ANOVA with repeated measure, Chi-square tests and intraclass correlation coefficient (R2, alpha) were used. There was not a statistically significant difference among spiral tomograms with different slice thicknesses in the measurement of the distances and in the perceptibility of alveolar crest and mandibular canal (p>0.05). All of them showed a good relationship in the reliability analysis. The perceptibility of alveolar crest and mandibular canal was almost similar and an excellent relationship was seen on all of them. There would be no significant difference, no matter which spiral tomogram of any slice thickness may be used in dental implant planning, considering the thickness of dental implant fixture.

  13. Intricate Assessment and Evaluation of Effect of Bruxism on Long-term Survival and Failure of Dental Implants: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kajal; Nagpal, Abhishek; Agarwal, S K; Kochhar, Aarti

    2016-08-01

    Dental implants are one of the common lines of treatment used for the treatment of missing tooth. Various risk factors are responsible for the failure of the dental implants and occurrence of postoperative complications. Bruxism is one such factor responsible for the failure of the dental implants. The actual relation between bruxism and dental implants is a subject of long-term controversy. Hence, we carried out this retrospective analysis to assess the complications occurring in dental implants in patients with and without bruxism. The present study included 1100 patients which were treated for rehabilitation by dental implant procedure at 21 dental offices of Ghaziabad (India) from 2004 to 2014. Analyzing the clinical records of the patients along with assessing the photographs of the patients was done for confirming the diagnosis of bruxism. Clinical re-evaluation of the patients, who came back for follow-up, was done to confirm the diagnosis of bruxism. Systemic questionnaires as used by previous workers were used to evaluate the patients about the self-conscience of the condition. Estimation of the mechanical complications was done only in those cases which occurred on the surfaces of the restoration of the dental implants. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to evaluate the level of significance. In both bruxer and non-bruxers, maximum number of dental implants was placed in anterior maxillary region. Significant difference was obtained while comparing the two groups for dimensions of the dental implants used. On comparing the total implant failed cases between bruxers and non-bruxers group, statistically significant result was obtained. Statistically significant difference was obtained while comparing the two study groups based on the health parameters, namely hypertension, diabetes, and smoking habit. Success of dental implant is significantly

  14. Comparative study of dental enamel loss after debonding braces by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, Jacqueline Adelina; Arenas-Alatorre, Jesús; Belio-Reyes, Irma Araceli

    2017-02-05

    Clinical procedures when shear forces are applied to brackets suggest adhesion forces between 2.8 and 10.0 MPa as appropriate. In this study dental enamel was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after removing the brackets. Thirty bicuspids (previous prophylaxis) with metallic brackets (Roth Inovation 0.022 GAC), Transbond Plus SEP 3M Unitek adhesive and Transbond XT 3M resin were used. The samples were preserved to 37°C during 24 hr and submited to tangential forces with the Instron Universal machine 1.0 mm/min speed load strength resistance debonding. Also the Adhesive Remanent Index (ARI) test was made, evaluating the bracket base and the bicuspid surface. All the bracket SEM images were processed with AutoCAD to determine the enamel detached area. The average value was 6.86 MPa (SD ± 3.2 MPa). ARI value 1= 63.3%, value 2= 20%, value 3= 13.3% and 33% presented value 0. All those samples with dental enamel loss, presented different situations as fractures, ledges, horizontal, and vertical loss in some cases, and some scratch lines. There is no association between the debonding resistance and enamel presence. Less than half of the remanent adhesive on the dental enamel was present in most of the samples when the ARI test was applied. When the resin area increases, the debonding resistance also increases, and when the enamel loss increases, the resin free metallic area of the bracket base decreases in the debonding.

  15. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht’s DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates’ of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%. However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%. Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P=0.004. “Heart beats faster” and “muscle being tensed” were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. “Drill” and “anesthetic needle” were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. Conclusion. Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services.

  16. Comparative use of podcasts vs. lecture transcripts as learning aids for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth L; Katz, Ralph V

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe dental students' use of lecture podcasts versus written lecture transcripts as learning aids under three different circumstances: studying for an exam, reviewing an attended lecture, and reviewing a missed lecture. Additional analyses were performed to see whether demographic differences (e.g., age, gender, language skills, and computer skills) or grade differences were associated with preferences for using podcast versus written lecture transcripts of class notes. Fifty-one percent (n=171) of the second-year dental students at the New York University College of Dentistry voluntarily participated in this survey. The major findings were that 1) a high percentage of students (70-92 percent) used one or both aids in all three utilization circumstances with a consistent preference for podcast use, especially when reviewing a missed lecture; 2) course grades were not associated with the preferred use of either lecture aid; and 3) over half the students listened to the podcasts at speeds that were one and one-half or two times faster than normal speech, especially younger students. Further studies are warranted to delve into the current student generation's preferred learning styles and the resultant learning outcomes associated with those preferences.

  17. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy.

  18. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  19. Dental Decay Phenotype in Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B J; Cooper, M E; Wehby, G L; Resick, J M; Nidey, N L; Valencia-Ramirez, L C; Lopez-Palacio, A M; Rivera, D; Vieira, A R; Weinberg, S M; Marazita, M L; Moreno Uribe, L M

    2017-09-01

    Although children with oral clefts have a higher risk for dental anomalies when compared with the general population, prior studies have shown conflicting results regarding their dental decay risk. Also, few studies have assessed dental decay risk in unaffected relatives of children with clefts. Thus, the question of increased risk of dental decay in individuals with oral clefts or their unaffected relatives is still open for empirical investigation. This study characterizes dental decay in the largest international cohort to date of children with nonsyndromic clefts and their relatives, as compared with controls, and it addresses whether families with oral clefts have a significantly increased risk for dental decay versus the general population. A total of 3,326 subjects were included: 639 case probands, 1,549 unaffected relatives, and 1,138 controls. Decay was identified from in-person dental examinations or intraoral photographs. Case-control differences were tested with regression analysis. No significant differences were shown in percentage decayed and filled teeth and decayed teeth in the primary dentition (dft, dt) and permanent dentition (DFT, DT) in cases versus controls. In the cleft region, no significant differences were seen in primary or permanent decay (dt, DT) when compared with controls. No difference was found with regard to cleft type and percentage dft, dt, DFT, and DT in case probands. Nonsignificant differences were found in unaffected siblings and parents versus controls (primary and permanent dentitions). Collectively, these findings indicate that individuals with nonsyndromic oral clefts and their families do not have a higher dental decay risk as compared with the general population. These results suggest that either genetic or environmental factors underlying a higher susceptibility for dental anomalies do not increase caries risk or that the seemingly higher risk for dental decay associated with increased dental anomalies in case

  20. [Comparative study of two classification criteria used in the Family Health Program to prioritize treatment of dental caries in 5-to-12 year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreri, André Luiz Marçal; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two classification criteria used to prioritize treatment of dental caries under the Brazilian Family Health Program. The study was held in Ipiguá, São Paulo State, and included 538 five-to-twelve-year-old children. The children underwent an oral examination and assessment of two classification criteria in order to prioritize restorative dental treatment. Based on caries activity, 236 children (75.4%) were prioritized for dental care, while the criterion based on amount and size of the cavity included 73 children (23.4%). Using the two criteria, 186 children (59.4%) were not classified with the same priority for restorative treatment. Determining the precedence for restorative dental treatment must be based on the caries activity, number of cavities, need for treatment, and type of dentition involved (deciduous or permanent). Subjective measures can also be used as a supplement for more rational planning.

  1. Price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE tape for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the price and the efficacy of the polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE tape as an oral hygiene method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm, compared to the common nylon dental floss in adolescents and young adults. Methods: The polytetrafluoroethylene tape was used as a method for the removal of the proximal dental biofilm. By a randomized procedure the sample size was of 87 (31 men and 56 women between 16 and 28 years old. The oral hygiene of the participants was suspended during a period of 12 hours. A suitable disclosing solution was used to paint the dental surfaces. The removal of the biofilm was made by the same operator who used the same technique with the two materials (polytetrafluoroethylene tape and nylon dental floss. The information was collected using the coronal division (in thirds of the Greene and Vermillion Oral Hygiene Index. This index was modified to evaluate proximal surfaces only. Results: In the group of dental floss the presence of the proximal biofilm was 72.6% before and 11.2% after its removal. In the group of PTFE was 72.9% before and 11% after. After the comparison of the two methods the differences are not significant. PTFE price is 2.7 times lower than common nylon dental floss. Conclusions: The similarity in the removal of the proximal biofilm of the PTFE tape when compared to the nylon floss was significant. Thanks to its biocompatibility, tolerance and its low price, the PTFE tape is an alternative method for the removal of the biofilm in these proximal areas. Results of this study open a way for the investigation on non orthodox techniques, but effective, for the maintenance of the oral health with the only purpose of improving life quality of poor populations.

  2. Stress and Academic Performance in Dental Students: The Role of Coping Strategies and Examination-Related Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, María; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martín

    2016-02-01

    Academic stress negatively affects students' performance. However, little is known of the processes that may be involved in this association. This study aimed to analyze how other variables such as coping strategies and exam-related self-efficacy could be related to academic stress and performance for dental students. An online survey, including measures of coping strategies, perceived stress, exam-related self-efficacy, and academic performance, was completed by undergraduate dental students in Madrid, Spain. Of the 275 students invited to take the survey, 201 participated (response rate 73.6%). Rational coping strategies (problem-solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support) were negatively associated with perceived stress (β=-0.25, pacademic stress (β=0.34, pacademic performance.

  3. Factors Influencing Student Preference When Comparing Handwriting and Typing for Essay Style Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogey, Nora; Fluck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It seems anachronistic that we expect students to handwrite essay examinations when almost all their other work is mediated by computer. Two universities, one in the UK and one in Australia, are exploring the use of computers in free text response examinations. This paper compares both the attitudes and the behaviours of their students concerning…

  4. Hitler and Bormann identifications compared by postmortem craniofacial and dental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sognnaes, R F

    1980-06-01

    After Stalin told President Truman at Potsdam, July 17, 1945, that Hitler got away, a secret U.S. mission was designated to establish anthropological skull projections pertinent to a potential recovery of Hitler's remains, i.e., by experimentally eliminating the "flesh." Then, conversely, in 1972, when one of the two skulls unearthed next to the Lehrter Railroad station in West Berlin (where Hitler's physician and Bormann had last been seen alive on May 2, 1945), an attempt was made to put facial flesh back on the skull with a view to reconstruct the original facial physiognomy of Martin Bormann. All things considered, it will be documented that the only convincing forensic evidence of Hitler's and Bormann's deaths proved to be the dental data.

  5. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Carter, Knute D; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended parallel process model was used as a theoretical framework for this research. This model suggests that people will act if the perceived threat (severity and susceptibility) is high enough and if efficacy levels (self-efficacy and response efficacy) are likewise high. Following Witte's method of categorizing people's perceptions and emotions into one of four categories based on levels of threat and efficacy, this article describes four groups (high threat/high efficacy, high threat/low efficacy, low threat/high efficacy, and low threat/low efficacy) of parents and how they compare to each other. Using logistic regression to model if a child had a preventive visit, results indicate that parents with low threat/high efficacy and parents with high threat/high efficacy had approximately 2.5 times the odds of having a child with a preventive oral health visit compared to parents with low threat/low efficacy, when controlling for perceived oral health status, health literacy, and child's age. The importance of efficacy needs to be incorporated in interventions aimed at increasing preventive dental visits for young children.

  6. Attitude of Dental Prostheses Residents of Faculty of Dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences to Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafezeqoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is one of the most authentic ways to evaluate clinical skills. The present study aimed at evaluating the attitude of dental prostheses residents of the faculty of dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences toward this kind of examination. Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study, two questionnaires were designed. One questionnaire dealt with nature of OSCE and the other dealt with the attitude of residents about OSCE. After holding the OSCE in July 2012, 2013, and 2014, the questionnaires were delivered to all dental prostheses residents of the Tabriz dental faculty. In total, 40 questionnaires were filled out within three years. Questions included five-choice items based on a Likert scale. Furthermore, the students’ scores in each exam were recorded to evaluate any possible relationship between the acquired grade and the student’s attitude toward the exam. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS17 software (α=5%. Results: Most residents (62.5% referred to the large number of questions as a positive factor. In addition, a majority of residents (90% suffered from high levels of stress during OSCE. There was a close relation between the grade acquired by the residents in the examination and their attitude to OSCE as well as their evaluation about the examination. The students with better grades had more positive attitudes toward OSCE. Conclusion: Considering the satisfaction level of the students in this study, OSCE was held efficiently and may be considered as part of the training program of the residents.

  7. Disparities in the experience and treatment of dental caries among children aged 9-18 years: the cross-sectional study of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Kim, Jeong Lim; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and the experience as well as treatment of dental caries among children aged 9 to 18 years. Data from 1253 children aged 9-18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2013) were analyzed. Parental socioeconomic status was measured using household income level and maternal educational level. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to measure experience of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 1). Non-treatment of dental caries was measured according to whether the participants who experienced dental caries used a dental service at a dental clinic to treat caries during the previous year. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between parental socioeconomic status and the experience of dental caries as well as the association between parental socioeconomic status and the non-treatment of dental caries among children that have experienced caries. A total of 808 subjects (64.5 %) experienced dental caries among 1253 participants, and 582 of these 808 subjects (72.0 %) did not receive treatment among those having experience of dental caries. Parental socioeconomic status was not associated with experience of dental caries. However, those from low- and middle-income households were less likely to receive treatment than those from high-income households (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16-3.86], OR 2.14 [95 % CI 1.27-3.62]). In particular, those from low- and middle-income households who had regular dental checkups were more likely to have untreated caries than those from high-income households (OR 3.58 [95 % CI 1.25-10.24]). This study demonstrates the parental household income-related disparities in children's dental health treatment. Efforts should be made to lower financial barriers to dental health services, particularly among those from low-income households, in order to reduce

  8. Mitigating Circumstances in the Current and the New Criminal Code. Comparative Examination

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    Ion Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conducted a general review of the provisions relating to mitigating circumstances and their effects on the current conditions. It was also undertaken a comparative examination of the mitigating circumstances of the provisions of the current Criminal Code compared with those of the New Criminal Code. The research is focused on examining the provisions of the New Criminal Code and on formulating critical opinions. The paper can be useful to theorists and practitioners in this field in terms of entering into force of the New Criminal Code. The essential contribution of the work, its originality lies within the general examination of the rules governing the legal and judicial mitigating circumstances, their effects under the New Criminal Code, the comparative examination of current provisions, and the expressed critical views.

  9. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been broadly termed dental fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is a condition that causes ... less than 2 milligrams per liter. What causes dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is caused by taking in ...

  10. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  11. Brånemark and ITI dental implants in the human bone-grafted maxilla: a comparative evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Else M

    2003-01-01

    and the patients were followed between 20 and 67 months post implantation. The bone graft was transplanted to add bony volume in the maxillary sinus, the anterior floor of the nose and/or the alveolar ridge. After a healing period of 4(1/2) months, dental implants were inserted and left for healing for 8 months......The development of new characteristics concerning implant surface makes it interesting to clinically compare different implant systems in the bone-grafted maxilla. The aim of this evaluation was to compare clinical data of a two-staged procedure on the augmented extremely atrophic maxilla using...... either Brånemark- or ITI-fixures. In 25 patients (18 females, seven males) the severely atrophied maxilla was reconstructed with autogenous iliac or mandibular bone and either Brånemark or ITI implants. Seventy-eight Brånemark implants and 80 SLA-ITI implants were inserted in the augmented bone...

  12. Comparative evaluation of dental resin composites based on micron- and submicron-sized monomodal glass filler particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Lisia L; Peralta, Sonia L; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Cavalcante, Larissa M; Moraes, Rafael R

    2013-11-01

    A model resin composite containing a novel monomodal inorganic filler system based on submicron-sized Ba-Si-Al glass particles (NanoFine NF180; Schott) was formulated and compared with an experimental composite containing micron-sized particles (UltraFine UF1.0; Schott). The filler particles were characterized using X-ray microanalysis and granulometry, while the composites were characterized in terms of filler-resin morphology, radiopacity, degree of CC conversion, hardness, flexural strength/modulus, work-of-fracture, surface roughness and gloss (before and after simulated toothbrushing abrasion), and bulk compressive creep. The composites were formulated from the same photoactivated dimethacrylate co-monomer, incorporating mass fractions of 75% micron- and 78% submicron-sized particles. Quantitative data were analyzed at a significance level of pcomposites were similar in radiopacity, flexural strength, work-of-fracture, and creep. The submicron composite was harder but had lower flexural modulus and CC conversion. No significant differences in roughness were observed before brushing, although the submicron composite had higher gloss. Brushing increased roughness and decreased gloss on both materials, but the submicron composite retained higher gloss after brushing. The monomodal submicron glass filler system demonstrated potential for use in restorative dental composites, particularly due to improved esthetic properties. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator over conventional local anesthesia in children seeking dental procedures: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Varadharaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of pain control by employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS over conventional injectable local anesthesia for children requiring restorative procedures under rubber dam. Materials and Methods: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA. The level of comfort and discomfort experienced during TENS and conventional LA was determined using visual analog scale (VAS and heart rate. Result: Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78% was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%. In VAS, the mean values for pain indicate that minimum pain was felt with TENS, which was closely followed by LA. Conclusion: TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

  14. Comparative study of postoperative morbidity in dental treatment under general anesthesia in pediatric patients with and without an underlying disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escanilla-Casal, Alejandro; Ausucua-Ibáñez, Martina; Aznar-Gómez, Mireia; Viaño-García, José M; Sentís-Vilalta, Joan; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    To identify and quantify the variables and their influence on postoperative morbidity in dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) in pediatric patients with and without an underlying disease. A prospective, descriptive, and comparative analysis was conducted of healthy (n = 49) and disabled/medically compromised (n = 81) children treated under GA. Intra-/post-surgical, clinical epidemiology, technical, care-related, and pharmacologic data were gathered, as were postoperative complications. The average age of ASA I patients (6.7 ± 4.4 years) was younger than that of ASA II-III patients (9.0 ± 4.5 years). Average hospitalization time was 4.27 ± 6.5 h in ASA I and 7.41 ± 6.8 h in ASA II-III. Significant differences were found between the two groups in fillings, pulpotomies, oral surgery, and scaling. Postoperative morbidity in ASA I and ASA II-III was similar both in frequency and severity and decreased during the first 72 h. The most common complication in both groups was toothache. Postoperative morbidity is high after dental treatment under GA, but it is not higher in disabled/medically compromised patients. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students; Interpretacao de anomalias craniofaciais em TC. Analise comparativa por alunos de graduacao em Odontologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  16. Dental education in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Bird, William F

    2007-12-01

    There was only one dental school in Malaysia until 1997 but five new schools have been established since 1998. This review provides information about dental education in Malaysia including; the history of dental education, the current dental school system and curriculum, and dental licensure. There are four public and two private dental schools in Malaysia. High school graduates are required to take the nationwide matriculation entrance examination or the Higher School Certificate (HSC) to apply for a dental degree programme. A five-year dental programme leads to the BDS or the DDS degree. National or state examinations are not required to practise dentistry. Currently, there are approximately 2,500 dentists, with a ratio of 1 dentist for every 10,000 people.

  17. Comparative Shear-Bond Strength of Six Dental Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared shear bond strength (SBS of six self-adhesive resin cements (SARC and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC to zirconia before and after thermocycling. The cylinder shape (Φ 2.35 mm × 3 mm of six SARCs (G-CEM LinkAce (GLA, Maxcem Elite (MAX, Clearfil SA Luting (CSL, PermaCem 2.0 (PM2, Rely-X U200 (RXU, Smartcem 2 (SC2 were bonded to the top surface of the zirconia specimens with light-curing. RMGIC (Fujicem (FJC was bonded to the specimens with self-curing. The shear bond strength of all cemented specimens was measured with universal testing machine. Half of the specimens were thermocycled 5000 times before shear bonding strength testing. Fractured surfaces were examined with a field-emission SEM (10,000× and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. MAX, PM2, SC2 group without thermocycling and GLA, MAX, PM2 group with thermocycling showed adhesive failure, but GLA, CSL, RXU, FJC group without thermocycling and SLC, RXU, SC2, FJC group with thermocycling indicated cohesive failure. Within the limitation of this study, All of SARCs except MAX demonstrated higher bond strength than that of RMGIC regardless of thermocycling. Also, SARC containing MDP monomers (CSL retained better bonds than other cements.

  18. The effectiveness of a musical toothbrush for dental plaque removal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of "Brush Buddies" musical tooth brush and Colgate Smile tooth brush in the reduction of established plaque and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: for this study, 120 healthy kids (73 boys and 47 Girls were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups by a second examiner; one group used Colgate Smile brush and the other group used "Brush Buddies" musical tooth brush. Plaque index (Quigley and Hein, Modified Gingival Index (Lobene and Associates and Gingival Bleeding Index (Ainamo and Bay were assessed at baseline, 30th day, 60th day, and 90th day. Results: all the baseline indices appeared to be well balanced. At the end of the study, reduction in plaque index, modified gingival index and gingival bleeding index were statistically highly significant during each interval for both the toothbrushes. For "Brush Buddies" musical tooth brush, the reduction in all clinical parameters were statistically significant for 30 days and 60 days interval, while nonsignificant at 90 days interval. Interpretation and Conclusion: both the tooth brushes used in this study were clinically effective in removing plaque, improving gingival health. Musical tooth brush is more effective initially but as the time period increases both tooth brushes give almost similar results.

  19. A new primary dental care service compared with standard care for child and family to reduce the re-occurrence of childhood dental caries (Dental RECUR): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Cynthia; Adair, Pauline; Burnside, Girvan; Robinson, Louise; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Albadri, Sondos; Curnow, Morag; Ghahreman, Marjan; Henderson, Mary; Malies, Clare; Wong, Ferranti; Muirhead, Vanessa; Weston-Price, Sally; Whitehead, Hilary

    2015-11-04

    In England and Scotland, dental extraction is the single highest cause of planned admission to the hospital for children under 11 years. Traditional dental services have had limited success in reducing this disease burden. Interventions based on motivational interviewing have been shown to impact positively dental health behaviours and could facilitate the prevention of re-occurrence of dental caries in this high-risk population. The objective of the study is to evaluate whether a new, dental nurse-led service, delivered using a brief negotiated interview based on motivational interviewing, is a more cost-effective service than treatment as usual, in reducing the re-occurrence of dental decay in young children with previous dental extractions. This 2-year, two-arm, multicentre, randomised controlled trial will include 224 child participants, initially aged 5 to 7 years, who are scheduled to have one or more primary teeth extracted for dental caries under general anaesthesia (GA), relative analgesia (RA: inhalation sedation) or local anaesthesia (LA). The trial will be conducted in University Dental Hospitals, Secondary Care Centres or other providers of dental extraction services across the United Kingdom. The intervention will include a brief negotiated interview (based on the principles of motivational interviewing) delivered between enrollment and 6 weeks post-extraction, followed by directed prevention in primary dental care. Participants will be followed up for 2 years. The main outcome measure will be the dental caries experienced by 2 years post-enrollment at the level of dentine involvement on any tooth in either dentition, which had been caries-free at the baseline assessment. The participants are a hard-to-reach group in which secondary prevention is a challenge. Lack of engagement with dental care makes the children and their families scheduled for extraction particularly difficult to recruit to an RCT. Variations in service delivery between sites have

  20. A comparative study on the dental health status of five precolumbian Peruvian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzay, R P; Allison, M J; Pezzia, A

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of dental health status of ancient Southern Peru, 101 skeletal remains were studied from five cultures: Paracas, Nazca, Tiahuanaco, Ica, and Inca. The Paracas and Ica cultures exhibited more missing antemortem teeth per mandible than the other cultures. Frequency of missing one or more third molars was less than expected and not as high as reported in peoples of Mongoloid heritage. The Paracas, Ica and Nazca, "coastal" cultures had a higher caries incidence than the "inland" cultures. Whether this relates to some difference in diet or water supply remains unresolved and warrants further investigation. Moderate attrition was noted in all the Precolumbian cultures but pulpal involvement was not observed. Osteitis, noted in all the cultures, was more pronounced in the Nazca, Paracas and Ica cultures. There appeared to be a direct relationship between caries involvement and the number of missing antemortem teeth to osteitis. Calculus was heavier in the Paracas and Ica cultures. In addition, the Paracas culture exhibited a dark brown stain on the teeth which may imply some difference between the cultures in either the food, water or social habits.

  1. Effectiveness of Jigsaw learning compared to lecture-based learning in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, O; Karatas, O; Turel, V; Yildiz, M; Kaya, E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the success levels of students using the Jigsaw learning method in dental education. Fifty students with similar grade point average (GPA) scores were selected and randomly assigned into one of two groups (n = 25). A pretest concerning 'adhesion and bonding agents in dentistry' was administered to all students before classes. The Jigsaw learning method was applied to the experimental group for 3 weeks. At the same time, the control group was taking classes using the lecture-based learning method. At the end of the 3 weeks, all students were retested (post-test) on the subject. A retention test was administered 3 weeks after the post-test. Mean scores were calculated for each test for the experimental and control groups, and the data obtained were analysed using the independent samples t-test. No significant difference was determined between the Jigsaw and lecture-based methods at pretest or post-test. The highest mean test score was observed in the post-test with the Jigsaw method. In the retention test, success with the Jigsaw method was significantly higher than that with the lecture-based method. The Jigsaw method is as effective as the lecture-based method. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Development of a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value; Erarbeitung eines Konzepts zur Ermittlung der Strahlenexposition von Patienten bei zahnmedizinischen Roentgenuntersuchungen und Erhebung von statistischen Daten zur Erstellung diagnostischer Referenzwerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, C.; Sering, M. [Oekoinstitut Freiburg e.V., Freiburg (Germany); Poppe, B.; Poplawski, A.; Looe, H.K.; Beyer, D.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Chofor, N.; Eenboom, F. [Pius Hospital, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The research project on the development a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value includes the following issues: Fundamental facts: dental X-ray examination techniques, dose relevant factors and characteristics during X-ray examinations, radiation exposed organs during dental X-ray examinations, dose assessment based on phantoms. Materials and methodologies of the project: TLD measurements using the phantom, calculation of the effective dose during dental X-ray examinations, properties and settings of the reference facilities for the determination of radiation exposure, selection of dental offices, dosimetric measurements, data acquisition and statistical evaluation. Results of dosimetric examinations: results of dosimetric measurements at reference facilities, results of dosimetric measurements in dental offices. Discussion of the concept for the determination of the radiation exposure during dental X-ray examinations.

  3. Determination of absorbed dose in crystalline and thyroid gland with irradiation protocols applied in orthopantomography equipment for dental examination; Determinacion de dosis absorbida en cristalino y glandula tiroides con protocolos de irradiacion aplicados en equipos de ortopantomografia para panoramica dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz A, A. A.; Ramirez A, L. M. [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano, Grupo de Investigacion e Innovacion Biomedica, Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia); Sosa A, M. A.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo H, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Ionizing radiations are very useful in the medical field for the diagnostic use of different pathologies. Currently there are different technologies for diagnostic imaging using conventional X-ray, computed tomography, mammography, angiography, dental panoramic X-ray, among others. However, it should be noted that exposure to radiation in this type of diagnostic tests has increased considerably in recent years, because radiological examinations are not always carried out according to the actual clinical needs of each patient, increasing the risk to develop cancer. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the lens and thyroid gland was measured with the help of TLD-100 dosimeters located in a PMMA phantom adapted for orthopantomography (dental panoramic X-ray) equipment in 5 hospitals; using the parameters pre-configured for normal adult for irradiation. A Harshaw 3500 equipment was used to read the dosimeters, obtaining a value of 1.324 ± Sd 0.01 mGy for crystalline and 1.044 ± Sd 0.03 mGy values which are intended to be validated under other conditions and protocols. (Author)

  4. Type 2 diabetes as a risk indicator for dental caries in Korean adults: the 2011-2012 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I-S; Han, K; Park, Y-M; Ryu, J-J; Park, J-B

    2017-09-01

    The associations between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and untreated dental caries was examined. This study hypothesized that there would be a positive association between T2D and the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth (DT) in representative Korean adults. The information was derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, anthropometric and biochemical status, metabolic health and glucose tolerance status, oral health behaviors, and dental caries index were evaluated. The number of DT had a positive association with degree of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p-value = 0.045 and 0.007, respectively). The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with the number of DT (p for trend = 0.009 and 0.004, respectively). The prevalence of untreated caries uncontrolled T2D participants was about 26% higher than those with normal glucose tolerance levels after adjusting for potential confounders including diets and socioeconomic status (OR [95% CI] = 1.26 [1.02, 1.56]). T2D is an independent risk indicator for untreated caries in Korean adults. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. In Vitro Comparative Study of Two Different Bleaching Agents on Micro-hardness Dental Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nazish; Ali Abidi, Syed Yawar; Meo, Ashraf Ali

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent containing 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on enamel micro-hardness. An in vitroexperimental study. Department of Operative Dentistry and Science of Dental Materials at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences and Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, from July to December 2014. Atotal of 90 enamel slabs from 45 sound human 3rd molar were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained 30 specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator during the whole experiment. However, Groups 2 and 3 were treated with power whitening gel and tooth whitening pen respectively. After bleaching session, specimens were thoroughly rinsed with deionized water again for 10 seconds and then stored in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator. Artificial saliva was changed after every 2 days. The Vickers hardness tester (Wolpert 402 MVD, Germany) was adjusted to a load of 0.1 kg (100 gm) and dwell time of 5 seconds. Three Vickers were performed on each specimen using a hardness tester according to the ISO 6507-3:1998 specification. Micro-hardness measurements were performed before and after bleaching at day 1, 7 and 14. In the control group, the baseline micro-hardness was 181.1 ±9.3 which was reduced after the storage on day 1, 7 and 14 (p = 0.104). In Group 2, baseline micro-hardness was 180.4 ±10.1 which was reduced to 179.79 ±10.0 units after day 1. Whereas, on day 7 and 14, the values of micro-hardness were 179.8 ±10 and 179.7 ±10.29, respectively (p=0.091). Furthermore, the baseline micro-hardness in Group 3 was 174.0 ±22.9 units which was reduced to 173 ±23 on day 1, 170 ±30 on day 7 and 173 ±23 on day 14 (p = 0.256). The statistically insignificant difference was found among micro-hardness values of different bleaching

  6. Factors for determining dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Vidigal, Evelyn Alvarez; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Sá, Stella Núbia Coelho de; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA) index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children's dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS). Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53%) experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6), and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4-5-year old) experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old) (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17-0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04-0.76, respectively), and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06-4.87). Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.

  7. Timing of First Dental Checkup for Newly Medicaid-Enrolled Children with an Intellectual or Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Jones, Michael P.; Kuthy, Raymond; Damiano, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the extent to which having an intellectual or developmental disability was associated with rates at which Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children ages 3 to 8 had first dental checkups after an initial dental examination. We hypothesized that these children would have later first dental checkups than would children without an intellectual or…

  8. Timing of First Dental Checkup for Newly Medicaid-Enrolled Children with an Intellectual or Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Jones, Michael P.; Kuthy, Raymond; Damiano, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the extent to which having an intellectual or developmental disability was associated with rates at which Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children ages 3 to 8 had first dental checkups after an initial dental examination. We hypothesized that these children would have later first dental checkups than would children without an intellectual or…

  9. A reader study comparing prospective tomosynthesis interpretations with retrospective readings of the corresponding FFDM examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen L; Tidwell, Andra L; Ice, Mary F; Nordmann, Amy S; Sexton, Russell; Song, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To compare performance of prospective interpretations of clinical tomosynthesis (digital breast tomosynthesis [DBT]) plus full-field digital mammography (FFDM) examinations with retrospective readings of the corresponding FFDM examinations alone. Seven Mammography Quality Standard Act-qualified radiologists retrospectively interpreted 10,878 FFDM examinations that had been interpreted by other radiologists during prospective clinical interpretations of DBT plus FFDM. The radiologists were blinded to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) category given during the clinical interpretations and the verified outcome by follow-up and/or any diagnostic workup that may have followed. Ratings (BIRADS 0, 1, or 2) were recorded. Group performance levels in terms of recall rates and attributable cancer detection rates were compared to the prospective clinical interpretations of the same examinations (DBT plus FFDM) using McNemar test (two sided/tailed) with significance level of .05. During the prospective clinical interpretations of DBT plus FFDM, 588 cases were recalled (588 of 10,878, 5.41%) compared to 888 cases recalled (888 of 10,878, 8.16%) during the FFDM-alone retrospective interpretations (absolute difference, 35%; P<.0001). There were 59 and 38 suspicious abnormalities later verified as cancers detected during the DBT plus FFDM and the FFDM-alone interpretations, respectively (absolute increase, 55%; P<.0001). Invasive cancer detections were 48 and 29, respectively (absolute increase, 66%; P<.0001). The combination of DBT plus FFDM for screening asymptomatic women resulted in a significant reduction in recall rates and a simultaneous increase in cancer detection rates when compared to retrospective interpretations of corresponding FFDM examinations alone. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard John

    2016-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...

  11. A comparative analysis of the costs of administration of an OSCE (objective structured clinical examination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, M D; Cohen, R; Tucker, W; Murnaghan, J; Kodama, R; Reznick, R

    1994-07-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has become an accepted technique for the evaluation of clinical competence in medicine. Although advances have been made in our knowledge of the psychometric aspects of the OSCE, extremely little has been written about feasibility and cost issues. Given the current economic imperative to control costs and the extremely scant literature on the costs of developing and administering an examination in medicine, the authors felt it timely and relevant to explore issues related to the cost of the OSCE. In 1991-92 and in 1992-93, costs and time requirements to implement and administer a structured oral (SO) examination and a six-station OSCE for a surgical clerkship at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine were gathered by review of invoices, interviews with those involved, and perusal of diaries kept by staff. To develop and administer the six-station OSCE, 327.5 hours of staff and faculty time were required for each rotation of surgical clerks (8.2 hours per student). The SO examination required 110 hours of staff and faculty time (2.75 hours per student). Direct expenses for the OSCE amounted to U.S. $6.90 per student per station, compared with no direct expense for the SO examination. The OSCE was more time-consuming and more expensive in human and material costs than the SO examination. However, costs of the OSCE can be substantially reduced from approximately U.S. $35 to U.S. ! per student per station if test developers, standardized patients, support staff, and examiners can donate their time. The authors compare the costs and time requirements of their OSCE with those of other OSCEs reported in the literature, and they provide guidelines to assist educators in deciding whether the costs of an OSCE are justifiable in the educators' individual settings.

  12. Secure E-Examination Systems Compared: Case Studies from Two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Fluck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Electronic examinations have some inherent problems. Students have expressed negative opinions about electronic examinations (e-examinations due to a fear of, or unfamiliarity with, the technology of assessment, and a lack of knowledge about the methods of e-examinations. Background: Electronic examinations are now a viable alternative method of assessing student learning. They provide freedom of choice, in terms of the location of the examination, and can provide immediate feedback; students and institutions can be assured of the integrity of knowledge testing. This in turn motivates students to strive for deeper learning and better results, in a higher quality and more rigorous educational process. Methodology\t: This paper compares an e-examination system at FUT Minna Nigeria with one in Australia, at the University of Tasmania, using case study analysis. The functions supported, or inhibited, by each of the two e-examination systems, with different approaches to question types, cohort size, technology used, and security features, are compared. Contribution: The researchers’ aim is to assist stakeholders (including lecturers, invigilators, candidates, computer instructors, and server operators to identify ways of improving the process. The relative convenience for students, administrators, and lecturer/assessors and the reliability and security of the two systems are considered. Challenges in conducting e-examinations in both countries are revealed by juxtaposing the systems. The authors propose ways of developing more effective e-examination systems. Findings: The comparison of the two institutions in Nigeria and Australia shows e-examinations have been implemented for the purpose of selecting students for university courses, and for their assessment once enrolled. In Nigeria, there is widespread systemic adoption for university entrance merit selection. In Australia this has been limited to one subject in one state, rather

  13. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena B Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. Conclusion: The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine.

  14. Dental Attitudes, Perceptions, and Treatment Needs in a University Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leonard A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Dental attitudes of college students were examined: frequency of past visits; subceptibility to dental conditions; seriousness, preventability, and treatability of dental conditions; and satisfaction with dentists, practices, and other dental conditions. (Authors/CJ)

  15. A randomized crossover trial of tenoxicam compared with rofecoxib for postoperative dental pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, M; De Silva, R K; Herbison, P; Templer, P

    2004-12-01

    Two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tenoxicam and rofecoxib, were compared for the control of postoperative pain following surgical extraction of bilaterally and symmetrically impacted wisdom teeth performed under intravenous sedation and local anaesthesia. Thirty-five young fit adult patients received each analgesic treatment for four days in a randomized, crossover design. The results suggest statistically better pain relief for the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib compared to tenoxicam, a traditional NSAID. There were side-effects with both treatments. Abdominal discomfort was significantly more common following rofecoxib compared to tenoxicam. Both analgesics were acceptable to most participants in the trial.

  16. Is the OSCE more stressful? Examination anxiety and its consequences in different assessment methods in dental education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Schoonheim-Klein, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectation for success induced by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination and a preclinical preparation test, and to examine the effects of the three predictive variables on the outcom

  17. "Stay cool, sell stuff cheap, and smile": Examining how reputational management of dental tourism reinforces structural oppression in Los Algodones, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Berry, Nicole S

    2017-10-01

    Los Algodones, Mexico is characteristic of other medical border towns whose proximity to the Mexico-United States border enables American and Canadian patients to take advantage of economic asymmetries on either side of the border to access desired health care. Los Algodones is unique, however, in its focus on the provision of dental care and claims by local residents that it has the highest concentration of dentists per capita in the world. In this paper, we present an analysis of interviews with employees working in Los Algodones' dental tourism industry to examine interviewees' participation in practices related to reputational management of the industry site. Drawing on our interview discussions, we argue that many of these reputational management practices reinforce structural injustices and raise concerns for structural exploitation in the industry. This analysis nuances ethical considerations for medical tourism by highlighting structural factors informing unjust practices within the industry, factors which might be relevant to other medical tourism contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Annual failure rates and marginal bone-level changes of immediate compared to conventional loading of dental implants. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, S.; Papacosta, P.; Rathe, F.; Ozen, J.; Jansen, J.A.; Junker, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immediate loading of dental implants appears to be a successful option. Questions still remain whether annual failure rates (AFRs) as well as annual marginal bone-level changes are comparable with conventionally loaded implants. HYPOTHESIS: Immediately loaded implants (

  19. Estimating Demand for and Supply of Pediatric Preventive Dental Care for Children and Identifying Dental Care Shortage Areas, Georgia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shanshan; Gentili, Monica; Griffin, Paul M; Griffin, Susan O; Harati, Pravara; Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Tomar, Scott

    Demand for dental care is expected to outpace supply through 2025. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of pediatric dental care shortages in Georgia and to develop a general method for estimation that can be applied to other states. We estimated supply and demand for pediatric preventive dental care for the 159 counties in Georgia in 2015. We compared pediatric preventive dental care shortage areas (where demand exceeded twice the supply) designated by our methods with dental health professional shortage areas designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. We estimated caries risk from a multivariate analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and national census data. We estimated county-level demand based on the time needed to perform preventive dental care services and the proportion of time that dentists spend on pediatric preventive dental care services from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric preventive dental care supply exceeded demand in Georgia in 75 counties: the average annual county-level pediatric preventive dental care demand was 16 866 hours, and the supply was 32 969 hours. We identified 41 counties as pediatric dental care shortage areas, 14 of which had not been designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. Age- and service-specific information on dental care shortage areas could result in more efficient provider staffing and geographic targeting.

  20. Visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses compared with the Humphrey perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapakis, Stylianos; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios; Diagourtas, Andreas; Droutsas, Konstantinos; Andreanos, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; Brouzas, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    To present a visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses and evaluate the reliability of the method by comparing the results with those of the Humphrey perimeter. Virtual reality glasses, a smartphone with a 6 inch display, and software that implements a fast-threshold 3 dB step staircase algorithm for the central 24° of visual field (52 points) were used to test 20 eyes of 10 patients, who were tested in a random and consecutive order as they appeared in our glaucoma department. The results were compared with those obtained from the same patients using the Humphrey perimeter. High correlation coefficient (r=0.808, Pvirtual reality visual field test and the Humphrey perimeter visual field. Visual field examination results using virtual reality glasses have a high correlation with the Humphrey perimeter allowing the method to be suitable for probable clinical use.

  1. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  2. The anxiolytic effect of the novel antipsychotic ziprasidone compared with diazepam in subjects anxious before dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Keith D; Anziano, Richard J; Johnson, Arlene C; Miceli, Jeffrey J; Fricke, James R; Titus, Cynthia K

    2002-04-01

    The novel atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone has a pharmacologic profile notable for potent agonism of serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors, antagonism at 5-HT1D receptors, and reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine. 5-HT1A receptor agonism, in particular, suggests anxiolytic activity, and ziprasidone has shown preliminary efficacy in treating the symptoms of anxiety associated with psychotic disorders. In this study, the anxiolytic efficacy of ziprasidone was evaluated in nonpsychotic subjects who were anxious before undergoing minor dental surgery. We compared a single oral dose of 20 mg ziprasidone (N = 30) with that of 10 mg diazepam (N = 30) and placebo (N = 30) in a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind study. The peak anxiolytic effect of ziprasidone compared with that of placebo was similar to that of diazepam but had a later onset. At 3 hours postdose, the anxiolytic effect of ziprasidone was significantly greater than that of placebo (p diazepam. Diazepam showed a significantly greater anxiolytic effect than placebo at 1 hour (p diazepam was significantly greater than that of placebo 1 to 1.5 hours postdose. Ziprasidone was generally well tolerated. Only one patient reported treatment-related adverse events (nausea and vomiting) and, unlike diazepam, ziprasidone did not cause reductions in blood pressure. Dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, akathisia, and postural hypotension were not seen with ziprasidone. Thus, ziprasidone may possess anxiolytic effects in addition to its antipsychotic properties.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trail Comparing the Efficacy of 0.5% Centbucridine to 2% Lignocaine as Local Anesthetics in Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mansuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of local anesthesia in dentistry has marked the beginning of a new era in terms of pain control. Lignocaine is the most commonly used local anesthetic (LA agent even though it has a vasodilative effect and needs to be combined with adrenaline. Centbucridine is a non-ester, non amide group LA and has not been comprehensively studied in the dental setting and the objective was to compare it to Lignocaine. This was a randomized study comparing the onset time, duration, depth and cardiovascular parameters between Centbucridine (0.5% and Lignocaine (2%. The study was conducted in the dental outpatient department at the Government Dental College in India on patients attending for the extraction of lower molars. A total of 198 patients were included and there were no significant differences between the LAs except those who received Centbucridine reported a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared to those who received Lignocaine. None of the patients reported any side effects. Centbucridine was well tolerated and its substantial duration of anesthesia could be attributed to its chemical compound. Centbucridine can be used for dental procedures and can confidently be used in patients who cannot tolerate Lignocaine or where adrenaline is contraindicated.

  4. Comparative study between dental caries prevalence of Down syndrome children and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Viviana; Palha, Miguel; Macedo, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Andrade, Casimiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this epidemiological study was to determine the differences in the prevalence of caries between individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and their siblings. A sibling-matched, population-based and cross-sectional survey was performed. This study involved 138 (62%) children with DS and 86 (38%) siblings, aged 2-26. The children were compared in different subgroups: [2, 6], [6, 12], and [13, 26]. Data was gathered through the use of a complete questionnaire and clinical observation. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS® v.18.0 software with any p value prevalence than their siblings.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord, Dental Pulp, and Menstrual Blood as Sources for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaijuan Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs based therapy has been considered as a promising tool for tissue repair and regeneration, the optimal cell source remains unknown. Umbilical cord (UC, dental pulp (DP, and menstrual blood (MB are easily accessible sources, which make them attractive candidates for MSCs. The goal of this study was to compare the biological characteristics, including morphology, proliferation, antiapoptosis, multilineage differentiation capacity, and immunophenotype of UC-, DP-, and MB-MSCs in order to provide a theoretical basis for clinical selection and application of these cells. As a result, all UC-, DP-, and MB-MSCs have self-renewal capacity and multipotentiality. However, the UC-MSCs seemed to have higher cell proliferation ability, while DP-MSCs may have significant advantages for osteogenic differentiation, lower cell apoptosis, and senescence. These differences may be associated with the different expression level of cytokines, including vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor in each of the MSCs. Comprehensively, our results suggest DP-MSCs may be a desired source for clinical applications of cell therapy.

  6. A comparative evaluation of skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes with skeletal anchored and conventional facemask protraction therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Singh, Navneet; Kalra, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To cephalometrically evaluate and compare the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue changes after maxillary protraction with skeletally anchored and conventional facemask. Methods: The data for the study were collected from the pre- and post-treatment records of patients of maxillary retrusion treated with skeletally anchored and conventional facemask therapy. Twenty subjects were included in the study and were categorized into two groups, namely skeletal anchored maxillary protraction (SAMP) group with the mean age of 10.10 ± 1.1 years and conventional facemask maxillary protraction (CFMP) group with the mean age of 9.90 ± 1.1 years. Pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms were assessed. Results: The data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean duration of treatment in SAMP group and CFMP group was 5.8 months and 10 months, respectively. The mean forward displacement of the maxilla (vertical point A) was 3.40 ± 1.07 mm in SAMP group and 2.80 ± 0.79 mm in CFMP group. The mandible showed downward and backward rotation in both the groups with more rotation in CFMP group. A significant increase in maxillary incisor inclination was seen in CFMP group as compared to SAMP group. A significant decrease was found in mandibular incisor inclination in both the treatment groups. The soft tissue changes corresponded to underlying skeletal tissue. Conclusions: SAMP is proven to be a better treatment modality as compared to CFMP for achieving true skeletal changes and minimal dental changes in cases with developing skeletal Class III with maxillary retrusion. PMID:27556021

  7. Comparative study of the fluorescence intensity of dental composites and human teeth submitted to artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Tatiana; Takahashi, Marcos Kenzo; Brum, Rafeal Torres; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes; Souza, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fluorescence of resin composites and human teeth, and to determine the stability of fluorescence after aging. Ten specimens were built using a 1 mm thick increment of dentin composite overlapped by a 0.5 mm thick increment of enamel composite. Ten sound human molars were sectioned and silicon carbide-polished to obtain enamel and dentin slabs 1.5 mm in thickness. Fluorescence measurements were carried out by a fluorescence spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling (2000 cycles, 5°C and 55°C). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Tukey's test were performed at a significance level of 5%. Most of the tested composites showed significant differences in fluorescence both before and after aging (P composite whose fluorescence was similar to that of human teeth at both periods of evaluation (P > 0.05), and was the only composite that showed comparable results of fluorescence to the tooth structure before and after thermocycling. With the exception of Filtek Supreme, there were significant reductions in fluorescence intensity for all the tested composites (P < 0.05).

  8. Comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of different dental bleaching methods - two year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated color change, stability, and tooth sensitivity in patients submitted to different bleaching techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 48 patients were divided into five groups. A half-mouth design was conducted to compare two in-office bleaching techniques (with and without light activation: G1: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP (Lase Peroxide - DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil + hybrid light (HL (LED/Diode Laser, Whitening Lase II DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; G2: 35% HP; G3: 38% HP (X-traBoost - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA + HL; G4: 38% HP; and G5: 15% carbamide peroxide (CP (Opalescence PF - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA. For G1 and G3, HP was applied on the enamel surface for 3 consecutive applications activated by HL. Each application included 3x3' HL activations with 1' between each interval; for G2 and G4, HP was applied 3x15' with 15' between intervals; and for G5, 15% CP was applied for 120'/10 days at home. A spectrophotometer was used to measure color change before the treatment and after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. A VAS questionnaire was used to evaluate tooth sensitivity before the treatment, immediately following treatment, 24 h after and finally 1 week after. RESULTS: Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between in-office bleaching with or without HL activation related to effectiveness; nevertheless the time required was less with HL. Statistical differences were observed between the results after 24 h, 1 week and 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (intergroup. Immediately, in-office bleaching increased tooth sensitivity. The groups activated with HL required less application time with gel. CONCLUSION: All techniques and bleaching agents used were effective and demonstrated similar behaviors.

  9. Pioneering Strategies for Relieving Dental Anxiety in Hearing Impaired Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Madu, Ghanashyam Prasad; Ambati, Naga Radhakrishna; Suravarapu, Pavani Reddy; Uppu, Kalyani; Bolla, Deepthi

    2017-06-01

    Hearing impaired children have a problem in understanding and comprehending with dental treatments. Visual language is the sensible answer of how to improve communication with them. To evaluate the applicability of dental sign language in Hearing impaired children in relieving anxiety during stressful dental treatment by improving their means of communication. This randomized clinical trial was carried out in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry which included 40 Hearing Impaired children meeting inclusion criteria. The selected children were randomly divided into the study and control group comprising of 20 each. In the control group, initial oral examination and dental treatment (oral prophylaxis and class I restoration) were performed without the use of dental sign language. In the study group, the dental sign language specific to dental treatment was educated and during their subsequent visit to the dental clinic after dental sign language reinforcement, oral prophylaxis and class I restoration were done. Subjective and objective measurements of anxiety were recorded for both groups using facial image scale (FIS), pulse oximeter and electronic blood pressure apparatus to compare for correlation. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t-test. There was a statistically significant reduction in the anxiety levels (pcontrol group. Dental sign language was effective in reducing the level of anxiety in children who are hard of hearing. Dental sign language was able to improve behavior positively during dental treatment and may also aid in developing a positive dental attitude among children who are hard of hearing.

  10. Examination of (suspected) neonaticides in Germany: a critical report on a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Babette; Rothschild, Markus A; Vennemann, Mechtild; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2013-05-01

    In cooperation with the Crime Investigation Agency (Landeskriminalamt) of North Rhine-Westphalia, we carried out a study of 150 cases of (suspected) neonaticide dating from 1993 to 2007 from all over Germany. The autopsy reports and additional expert opinions (if performed) were evaluated for a minimum of 78 variables. Emphasis was placed on the application of special preparation techniques and other special questions arising during the examination of a deceased newborn child. Forty-five percent of the cases remained unsolved, which means that the mother could not be identified. Twenty-seven percent of the corpses were in a state of such severe putrefaction that forensic examination was limited. The main causes of death were all forms of suffocation. The signs of maturity (such as length, weight, and fingernails) were recorded in more than 95 % of the cases. Hydrostatic test of the lung was performed in 96 %, and that of the gastrointestinal tract in 84 %. Given the results of the study, standard protocols and checklists are recommended to facilitate comparability and to ensure the completeness of findings. Full-body X-rays or CT scans should be used to complete viability examinations.

  11. Comparing the self-assessed and examiner-assessed driving skills of Japanese driving school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nakai

    2012-03-01

    A sample of Japanese driving test candidates (n=2021 completed a self-assessment using a 5-point scale applied to 19 items. The candidates completed the assessment shortly after passing their practical driving test conducted at a driving school. Their performance was also assessed by an examiner who used the same scale. The comparison between self-assessment and examiner-assessment revealed that around 40% of Japanese driving school students made a realistic assessment of their skills. With regard to the gender differences, although males displayed higher levels of overconfidence than females did, the differences were not as large as earlier studies with questionnaires had suggested. Furthermore, the effect of age on the accuracy of novice drivers' skill assessment was found to be relatively small. Our findings, which are based on a comparison of subjective assessments of driving skills between examiners and novices, instead of a questionable method which relies on a comparison with a hypothetical average driver, suggest that the majority of candidates in fact do not overrate their own skills. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of the driver education system and compared to other European research using the same framework.

  12. Socioeconomic status, food security, and dental caries in US children: mediation analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Masterson, Erin E; Carle, Adam C; Mancl, Lloyd A; Coldwell, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children's oral health outcomes. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES-caries relationship. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES-caries relationship. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic.

  13. Analgesic efficacy of a single dose of lumiracoxib compared with rofecoxib, celecoxib and placebo in the treatment of post-operative dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellstein, D; Ott, D; Jayawardene, S; Fricke, J

    2004-03-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and tolerability of lumiracoxib (a novel COX-2 selective inhibitor) with rofecoxib, celecoxib and placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe post-operative dental pain. Following third molar extraction, patients received single oral doses of lumiracoxib 400 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg, celecoxib 200 mg or placebo (n = 355). Additional patients from a similar study, assigned to lumiracoxib, rofecoxib or placebo (n = 155), were included for analysis of the primary variable, Summed Pain Intensity Difference over the first 8 h post dose (SPID-8). For SPID-8, lumiracoxib was superior to rofecoxib (p medication use. Patient global evaluation of lumiracoxib was comparable to rofecoxib and superior to celecoxib and placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. Lumiracoxib 400 mg provides rapid, effective and sustained relief of post-operative dental pain, comparable or superior to rofecoxib.

  14. Comparing the Effectiveness of Systematic Desensitization and Distraction on Pain and Fear in Children with Dental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fallah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One of the difficulties of community of dentists, especially dentists dealing with children, is the pain and fear of dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and distraction on reducing fear and pain in children with dental problems. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study designed with pretest-posttest multi groups according to control group. For this purpose, 45 children with dental problems referred to the dental clinic of Ardabil was selected and divided into three groups of 15 people: systematic desensitization (n=15, distraction (n=15 and control group (n=15. All of three groups answered to dental fears survey and numeric scale of pain as pre-test. Then, the therapeutic method of systematic desensitization and distraction was performed on two experimental groups. After completion of the treatments, three groups answered to dental fear survey and numeric scale of pain. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used for the analysis of the data. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the score of post-test between three groups in pain (F=197.27; p<0.001 anddental fear (F=178.36; p<0.001. LSD post hoc test results showed that systematic desensitization method was more effective in reduction of pain and the distraction method was more affective in reduction of dental fear. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that psychological interventions of distracting and systematic desensitization can be used to reduce fear and pain at pediatric clinics.

  15. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  16. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jan E; Ramsay, Craig R; Averley, Paul; Bonetti, Debbie; Boyers, Dwayne; Campbell, Louise; Chadwick, Graham R; Duncan, Anne; Elders, Andrew; Gouick, Jill; Hall, Andrew F; Heasman, Lynne; Heasman, Peter A; Hodge, Penny J; Jones, Clare; Laird, Marilyn; Lamont, Thomas J; Lovelock, Laura A; Madden, Isobel; McCombes, Wendy; McCracken, Giles I; McDonald, Alison M; McPherson, Gladys; Macpherson, Lorna E; Mitchell, Fiona E; Norrie, John Dt; Pitts, Nigel B; van der Pol, Marjon; Ricketts, David Nj; Ross, Margaret K; Steele, James G; Swan, Moira; Tickle, Martin; Watt, Pauline D; Worthington, Helen V; Young, Linda

    2013-10-26

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0-3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI.Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases.The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self

  17. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  18. Chronological versus dental age in subjects from 5 to 19 years: a comparative study with forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Corral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated six methods used in estimating the age of patients attending the Dental School at Universidad del Valle, evaluating dental development by using panoramic radiographs. Additionally, the study determined the sexual identity of the person and the bilateral symmetry of development, the maturity and the chronological eruption of permanent teeth. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study that evaluated which of the six methods (Logan & Kronfeld; Schour & Massler; Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt; Demirjian, Goldstein & Tanner; Ubelaker & Smith for estimating the age of a patient through radiographic evaluation of dental development is the most correlated with the chronological age of the patient, so it can be used for forensic purposes. Results: The Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt and the Smith methods showed high correlation (0.7874 and 0.7808, respectively. The Logan & Kronfeld methods presented low correlation (0.6879. The sample studied did not show sexual dimorphism or bilateral asymmetry. Conclusions: All methods evaluated have a high correlation coefficient between the dental age and the radiographic age. However, the Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt, and Smith methods presented higher correlation coefficients between dental and chronological age.

  19. Chronological versus dental age in subjects from 5 to 19 years: a comparative study with forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Moreno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated six methods used in estimating the age of patients attending the Dental School at Universidad del Valle, evaluating dental development by using panoramic radiographs. Additionally, the study determined the sexual identity of the person and the bilateral symmetry of development, the maturity and the chronological eruption of permanent teeth.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study that evaluated which of the six methods (Logan & Kronfeld; Schour & Massler; Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt; Demirjian, Goldstein & Tanner; Ubelaker & Smith for estimating the age of a patient through radiographic evaluation of dental development is the most correlated with the chronological age of the patient, so it can be used for forensic purposes.Results: The Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt and the Smith methods showed high correlation (0.7874 and 0.7808, respectively. The Logan & Kronfeld methods presented low correlation (0.6879. The sample studied did not show sexual dimorphism or bilateral asymmetry.Conclusions: All methods evaluated have a high correlation coefficient between the dental age and the radiographic age. However, the Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt, and Smith methods presented higher correlation coefficients between dental and chronological age.

  20. Comparing the Score Distribution of a Trial Computer-Based Examination Cohort with That of the Standard Paper-Based Examination Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoanetti, Nathan; Les, Magdalena; Leigh-Lancaster, David

    2014-01-01

    From 2011-2013 the VCAA conducted a trial aligning the use of computers in curriculum, pedagogy and assessment culminating in a group of 62 volunteer students sitting their end of Year 12 technology-active Mathematical Methods (CAS) Examination 2 as a computer-based examination. This paper reports on statistical modelling undertaken to compare the…

  1. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  3. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  4. Electron-microscopical Studies on the Sclerosed Dentin Second Report : Comparative observations on the intertubular deposits in the coronal dentin, dental calculus and salivary stone

    OpenAIRE

    赤羽, 章司; 枝, 重夫; 川上, 敏行; 中村, 千仁; 河住, 信

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of serchirg the origin of the intratubular deposits in the coronal sclerosed dentin, the deposits were compared with dental calculus and salivary stone by a scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalysers with energy and wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopies including the contour map method. Results were as follows: 1. The layer of minute crystals covered on the attrition surface contained the elements of Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br. 2. The rho...

  5. MICROWAVE PROPAGATION IN TOOTH AND DENTAL DEFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papezova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:The most common method of conventional dental diagnosisinvolves X-rays, such as Radio Tomography (RT or Computer Tomography (CT. Such methods are used for diagnosing pores in dental material that can lead to premature failure of dental material. Diagnosis by X-ray provides an objective analysis. However, repeated radiation from X-rays can cause biological damage to human tissues. From this point of view, there is a significant need to progress to quantitative non-invasive and non-destructive testing (NDT methods to measure dental material and improve treatment options. This article focuses on applying microwave technology to characterize teeth and teeth replacements. Knowledge of microwave propagation in biomaterial with no defects, using a defined microwave frequency range, and subsequently comparing the result with defective material could provide a means of dental diagnosis without the risk of radiation for the patient, i.e. without X-ray. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to examine microwave technology in the field of dental medical diagnosis as a new NDT method. METHODS: The basic concept of applying microwave technology to characterize teeth in dental diagnosis was examined using a basic algorithm designed in the MATLAB programming language. Tests used dielectric properties of tooth and tooth decay and propagated electromagnetic (EM waves to show different characteristics of chosen materials.RESULTS: The analyses of frequency dependent reflection and transmission coefficients of the chosen material, specificallyteeth, atfrequency range 0 GHz to 30 GHz, computed differences between healthy and defective dental material.CONCLUSION: Thus, this could be used in providing a dental diagnosis without exposing patients to radiation, i.e. without X-ray. The next stage will involve creating a complete model of a jaw with teeth, and designing a sensor for crack detection for comparisons using this basic algorithm.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Roma: a comparative health examination survey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, Zsigmond; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Diószegi, Judit; Roberts, Bayard; Szabó, Zoltán; Sándor, János; Ádány, Róza

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the health status of the Roma people with that of the general population in Hungary. A health examination survey to define the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was performed in a representative random sample (n = 646) of the Roma population aged 20-64 years living in segregated colonies, and data were compared with that obtained in a representative random sample (n = 1819) of the Hungarian population. The risks for central obesity, hypertension and raised triglyceride level among Roma adults were not different from the Hungarian references, while raised fasting plasma glucose or known type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.65, 95%CI 1.90-3.69), reduced HDL cholesterol level or treated lipid disorder (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.65-2.79) were significantly more frequent in all age groups in the Roma sample. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.03-1.83) was also significantly higher among Roma than in the general Hungarian population. Besides tackling the socio-economic determinants of the poor health of Roma people, specific public health interventions considering increased genetic susceptibility to metabolic disturbances are needed to improve their health status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of BioAggregate and ProRoot MTA on adhesion, migration, and attachment of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxin; Yang, Jingwen; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bioceramic nanoparticular cement, BioAggregate (Innovative Bioceramix, Vancouver, BC, Canada), on the adhesion, migration, and attachment of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and to compare its performance with that of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK). Primary cultured HDPCs were treated with various dilutions of BioAggregate and MTA extracts to assess the cell viability using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kumamoto, Japan). Cell adhesion assay was performed using type I collagen-coated plates. An in vitro scratch wound healing model was used to determine cell migration. Focal adhesion formation and cytoskeleton organization were further examined by double immunofluorescence labeling for vinculin and fibrous actin. To assess cell attachment, HDPCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and observed by scanning electron microscopy. HDPCs exposed to BioAggregate extracts showed the highest viabilities at all extract concentrations at 24 and 48 hours, whereas cells exposed to original MTA extracts displayed suppressed viabilities at 72 hours compared with the control. Treatment with BioAggregate extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration of HDPCs in a concentration-dependent manner, which was superior to the effects induced by MTA extracts. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that both BioAggregate and MTA optimized focal adhesion formation and stress fiber assembly. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that HDPCs attached onto BioAggregate were more flattened and exhibited better spreading than cells on MTA. BioAggregate is able to promote cellular adhesion, migration, and attachment of HDPCs, indicating its excellent cytocompatibility. Therefore, BioAggregate appears to be a possible alternative to MTA for pulp capping. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  9. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  10. Effect of implementing dental services in Israeli psychiatric hospitals on the oral and dental health of inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Zusman, Shlomo P; Dekel, Dan; Masarwa, Abd-el-Samia; Ramon, Tirza; Natapov, Lena; Yoffe, Rinat; Weizman, Abraham; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders, and organic brain disorders) and their treatment may lead to oral diseases, but assessment of dental status and oral care needs among patients with these disorders is lacking. This study reports changes in dental health and oral care needs of psychiatric inpatients after 1998, when psychiatric hospitals in Israel were required to provide regular dental examinations and treatment for every inpatient hospitalized longer than a year. Two epidemiological cohorts from 1997 and 2006 representing long-term psychiatric inpatients before (N=431) and after (N=254) the reform of dental services were compared on the standardized criteria of the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index scores and DMFT component scores, as well as on the use of and need for dentures. Compared with the prereform cohort, the postreform cohort had fewer decayed teeth and lower DMFT index scores. These differences were independent of gender and clinical diagnosis. No between-cohort differences were found in the use of and need for dentures. On-site dental services were more effective than outsourced services in improving dental health. The results suggest a substantial improvement in the dental health of this at-risk population after the dental reform in psychiatric hospitals. However, oral health needs are still not fully met, and therefore, additional organizational efforts for further prevention and treatment of dental diseases are required.

  11. Acute dental pain II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Peter; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Rosen, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Acute dental pain most often occurs in relation to inflammatory conditions in the dental pulp or in the periradicular tissues surrounding a tooth, but it is not always easy to reach a diagnose and determine what treatment to perform. The anamnesis and the clinical examination provide valuable...... dental pain, they expect that the dentist starts treatment at once and that the treatment should provide pain relief. In this situation many patients are fragile, anxious and nervous. If the dentist is able to manage emergency treatment of acute dental pain this will build confidence and trust between...

  12. Two-stage dental implants inserted in a one-stage procedure : a prospective comparative clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdenrijk, Kees

    2002-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that dental implants designed for a submerged implantation procedure can be used in a single-stage procedure and may be as predictable as one-stage implants. Although one-stage implant systems and two-stage.

  13. Two-stage dental implants inserted in a one-stage procedure : a prospective comparative clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdenrijk, Kees

    2002-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that dental implants designed for a submerged implantation procedure can be used in a single-stage procedure and may be as predictable as one-stage implants. Although one-stage implant systems and two-stage.

  14. Dental Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Domb, Ivor

    1982-01-01

    Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...

  15. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  16. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  17. Examining related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization among people with disabilities in Taiwan, a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsien-Tang; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Su, Hsun-Pi; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-09-01

    Limited studies with large samples have been conducted on the utilization of dental calculus scaling among people with physical or mental disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the national disabled population. This study analyzed the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the disabled people, using the nationwide data between 2006 and 2008. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed to analyze related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization. The dental calculus scaling utilization rate among people with physical or mental disabilities was 16.39%, and the annual utilization frequency was 0.2 times. Utilization rate was higher among the female and non-aboriginal samples. Utilization rate decreased with increased age and disability severity while utilization rate increased with income, education level, urbanization of residential area and number of chronic illnesses. Related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization rate were gender, age, ethnicity (aboriginal or non-aboriginal), education level, urbanization of residence area, income, catastrophic illnesses, chronic illnesses, disability types, and disability severity significantly influenced the dental calculus scaling utilization rate.

  18. Dental Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  19. A randomised controlled trial to explore attitudes to routine scale and polish and compare manual versus ultrasonic scaling in the general dental service in Scotland [ISRCTN99609795

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Patricia A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate, within general dental practice, patients' and vocational dental practitioners' (VDP attitudes towards the benefits and costs of a simple scale and polish and to compare the experience of using manual versus ultrasonic instruments to scale teeth. Methods 28 VDPs and 420 patients participated. Patients were randomly allocated to either group. Patients' and VDPs' attitudes towards, and experience of, the scale and polish were elicited by means of self-administered questionnaires. Results The majority of patients (99% believed a scale and polish was beneficial. VDPs considered ultrasonic treatment to be appropriate on significantly more occasions than they did for manual scale and polish (P Conclusion Routine scaling and polishing is considered beneficial by both patients and vocational trainees. The majority of patients, regardless of treatment method, experience some degree of discomfort when undergoing a scale and polish. VDPs showed a preference for the ultrasonic treatment method.

  20. Comparative Examination of Plasmoid Ejection at Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of magnetic reconnection in the near-tail of Earth, long known to herald the fast magnetospheric convection that leads to geomagnetic storms and substorms, is very closely associated with the formation and down-tail ejection of magnetic loops or flux ropes called plasmoids. Plasmoids form as a result of the fragmentation of preexisting cross-tail current sheet as a result of magnetic reconnection. Depending upon the number, location, and intensity of the individual reconnection X-lines and how they evolve, some of these loop-like or helical magnetic structures may also be carried sunward. At the inner edge of the tail they are expected to "re-reconnect' with the planetary magnetic field and dissipate. Plasmoid ejection has now been observed in the magnetotails of Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. These magnetic field and charged particle measurements have been taken by the MESSENGER, Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and numerous Earth missions. Here we present a comparative examination of the structure and dynamics of plasmoids observed in the magnetotails of these 5 planets. The results are used to learn more about how these magnetic structures form and to assess similarities and differences in the nature of magnetotail reconnection at these planets.

  1. Comparative study of interim materials for direct fixed dental prostheses and their fabrication with CAD/CAM technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñate, Lissethe; Basilio, Juan; Roig, Miguel; Mercadé, Montserrat

    2015-08-01

    Prosthodontic treatment sometimes requires a long-term interim fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) until the definitive restoration can be cemented. However, some interim materials are weak and do not have an adequate marginal seal. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit and fracture strengths of interim FDPs fabricated by using a direct technique with different materials (Structur 3, Trim, and DuraLay) with interim prostheses (Telio CAD) made with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. Seventy interim FDPs were fabricated by using different materials (Structur 3, Trim, DuraLay, and Telio CAD) on a metal master model. Resin-impregnated, light-polymerizing glass fiber (GrandTEC) was used to reinforce 10 interim FDPs per material fabricated with the direct technique. Interim FDPs were stored at 37°C for 24 hours before thermocycling. Marginal fit was analyzed at 6 points in each interim FDP before and after thermocycling with either 2500 or 5000 cycles. After fracturing the interim FDPs with a universal testing machine, fracture strength, fragments separation, and fracture point were recorded. Marginal fit data were analyzed with 2-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), fracture strength with 1-way ANOVA, and fragments separation and fracture point with the chi-square test at a 99% confidence interval. All interim materials showed marginal discrepancies over time, but no significant differences were found among groups (P>.001), except in the marginal fit of interim FDPs reinforced with glass fiber (S3F), which showed the smallest marginal gap after 5000 cycles (P.001). Finally, significant differences were observed in the fracture point and frequency of separation (P<.001). Bis-acryl reinforced with glass fiber showed the least marginal discrepancy. No differences were found between the fracture strengths of interim FDPs fabricated with CAD/CAM system and interim FDPs reinforced with glass fiber. No

  2. Association between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dental pain and tooth loss are global public health concerns. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of an entire country's populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a well characterized, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data of 3924, representing 21,836,566 adults from the...

  3. Comparative study of cytotoxicity of direct metal laser sintered and cast Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puskar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented work investigated the cytotoxicity of direct metal laser sintered (DMLS and cast Co-Cr-Mo (CCM dental alloy. In vitro tests were done on human fibroblast cell line MRC-5. There was no statistically significant difference in the cytotoxic effects of DMLS and CCM alloy specimens. The results of this investigation show good potential of DMLS Co-Cr-Mo alloy for application in dentistry.

  4. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainoff, Alexis J.; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  5. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainoff, Alexis J; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2015-05-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Intergrated dental care in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, P.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with integrated dental care in nursing homes. First, the dental treatment needs were ascertained of 432 residents in three Dutch nursing homes that offer integrated dental care. Dentist researchers intra-orally examined the residents and found that 72% required dental treatment.

  7. Intergrated dental care in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, P.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with integrated dental care in nursing homes. First, the dental treatment needs were ascertained of 432 residents in three Dutch nursing homes that offer integrated dental care. Dentist researchers intra-orally examined the residents and found that 72% required dental treatment. How

  8. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  9. Anesthesia for pediatric day-case dental surgery: a study comparing the classic laryngeal mask airway with nasal trachea intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Deng, Feng; Yu, Cong

    2014-05-01

    To study sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia using the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and nasal endotracheal (ET) intubation to maintain the airway in pediatric day-case dental surgery. A total of 171 children aged 2 to 7 years received elective day-case dental surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Children were randomly grouped into LMA groups (L) and nasal ET intubation group (N). In L groups, LMA was inserted after induction of anesthesia using 8% sevoflurane and were allowed to breathe spontaneously. Rocuronium and remifentanil were given intravenously during 8% sevoflurane induction by nasal ET intubation in the N group . The time of anesthetic induction, maintenance, recovery, surgical access, and bispectral index score were recorded. Postoperative nausea and vomiting and the incidence of adverse events during induction and recovery period were also recorded. The insertion time of LMA was significantly shorter than nasal ET (P index were not different between the 2 groups. However, recovery time was significantly shorter in group L (P < 0.05). The incidence of sore throat and postoperative nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01) were much less in group L as well. Sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia through LMA is a safe and reliable method for pediatric day-case dental surgery.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL CLINICAL EXAMINATION (CCE V / S OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION (OSCE AS AN EVALUATION TOOL FOR MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: In India, there has been a considerable rethink on the curriculum of medical education, specially, on the teaching and assessment methodology. Subjective assessment is slowly giving way to objective structured assessment. The aim of undergoing clinical ex amination is to assess the students learning skill, knowledge, professionalism and attitude avoiding examiners variability and bias. OSCE has been advocated as it overcomes the flaws of conventional clinical examination. OBJECTIVE: To find out effective, E valuation tool where the assessment is Structured, Competency based, In - depth testing of skills is done, And higher levels of Millers Pyramid is tested. Method: A comparative study was conducted in Tagore Medical College and Hospital among the 9 th Semester students. Scores obtained under both the methods were compared using statistical methods. After undergoing both the examination, feedback was collected to assess the attitude of the students towards both the methods. RESULTS: By quantitative analysis, t he two - tailed P value is 0.000 which is considered to be extremely statistically significant. So, the null hypothesis was rejected. So, there is strong reason to believe that students are able to score better under a better examination methodology. By qualit ative analysis, attitude of the students towards OSCE method was better than CCE method. CONCLUSION: It is proved that Objective structured clinical examination a statistically significant better evaluation tool with comparison to conventional examination and it can be included in the undergraduate assessment method.

  11. Curriculum time compared to clinical procedures in amalgam and composite posterior restorations in U.S. dental schools: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Rosalia; Nimmo, Susan; Childs, Gail S; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    Dental clinicians have an expanding range of biomaterial choices for restoring tooth structure. Scientific developments in cariology, advances in dental biomaterials, and patients' esthetic concerns have led to a reduction in amalgam restorations and an increase in composite restorations. The aim of this study was to compare teaching time with students' clinical procedures in amalgam and composite posterior restorations in dental schools across the United States. Academic deans in 60 schools were invited to complete a survey that asked for the amount of instructional time for amalgam and composite posterior restorations and the number of clinical restorations performed by their Classes of 2009, 2010, and 2011. Of these 60, 12 returned surveys with complete data, for a 20% response rate. Responses from these schools showed little change in lecture and preclinical laboratory instruction from 2009 to 2011. There was a slight increase in two-surface restorations for both amalgam and composites; however, the total number of reported composite and amalgam restorations remained the same. Of 204,864 restorations reported, 53% were composite, and 47% were amalgam. There were twice as many multisurface large or complex amalgam restorations as composites. One-surface composite restorations exceeded amalgams. Among the participating schools, there was little to no change between curriculum time and clinical procedures. Findings from this preliminary study reflect a modest increase in two-surface resin-based restorations placed by dental students from 2009 to 2011 and little change in curricular time devoted to teaching amalgam restorations. The total number of posterior composite restorations placed by students in these schools was slightly higher than amalgams.

  12. Study Behavior in the Closed-Book and the Open-Book Examination: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilides, Christos; Koutselini, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the study behavior used by students facing an open-book or closed-book examination. Results for 201 college students in Cyprus indicate that students preparing for a closed-book examination tended to postpone study at the end of the semester, focus on assigned texts, and memorize information. Students preparing for open-book tests…

  13. Predictors of Dental Care Use: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I.; Visotcky, Alexis (Dye); Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine longitudinal trends and associated factors in dental service utilization by adolescents progressing to early adulthood in the United States. Data Source The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health from Waves I (1994-95), II (1996), III (2001-2002) and IV (2007-2008). Study Design This is a retrospective, observational study of adolescents' transition to early adulthood. We obtained descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression analyses to identify the effects of baseline and concurrent covariates on dental service utilization from adolescence to early adulthood over time. Principal Findings Dental service utilization within the prior 12 months peaked at age 16 (72%), gradually decreased until age 21 (57%), and thereafter remained flat. Whites and Asians had a 10-20 percentage points higher proportion of dental service utilization at most ages compared to Blacks and Hispanics. Dental service utilization at later follow-up visits was strongly associated with baseline utilization with OR= 10.7, 2.4 and 1.5 at the 1-year, 7-year and 13-year follow-ups respectively. These effects decreased when adjusted for current income, insurance and education. Compared to Whites, Blacks were consistently less likely to report any dental examination. Conclusion Dental service utilization was highest in adolescents. Gender, education, health insurance and income in young adulthood were significant predictors of reporting a dental examination. Blacks had lower odds of reporting a dental examination either as adolescents or as young adults. PMID:23850156

  14. Dental variation among four prehispanic Mexican populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydenblit, R

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, the dental morphology of prehispanic Meso-american populations is described, compared, and examined within the context of New World dental variation. Twenty-eight morphological dental traits were studied and compared in four samples of prehispanic Mexican populations. After eliminating intra- and interobserver error, the dental morphological characteristics observed show evidence of heterogeneity among the populations. In particular, the oldest population, Tlatilco (1300-800 BC), was significantly different from the other three groups, Cuicuilco (800-100 BC), Monte Albán (500 BC-700 AD) and Cholula (550-750 AD). When the four samples were compared to other Mongoloid populations, either univariately or multivariately, it was observed that the Mexican groups did not follow a strict Sinodont (characteristic of Northeast Asia)/Sundadont (characteristic of Southeast Asia) classification (Turner [1979] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 51:619-636). From the traits examined, 27% presented frequencies consistent with Sinodont variation, while 73% of the traits showed similar incidence to Southeast Asian groups. Multivariately, the Mexican populations were found to fit an overall Sundadont classification. These results indicate that there is more dental morphological variation among American Indian populations than previously shown.

  15. Comparative College Examinations: More Gain, Less Pain When Students Share Information and Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Phillip G.; Butler, Lisa D.; Wolfe, Valerie A.

    2003-01-01

    Examination performance of introductory psychology students (n=576) was significantly enhanced in each of 4 separate comparisons of those taking tests with a partner versus traditional solo testing. Found positive effects in both assigned and freely chosen teams. (SLD)

  16. Prevalence of dental caries among 13 and 15-year-old school children in an endemic fluorosis area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Br; Laxmi, G Sri; Sudhakar, P; Malik, Vn; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalaxmi; Prasanna, A Lakshmi

    2011-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children in Panyam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 school children and were examined for dental fluorosis and dental caries. This study shows that male students have a decrease in DMFT (Decayed, missing, filled, teeth) index and increase in Dean's index when compared with females. Among students with 13 to 15 years of age, 13-year-old student has increase in DMFT score when compared with other age groups and 14-year-old students has increase in Dean's score when compared with other age group students. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with the increase of fluorosis among the students examined. Patients with dental fluorosis show a decreased prevalence of dental caries.

  17. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos João Luiz Dornelles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  18. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  19. A comparison of dental service use among commercially insured women in Minnesota before, during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peilei; Bargman, Eric P; Garrett, Nancy A; Devries, Andrea; Springman, Steve; Riggs, Sheila

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined and compared dental services used by women before, during and after pregnancy. In their study, the authors combined medical and dental claims data for 3,462 pregnant women in Minnesota with commercial dental insurance who had been pregnant between Jan. 1, 2004, and Dec. 31, 2005. The authors used McNemar pairwise comparisons, with each subject serving as her own control and her use of various dental services before pregnancy as her own baseline, to evaluate and compare the dental services used during and after pregnancy. During pregnancy, subjects' use of several dental services-radiographs, restorative services, third-molar extractions and anesthesia-decreased significantly (P dental providers, health care plan administrators and policymakers as they consider recommendations regarding oral health care for women during pregnancy.

  20. Governing Chaos: Uncertainty and the Comparative Examination of the 2010/2011 Uprisings in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rivetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article engages the theoretical debate on 'continuity and change' before and after the so-called 'Arab Spring' and argues that the notion of uncertainty can further our understanding of continuity and change in the region. The article argues that the scholarship on the Middle East has so far failed to produce relevant theoretical innovation as an effect of the theoretical instruments previously dominant in the discipline, namely the two paradigms of democratization and authoritarian resilience. The article is composed of four sections. After a short examination of the two 'paradogmas' and their rigidities, the article focuses on the issues that scholars have debated after the outburst of the Arab Uprisings, examining those assumptions that the uprisings have contributed to dismantle. Next, the article discusses the notion of uncertainty as analytical tool and it finally examines three case-studies in order to substantiate the claims about its usefulness.

  1. Governing Chaos: Uncertainty and the Comparative Examination of the 2010/2011 Uprisings in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rivetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article engages the theoretical debate on ‘continuity and change’ before and after the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ and argues that the notion of uncertainty can further our understanding of continuity and change in the region. The article argues that the scholarship on the Middle East has so far failed to produce relevant theoretical innovation as an effect of the theoretical instruments previously dominant in the discipline, namely the two paradigms of democratization and authoritarian resilience. The article is composed of four sections. After a short examination of the two ‘paradogmas’ and their rigidities, the article focuses on the issues that scholars have debated after the outburst of the Arab Uprisings, examining those assumptions that the uprisings have contributed to dismantle. Next, the article discusses the notion of uncertainty as analytical tool and it finally examines three case-studies in order to substantiate the claims about its usefulness.

  2. Comparing high speed dental turbine and endoscopic device in crack formation following cavity preparation in periapical surgeries in Cat teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Razmi

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available   In Present research study, 44 canine teeth of with completely formed apex was selected in 11 cats. Jaw bones were removed while teeth were kept intra alveolar sockets and routine root canal therapy was performed on each root. Afterwards, 3mm of each root were cut apically. 20 teeth underwent cavity preparation via high speed dental turbine and round diamond bur, 20 via endosonic device and 4 (10% of all remained untreated as control group. Then, the cavity walls were assessed with stereomicroscope while the teeth were still kept in their alveolar sockets in order to detect cracks.

  3. Utilization of dental health services among middle-aged people in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronström, Mats; Palmqvist, Sigvard; Söderfeldt, Björn; Vigild, Merete

    2002-10-01

    In 1999, questionnaires were sent to random samples of 1001 Swedish citizens aged 55-79 years and 1175 Danish citizens aged 45-69 years. Various questions were asked concerning dental conditions, dental visit frequency per year, and money spent annually on dental care, etc. The objectives were to assess differences in the utilization of dental services and to compare out-of-pocket costs for dental care in Sweden and Denmark with control for age, gender, dental conditions and income. More than 80% of the subjects reported that a dentist had examined them less than 1 year previously. However, 77% of the Danes reported dental visits twice a year or more compared to 28% of the Swedes. Although the Danes reported a more frequent use of dental services, they had poorer dental conditions compared to the Swedes. Even though the Swedes used dental services less often than the Danes did, more subjects reported high 12-month out-of-pocket costs. In the present study, separate models were constructed for the two countries because there could be different mechanisms at play, as indicated by the results. The different insurance systems along with different degrees of commercialization in the two countries might be the most decisive factors in this context.

  4. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (phygiene and dental students (phygiene student peer teaching (phygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.

  5. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Dental Practitioners in Three Practice-Based Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D. Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists. PMID:23382524

  6. Symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder among people presenting for cosmetic dental treatment: a comparative study of cosmetic dental patients and a general population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Parvaneh, H.; Ilik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:  To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. Methods:  This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report ques

  7. Typing Compared with Handwriting for Essay Examinations at University: Letting the Students Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogey, Nora; Paterson, Jessie; Burk, John; Purcell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Students at the University of Edinburgh do almost all their work on computers, but at the end of the semester they are examined by handwritten essays. Intuitively it would be appealing to allow students the choice of handwriting or typing, but this raises a concern that perhaps this might not be "fair"--that the choice a student makes,…

  8. Typing compared with handwriting for essay examinations at university: letting the students choose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mogey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Students at the University of Edinburgh do almost all their work on computers, but at the end of the semester they are examined by handwritten essays. Intuitively it would be appealing to allow students the choice of handwriting or typing, but this raises a concern that perhaps this might not be ‘fair' – that the choice a student makes, to write or to type, will affect their mark. The aim of this study was to identify and explore any systematic differences that may be introduced due to offering students the choice to write or type essay examinations. A class of 70 first-year divinity students were given the option of taking a mock examination, and the further option of handwriting or typing their answer. All the examination scripts were then faithfully transcribed into the opposite format so there was a printed copy and a handwritten copy of every script. These were then marked by four markers, such that every marker marked every script exactly once, in one format or the other. No significant differences could be identified due to the format in which the students had written their answer. Factors explored included length of essay, overall score awarded, and some qualitative measures designed to indicate essay quality. In contrast, the variation between the markers was striking.

  9. Examining Metacognition in Hearing and Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2001-01-01

    The metacognitive performance of 87 Arab typically developing adolescents and 20 Arab adolescents with deafness was examined. There was no significant difference between the students in metacognitive performance, nor were there gender-based differences among students with deafness. However, hearing female students scored significantly higher on…

  10. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

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    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  11. Combining radiographic and histological data for dental development to compare growth in the past and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Liversidge, Helen M; Elamin, Fadil

    2014-01-01

    Being able to estimate the age at death of fossil hominins enables meaningful comparisons of both dental and general growth, past and present. The aim of this study was to use data for modern permanent canine formation derived from separate histological and radiographic studies to estimate the age at death of an early African Homo erectus specimen (KNM-WT 15 000) with a developing permanent maxillary canine. Ground sections of 18 sexed modern human canines were used to reconstruct growth in tooth height along the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and onwards into root formation along the cement-dentine junction (CDJ). Daily rates of enamel and dentine formation were used to put a time scale to cumulative fractions of tooth height. Age estimates for KNM-WT 15 000 averaged 7.89-8.8 years of age (range = 6.6-10.3 years) and were close to previous histological estimates for this individual (7.6-8.8 years). Stages of dental development in KNM-WT 15 000 were easily accommodated within this age distribution of a modern sample. However, body mass and stature estimates for KNM-WT 15 000 fell well beyond those reported for a modern sample of 438 Sudanese children aged between 7.0-10 years.

  12. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…

  13. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…

  14. Validity of Intraoral Scans Compared with Plaster Models: An In-Vivo Comparison of Dental Measurements and 3D Surface Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Dental measurements have been commonly taken from plaster dental models obtained from alginate impressions can. Through the use of an intraoral scanner, digital impressions now acquire the information directly from the mouth. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the intraoral scans compared to plaster models.Two types of dental models (intraoral scan and plaster model of 20 subjects were included in this study. The subjects had impressions taken of their teeth and made as plaster model. In addition, their mouths were scanned with the intraoral scanner and the scans were converted into digital models. Eight transverse and 16 anteroposterior measurements, 24 tooth heights and widths were recorded on the plaster models with a digital caliper and on the intraoral scan with 3D reverse engineering software. For 3D surface analysis, the two models were superimposed by using best-fit algorithm. The average differences between the two models at all points on the surfaces were computed. Paired t-test and Bland-Altman plot were used to determine the validity of measurements from the intraoral scan compared to those from the plaster model.There were no significant differences between the plaster models and intraoral scans, except for one measurement of lower intermolar width. The Bland-Altman plots of all measurements showed that differences between the two models were within the limits of agreement. The average surface difference between the two models was within 0.10 mm.The results of the present study indicate that the intraoral scans are clinically acceptable for diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry and can be used in place of plaster models.

  15. Validity of Intraoral Scans Compared with Plaster Models: An In-Vivo Comparison of Dental Measurements and 3D Surface Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Suh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Dental measurements have been commonly taken from plaster dental models obtained from alginate impressions can. Through the use of an intraoral scanner, digital impressions now acquire the information directly from the mouth. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the intraoral scans compared to plaster models. Two types of dental models (intraoral scan and plaster model) of 20 subjects were included in this study. The subjects had impressions taken of their teeth and made as plaster model. In addition, their mouths were scanned with the intraoral scanner and the scans were converted into digital models. Eight transverse and 16 anteroposterior measurements, 24 tooth heights and widths were recorded on the plaster models with a digital caliper and on the intraoral scan with 3D reverse engineering software. For 3D surface analysis, the two models were superimposed by using best-fit algorithm. The average differences between the two models at all points on the surfaces were computed. Paired t-test and Bland-Altman plot were used to determine the validity of measurements from the intraoral scan compared to those from the plaster model. There were no significant differences between the plaster models and intraoral scans, except for one measurement of lower intermolar width. The Bland-Altman plots of all measurements showed that differences between the two models were within the limits of agreement. The average surface difference between the two models was within 0.10 mm. The results of the present study indicate that the intraoral scans are clinically acceptable for diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry and can be used in place of plaster models.

  16. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  17. Estimation of clinically significant prostate volumes by digital rectal examination: a comparative prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2011-12-01

    Reliable quantification of prostate volume is important to correctly select patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) most likely to benefit from medical therapy [e.g. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)] and in selecting appropriate surgical approach. We aim to determine the reliability of digital rectal examination (DRE) in estimation of prostate volume which may be helpful in patient selection for 5-ARIs therapy.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Puskar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-09-11

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments.

  20. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.

  1. Disinfection of dental impressions and occlusal records by ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E; Peutzfeldt, A; Owall, B

    2000-06-01

    As chemical disinfection of dental impressions may cause adverse effects on materials and the dental personnel this study examined disinfection by ultraviolet radiation. Alginate, addition silicone rubber and red wax contaminated by Streptococcus salivarius, Fusobacterium nucleatum and five other bacteria in different suspension media were radiated for up to 18 min, and the number of colony forming units was compared to non-radiated controls. The effect of ultraviolet radiation differed among bacterial species and depended on the organic content in the suspension. Generally, the bacterial reduction after ultraviolet radiation was below 4 log steps and thus insufficient for disinfection of dental impressions.

  2. Parents' Oral Health Literacy and its Impact on their Children's Dental Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Effat; Niknahad, Ayshe; Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Because parents play a key role in children's dental health, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parents' oral health literacy (OHL) and their children's dental health status in Babol, Iran. In this cross sectional study a total of 384 children aged 21 months to 84 months who attended the dental clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences between September 2015 and February 2016 were examined. We measured dmft index only for primary dentition; during examination the accompanying parent completed the "Oral Health Literacy-Adults Questionnaire". Comparing mean analysis, such as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an independent-samples t-test, served to compare children's dental caries, missing, and dental fillings' mean differences, between subgroups. In addition, the relationship between OHL, children's dental caries, and dental fillings was assessed using multiple linear regression models while controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. All data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. Children's mean age was 55.1 months (SD: 13.7), while 47% were girls. Mean children's dental caries, missing, filling, and mean dmft index were 6.5, 0.4, 1.2, and 8.2 respectively. Parents with inadequate OHL had children with more dental caries (p=0.005), however this relation had no significance while controlling for background factors. Increasing children's dental fillings was significantly related with families living in urban regions (p=0.01, 95% CI: 0.11 to 1.12), and parents with adequate OHL (p=0.02, 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.05). Inadequate parents' OHL was associated with children having high dental caries and less dental fillings. Therefore, providing interventions to improve parents' OHL would be valuable in children's dental health promotion programs, especially in countries with a developing oral health system.

  3. An Examination of Perceived Quality, Satisfaction, and Loyalty Relationship: Applicability of Comparative and Noncomparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licen Indahwati Darsono

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates alternative measurement approaches to investigating the relationship amongst perceived quality, customer satisfaction, and loyalty. The authors define and measure the constructs within a relative attitudinal framework and compare these results to a noncomparative or individual evaluation of brands. In addition, loyalty is measured by and defined as a behavioral and attitudinal loyalty. The object of this research is teh botol whilst the subjects are undergraduate students in Surabaya and Yogyakarta. The proposed model, with satisfaction as a mediator between quality and loyalty, is found to be an acceptable representation of data across three brands of teh botol and for both comparative and noncomparative evaluation. The use of relative attitude, however, indicates a much stronger relationship amongst perceived quality, satisfaction, and loyalty than the attitude towards a brand when they are performed in individual evaluation. With respect to predictive ability, this study’s findings suggest that comparative evaluation has higher degree of applicability than does noncomparative evaluation.

  4. Prevalencia de erosión dental en niños de 6 a 12 años de edad utilizando el índice Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rosella Baltuano Songhurst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia, distribución y severidad de erosión dental en niños de 6 a 12 años de edad de la institución educativa pública Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Lima-Perú. Material y métodos: Una muestra aleatoria de 247 niños de primaria fueron evaluados clínicamente para medir la erosión dental utilizando el índice Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE, obteniendo un score acumulativo el cual posteriormente es comparado con el cuadro de niveles de riesgo/manejo clínico propio del índice. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las variables presencia de erosión dental, género, edad, localización de la lesión. Resultados: La prevalencia de erosión dental fue de 9.31% y la media y DS del score BEWE fue 0.25±0.90. Conclusiones: La erosión dental en niños de 6 a 12 años encontrada en esta institución educativa es menor a la de otros estudios epidemiológicos realizados en escuelas de otras partes del mundo. Este tipo de estudio epidemiológico puede ser viable en niños de este rango de edad de otras partes del Perú, en donde las costumbres, hábitos alimenticios y otros factores varían notablemente.

  5. Non-Traditional Learners in Higher Education: Comparison of a Traditional MCQ Examination with Concept Mapping to Assess Learning in a Dental Radiological Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, David B.; Tan, Po Li; Whaites, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to argue for alternative assessment methods (i.e. concept map) considering the changes in demography in higher education. In the case of school of dentistry, for example, there is an urgent call for a catalyst for new assessment methods in dental education in view of the drive to comprehensively assess professional…

  6. Tetralogy of Fallot: Report of 30 Cases and Dental Considerations with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gedik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is one of the most serious cyanotic congenital heart diseases and is characterized by common systemic and oral findings. This study was carried out on 30 patients (3−13 years old with TOF and 30 subjects as a control group. The patients were examined for oral hygiene, mucous membrane, gingivae, dental caries and any hypoplasia. There appeared to be an increase in dental caries, hypoplasia and periodontal disease in the patients with TOF compared with controls. The dental aspects of TOF patients are highlighted and their dental management is discussed.

  7. Long noncoding RNAs related to the odontogenic potential of dental mesenchymal cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Jia, Lingfei

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the lncRNAs that are associated with the odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells. The odontogenic potential of dental mesenchymal cells was found to be lost in the course of in vitro culture, so the lncRNA profiles were subsequently compared between freshly-isolated and cultured dental mesenchymal cells using RNA-sequencing. A co-expression analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs and coding RNAs was performed to understand their potential functions. The expression of several selected lncRNAs was also examined in developing tooth germs. Compared with cultured dental mesenchymal cells, 108 lncRNAs were upregulated and 36 lncRNAs were downregulated in freshly-isolated dental mesenchymal cells. Coding genes correlated with the lncRNAs were mainly associated with DNA and protein metabolic processes and cytoskeletal anchorage. Meg3, Malat1, Xist, and Dlx1as were significantly downregulated in cultured dental mesenchymal cells but were upregulated in odontogenic dental mesenchymal tissues. Moreover, the levels of Dlx1as were negatively correlated with that of Dlx1 in dental mesenchymal cells and dental mesenchymal tissues. The lncRNA profiles of dental mesenchymal cells are significantly changed during culturing, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is associated with the loss of odontogenic potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A systematic review comparing open-book and closed-book examinations: Evaluating effects on development of critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanns, Beth; Dinkens, Amber; Moore, Jill

    2017-08-19

    The advantages of using traditional closed-book examinations are closely compared to the advantages of using open-book examinations for the development of critical thinking skills in nursing students. The use of critical thinking skills is vital among nurses to assess patient needs and modify standard approaches to individualize care for better patient outcomes. The following areas are compared and contrasted for both closed-book and open-book examinations: examination preparation, rote memorization versus active learning, intellectual engagement, simulation of working environment, higher order thinking skills, anxiety reduction and student satisfaction. During investigation of closed-book examinations and open-book examinations, the use of collaborative testing was unveiled. Collaborative testing combines areas from both closed-book and open-book examinations. Based on the systematic review of literature, the recommendation is to use a mixed method of examination types throughout the course of the nursing program. Each type of examination helps develop different skill sets in the nursing student. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative examination of policy and models of disability in Korea and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Se Kwang; Brandon, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the understanding of disability has changed substantially, changes in theoretical debates and policy on disability now encourage society to understand and treat disabled people as ordinary citizens. However, arguably the dominance of Western theory on disability has resulted in the marginalisation of disabled people’s experiences in non Western cultures. This paper compares disability in relation to the culture of South Korea and the UK, by attempting to articulat...

  10. Diagnostic Value of Senior Dental Students in Yazd About of Detection the Proximal Caries on Panoramic Radiographs Compared to Detection of Experts in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Romoozi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.

  11. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  12. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  13. Comparative evaluation of bispectral index system after sedation with midazolam and propofol combined with remifentanil versus ketamine in uncooperative during dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Alireza; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Kaviani, Nasser; Tahririan, Dana; Akhlaghi, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Proper analgesic agents should be used in combination with sedative agents. Remifentanil is a synthetic narcotic/analgesic agent with a short duration effect and decreases the risk of apnea during recovery. Bispectral index system (BIS) is a new noninvasive technique for the evaluation of the depth of sedation. The aim of present clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of intravenous sedation with propofol/midazolam/remifentanil (PMR) in comparison to propofol/midazolam/ketamine (PMK) for dental procedures in children 3-7 years of age. In this clinical trial, 32 healthy uncooperative children who were candidates for dental treatments under sedation were randomly divided into two groups. Intravenous sedation was induced with PMR in one group and with PMK in the other group. After injection and during procedure BIS index, heart rate and respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation was evaluated every 5 min. After the procedure, recovery time was measured. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Friedman, Wilcoxon, and t-test. The BIS value was significantly low in ketamin group (P = 0.003) but respiratory rates and heart rates were same in both groups with no statistical difference (P = 0.884, P = 0.775). The recovery time was significantly shorter in remifentanil group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003). It can be concluded that intravenous sedation technique with PMR combination induces effective and safe sedation, with less pain and more forgetfulness and a shorter recovery time for children 3-7 years of age during dental procedures.

  14. COMPARING MULTI-SOURCE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATA DURING THE EXAMINATION OF VERTICALITY IN A MONUMENTAL TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Markiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of source photogrammetric data in relation to the examination of verticality in a monumental tower. In the proposed data processing methodology, the geometric quality of the point clouds relating to the monumental tower of the castle in Iłżawas established by using terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006h, Leica C10, terrestrial photographs and digital images sourced via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV (Leica Aibot X6 Hexacopter. Tests were performed using the original software, developed by the authors, which allows for the automation of 3D point cloud processing. The software also facilitates the verification of the verticality of the tower and the assessment of the quality of utilized data.

  15. Comparative decline of professional school graduates' performance on the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I; Stroup, Kathy; Mancuso, Leah J; Tangen, Kimberly

    2008-04-01

    The discrepancy between traditional (Boulder Model) and professional school (Vail Model) clinical psychology graduate programs on the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) was greater using 1997-2005 data than in an earlier study using 1988-1995 data. The relative decline of the performance of professional school graduates on the EPPP was attributed in part to the increase of 31.1% in number of listed professional schools over the last decade, in particular, because those schools have lower academic standards. It is recommended that professional programs accept fewer students and have more rigorous quality control mechanisms for the students who have been accepted. It is further recommended that no new professional schools be started and that marginal programs be phased out.

  16. Comparing Eruption Space of the Lower Third Molar in Unerupted and Erupted Teeth via Digital Anoramic Radiography in Patients Referring to Yazd Dental College during 2011-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini Ardakani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to determine and compare the eruption space of unerupted and erupted third molars by the means of digital panoramic radiography in patients referring to Yazd dental college during 2011-2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 150 archived digital panoramic radiographies in radiology department were evaluated with Romexis software under the standard circumstances. The radiographic pictures belonged to 73 men and 77 women with the average age of 21.18±1.67 years. In patients with erupted third molars as well as unerupted third molars (mesio-angular and vertical, several parameters were examined including: angle of the tooth axis of second and third molar, Gonial angle, the width of third molar, retro-molar space and its ratio to the width of third molar, the development stage of third molar root as well as the distance between the center of ramus and the most distal point of second molar. The data related to age, sex and the eruption situation of lower third molar- unerupted or erupted- were extracted from the patient’s log. The data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.17 via applying descriptive tests and T-test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in regard with the average angle between second and third molar, the mean space of retro-molar and its ratio to the width of third molar as well as the mean distance between centers of ramus and second molar (P=0.0001. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in Gonial angle mean (P=0.213 and the width of third molar (P.value=0.348. Conclusion: Increasing the angle between second and third molar as well as inadequate space of retro-molar can lead to impaction of lower third molar, but the width of third molar and the Gonial angle size did not reveal any significant role in determination of impaction or eruption of third molar.

  17. Comparing Integrated and Disciplinary Clinical Training Patterns for Dental Interns: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Effect on Students' Self-Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junrong; Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Qi; Shao, Longquan

    2016-03-01

    In China, the five-year program of undergraduate education for stomatology consists of four years of lecture courses and one year of internship focused on clinical training. Dental schools provide this clinical training either in their own clinics (referred to as the one-stage pattern because all forms of practice are completed together) or by placing students in external clinics usually at non-affiliated hospitals (referred to as the three-stage program because the three primary areas are taught separately). The aims of this study were to investigate differences in teaching effect between the one-stage and the three-stage patterns and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the two patterns. A three-section, 31-item questionnaire was designed to assess basic and clinic information about the interns' training and their self-confidence in performing clinical procedures. The survey was administered to graduates who finished the fifth-year internship in 2012-14. Of the 356 individuals invited to participate, 303 graduates who spent their intern years in 43 academic dental institutions returned completed surveys (response rate of 85%). The one-stage group (n=121) reported longer independent operation time than the three-stage group (n=182) (pconfident in oral hygiene instruction and scale and polish (overall median=5), but showed low confidence in rubber dam placement and four other procedures (overall median=2). The one-stage group rated their confidence level higher than the three-stage group on comprehensive skills such as arranging appointments and managing patients and procedures needing long treatment periods such as molar endodontics. The three-stage group showed higher confidence on more specialized procedures such as surgical extractions and suturing. This study found that both of the two intern patterns had advantages and shortcomings in clinical training in various procedures. Combining the two could be a way to improve clinical education in China.

  18. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips ... offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants ...

  19. Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Dental Assistants PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Dental Assistants Do About this section Assistants prepare and ...

  20. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  1. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  2. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  3. Examining and comparing social perception abilities across childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, Danielle A; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A R; Dupuis, Annie; Iaboni, Alana; Crosbie, Jennifer; McGinn, Holly; Arnold, Paul D; Brian, Jessica; Kushki, Azadeh; Nicolson, Rob; Schachar, Russell J; Soreni, Noam; Szatmari, Peter; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-06-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with social processing deficits. The objective of this study was to compare patterns of social perception abilities across obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and control participants. A total of 265 children completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test-Child Version (RMET). Parents or caregivers completed established trait/symptom scales. The predicted percentage of accuracy on the RMET was compared across disorders and by item difficulty and item valence (i.e., positive/negative/neutral mental states), then analyzed for associations with trait/symptom scores. The percentage of correct RMET scores varied significantly between diagnostic groups (p social communication impairment and hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not OCD traits/symptoms, were associated with lower scores on the RMET, irrespective of diagnosis. Social perception abilities in neurodevelopmental disorders exist along a continuum. Children with ASD have the greatest deficits, whereas children with OCD may be hypersensitive to social information. Social communication deficits and hyperactive/impulsive traits are associated with impaired social perception abilities; these findings highlight overlapping cognitive and behavioral manifestations across disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental cone beam computed tomography analyses of postoperative labial bone thickness in maxillary anterior implants: comparing immediate and delayed implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yasukazu; Obama, Tadakazu

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of labial alveolar bone thickness and the corresponding vertical bone loss on postoperative gingival recessions around anterior maxillary dental implants. Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning, the temporal changes of three-dimensional images of alveolar bone were monitored to determine hard and soft tissue outcomes of two different implant placement techniques: delayed two-stage and immediate placement. Furthermore, for the delayed two-stage placement, guided bone regeneration was applied using either nonresorbable or resorbable membranes combined with anorganic bovine bone matrix. The comparative results suggested that gingival recessions were significantly lower in delayed two-stage placement, especially when using a nonresorbable membrane, compared to immediate placement, and labial bone thickness, measured by CBCT, offered an effectual indicator to assess gingival recession in the anterior region.

  5. Comparative Examination of Reconnection-Driven Magnetotail Dynamics at Mercury and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    MESSENGER plasma and magnetic field observations of Mercury's magnetotail are reviewed and compared to that of Earth. Mercury's magnetosphere is created by the solar wind interaction with its highly dipolar, spin-axis aligned magnetic field. However, its equatorial magnetic field is ~ 150 times weaker than at Earth. As a result the altitude of its subsolar magnetopause is typically only ~ 1000 km and there is no possibility for trapped radiation belts. Magnetopause reconnection at Mercury does not exhibit the "half-wave rectifier" response to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction observed at Earth. Rather magnetopause reconnection occurs for all non-zero shear angles with plasma β as the primary parameter controlling its rate. The cross-magnetosphere electric potential drop derived from magnetopause and plasma mantle structure is ~ 30 kV in contrast to ~ 100 kV at Earth. This large potential drop at Mercury relative to its small size appears due to the lack of an electrically conducting ionosphere and the strong IMF found in the inner heliosphere. Structurally these magnetotails are very similar in most respects, but the magnetic field intensities and plasma densities and temperatures are all higher at Mercury. Plasma sheet composition indicates solar wind origin, but with 10% Na+ derived from it tenuous exosphere. Given Mercury's very slow rotation rate, once every 59 Earth days, most sunward plasma sheet convection will impact the nightside of the planet. Magnetic flux loading/unloading in Mercury's tail is similar to that seen at Earth during substorms. However, the duration and amplitude of these cycles are ~ 2 - 3 min and ~ 30 to 50 %, respectively, as compared to ~ 1 - 2 hr and 10 - 25 % at Earth. These episodic, substorm-like events are accompanied by plasmoid ejection and near-tail dipolarization similar what is seen at Earth. Mercury can also exhibit Earth-like steady magnetospheric convection during which plasmoid ejection and dipolarization

  6. Intra-arch dimensional measurement validity of laser-scanned digital dental models compared with the original plaster models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Canto, G; Pachêco-Pereira, C; Lagravere, M O; Flores-Mir, C; Major, P W

    2015-05-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the validity of intra-arch dimensional measurements made from laser-scanned digital dental models in comparison with measurements directly obtained from the original plaster casts (gold standard). Finally included articles were only those reporting studies that compared measurements from digital models produced from laser scanning against their plaster models. Measurements from the original plaster models should have been made using a manual or digital caliper (gold standard). Articles that used scans from impressions or digital photographs were discarded. Detailed individual search strategies for Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, and LILACS were developed. The references cited in the selected articles were also checked for any references that could have been missed in the electronic database searches. A partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the 14-item quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS). Only 16 studies were finally included for the qualitative/quantitative synthesis. The selected studies consistently agree that the validity of measurements obtained after using a laser scanner from plaster models is similar to direct measurements. Any stated differences would be unlikely clinically relevant. There is consistent scientific evidence to support the validity of measurements from digital dental models in comparison with intra-arch dimensional measurements directly obtained from them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Comparative Examination of Plasmoid Structure and Dynamics at Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The circulation of plasma and magnetic flux within planetary magnetospheres is governed by the solar wind-driven Dungey and planetary rotation-driven cycles. The Dungey cycle is responsible for all circulation at Mercury and Earth. Jupiter and Saturn's magnetospheres are dominated by the Vasyliunas cycle, but there is evidence for a small Dungey cycle contribution driven by the solar wind. Despite these fundamental differences, all well-observed magnetospheres eject relatively large parcels of the hot plasma, termed plasmoids, down their tails at high speeds. Plasmoids escape from the restraining force of the planetary magnetic field through reconnection in the equatorial current sheet separating the northern and southern hemispheres of the magnetosphere. The reconnection process gives the magnetic field threading plasmoids a helical or flux rope-type topology. In the Dungey cycle reconnection also provides the primary tailward force that accelerates plasmoids to high speeds as they move down the tail. We compare the available observations of plasmoids at Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn for the purpose of determining the relative role of plasmoids and the reconnection process in the dynamics these planetary magnetic tails.

  8. Importance of Dental Records in Forensic Dental Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed, Petro; Baba, Feras; Alsulami, Salem; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The patient’s record maintains all the diagnostic information with regards to patients and contains valuable information that can be beneficial to the dentist as well as legal authorities during forensic human identification. Aim: Objective of the study was to compare dental records with an ideal dental record form, as well as to compare between dental records of private clinics and academic hospitals and to assess the awareness and the knowledge of the dentists regarding the ma...

  9. Dental Photothermal Radiometry: Theoretical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko, Anna; Jeon, Raymond; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Dental enamel demineralization in its early stages is very difficult to detect with conventional x-rays or visual examination. High-resolution techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, usually require destruction of the tooth. Photothermal Radiomety (PTR) was recently applied as a safe, non-destructive, and highly sensitive tool for the detection of early dental demineralization, artificially created on the enamel surface. The experiments showed very high sensitivity of the measured signal to incipient changes in the surface structure, emphasizing the clinical capabilities of the method. In order to analyze the biothermophotonic phenomena in a tooth sample during the photothermal excitation, a theoretical model featuring coupled diffuse-photon-density-wave and thermal-wave fields was developed. Numerical simulations identified the effects on the PTR signal of changes in optical and thermal properties of enamel and dentin as a result of demineralization. The model predictions and experimental results will be compared and discussed.

  10. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Elementary Mathematics Teachers’ Examination Questions And SBS Mathematics Questions According To Bloom’s Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study has been planned for the purpose of comparative analysis of examination questions of elementary mathematics teachers and mathematics questions of Placement Examination (SBS) for 6th, 7th and 8th grades in 2010 in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Document analysis method was used in this study. Accordingly, 715 examination questions mathematics teachers working in 12 different primary schools asked in 2009-2010 academic year and 54 mathematics questions for 6th, 7th and 8th grades in SBS ...

  12. Dental fear in a special needs clinic population of persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Kinoshita-Byrne, Jamie; Getz, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    This study reports findings from a survey of dental fear in a special needs dental clinic population. Subjects were recruited from the University of Washington's Dental Education in Care of Persons With Disabilities (DECOD) clinical program (n = 132). Dental fears were assessed using the Kleinknecht Dental Report. Fear levels were examined among patients with differing categories of primary disabilities and between genders, races and educational levels. Some level of dental fear was reported by 43.2% of the respondents, indicating that dental fear may be an important factor in dental care for this population. Gender and educational level were significantly associated with fear levels (both p caregivers also were interviewed (n = 72) to allow for a comparison of patient and caregiver perceptions. Both patient and caregiver were interviewed whenever possible to create paired reports. Generally, caregivers significantly overestimated fear levels compared with patients (p caregiver-patient analyses, the fear scores were not significantly different, indicating that caregivers accurately estimated their client's level of dental fear. A regression model including disability group, gender, and years of education was significant for predicting fear level as measured by the Kleinknecht survey (p = 0.02). We conclude that dental fear may be a significant, though little understood problem for a population of persons with disabilities as well as for their oral care providers, and that further investigation is needed.

  13. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis......The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride.......72, respectively). When individual DFS counts were compared across examinations using Bland-Altman plots and estimation of prediction intervals for the differences, we observed a greater variability of the differences between recordings among children from the low-fluoride area. Contrary to our expectations...

  14. The effects of an interactive software application on the self-assessment ability of dental students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattheos, N.; Nattestad, A.; Christersson, C.

    2004-01-01

    examination, self-assessment, interactive, internet-based software, undergraduate dental education......examination, self-assessment, interactive, internet-based software, undergraduate dental education...

  15. Community Dental Health Promotion for Children: Integrating Applied Behavior Analysis and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kathryn D.; Geller, E. Scott

    1987-01-01

    The article examines community dental health promotion for children in terms of factors impacting children's dental health (water fluoridation, dental health education, behavior change strategies, use of dental services, and dental phobias). Proposed is a large scale behavior change approach to public dental health which integrates applied…

  16. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  17. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion: Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  18. Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazami, Fariborz; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Jahedi, Farzad; Moattari, Marzieh

    2014-03-05

    The importance of using technologies such as e-learning in different disciplines is discussed in the literature. Researchers have measured the effectiveness of e-learning in a number of fields.Considering the lack of research on the effectiveness of online learning in dental education particularly in Iran, the advantages of these learning methods and the positive university atmosphere regarding the use of online learning. This study, therefore, aims to compare the effects of two methods of teaching (virtual versus traditional) on student learning. This post-test only design study approached 40, fifth year dental students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. From this group, 35 students agreed to participate. These students were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental (virtual learning) and comparison (traditional learning). To ensure similarity between groups, we compared GPAs of all participants by the Mann-Whitney U test (P > 0.05). The experimental group received a virtual learning environment courseware package specifically designed for this study, whereas the control group received the same module structured in a traditional lecture form. The virtual learning environment consisted of online and offline materials. Two identical valid, reliable post-tests that consisted of 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 4 essay questions were administered immediately (15 min) after the last session and two months later to assess for knowledge retention. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. A comparison of the mean knowledge score of both groups showed that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning (effect size = 0.69). The newly designed virtual learning package is feasible and will result in more effective learning in comparison with lecture-based training. However further studies are needed to generalize the findings of this study.

  19. Gaps in need, demand, and effective demand for dental care utilization among residents of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Y.; Chakravarty, Kalyan K.; Simhadri, Kavya; Ghenam, Alexis; Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To identify the relation between need, demand, and effective demand for dental services in Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed among populations residing in the rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were collected from 3102 individuals who were selected through multiphase random sampling. Data regarding self-perceived dental need, dental service utilization, and barriers for utilization were collected through s pretested questionnaire followed by type-III clinical examination to assess the normative need of the individuals. Chi-square test was used to compare independent and dependent variables, and further comparison was done with multivariate logistic regression analysis for significant variables. Results: Less than half (40%) of the participants perceived a need for dental care. Among the people who perceived need for care, only 21.4% utilized dental care and 78.6% of them had unmet dental needs. The two main reasons for not seeking dental care was lack of money, i.e., unaffordable dental treatment (48%) and having the perception that they do not have any dental problem (19.4%). Conclusions: There is an enormous difference between normative need, demand, and actual utilization rates in dental care, and hindrances for effective demand need to be addressed to improve dental care delivery system. PMID:27652242

  20. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care.

  1. Quantifying the Increase in Radiation Exposure Associated with SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for Routine Nuclear Medicine Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Larkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We quantify the additional radiation exposure in terms of effective dose incurred by patients in the CT portion of SPECT/CT examinations. Methods. The effective dose from a variety of common nuclear medicine procedures is calculated and summarized. The extra exposure from the CT portion of the examination is summarized by examination and body part. Two hundred forty-eight scans from 221 patients are included in this study. The effective dose from the CT examination is also compared to average background radiation. Results. We found that the extra effective dose is not sufficient to cause deterministic effects. However, the stochastic effects may be significant, especially in patients undergoing numerous follow-up studies. The cumulative effect might increase the radiation exposure compared to patient management with SPECT alone. Conclusions. While the relative increase in radiation exposure associated with SPECT/CT is generally considered acceptable when compared with the benefits to the patient, physicians should make every effort to minimize this effect by using proper technical procedures and educating patients about the exposure they will receive.

  2. Dental practice satisfaction with preferred provider organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increasing share of the dental insurance market, little is known about dental practices' satisfaction with preferred provider organizations (PPOs. This analysis examined practice satisfaction with dental PPOs and the extent to which satisfaction was a function of communications from the plan, claims handling and compensation. Methods Data were collected through telephone surveys with dental practices affiliated with MetLife between January 2002 and December 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions related to their satisfaction with a systematically selected PPO with which they were affiliated. Six different PPO plans had sufficient observations to allow for comparative analysis (total n = 4582. Multiple imputation procedures were used to adjust for item non-response. Results While the average level of overall satisfaction with the target plan fell between "very satisfied" and "satisfied," regression models revealed substantial differences in overall satisfaction across the 6 PPOs (p Conclusion Results demonstrate the importance of compensation to dental practice satisfaction with PPOs. However, these results also highlight the critical role of service-related factors in differentiating plans and suggest that there are important non-monetary dimensions of PPO performance that can be used to recruit and retain practices.

  3. Dental Arch Dimension of Malay Ethnic Group

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    H. A. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many previous studies tried to define and put specific measurements for dental arches dimension in different ethnics groups. However, these studies may be specific to an ethnic group and cannot always be applied to other ethnic types. The aim of this study: is to obtain specific dental arch dimensions for Malaysian Malay ethnic groups and compare between both genders. Approach: Involved clinical examination, collection and analysis of 60 dental cast of Malaysian Malay subjects from pure ethnic group (30 males and 30 females, 20-24 years old. All dental landmarks were located and determined and subsequently measurements had been done according to specific points have been selected. Statistical analysis were done using t-test. Results: Dental arch dimension were established in normal occlusion for Malaysian Malay ethnic group in this study. No significant difference was observed in arch dimensions between male and female of Malaysian Malay. Conclusion: These measurement should be considered during treatment, especially in prosthodontics and orthodontics where arch dimension can be modified appreciably.

  4. The effects of general anesthesia legislation on operating room visits by preschool children undergoing dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Halley R; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of state-level general anesthesia (GA) legislation on operating room visits for the treatment of dental caries on preschool-aged children. The North Carolina Ambulatory Surgery Discharge Database was used to observe GA visits for fiscal years (FY) 1997 to 2001. A pretest/post-test design with concurrent comparison groups was used for 2 analyses: (1) all children treated for dental caries were compared to those treated for otitis media; and (2) those whose treatment for dental caries was reimbursed by Medicaid were compared to those whose treatment for dental caries was not reimbursed by Medicaid. In the prelegislation period (FY 1997 and 1998), there were 3,857 GA visits for dental core and 21,038 for otitis media. Postlegislation (FY 2000 and 2001) dental visits increased to 5,511(43%), and otitis media visits increased to 22,279 (6%)-a statistically significant difference (Pdental visits and 2,487 Medicaid dental visits. Non-Medicaid and Medicaid dental visits postlegislation increased to 2,195 (60%) and 3,316 (33%), respectively. This difference was significant (Panesthesia legislation resulted in an increase in access to care for children needing dental care in North Carolina.

  5. Randomized controlled multicenter study comparing short dental implants (6 mm) versus longer dental implants (11-15 mm) in combination with sinus floor elevation procedures. Part 2: clinical and radiographic outcomes at 1 year of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Thoma, Daniel S; Haas, Robert; Tutak, Marcin; Garcia, Abel; Taylor, Thomas D; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2015-11-01

    To compare, clinically and radiographically, short dental implants (6 mm) to long implants (11-15 mm) placed with sinus grafting. Participants with 5-7 mm of bone height in the posterior maxilla were randomly allocated to receive short implants (GS) or long implants with sinus grafting (GG). Implants were loaded with single crowns 6 months after placement (PR). Patients were re-evaluated 12 months after loading (FU-1). Outcome variables included: Implant survival rate (CSR), marginal bone level alteration (MBL), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), plaque control record (PCR) and crown-to-implant ratios (C/I). Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests. In 97 subjects, 132 implants were re-evaluated at FU-1. The CSR was 100%. The MBL from implant placement (IP) to (PR) was -0.22 ± 0.4 mm for GG and -0.3 ± 0.45 mm for GS (p 0.05), PPD (p = 1) and PCR (p = 0.09). BoP was higher in the GS (p = 0.04). The C/I was 0.99 ± 0.17 for GG and 1.86 ± 0.23 for GS (p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between C/I and MBL, (GG: p = 0.13; GS: p = 0.38). Both treatment modalities provided similar outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Oral breathing and dental malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, A M; Albani, F; Ntrekou, P; Rugiano, A; Duse, M; Mattei, A; Marzo, G

    2009-06-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate existing correlations between oral breathing and dental malocclusions. The study was conducted on a paediatric group of 71 oral breathers selected at the Allergology and Paediatric Immunology Department of Umberto I General Hospital, University of Rome "La Sapienza" (Italy). The children were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Children aged 6 to 12 years with no history of craniofacial malformations or orthodontic treatment were included. The results were compared with a control group composed of 71 patient aged 6 to 12 years with nasal breathing. After their medical history was recorded, all patients underwent orthodontic/otolaryngological clinical examinations. The following diagnostic procedures were then performed: latero-lateral projection teleradiography, orthopantomogram, dental impressions, anterior rhinomanometry before and after administering a local vasoconstrictor, nocturnal home pulse oximetry (NHPO) recording, spirometry test, skin prick test, study cast evaluation and cephalometric analysis following Tweed's principles. The intraoral examination assessed: dental class type, overbite, overjet, midlines, crossbite, and presence of parafunctional oral habits such as atypical swallowing, labial incompetence, finger sucking and sucking of the inner lip. Evaluation of the study casts involved arch perimeter and transpalatal width assessment, and space analysis. The results showed a strong correlation between oral breathing and malocclusions, which manifests itself with both dentoskeletal and functional alterations, leading to a dysfunctional malocclusive pattern. According to the authors' results, dysfunctional malocclusive pattern makes it clear that the association between oral breathing and dental malocclusions represents a self-perpetuating vicious circle in which it is difficult to establish if the primary alteration is respiratory or maxillofacial. Regardless, the problem needs to be addressed and

  7. Dental Care Coverage and Use: Modeling Limitations and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined why older US adults without dental care coverage and use would have lower use rates if offered coverage than do those who currently have coverage. Methods. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to estimate a multinomial logistic model to analyze the influence of personal characteristics in the grouping of older US adults into those with and those without dental care coverage and dental care use. Results. Compared with persons with no coverage and no dental care use, users of dental care with coverage were more likely to be younger, female, wealthier, college graduates, married, in excellent or very good health, and not missing all their permanent teeth. Conclusions. Providing dental care coverage to uninsured older US adults without use will not necessarily result in use rates similar to those with prior coverage and use. We have offered a model using modifiable factors that may help policy planners facilitate programs to increase dental care coverage uptake and use. PMID:24328635

  8. Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Blomqvist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.

  9. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

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    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  10. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  11. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination Concordância no diagnóstico da fluorose dentária em incisivos centrais realizado por um método fotográfico padronizado e pelo exame clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard. 49 children (aged 7-9 years were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67 and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49% compared with the photographic method (36.7%. The photographic method presented higher specificity (96% than sensitivity (70.8%, a positive predictive value (PPV of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o diagnóstico de fluorose dentária realizado por um método fotográfico com o exame clínico (padrão ouro. Quarenta e nove crianças, de 7 e 9 anos, foram clinicamente examinadas por um examinador calibrado para fluorose dentária. Os incisivos foram fotografados com câmera digital e as fotografias foram apresentadas a três odontopediatras, que examinaram as imagens. A concordância por kappa entre o método fotográfico e o padrão ouro foi boa (0,67 e a acurácia foi de 83,67%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária foi levemente maior pelo método clínico (49% do que pelo fotográfico (36,7%. O método fotográfico apresentou maior especificidade (96% que sensibilidade (70,83%, valor de predição positivo (VPP de 94

  12. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  13. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2016-01-01

    of uptake among refugee children. Refugee children (n = 16,701) who, between January 1993 and December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born children (n = 100,206). Personal identification numbers were cross......Refugee children and their families constitute a vulnerable group regarding health and access to care. In a register-based cohort design, we examined differences in uptake of immunisations and child health examinations between refugee children and Danish-born children, including predictors......-linked to the National Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for immunisation and child health examinations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of uptake. Refugee children had a lower uptake of all immunisations compared to Danish-born children. The lowest uptake was found for immunisation against...

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLINICAL EXAMINATION, ULTRASOUND FINDINGS, DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROSCOPY WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION REPORT OF ENDOMETRIUM IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

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    Sathenahalli Devegowda Prathibha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB is a very frequent gynaecological complaint and occurs across the entire age spectrum, approximately 75000 hysterectomies are carried out each year with 30% of these for menstrual problems alone. These menstrual aberrations occur more commonly at extremes of reproductive life. The introduction of hysteroscopy has opened a new dimension in evaluation of patient with AUB replacing the blind technique of Dilatation and Curettage. The present study was undertaken to know the accuracy of various tests with Histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present prospective study was carried out on 100 patients from reproductive, perimenopausal and postmenopausal age group with abnormal uterine bleeding in Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital. RESULTS In the present study, in relation to histopathological examination, clinical findings and hysteroscopy had better accuracy (72% as compared to ultrasound findings (41% in diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. CONCLUSION Hysteroscopy guided biopsy and histopathology complements each other in the evaluation of patient with abnormal uterine bleeding for accurate diagnosis and further treatment.

  15. The association between dental arch dimensions and occurrence of Finnish dental consonant misarticulations in cleft lip/palate children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, J; Ranta, R; Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maxillary and mandibular dental arch width, length, and palatal height dimensions are associated with the occurrence of misarticulations (phonetic or phonologic errors) in the dental consonants /r/, /s/, and /1/ in different cleft types and sexes. The subjects were 263 (109 girls, 154 boys) 6-year-old Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n=79), deft lip/alveolus (CL(A), n=77), unilateral (UCLP, n=80), and bilateral (BCLP, n=27) cleft lip and palate. Dental plaster casts were measured by two authors using the technique of Moorrees, and auditive speech was analyzed with high reliability by two speech pathologists. The results showed that the occurrence of misarticulations increased and dental arch dimensions decreased with the severity of the cleft. Narrower and shorter maxillary arches as well as shallower palates were related to problems with the studied dental consonants. Mandibular arch dimensions were not related to the misarticulations. However, statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences in dental arch dimensions between subjects with and without misarticulations when they were compared separately for different cleft types. The etiology of clefting per se--isolated deft palate versus cleft lip with or without deft palate--did not seem to explain the associations between dental arch dimensions and the studied misarticulations.

  16. 30-Year Outcomes of Dental Implants Supporting Mandibular Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Retrospective Review of 4 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Tözüm, Tolga F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present the 30-year outcomes of 28 implants supporting mandibular screw-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Dental charts of the 4 patients were carefully reviewed, and it was noticed that they received 28 implants and 5 screw-retained FDPs in 1983 and 1984. The chief concerns raised by these patients were poor retention of their complete dentures and decreased masticatory function at the time of treatment planning. Each dental care they received was recorded in the last 30 years. Implant survival, radiographic, and prosthodontic examinations were performed. No implants were lost after 30 years, giving the implant a survival rate of 100%. The average marginal bone level was 2.6 ± 0.5 mm at the last recall appointment. Of the 5 FDPs delivered, 1 needed replacement, indicating a prosthesis survival rate of 80%. The patients needed 21 repairs such as replacement of denture teeth/gold screws and hard relining, and 19 adjustments such as occlusal adjustments and acrylic resin contouring, over 30 years. This clinical report shows that machined-surface dental implants can successfully support screw-retained fixed dental prostheses for over 30 years, making dental implants an important dental treatment alternative compared to the traditional prosthetic treatment methods.

  17. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

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    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  18. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  19. Dental anxiety among university students at the University of Tromsø: a quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Storjord, Helene Persen; Teodorsen, Mari Mjønes

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrated that dental students have a lower degree of dental anxiety compared to psychology- and biology students. Senior dental students also have less dental anxiety than junior dental students. This indicates that the dentistry programme structure may influence dental anxiety levels.

  20. Caries with Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-Year School Children in Moderate-Fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Atotal of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2%) with mean DMFT0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6% of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5%). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries.

  1. Biocompatibility of Resin-based Dental Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvan Moharamzadeh; Ian M. Brook; Richard van Noort

    2009-01-01

    Oral and mucosal adverse reactions to resin-based dental materials have been reported. Numerous studies have examined thebiocompatibility of restorative dental materials and their components, and a wide range of test systems for the evaluation of the biological effects of these materials have been developed. This article reviews the biological aspects of resin-based dental materials and discusses the conventional as well as the new techniques used for biocompatibility assessment of dental mat...

  2. Dental Interventions on First Permanent Molars

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The first permanent molars have the biggest dental morbidity and mortality of all permanent teeth. The main aim was to evaluate of the most common dental problems and procedures that are performed on the first permanent molars. Material and method: examination was performed in three private dental offices, two from urban and one from rural region, over a period of 2 years. The data was obtained by using dental charts from the patients and by the ambulatory register for performe...

  3. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Dental Hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  5. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention on dental fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Nicolaisen, Camilla;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for patients with dental fear in a private dental clinic. Patients presenting with subjectively reported dental fear were randomly assigned to either an immediate intervention (n = 53) or a waiting...... list (n = 51) group. Both groups received an identical intervention, but delayed by 4-6 weeks in the waiting list group. Participants were asked to fill out two self-report questionnaires of dental fear at pre- and post-intervention, and again at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Analysis of variance...... showed that dental fear was significantly reduced in the immediate intervention group (d = 1.5-2.2), compared with the waiting list group (d = 0.3-0.4). Additionally, all participants showed a significant reduction of dental fear following the brief intervention, and in the subgroup available for follow...

  6. Copper release from dental prosthetic crowns, dental materials, and human teeth into acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicanin, Biljana M; Nikolić, Ruzica S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dilution of the ion of copper from human teeth and dental prosthetic crowns in 4% CH(3)COOH during a period of 24 hr at room temperature. The content of the diluted copper in an acetate extract, as well as the overall content of this metal in the samples, was determined by means of a potentiometric stripping analysis. The comparative measurements were carried out using the furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique, which is recommended by the International Standards (ISO 6872:2008; ISO 24234:2004) as a method for quality control of dental-prosthetic material (dental ceramic, metal restorative materials, dental amalgams) in the process of checking for heavy metals. During a 24-hr period in 4% CH(3)COOH at a temperature of 25 degrees C, approximately 72% of the overall copper was released from the tooth. The percentage of the released copper from baby teeth is higher, ranging from 88 to 92%, which is probably a consequence of the bone tissue being in development, its infirmity, and inadequate stability. On these conditions, approximately 72% of the overall copper was released from the dental-ceramic prosthetic crowns.

  7. Dutch primary schoolchildren’s attitudes toward their dental appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Hoogstraten, J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study's purpose was to examine children's attitudes toward dental appearance and compare these with attitudes toward general health, body shape, grades in school, friends, money, and sports. The study also explored whether subjects reporting that they have attractive teeth believed the

  8. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel.

  9. Comparative evaluation of bispectral index system after sedation with midazolam and propofol combined with remifentanil versus ketamine in uncooperative during dental procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that intravenous sedation technique with PMR combination induces effective and safe sedation, with less pain and more forgetfulness and a shorter recovery time for children 3-7 years of age during dental procedures.

  10. Comparative study of 0.2% and 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine mouth rinses on the level of dental staining and gingival indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: based on the results of this study we can conclude that the lower concentrations of CHX should be prescribed, decreasing side effects, since higher concentrations do not seem to be more effective in controlling dental plaque and gingivitis.

  11. Contrast-enhanced MRI compared with the physical examination in the evaluation of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veenendaal, Mira van; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Marion A.J. van; Berg, J.M. van den [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and to compare physical examination outcomes with MRI outcomes in the assessment of disease status in JIA patients. Consecutive JIA patients with knee involvement were prospectively studied using an open-bore MRI. Imaging findings from 146 JIA patients were analysed (59.6 % female; mean age, 12.9 years). Patients were classified as clinically active or inactive. MRI features were evaluated using the JAMRIS system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. Inter-reader reliability was good for all MRI features (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.94). No differences were found between the two groups regarding MRI scores of bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions or bone erosions. Synovial hypertrophy scores differed significantly between groups (P = 0.016). Nonetheless, synovial hypertrophy was also present in 14 JIA patients (35.9 %) with clinically inactive disease. Of JIA patients considered clinically active, 48.6 % showed no signs of MRI-based synovitis. MRI can discriminate between clinically active and inactive JIA patients. However, physical examination is neither very sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity compared with MRI. Subclinical synovitis was present in >35 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. (orig.)

  12. Anxiety sensitivity: another reason to separate dental fears from blood-injury fears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Cengiz; Ak, Sertaç; Ak, Hacer Birgül

    2014-03-01

    Although dental phobia is classified under the heading of blood-injury phobia, studies show differences between the two conditions in terms of frequency of fainting and gender distribution. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), which refers to discomfort and negative attributions to bodily anxiety sensations, was useful in differentiating panic anxiety from other phobic anxieties. No study has compared dental phobia with blood-injury phobia directly. We examined 61 subjects, working at a military aircraft factory, using measures on demographics, dental fears (MDAS - Modified Dental Anxiety Scale) and blood-injury fears (MBPI - Multidimensional Blood/Injury Phobia Inventory), in addition to Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Regression analyses revealed that dental phobia was predicted by ASI, whereas blood/injury phobia was not. Our results provide additional support for the proposed distinction between the two conditions.

  13. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  14. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  15. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  16. Strategies for combating dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Lyndsay C; Dundes, Lauren

    2004-11-01

    Dental anxiety and subsequent avoidance of dental care and deterioration of oral health pose a significant problem for the dental profession. In an attempt to elucidate preferences of anxious dental patients, we gathered survey data from 121 persons at a small, private liberal arts college in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Half of the respondents experienced dental anxiety, and most of these (66 percent) attributed anxiety to fear of anticipated pain. The majority of anxious patients preferred a dentist to be friendly (93 percent), talkative (82 percent), and to have an office with adorned walls (89 percent) and a slightly cool temperature (63 percent). Patients who identified themselves as anxious also indicated that music in the background (89 percent) and magazines and books in the dental office (75 percent) were helpful. Anxious patients were more likely than non-anxious patients to prefer a male dentist (77 percent versus 52 percent). This finding was especially marked among anxious male respondents, 93 percent of whom preferred a male dentist compared to 73 percent of anxious female respondents. These survey data may assist dental professionals in understanding and combating patients' dental anxiety, in order to increase the frequency of dental visits and to prompt a corresponding restoration or maintenance of oral health.

  17. A comparative study of sliding wear of nonmetallic dental restorative materials with emphasis on micromechanical wear mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupriez, Nataliya Deyneka; von Koeckritz, Ann-Kristin; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vitro tribological behavior of modern nonmetallic restorative materials. Specimen prepared of IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass ceramic, IPS Empress Esthetic leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, Everest ZS Blanks yttria-stabilized zirconia and Lava Ultimate composite were subjected to wear using a wear machine designed to simulate occlusal loads. The wear of the investigated materials and antagonists were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface scanner. The quantitative wear test results were used to compare and rank the materials. Specimens were divided into two groups with steatite and alumina antagonists. For each antagonist material an analysis of variance was applied. As a post hoc test of the significant differences, Tukey's honest significant difference test was used. With steatite antagonist: wear of zirconia materials mechanical properties (hardness and fracture toughness) and with materials microstructure. Wear mechanisms are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide - Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3-5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish - Group I, CPP-ACP complex - Group II, mixture of CPP-ACP complex -Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control - Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P fluoride group being the most proficient. Materials such as fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and CPP-ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP-ACP plus fluoride.

  19. Dental fear and satisfaction with dental services in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Enkling, Norbert; Wolf, Christian A; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Dental satisfaction is associated with continuity of dental care, compliance with dentist advice, and positive health outcomes. It is expected that people with higher dental fear might have less dental satisfaction because of more negative dental experiences. The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction and reasons for satisfaction with dental practitioners in Switzerland and variations by dental fear. A national sample of 1,129 Swiss residents aged 15-74 (mean = 43.2 years) completed a personal interview at their home with questions assessing dental fear, dental service use, general satisfaction with their dentist, and reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Overall, 47.9 percent of participants responded that they were satisfied with their dentist and 47.6 percent that they were very satisfied. Satisfaction differed significantly by gender, language spoken, region of residence, and educational attainment. Greater dental fear was significantly associated with greater dissatisfaction with the dentist. The percentage of people who were very satisfied with the dentist ranged from 56.0 percent among people with no fear to 30.5 percent for participants with "quite a lot" of fear but was higher (44.4 percent) for people who stated that they were "very much" afraid of the dentist. The most common reasons attributed for satisfaction with dentists were interpersonal characteristics of the dentist and staff. People with "quite a lot" of fear were found to endorse these sentiments least. Although higher dental fear was associated with more dissatisfaction with the dentist, the level of satisfaction among fearful individuals in Switzerland is still high. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Differences in utilization of dental procedures by children enrolled in Wisconsin Medicaid and Delta Dental insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Xiang, Qun; Szabo, Aniko; Eichmiller, Fredrick; Okunseri, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have directly compared dental procedures provided in public and private insurance plans for enrollees living in dental health professional shortage areas (DHPSAs). We examined the rates for the different types of dental procedures received by 0-18-year-old children living in DHPSAs and non-DHPSAs who were enrolled in Medicaid and those enrolled under Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDW) for years 2002 to 2008. Medicaid and DDW dental claims data for 2002 to 2008 was analyzed. Enrollees were divided into DDW-DHPSA and non-DHPSA and Medicaid-DHPSA and non-DHPSA groups. Descriptive and multivariable analyses using over-dispersed Poisson regression were performed to examine the effect of living in DHPSAs and insurance type in relation to the number of procedures received. Approximately 49 and 65 percent of children living in non-DHPSAs that were enrolled in Medicaid and DDW received at least one preventive dental procedure annually, respectively. Children in DDW non-DHPSA group had 1.79 times as many preventive, 0.27 times fewer complex restorative and 0.51 times fewer endodontic procedures respectively, compared to those in Medicaid non-DHPSA group. Children enrolled in DDW-DHPSA group had 1.53 times as many preventive and 0.25 times fewer complex restorative procedures, compared to children in Medicaid-DHPSA group. DDW enrollees had significantly higher utilization rates for preventive procedures than children in Medicaid. There were significant differences across Medicaid and DDW between non-DHPSA and DHPSA for most dental procedures received by enrollees. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Disparities in unmet dental need and dental care received by pregnant women in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, A Isabel; Adams, Amy B; Cheng, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To examine prenatal dental care needs, utilization and oral health counseling among Maryland women who delivered a live infant during 2001-2003 and identify the factors associated with having a dental visit and having an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System is an ongoing population based surveillance system that collects information of women's attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to model dental visits and unmet dental need using predictor variables for Maryland 2001-2003 births. Less than half of all women reported having a dental visit and receiving oral health advice during pregnancy. Twenty-five percent of women reported a need for dental care, of which 33 % did not receive dental care despite their perceived need. Multivariate modeling revealed that racial minorities, women who were not married and those with annual income dental visit. Women who were not married, had low annual income, were older than 40 years of age, had an unintended pregnancy and received prenatal care later than desired were most likely to have an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Despite reported needs and existing recommendations to include oral health as a component of prenatal care, less than half of pregnant women have a dental visit during their pregnancy. One-third of women with a dental problem did not have a dental visit highlighting the unmet need for dental care during pregnancy.

  2. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.

  3. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed S.; Ooi, Yong J.; Ahmed, Syed I.; Wong, Pei S.; Ahmad, Siti F.; MNM-Rosdy, Nik M.; Malik, Normaliza A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. Results A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. Conclusion The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students. PMID:25935506

  4. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muneer G; Hasan, Syed S; Ooi, Yong J; Ahmed, Syed I; Wong, Pei S; Ahmad, Siti F; Mnm-Rosdy, Nik M; Malik, Normaliza A

    2015-05-02

    The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students.

  5. Dental Anxiety and the Use of Oral Health Services Among People Attending Two HIV Primary Care Clinics in Miami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Richard; Cardenas, Gabriel; Xavier, Jessica; Jeanty, Yves; Pereyra, Margaret; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined factors associated with dental anxiety among a sample of HIV primary care patients and investigated the independent association of dental anxiety with oral health care. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2010 from 444 patients attending two HIV primary care clinics in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Corah Dental Anxiety Scores and use of oral health-care services were obtained from all HIV-positive patients in the survey. Results The prevalence of moderate to severe dental anxiety in this sample was 37.8%, while 7.9% of the sample was characterized with severe dental anxiety. The adjusted odds of having severe dental anxiety were 3.962 times greater for females than for males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.688, 9.130). After controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, education, access to dental care, and HIV primary clinic experience, participants with severe dental anxiety had 69.3% lower adjusted odds of using oral health-care services within the past 12 months (vs. longer than 12 months ago) compared with participants with less-than-severe dental anxiety (adjusted odds ratio = 0.307, 95% CI 0.127, 0.742). Conclusion A sizable number of patients living with HIV have anxiety associated with obtaining needed dental care. Routine screening for dental anxiety and counseling to reduce dental anxiety are supported by this study as a means of addressing the impact of dental anxiety on the use of oral health services among HIV-positive individuals. PMID:22547875

  6. Dental Students' Perceptions of Learning Value in PBL Groups with Medical and Dental Students Together versus Dental Students Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Maryam; Zulla, Rosslynn; Gaudet-Amigo, Gisele; Patterson, Steven; Murphy, Natalie; Ross, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    At a dental school in Canada, problem-based learning (PBL) sessions were restructured from an integrated dental-medical model to a separate dental model, resulting in three groups of students available for study: those who had participated in the two-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental alone, and the two-year dental alone. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which the PBL structure affected the dental students' perceptions of the learning value of PBL in the different models. A total of 34 first-, second-, and third-year dental students participated in six focus groups in May and June 2011 (34% of students in those total classes). Semistructured questions explored their experiences in the different PBL structures. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was employed. The results showed positive and negative perceptions for both the combined dental and medical settings and the settings with dental students alone. For students in the combined PBL groups, positive perceptions included gaining information from medical peers, motivation to learn, and interdisciplinary collaborations. The negative perceptions mainly related to irrelevant content, dominating medical students, and ineffective preceptors. Members of the separate dental groups were more positive about the content and felt a sense of belonging. They appreciated the dental preceptors but were concerned about the inadequacy of their medical knowledge. Overall, the dental students valued the combined PBL experience and appreciated the opportunity to learn with their medical colleagues. Close attention, however, must be paid to PBL content and the preceptor's role to optimize dental students' experience in combined medical and dental groups.

  7. Dose Evaluation and Quality Criteria in Dental Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, C.; Rossi, F.; Stecco, A.; Villari, N.; Zatelli, G

    2000-07-01

    Radioprotection in dental radiology is of particular interest in the framework of the Revised Medical Exposure Directive for the great number of examinations involving the adult as well as the paediatric population (Article 9: Special Practice). The present study is intended to find the quality criteria of orthodontic imaging and for evaluating the dose absorbed within the dental and maxillary volume in connection with radiological examinations performed with either spiral CT, dental panoramic tomography or teleradiography. The X ray dose to organs sited in the body, neck, ocular and intracranial area was measured using lithium fluoride dosemeters, positioned in a Rando phantom. Quality criteria have been established by an expert radiologist considering the diagnostic information obtained in the images. The dosimetric data obtained were comparable with other authors', although with some differences due to technical characteristics. These result data are useful for choosing the patient's diagnostic path, considering the radiobiological risk associated with increasing orthodontic imaging. (author)

  8. Teaching musculoskeletal examination skills to UK medical students: a comparative survey of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic education practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tim

    2014-03-28

    Specialists in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics are frequently involved in undergraduate teaching of musculoskeletal (MSK) examination skills. Students often report that specialty-led teaching is inconsistent, confusing and bears little resemblance to the curricula. The Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a MSK screening tool that provides a standardised approach to examination despite it being fraught with disapproval and low uptake. Recent studies would appear to support innovative instructional methods of engaging learners such as patient educators and interactive small group teaching. This comparative cross-sectional survey evaluates the current state of undergraduate teaching in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, including preferred teaching methods, attitudes towards GALS, and barriers to effective teaching. An electronic questionnaire was sent to specialist trainees and Consultants in the East and West Midlands region, representing 5 UK medical schools. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. There were 76 respondents representing 5 medical schools. There was a request for newer teaching methodologies to be used: multi-media computer-assisted learning (35.5%), audio-visual aids (31.6%), role-playing (19.7%), and social media (3.9%). It is evident that GALS is under-utilised with 50% of clinicians not using GALS in their teaching. There is a genuine desire for clinical educators to improve their teaching ability, collaborate more with curriculum planners, and feel valued by institutions. There remains a call for implementing a standardised approach to MSK clinical teaching to supersede GALS.

  9. Diagnosis of dental problems in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Dental problems are very common in pet rabbits. To establish a correct diagnosis of rabbit dental pathology, a general knowledge of normal dental anatomy and physiology is necessary. The specific anatomy and the most common pathologies of rabbit dentition are reviewed. Techniques for diagnosing dental abnormalities - such as clinical examination, radiography and computed tomography (CT) - are summarized. Finally two clinical cases of rabbits with dental pathologies are described.

  10. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  11. Infant dental care (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  12. A comparative study for spatial resolution and subjective image characteristics of a multi-slice CT and a cone-beam CT for dental use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiro.orad@tmd.ac.jp [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Division of Oral Restitution, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 5-45 Yushima 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1138549 (Japan); Honda, Eiichi [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Division of Oral Health Sciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School (Japan); Tetsumura, Akemi; Kurabayashi, Tohru [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Division of Oral Restitution, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 5-45 Yushima 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1138549 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Multi-slice CT (MSCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) are widely used in dental practice. This study compared the spatial resolution of these CT systems to elucidate which CT modalities should be selected for various clinical cases. Materials and methods: As MSCT and CBCT apparatuses, Somatom Sensation 64 and 3D Accuitomo instruments, respectively, were used. As an objective evaluation of spatial resolution of these CT systems, modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis was performed employing an over-sampling method. The results of MTF analysis were confirmed with a line-pair test using CATPHAN. As a subjective evaluation, a microstructure visualization ability study was performed using a Jcl:SD rat and a head CT phantom. Results: MTF analysis showed that for the in-plane direction, the z-axis ultrahigh resolution mode (zUHR) of the Sensation 64 and 3D Accuitomo instruments had higher spatial resolutions than the conventional mode (64x) of the Sensation 64, but for the longitudinal direction, the 3D Accuitomo had clearly higher spatial resolution than either mode of the Sensation 64. A line-pair test study and microstructure visualization ability studies confirmed the results for MTF analysis. However, images of the rat and the CT phantom revealed that the 3D Accuitomo demonstrated the failure to visualize the soft tissues along with aliasing and beam-hardening artifacts, which were not observed in the Sensation 64. Conclusions: This study successfully applied spatial resolution analysis using MSCT and CBCT systems in a comparative manner. These findings could help in deciding which CT modality should be selected for various clinical cases.

  13. Effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of natural and synthetic dental biocompatible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paramagnetic centers in the two exemplary synthetic and natural dental biocompatible materials applied in implantology were examined by the use of an X-band (9.3 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectra were measured in the range of microwave power 2.2–70 mW. The aims of this work were to compare paramagnetic centers concentrations in different dental biocompatible materials and to determine the effect of microwave power on parameters of their EPR spectra. It is the very first and innovatory examination of paramagnetic centers in these materials. It was pointed out that paramagnetic centers existed in both natural (~1018 spin/g and synthetic (~1019 spin/g dental biocompatible materials, but the lower free radical concentration characterized the natural sample. Continuous microwave saturation of EPR spectra indicated that faster spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in synthetic dental biocompatible materials than in natural material. Linewidths (ΔBpp of the EPR spectra of the natural dental material slightly increased for the higher microwave powers. Such effect was not observed for the synthetic material. The broad EPR lines (ΔBpp: 2.4 mT, 3.9 mT, were measured for the natural and synthetic dental materials, respectively. Probably strong dipolar interactions between paramagnetic centers in the studied samples may be responsible for their line broadening. EPR spectroscopy is the useful experimental method in the examination of paramagnetic centers in dental biocompatible materials.

  14. The estimation of patients' views on organizational aspects of a general dental practice by general dental practitioners: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truin Gert-Jan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the changes in dental healthcare, such as the increasing assertiveness of patients, the introduction of new dental professionals, and regulated competition, it becomes more important that general dental practitioners (GDPs take patients' views into account. The aim of the study was to compare patients' views on organizational aspects of general dental practices with those of GDPs and with GDPs' estimation of patients' views. Methods In a survey study, patients and GDPs provided their views on organizational aspects of a general dental practice. In a second, separate survey, GDPs were invited to estimate patients' views on 22 organizational aspects of a general dental practice. Results For 4 of the 22 aspects, patients and GDPs had the same views, and GDPs estimated patients' views reasonably well: 'Dutch-speaking GDP', 'guarantee on treatment', 'treatment by the same GDP', and 'reminder of routine oral examination'. For 2 aspects ('quality assessment' and 'accessibility for disabled patients' patients and GDPs had the same standards, although the GDPs underestimated the patients' standards. Patients had higher standards than GDPs for 7 aspects and lower standards than GDPs for 8 aspects. Conclusion On most aspects GDPs and patient have different views, except for social desirable aspects. Given the increasing assertiveness of patients, it is startling the GDP's estimated only half of the patients' views correctly. The findings of the study can assist GDPs in adapting their organizational services to better meet the preferences of their patients and to improve the communication towards patients.

  15. Energy policy in the Republic of China and Japan, 1970-1985: a comparative examination of energy politics and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    This study focuses on the politics of energy policies, using a policy analysis or systems framework for examining the policy processes in the two countries. A comparison is made of energy environments, the political actors, the institutions, and finally the substance of energy policy. An assessment is them made of the effects or consequences of energy policies on these two countries. In attempting to study energy politics and policies in these two Asian countries, the researcher began with a policy model or conceptual schema of energy politics from which a number of questions were raised. A comparison was first made of energy systems, and then the major actors in the energy-resources field were identified by comparing the political systems. Comparison of the political systems in energy politics helped to explain the differences in the political outcomes of energy policy. An assessment was made by using a series of multiple-regression models to assess and compare the consequences of energy policies in these two countries.

  16. A new low-dose CT examination compared with standard-dose CT in the diagnosis of acute sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagtvedt, T.; Aaloekken, T.M.; Noetthellen, J.; Kolbenstvedt, A. [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway)

    2003-05-01

    A low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses was designed with few, thin sections, non-uniform intersection gaps, low milliampere settings and avoidance of direct radiation to the eye lens. The low-dose CT was prospectively compared with standard-dose CT in patients with suspicion of acute sinusitis. Forty-seven patients were examined with low-dose CT immediately after standard-dose CT. The effective dose and the lens dose were calculated and compared. Using standard-dose CT as a gold standard the sensitivity and specificity of low-dose CT was calculated for each sinus group. The effective dose and the lens dose of the low-dose CT were reduced to, respectively, 3 and 2% of the standard-dose CT. The diagnostic yield of the low-dose CT with regard to acute sinusitis was good with a high specificity ({>=}96%) for all sinus groups. The sensitivity was also high ({>=}95%) except for the frontal sinus where the sensitivity was 83%. Low-dose CT offers considerable dose reduction and should be the standard for imaging patients with suspected acute inflammatory paranasal disease. (orig.)

  17. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  18. Perception of Dental Public Health Competency among recent graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunkar, Ridhima B.; Basavarajappa, Puttaswamy; Raheel, Syed A.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to assess how competent the recent dental graduates perceive themselves to be in Dental Public Health. Materials and Methods: A 21-item structured, close-ended questionnaire study was carried out at the KLEVK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, India. Students assessed their competencies using a three-point ordinal scale. One hundred and thirty-three students were asked to rate their proficiency on a 21-item matrix of the dental public health program. The responses were grouped using the Likert-type scale. Frequencies descriptive data were generated, and statistical analysis of examined variables was carried out using the Chi-square test. Mann–Whitney test was conducted to identify the correlation between variables. Results: The overall mean score was 22.61 ± 10.94, highlighting confidence of the graduates in managing the oral health problems at the community level. Females showed higher competencies in functions related “to develop activities to motivate the community development,” “to motivate health and oral health through health education,” and “to motivate health and oral health through the creation of healthy settings.” While males reported greater competency for the function “to adjust the dental practice to situations of restrictions that limits it.” Conclusion: Recent dental graduates at the Institute perceived themselves competent in managing oral and dental health problems at the public level. Additional countrywide evidence regarding teaching and learning of public health dentistry is essential to compare the current experiences of dental graduates and ultimately enhance patient care. PMID:27652246

  19. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  20. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  1. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  2. Dental Problems in Calcium Metabolism Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium metabolism disorders can be acute or chronic and chronic disorders can cause different disease states such as dental problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study done in Children's Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2005-2009, all (93 patients with hypoparathyroidism, nutritional rickets, hypophosphatemic rickets and renal osteodysthrophy from the endocrinology and nephrology departments of the Center were referred to a dentist there for orodental examination. Subsequently, the frequency of dental problems including taurodontism, enamel hypoplasia, dental abscess, dental caries and gingivitis were recorded and analyzed. Results: Nutritional rickets was the most common disorder in this study and delay in dentition was the most frequent dental problem in the patients (61.9%. Most cases of taurdontism and enamel hypoplasia were seen in patients with hypoparathyroidism (33% and 50%, respectively. Dental abscess, dental caries and gingivitis were more common in patients with renal osteodysthrophia (50%, 90% and 20%, respectively. In addition, dental caries and delay in dentition were the most prevalent disorders in this study (69.8% and 49.5%, respectively. Conclusion: According to the above findings, it seems that effective screening, regular periodic examinations, proper diagnosis and timely treatment of dental diseases are the main principles of prevention of orodental problems. Moreover, dentists as well as pediatricians should be aware of the features of the aforesaid disorders which lead to dental problems so that early intervention could prevent subsequent serious and more invasive dental problems.

  3. Does dental health education affect inequalities in dental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Lothian 1991 dental health campaigns on 5-year-old schoolchildren's oral hygiene and gingival health in relation to deprivation. A stratified random sample of 486 children was selected from 92 primary schools in the city of Edinburgh. Clinical examinations......-home materials were distributed to all children. Dental officers provided 20 minute information sessions for each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities within the classes. For the purpose of the evaluation, schools were categorised as deprived and non-deprived according...

  4. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  5. Comparison of Dental Esthetic Perceptions of Young Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Methods As part of the Iowa Fluoride Study, 550 adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with the adolescents’ dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between fluorosis and non-fluorosis subjects was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher’s Exact tests. Results Excluding subjects with orthodontic treatment, 376 adolescents were included and 26% of them had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about the tooth color (45%) and alignment (35%). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (PFluorosis status (yes/no) was not significantly associated with adolescents’ satisfaction or areas of concern (p>0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P=0.014) and color (Pfluorosis was negatively associated with both adolescent (P=0.03) and parent (P=0.002) satisfaction. Conclusion Adolescents generally had less satisfaction with dental appearance and color and they were more concerned with tooth shape than parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. PMID:22364682

  6. Different study conditions between dental students in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Yi, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Jinno, Yohei; Zhang, Xinwen; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ai, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the study conditions of dental students towards dental education in China and Japan. 60 students from the Stomatology School of China Medical University and 51 students from the Dental Faculty of Kyushu University, Japan, participated in this study. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire consisting of 10 items. More Japanese students (60%) compared to Chinese students (28%) were satisfied with their lives in dental school. For the main reason of discontent, 23.5% of the Japanese students attributed to busy study and lacking of spare time, while 38.3% of the Chinese students indicated small campus lacking of infrastructure. Both students of two countries think they were in big pressure. The main stressor of Japanese students was the examination, but that of Chinese students was anxiety of their future and obtains employment. The main source of tuition and maintenance was family in the both countries, but more Japanese students (25.5%) were dependent on scholarship compared with Chinese students (3.3%). The findings from this study enhance our understanding of study conditions among dental students and help to define strategies to improve student management in both Japan and China.

  7. Distribution of mesorectal lymph nodes in rectal cancer: in vivo MR imaging compared with histopathological examination. Initial observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, D.M.; Brown, G.; Temple, L.; Blake, H.; Raja, A.; Toomey, P.; Bett, N.; Farhat, S.; Norman, A.R.; Daniels, I.; Husband, J.E. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Academic Department of Radiology, Cancer Research UK Magnetic Resonance Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the distribution of mesorectal lymph nodes using T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared with histopathological findings in patients with rectal carcinoma. Sixteen patients with rectal carcinoma undergoing primary surgery without pre-operative neoadjuvant treatment were evaluated using 3-mm axial T{sub 2}-weighted MR imaging. The position of each visible mesorectal node on imaging was localised by measuring its minimum distance from the mesorectal fascia (d{sub m}), its minimum distance from the rectal wall (d{sub r}) and its distance from the distal tumour margin (d{sub v}). Independent assessment of d{sub m}, d{sub r} and d{sub v} was made at histopathological examination. Eighty-five mesorectal nodes on in vivo MR imaging were matched to histopathological findings. On imaging, 67/85 mesorectal nodes were found at the level of the tumour and 84/85 were identified at or within 5 cm proximal to the tumour. Only one out of 85 nodes was seen below the inferior tumour margin. The mean difference of d{sub m} and d{sub r} obtained on in vivo MR imaging and histopathological examination was 0.7 mm (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.12 to 1.42 mm) and -1.1 mm (95% CI -2.29 to 0.14 mm), respectively. Almost all mesorectal nodes visible on MR imaging were found at the level of tumour or within 5 cm proximal to the tumour. This has implications for the planning of MR imaging and the level of mesorectal transection at surgery. (orig.)

  8. The fit of cobalt-chromium three-unit fixed dental prostheses fabricated with four different techniques: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtorp, Anders; Jönsson, David; Mouhsen, Alaa; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2011-04-01

    This study sought to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit in vitro of three-unit FDPs in Co-Cr made using four fabrication techniques, and to conclude in which area the largest misfit is present. An epoxy resin master model was produced. The impression was first made with silicone, and master and working models were then produced. A total of 32 three-unit Co-Cr FDPs were fabricated with four different production techniques: conventional lost-wax method (LW), milled wax with lost-wax method (MW), milled Co-Cr (MC), and direct laser metal sintering (DLMS). Each of the four groups consisted of eight FDPs (test groups). The FDPs were cemented on their cast and standardised-sectioned. The cement film thickness of the marginal and internal gaps was measured in a stereomicroscope, digital photos were taken at 12× magnification and then analyzed using measurement software. Statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Best fit based on the means (SDs) in μm for all measurement points was in the DLMS group 84 (60) followed by MW 117 (89), LW 133 (89) and MC 166 (135). Significant differences were present between MC and DLMS (p<0.05). The regression analyses presented differences within the parameters: production technique, tooth size, position and measurement point (p < 0.05). Best fit was found in the DLMS group followed by MW, LW and MC. In all four groups, best fit in both abutments was along the axial walls and in the deepest part of the chamfer preparation. The greatest misfit was present occlusally in all specimens. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative morphometric analysis of biodegradable scaffolds as carriers for dental pulp and periosteal stem cells in a model of bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, Susanna; Cicconetti, Andrea; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Giordano, Guido; Trisi, Paolo; Pilloni, Andrea; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2013-05-01

    Bone regeneration and bone fixation strategies in dentistry utilize scaffolds containing regenerating-competent cells as a replacement of the missing bone portions and gradually replaced by autologous tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells represent an ideal cell population for scaffold-based tissue engineering. Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periosteal stem cells (PeSCs) have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteocytes, suggesting that they can be used with this purpose. However, data on bone regeneration properties of these types of cells in scaffold-based tissue engineering are yet insufficient.In this study, we evaluated temporal dynamic bone regeneration (measured as a percentage of bone volume on the total area of the defect) induced by DPSCs or PeSCs when seeded with different scaffolds to fill critical calvarial defects in SCID Beige nude mice. Two commercially available scaffolds (granular deproteinized bovine bone with 10% porcine collagen and granular β;-tricalcium phosphate) and one not yet introduced on the market (a sponge of agarose and nanohydroxyapatite) were used. The results showed that tissue-engineered constructs did not significantly improve bone-induced regeneration process when compared with the effect of scaffolds alone. In addition, the data also showed that the regeneration induced by β;-tricalcium phosphate alone was higher after 8 weeks than that of scaffold seeded with the 2 stem cell lines. Altogether these findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of DPSCs and PeSCs in tissue construct and identify the appropriate conditions to generate bone tissue in critical-size defects.

  10. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  11. Fatigue of dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dental caries experience and barriers to care in young children with disabilities in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Nunn, June H

    2013-02-01

    Dental caries among preschool children remains a significant dental public health problem. In Ireland, there are no national data available regarding dental caries levels in preschool children. Furthermore, the number of young children with disabilities and their dental caries levels remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the dental caries levels in a sample of preschool children with disabilities. A team of trained and calibrated dentists examined a sample of all 0- to 6-year old preschool children with disabilities in two health service administrative areas under standardized conditions. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Of a total of 422 participants, 337 datasets were included in the study. Of these 337 examined children, approximately 75.1% had a cognitive disability and 12.9% had a noncognitive disability. In 12% of the children, a diagnosis had not yet been established. Dental caries at dentin level was detected from the age of 4 years. The overall mean decayed/missing/ filled teeth (dmft) was 0.49 (SD, 1.39). The analysis of mean dmft levels in children with positive (dmft > 0) scores revealed a mean dmft of 1.14. The evidence from this study demonstrated that dental caries levels in preschool children with disabilities in Ireland are low when compared with the general population. Furthermore, children aged 3 years or younger exhibited no dental caries at dentin level and therefore were not affected by early childhood caries. An adjustment of current oral health prevention practice may lead to a further reduction in dental caries levels in this section of the child population.

  13. A useful and non-invasive microanalysis method for dental restoration materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoki, M., E-mail: hosoki@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Satsuma, T.; Nishigawa, K.; Takeuchi, H. [General Dentistry, Tokushima University Hospital, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Asaoka, K. [Department of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method for the microanalysis of dental alloys is beneficial for patients with allergies to dental materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This metal sample is easy to mail it for inspection at specialist institutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method can be also be used in general dental clinics. - Abstract: The elemental analysis of intraoral dental restorations provides considerable information for the treatment of dental metal allergy. Elemental analyses require specific instruments and complicated procedures, so this examination is not commonly carried out in private dental clinics. We describe a novel, simple and useful micro-analytical method for dental metal restorations. Micro metal dust was obtained by polishing the surface of restorative metal material with an unused silicone point (SUPER-SNAP). The metal dust on the silicone point was then rubbed onto adhesive tape, and this tape was covered with polyethylene film. The amount of metal dust material was <20 {mu}g. An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to carry out the elementary analysis of the metal dust on the polyethylene film. Three types of dental metal alloy materials of known components were examined. The results of elementary analyses were compared with the specifications provided by the manufacturer. The same procedure was carried out for three dental metal restorations of an adult female volunteer in vivo. The results of elemental analyses for five alloy materials exactly matched the product specification. Three metal samples obtained from intraoral restoration were also available for elemental analyses. The distinct advantage of this method is that it enables sample extraction without an invasive effect for the restoration. The metal sample is in a polyethylene film, so it is easy to mail it for inspection at specialist institutes yet it can be also be used in general dental clinics.

  14. Self-reported dental pain and dental caries among 8-12-year-old school children: An exploratory survey in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Abiola A; Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O

    2017-01-01

    Dental pain is considered an important public health problem because it affects the daily life of children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence, associated factors, and impact of dental pain among 8-12-year-old school children in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey to determine self-reported dental pain among 8-12-year-old school children using an interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted. This was followed by a clinical examination to determine the child's oral hygiene status and dental caries status. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for comparing proportions. Binary logistic regression analysis was also conducted. Statistical significance was set at P dental pain 3 months and 4 weeks before the survey, respectively. Caries prevalence was 21.0%, whereas mean decayed, missing, and filled tooth index score was 0.4420 (±1.078). A report of pain up to 3 months before the survey was significantly associated with the child's age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.254; confidence interval (CI) = 1.037-1.516; P = 0.019], whereas the type of school attended (OR = 1.786; CI = 1.124-2.840; P = 0.014) and the presence of dental caries (OR = 1.738; CI = 1.023-2.953; P = 0.041) were significantly associated with reporting pain 4 weeks before the survey. The prevalence of self-reported dental pain was high among the children surveyed. Report of dental pain was associated with the presence of dental caries. The provision of school oral health services could be useful in reducing the level of untreated caries and possibly dental pain among school children.

  15. Musculoskeletal dysfunction in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim A. Larbi and Dmitry Ye. Suyetenkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the comparative statistics of musculoskeletal system deseases depending on a type of dental method. The practical recommendations on prevention of diseases of joints, ligaments and spine were done.

  16. Musculoskeletal dysfunction in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyetenkov D.Ye.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Shows the comparative statistics of diseases of musculoskeletal system, depending on the type of dental reception. Recommendations on prevention of diseases of joints, ligaments and spine

  17. Relationship Between Children’s Dental Needs and Dental Care Utilization: United States, 1988–1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Clemencia M.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study describes the relationship between dental needs and dental care utilization among children. Methods. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to analyze dental care needs and dental care utilization. Results. Younger children with perceived needs (needs perceived by the child or responsible adult) were more likely to be episodic users of dental care than children without perceived needs. Younger children with normative needs (defined by the presence of untreated caries diagnosed by a dentist) were less likely to be regular users. Older children with perceived or normative needs were more likely to be episodic users and less likely to have had a previous-year visit than children with no needs. Conclusions. Despite their presence, dental needs do not drive dental care use among children, and children’s dental care utilization is inadequate. PMID:12406814

  18. Library service to dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashin, E R

    1983-01-01

    Dental school libraries offer resources of value to dental practitioners, but do not always consider practitioners to be primary clientele. A survey was conducted among the sixty U.S. dental school libraries to examine policies and attitudes toward service to practitioners. Although library use by dentists is estimated to be low, most libraries are willing to serve them as long as it does not reduce the libraries' ability to assist students and faculty. Of the respondents, 57% replied that they do not use promotional methods to inform dentists of available services. Greater involvement in marketing activities may benefit both libraries and dentists. PMID:6652300

  19. Attitudes among dentists and dental hygienists towards extended scope and independent practice of dental hygienists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Jan J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Onclin, Pieter; van der Schans, Cees P.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    Aims: Attitudes of dentists and dental hygienists towards extended scope and independent dental hygiene practice are described in several studies, but the results are heterogenous. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the attitudes of dentists and dental hygienists towards extended

  20. Comparative Assessment of the Heart's Functioning by Using the Akabane Test and Classical Methods of Instrumental Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Muzhikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture physicians have studied the application of reflexotherapy to cardiology. However, no one has investigated the connection of ancient Chinese diagnostic methods with modern tools. A total of 102 patients (54 men and 48 women with heart pathology, namely, sick-sinus syndrome, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, and atrioventricular blockade, were studied using the usual instrumental methods (transesophageal electrophysiological study of the heart, echocardiography, after which they underwent Akabane thermopuncture testing as in traditional Chinese medicine. The results of cardio examination from one side of the Akabane test with that from the other side were compared by means of a multiple stepwise regression analysis. We revealed the effects on the characteristic pattern of acupuncture channel lesions inherent in a definite heart pathology, i.e., the most vulnerable acupuncture channel (AC, of such factors as disturbances of the contractile, conductive, or automatic heart functions, and changes in the chambers' size or circulation volume. Сhanges in the indices of the left and the right branches of these channels usually reflect the opposing natures of the changes in these indicators, which should be considered in reflexotherapy. The main value of the Akabane test along with the use of mathematical analysis lies in early, quick, and inexpensive detection of the above-mentioned heart disturbances.

  1. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaradoss, Jagan Kumar; Clement, Roger B; Narayanan, Aswath

    2008-01-01

    This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children) of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  2. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    , exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  3. Prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis, and oral hygiene status among 12-year-old schoolchildren having normal occlusion and malocclusion in Mathura city: A comparative epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika Arora

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It was observed from the present study that normal occlusion and malocclusion had no or weak significant effect on overall caries and periodontitis prevalence whereas oral hygiene status had a strong effect on overall periodontitis prevalence but not in relation to prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-old school children in Mathura city.

  4. DENTAL CAST STUDY OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH UNTREATED UNILATERAL CLEFT-LIP OR CLEFT-LIP AND PALATE IN INDONESIA COMPARED WITH SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPAUWEN, PHM; HARDJOWASITO, W; BOERSMA, J; LATIEF, BS

    To determine differences in maxillary and dentoalveolar relationships between untreated and treated patients having unilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus (UCLA) or lip and palate (UCLP), dental cast assessments were done on 70 untreated adult Indonesian patients (UCLA-I, UCLP-I) and 67 Dutch

  5. DENTAL CAST STUDY OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH UNTREATED UNILATERAL CLEFT-LIP OR CLEFT-LIP AND PALATE IN INDONESIA COMPARED WITH SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPAUWEN, PHM; HARDJOWASITO, W; BOERSMA, J; LATIEF, BS

    1993-01-01

    To determine differences in maxillary and dentoalveolar relationships between untreated and treated patients having unilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus (UCLA) or lip and palate (UCLP), dental cast assessments were done on 70 untreated adult Indonesian patients (UCLA-I, UCLP-I) and 67 Dutch pat

  6. DENTAL CAST STUDY OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH UNTREATED UNILATERAL CLEFT-LIP OR CLEFT-LIP AND PALATE IN INDONESIA COMPARED WITH SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPAUWEN, PHM; HARDJOWASITO, W; BOERSMA, J; LATIEF, BS

    1993-01-01

    To determine differences in maxillary and dentoalveolar relationships between untreated and treated patients having unilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus (UCLA) or lip and palate (UCLP), dental cast assessments were done on 70 untreated adult Indonesian patients (UCLA-I, UCLP-I) and 67 Dutch pat

  7. A useful and non-invasive microanalysis method for dental restoration materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoki, M.; Satsuma, T.; Nishigawa, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Asaoka, K.

    2012-12-01

    The elemental analysis of intraoral dental restorations provides considerable information for the treatment of dental metal allergy. Elemental analyses require specific instruments and complicated procedures, so this examination is not commonly carried out in private dental clinics. We describe a novel, simple and useful micro-analytical method for dental metal restorations. Micro metal dust was obtained by polishing the surface of restorative metal material with an unused silicone point (SUPER-SNAP). The metal dust on the silicone point was then rubbed onto adhesive tape, and this tape was covered with polyethylene film. The amount of metal dust material was <20 μg. An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to carry out the elementary analysis of the metal dust on the polyethylene film. Three types of dental metal alloy materials of known components were examined. The results of elementary analyses were compared with the specifications provided by the manufacturer. The same procedure was carried out for three dental metal restorations of an adult female volunteer in vivo. The results of elemental analyses for five alloy materials exactly matched the product specification. Three metal samples obtained from intraoral restoration were also available for elemental analyses. The distinct advantage of this method is that it enables sample extraction without an invasive effect for the restoration. The metal sample is in a polyethylene film, so it is easy to mail it for inspection at specialist institutes yet it can be also be used in general dental clinics.

  8. Teaching with technology: learning outcomes for a combined dental and dental hygiene online hybrid oral histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R

    2013-06-01

    Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.

  9. Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two un...

  10. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.

    1985-02-01

    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  11. Dental insurance and dental service use by U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2011-01-01

    Oral health has a significant effect on health, and for women, poor oral health can lead to poor birth outcomes and can affect their child's health. Nursing interventions to improve the oral health of at-risk women have the potential to increase maternal and child systemic and oral health. The identification of women at a high risk for poor oral health is a necessary to develop and evaluate these interventions. This study examined the factors related to dental insurance and dental service use for women of childbearing age in the United States. A secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was completed to examine the predisposing, enabling, and need variables associated with dental insurance status and dental service use in a representative random sample of 1,071 women. The results showed that over 40% of women had no dental insurance. Women with less education, lower income, and dental need were significantly less likely to have dental insurance. Dental utilization by the uninsured was low and a racial/ethnic disparity was noted. A lack of dental insurance and dental service utilization is a significant concern. Nurses working with low-income women should educate the population about oral health and advocate for policies to increase dental insurance coverage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparative study of rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses and examination of the effects of salt accumulation under different cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Mi-Seon; Son, Jin-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2017-03-01

    This study compared rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under a paddy-upland (rice-pepper) rotational system (PURS) and a monoculture repeated cropping system (RCS) and examined adverse effects of high salinity on soil properties. The following soil properties were analyzed: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentration of four cations (Na, Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rhizobacterial communities were analyzed using culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) methods. In addition, all culturable bacteria isolated from each soil sample were tested for traits related to plant growth promotion. The EC of rhizospheric soils was 5.32-5.54 dS/m for the RCS and 2.05-2.19 dS/m for the PURS. The culture-based method indicated that the bacterial communities and bacterial characteristics were significantly more diverse in the PURS soil than in the RCS soil. The pyrosequencing data also indicated that the richness and diversity of bacterial communities were greater in the PURS soil. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in soil samples under both cropping systems. However, Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes were more prevalent in the RCS soil, while the PURS soil contained a greater number of Chloroflexi. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that soil EC was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes and negatively correlated with the abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Deltaproteobacteria. This is the first study on the rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under two different cropping systems using both culture- and pyrosequencing-based methods.

  13. Evaluation of human dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide bleacher compared with phosphoric acid conditioning - radioactive method; Avaliacao da perda dental humana com o uso do clareador peroxido de carbamida comparado ao condicionamento com acido fosforico - metodo radiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Yousseff, Michel Nicolau [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Dentistica; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The radiometric method was applied to the evaluation of dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide when it is applied on the surface layers of enamel and dentin tissues. Also the dental loss caused by the etching with 37% phosphoric acid procedure used in aesthetic restoration was assessed for comparison with those results obtained. The tooth samples irradiated with a P standard in a thermal neutron flux of the nuclear reactor were placed in contact with 10% carbamide peroxide or with 37% phosphoric acid solution. The radioactivity of {sup 32} P transferred from the radioactive teeth to the bleaching gel or to etching acid was measured using a Geiger Muller detector to calculate the mass of P removed in this treatment and losses were calculated after obtaining their P concentrations. Results obtained indicated that enamel and dentin exposed to carbamide peroxide bleaching agent lose phosphorus. The extent of enamel loss was smaller than that obtained for dentin. In the case of acid etching, there was no difference between the results obtained for enamel and dentin loss. Also the dentin loss obtained after a treatment of 30 applications of 10% carbamide peroxide was the same magnitude of that one application of 37% phosphoric acid. (author)

  14. Undergraduate experience and self-assessed confidence in paediatric dentistry: comparison of three UK dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, H D; Farman, M; Albadri, S; Mackie, I C

    2010-03-13

    Previous studies have suggested that dental students may not receive sufficient clinical experience in core paediatric dentistry skills. This study aimed to compare dental undergraduates' self-reported experience and confidence in paediatric dentistry within three UK dental schools (Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield). In April/May 2009, 147 final year dental students completed an anonymous questionnaire which captured their experience of seven core clinical skills in both hospital and outreach settings. A visual analogue scale was also employed to record perceived levels of confidence for six generic activities including: examination, diagnosis and treatment planning; patient selection for treatment under general anaesthesia; operative dentistry; preventive dentistry; management of dento-alveolar trauma, and provision of routine care for children on qualification. The key finding was that Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield dental students received comparable clinical experiences in paediatric dentistry, which appeared to satisfy the requirements of the General Dental Council's The first five years. One hundred percent had carried out fissure sealants and restorations, and 87-98% had experience of extractions. Outreach placements were crucial in ensuring students had sufficient opportunity to undertake core skills, notably extractions and pulp therapies. All students reported a lack of confidence in dental trauma management which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.

  15. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative...... systems. The study comprised 1,245 adolescents from 3 municipalities; the historical cohort study design was applied; and data were collected from dental records (public dental service) and dental claims (private practice). At age 16, 12% preferred being enrolled in the private practice system, while 88......% remained in the public dental care system. During the 2-year study period the attendance rate was 99% for the public system, while 90% attended the private practice system (Pdental services were provided more frequently by the public than the private system (P

  16. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  17. A study of dentists' preferred maxillary anterior tooth width proportions: comparing the recurring esthetic dental proportion to other mathematical and naturally occurring proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel H

    2007-01-01

    Presently, there are no generally accepted standards for designing smiles using tooth proportion relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine whether North American dentists prefer smile designs created using the recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion, other mathematically defined tooth proportion relationships, or naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions previously reported to occur in the North American population. Three hundred and one North American dentists were surveyed to determine their preferences of imaged smiles exhibiting different anterior tooth width proportions and the primary proportion influencing their decision. One-sample t-tests were used to compare preferences of constructed smiles. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the independence of the relationship between the subjects' demographic attributes and the factors reported as being instrumental in their decision processes. Fifty-seven percent of dentists surveyed preferred the smiles with the 70% RED proportion over the smiles with the naturally occurring maxillary anterior tooth width proportions in normal-length teeth. Dentists preferred the smiles of the naturally occurring maxillary tooth proportions (70%) and the 70% RED proportion (75%) over the golden proportion. In smiles with tall teeth, the golden proportion was preferred by 58% of the surveyed dentists over the naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions as previously defined by Preston. Sixty-two percent of dentists cited the overall balance as the primary factor affecting their selection. Twenty-three percent made their selection based on the size of the maxillary central incisors, whereas 15% used other teeth or factors. Smiles created using the principles of the RED proportion were preferred by a majority of dentists surveyed. The majority of dentists reported that overall balance was the primary factor affecting their selection. The RED proportion may be useful in creating smiles

  18. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed.

  19. To Compare Three Kinds of Syphilis Examination Methods%比较三种梅毒检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹丽娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对TP-ELISA,TP-PA,TRUST3种梅毒检测方法进行比较,根据各试验的优点和不足,选择一种常规梅毒筛查的理想方法。方法以TP-ELISA,TPPA,TRUST同时检测样本2115例。结果 ELISA阳性者80例,检出率3.8%(80/2115),TP-ELISA阳性同时TPPA阳性77例,符合率96.2%(77/80),TP-ELISA阳性, TPPA阴性3例,假阳性率为3.75%(3/80)。TRUST阳性20例,符合率25%(20/80),TRUST阴性60例,占75%(60/80)。3例ELISA阳性TPPA阴性的TRUST检测结果均为阴性。结论 TP-ELISA可作为梅毒筛查的理想方法。%Objective To compare three kinds of syphilis examination methods,they are TP-ELISA,TP-PA and TRUST.On the basis of advantages and disadvantages of every test to choose perfect one for conventional screening of syphilis.Methods Using TP-ELISA,TP-PA and TRUST exam 2115 cases.Results In total TP-ELISA positive samples are 80,positive rate is 3.8%(80/2115).Both TP-ELISA and TP-PA positive samples are 77,confirm rate is 96.2%(77/80).TP-ELISA positive and TP-PA negative samples are 3,TP-ELISA false positive rate is3.75%(3/80).Among TP-ELISA positive samples,TRSUT positive Samples are 20 cases,confirm rate is 25%(20/80),the other 60samples′TRUST results are negative The rate is 70.75%(60/80).Conclusions TP-ELISA is perfect method for conventional Screening of syphilis.

  20. Expanded function allied dental personnel and dental practice productivity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Chen, Lei; Lazar, Vickie F; Brown, L Jackson; Ray, Subhash C; Heffley, Dennis R; Berg, Rob; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of expanded function allied dental personnel on the productivity and efficiency of general dental practices. Detailed practice financial and clinical data were obtained from a convenience sample of 154 general dental practices in Colorado. In this state, expanded function dental assistants can provide a wide range of reversible dental services/procedures, and dental hygienists can give local anesthesia. The survey identified practices that currently use expanded function allied dental personnel and the specific services/procedures delegated. Practice productivity was measured using patient visits, gross billings, and net income. Practice efficiency was assessed using a multivariate linear program, Data Envelopment Analysis. Sixty-four percent of the practices were found to use expanded function allied dental personnel, and on average they delegated 31.4 percent of delegatable services/procedures. Practices that used expanded function allied dental personnel treated more patients and had higher gross billings and net incomes than those practices that did not; the more services they delegated, the higher was the practice's productivity and efficiency. The effective use of expanded function allied dental personnel has the potential to substantially expand the capacity of general dental practices to treat more patients and to generate higher incomes for dental practices.

  1. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS FOR PROXIMAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS – A CLINICAL STUDY.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova; Radostina Anastasova; Vladimir E. Panov; Spartak Yanakiev

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the presented study is to compare the effectiveness of the diagnosis with a dental microscope, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOcam) and X-ray examination in proximal caries diagnosis. Material and methods: Thirty-eight adult patients were examined. They were first examined with a dental mirror and a probe, under magnification 6.4 times. After that a diagnosis with DIAGNOcam was performed. Bitewing X-ray images were administered. The data from the three diagnostic methods was comp...

  2. Dental Training Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  3. Locoregional anesthesia for dental treatment in cardiac patients: a comparative study of 2% plain lidocaine and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:100,000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Batistela Laragnoit

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzes hemodynamic changes in patients with cardiac valvular diseases submitted to dental treatment under local anesthesia containing epinephrine. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was performed at the Dental Division of the Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil. Patients were separated into two groups with the help of an aleatory number table: 2% plain lidocaine (PL, n= 31 and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:100,000 (LE, n= 28. Blood pressure, heart rate, oxygenation and electrocardiogram data were all recorded throughout the procedure. State and trait anxiety levels were measured. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were selected for the LE group (n=28, with an average age of 40.3 ± 10.9, or for the PL group (n=31, age 42.2 ± 10.3. No differences were shown in blood pressure, heart rate and pulse oximetry values before, during and after local anesthesia injection between the two groups. State and trait anxiety levels were not different. Arrhythmias observed before dental anesthesia did not change in shape or magnitude after treatment. Complaints of pain during the dental procedure were more frequent within the PL group, which received a higher amount of local anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine (1:100,000 provided effective local anesthesia. This treatment did not cause an increase in heart rate or blood pressure and did not cause any arrhythmic changes in patients with cardiac valvular diseases.

  4. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Shimoji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigehiro Shimoji1, Kohji Ishihama1,2, Hidefumi Yamada1, Masaki Okayama1, Kouichi Yasuda1,3, Tohru Shibutani3,4, Tadashi Ogasawara2,5, Hiroo Miyazawa2,3, Kiyofumi Furusawa11Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan; 2Infection Control Team, 3Risk Management Working Team, Matsumoto Dental University Hospital, Shiojiri, Japan; 4Department of Dental Anesthesiology, 5Department of Special Care Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, JapanAbstract: Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%, 6 splash exposures (18.8%, and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66 reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58 and 60.3% (35/58 in dentists and 88.6% (39/44 and 61.4% (27/44 in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58 for dentists and 34.1% (15/44 for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood

  5. Inequalities of dental prosthesis use under universal healthcare insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Takeuchi, Kenji; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Social inequalities in oral health exist in various countries. In Japan, a country with universal healthcare insurance policy, people can receive medical and dental care and pay only 10-30% of the total cost of treatment. Additionally, very poor Japanese can receive care without any charge, by the benefit of public assistance. These policies are considered to affect oral health inequalities. This study examined the association between using a dental prosthesis and household income among older Japanese people. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) project in 2010. Of the 8576 people aged 65 years or more living in Iwanuma, Japan, 5058 responded. We used 4001 respondents with no missing values. We stratified into two groups by having 20 teeth or not. Then, cross-tabulation, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted for these two groups. The covariates are sex, age, education, and size of household. Of the all respondents included in the analyses, poorer respondents tended to have lower proportions with 20 or more teeth, and 54.6% respondents used dental prostheses. In the respondents with 19 or fewer teeth, higher-income group tended to show significantly higher dental prosthesis use. But the poorest income group showed high prevalence of dental prosthesis use as same as highest income group. Multiple logistic regression among respondents with 19 or fewer teeth showed that after adjustment for sex, age, education, and size of household, compared with the respondents with annual incomes of US$ dental prosthesis (OR = 0.48 [95% CI = 0.28-0.83], 0.56 [95% CI = 0.33-0.95], respectively). The other respondents did not show significant differences. Although universal healthcare insurance covered dental prostheses, a social gradient in dental prosthesis use was still observed. Low-income respondents tended to not use dental prosthesis, but the

  6. Equity in children's dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-02-11

    One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children's dental caries (tooth decay) in Calgary, Canada, in 2009/10 when CWF was in place, and in 2013/14, after it had been discontinued. We analyzed data from population-based samples of schoolchildren (grade 2) in 2009/10 and 2013/14. Data on dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent teeth) were gathered via open mouth exams conducted in schools by registered dental hygienists. We examined the association between dental caries and 1) presence/absence of dental insurance and 2) small area index of material deprivation, using Poisson (zero-inflated) and logistic regression, for both time points separately. For small-area material deprivation at each time point, we also computed the concentration index of inequality for each outcome variable. Statistically significant inequities by dental insurance status and by small area material deprivation were more apparent in 2013/14 than in 2009/10. Results are consistent with increasing inequities in dental caries following cessation of CWF. However, further research is needed to 1) confirm the effects in a study that includes a comparison community, and 2) explore possible alternative reasons for the findings, including changes in treatment and preventive programming.

  7. Dental visits, oral hygiene behaviour, and orthodontic treatment in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Pascale; Zemp, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carine; Weiger, Roland; Menghini, Giorgio; Zitzmann, Nicola U

    2012-01-01

    Since the first survey in 1992/93, the Swiss Health Survey (SHS) has been repeated every 5 years (1997, 2002 and 2007). In the present study, dental visits (dental care utilisation within the last 12 months), oral hygiene measures and the frequency of orthodontic treatments in the Swiss population in 2002 were examined and dental visits were compared with the years 1992/93, 1997 and 2007. Weighted data were analysed regarding different sociodemographic factors. From 1992 to 2002, dental visits among the 15-74-year-old declined continuously (1992/93: 70%, 1997: 66%, 2002: 63%), whereas in 2007 a slight increase (66%) was documented. In the survey from 2002, a large proportion (74%) of the population stated to clean their teeth or prostheses several times a day, predominantly with a manual toothbrush, whereas 28% applied an electric toothbrush and almost half of the respondents also used dental floss or toothpicks. Fewer visits and less intensive oral hygiene measures were observed among the elderly, men, weak social strata, smokers, persons with more than 8 missing teeth and in the group with removable dentures. Almost a quarter of the population had orthodontic treatment with the highest proportion among the 15-24-year-old (56%).

  8. Evidence-based practice and the professionalization of dental hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, Sandra J

    2004-11-01

    The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice.

  9. Prevalence of dental resorptive lesions in Swedish cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, A; Mannerfelt, T

    2003-09-01

    Ninety-six, randomly selected Swedish cats were evaluated for the presence of dental resorptive lesions. All cats were examined while receiving general anesthesia. Diagnosis was based on oral examination and full-mouth, intraoral dental radiographs. Information concerning age, sex, vaccination status, eating habits, food type, environment (indoor or outdoor housing), oral, discomfort, dental care, and medical treatment was recorded. Hematologic samples included analysis for FeLV, FIV, and calcivirus. Of the cats examined in this study, 32% had gross or radiographic signs of dental resorptive lesions. There was a positive relationship between the occurrence of dental resorptive lesions and increasing age.

  10. The role of tobacco use on dental care and oral disease severity within community dental clinics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Miki; Hanioka, Takashi; Shimada, Kaoru; Haresaku, Satoru; Yamamoto, Mito; Tanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    To examine facilitators of dental smoking intervention practices in Japan, where smokeless tobacco is rarely used, we evaluated the characteristics of dental care for smokers. Community dentists volunteered to record the treated disease or encounter with patients that was principally responsible for their dental care on the survey day. Patients were classified into groups receiving gingival/periodontal treatment (GPT), caries/endodontic treatment (CET), prosthetic treatment (PRT), periodical check-up/orthodontic treatment (POT), or other encounters/treatments. Potential effect of dentist clustering was adjusted by incorporating the complex survey design into the analysis. Data of 2835 current smokers (CS) and 6850 non-smokers (NS) from 753 clinics were analysed. Distribution of treatments significantly differed between CS and NS (P = 0.001). In ad hoc multiple comparisons for each treatment, CS were significantly higher than NS for CET (47.1% vs. 43.6%, P = 0.002), and lower for POT (1.6% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.001), whereas GPT and PRT proportions were equivalent by smoking. When stage of disease progression was compared in the GPT subpopulation, CS were more likely received treatment for advanced stage disease than NS in the age groups of 40-59 years (24.9% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.001) and more than 60 years (40.8% vs. 22.1%, P smoking with type of dental care of CET and GPT severity would warrant the need for dental professionals to engage their patients smoking within clinical practice. The detrimental effects of smoking in dental care for smokers, as evidenced by the distribution of treatment and encounter and stage of treated disease, may not be clearly realized by dental professionals, unless the smoking status of all patients is identified.

  11. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: A Cross-Sectional Study Comparing Circumcision Self-Report and Physical Examination Findings in Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    During the physical examination, with a study nurse present, a medical doctor examined the penis for extent of circumcision, using a four-point scale...However, this does not appear to have biased the study results, as the average MC prevalence in the LDHS is similar across all men aged 20 y and older (57.9...Rakai, Uganda ( size matters). AIDS 23: 2209–2213. 24. Lagarde E, Dirk T, Puren A, Reathe RT, Bertran A (2003) Acceptability of male circumcision as a

  12. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Karera Block, Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Y S; Saksena, D N

    2013-09-01

    To determine prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in school going children of ten villages of Karera block of Shivpuri District, Madhya Pradesh. Fluoride ion concentration was measured in ten hand pump and two wells waters with a fluoride meter (ORION model 720). For the study total 750 school children were selected from ten government primary schools of ten rural villages. The survey was conducted during the period of November 2007 through December 2009. The dental and oral examination was done by two trained dentists. The occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index. Drinking water sources considered for study were hand pumps, and wells. Out of 750 children surveyed, 341 were found affected with dental fluorosis. The boys had greater prevalence (46.75%) as compared to girls (42.18%). Dental fluorosis, as assessed by Dean's Index shows that 20.8% children had grade I, 19.47% grade II, 5.2% grade III. Overall, 45.46% of the sample showed some grades of dental fluorosis. In all the 144 water samples from ten villages fluoride level was higher than permissible limits. The boys had greater prevalence of dental fluorosis over the girls.

  13. Examining the Reliability and Validity of ADEPT and CELDT: Comparing Two Assessments of Oral Language Proficiency for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Few classroom measures of English language proficiency have been evaluated for reliability and validity. This research examined the concurrent and predictive validity of an oral language test, titled A Developmental English Language Proficiency Test (ADEPT), and the relationship to the California English Language Development Test (CELDT) in the…

  14. A Comparative Study of the College Entrance Examination Board Validity Study Service and Freshmen Cumulative Point Averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    The success with which freshmen cumulative point averages may be predicted from a combination of a student's high school rank, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (Verbal) and SAT score (Mathematics) was investigated. A multiple regression formula developed by the College Entrance Examination Board was used to combine the three predictors into a…

  15. A Comparative Study of the College Entrance Examination Board Validity Study Service and Freshmen Cumulative Point Averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    The success with which freshmen cumulative point averages may be predicted from a combination of a student's high school rank, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (Verbal) and SAT score (Mathematics) was investigated. A multiple regression formula developed by the College Entrance Examination Board was used to combine the three predictors into a…

  16. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes and Oral Health > Diabetes: Dental Tips Diabetes: Dental Tips Main Content Diabetes can cause serious problems ... FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, ...

  17. Dental Exam for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they're most treatable. When to have a dental exam Various factors might determine how frequently your ... wisdom teeth (third molars) at the appropriate age. Dental X-ray A dental X-ray (radiograph) allows ...

  18. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  19. American Dental Education Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interest Groups ADEA Governance Documents and Publications ADEA Dental Faculty Code of Conduct ADEA Bylaws ADEAGies Foundation ... Benefits for Faculty ADEA Member Benefits for Allied Dental Programs ADEA Member Benefits for Dental Schools ADEA ...

  20. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions » Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people ... is Different About the Teeth of People With Down Syndrome? Delayed Eruption The teeth of people with Down ...

  1. Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey practices in dental education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J W; Kuster, C G

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 40 percent of the data-based articles reported in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years have used survey research procedures. This study examines the use of one type of survey procedure, mailed questionnaires, in research on dental education. Specifically, the discussion identifies several factors that dental education researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors. These factors are discussed using examples of adequate and inadequate procedures reported in the method sections of studies in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years.

  3. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmrot, Ebba; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs.

  4. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  5. Digital signature of electronic dental records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Maruo, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of digital signature technology to guarantee the legal validation of electronic dental records. The possible uses of digital signature technology, the actual use of digital signature technology to authenticate electronic dental records, the authentication of each part of the electronic dental record, the general legal principles involved, how to digitally sign electronic dental record files, and the limitations of this method are discussed. It is possible to obtain electronic dental records that carry the same legal certainty as conventional, nonelectronic records. For this purpose, each part of the electronic dental records should be digitally signed by the author of the document. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  7. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  8. Urinary levels of nickel and chromium associated with dental restoration by nickel-chromium based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Xia, Gang; Cao, Xin-Ming; Wang, Jue; Xu, Bi-Yao; Huang, Pu; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2013-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate if the dental restoration of nickel-chromium based alloy (Ni-Cr) leads to the enhanced excretions of Ni and Cr in urine. Seven hundred and ninety-five patients in a dental hospital had single or multiple Ni-Cr alloy restoration recently and 198 controls were recruited to collect information on dental restoration by questionnaire and clinical examination. Urinary concentrations of Ni and Cr from each subject were measure by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared to the control group, the urinary level of Ni was significantly higher in the patient group of dental restoration. Potential short- and long-term effects of Ni-Cr alloy restoration need to be investigated.

  9. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels…

  10. An Analysis of Advanced Placement (AP®) Examinations in Economics and Comparative Government and Politics. Research Report No. 2001-4. ETS RR-01-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Oltman, Philip K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) Examinations in Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, and Comparative Government and Politics were studied to examine college course performance and gender differences. It was concluded that students who had received college credit for AP performed as well or better in higher-level college courses in Macroeconomics and…

  11. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  12. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  13. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Student Resources National Exam Student Advisor Resources Dental Hygiene Programs Scholarships and Grants Research Center Transforming Dental Hygiene Education Advocacy Practice Issues Direct Access Scope ...

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus clinical isolates from initial stages of dental pulp infection: identification of a new exopolysaccharide cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG). Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED) identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG). Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation from the reference

  15. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus clinical isolates from initial stages of dental pulp infection: identification of a new exopolysaccharide cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala A Nadkarni

    Full Text Available The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG. Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG. Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation

  16. Dental students--dental advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future.

  17. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four ...

  19. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  20. Examination of Individual Differences in Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Formal and Informal Individual Auditory Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Chisolm, Theresa H.; Frederick, Melissa; Bailey, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if patient characteristics or clinical variables could predict who benefits from individual auditory training. Method: A retrospective series of analyses were performed using a data set from a large, multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial that compared the treatment effects of at-home…

  1. Task and Ability Analysis as a Basis for Examining Content and Construct Comparability in Two EFL Proficiency Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory analysis comparing two test batteries for English-as-a-Foreign-Language reading comprehension used a single framework of communicative language ability and test method facets to investigate construct validity. The framework's use in the content analysis of communicative language tests, and for the comparison of content across tests,…

  2. Comparing a Large- and Small-Scale Online Language Course: An Examination of Teacher and Learner Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Victoria; Curtis, Wesley

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how class size affects the quality of online language teaching and learning. Administrators and departments often make decisions about class size based on fiscal and budgetary constraints rather than on best practices in blended and/or online learning. The present study compared the experiences of instructors and students in…

  3. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  4. A Comparative Examination of Student Teacher and Intern Perceptions of Teaching Ability at the Preservice and Inservice Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah K.; Byrnes, Deborah; Sudweeks, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the culminating teacher preparation program (TPP) experience (either student teaching assignment or internship) influences the perceptions teachers report about their ability to perform instructional tasks required of teachers. A multivariate ANOVA test (N = 502) was conducted to compare perceptions of student teachers…

  5. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  6. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  7. Dental trauma related to general anesthesia: should the anesthesiologist perform a preanesthetic dental evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Saeed Riad; Fujimura, Kazuma; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2014-06-01

    Perioperative dental damage is one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and is responsible for the greatest number of malpractice claims against anesthesiologists; therefore, several dental considerations are warranted. A thorough evaluation may necessitate a dentist's help, requires that anesthesiologists receive more formal training regarding oral and dental anatomy, and enables performing the treatments necessary to minimize the risks of dental injuries. Nevertheless, this preanesthetic assessment is frequently overlooked by surgeons and anesthesiologists. The present study aimed to investigate, for both dentists and anesthesiologists, how often and under what circumstances dental trauma occurs during general anesthesia as well as isolate possible anatomical, dental, and anesthesiological risk factors, based on which suggestions for preventive measures could be made. Anesthesiologists must perform a thorough preoperative oral evaluation to help identify the dentition at risk; the evaluation should include the patient's dental history, oral/dental examination, and a specific discussion with the patient about any existing dentures or crowns. The dental examination should especially include an assessment of the patient's upper incisors--the teeth most likely to be injured during the perioperative period--for pre-existing damage. Preoperative notes should record any damages or missing teeth. In addition, anesthesiologists must take adequate intraprocedure precautions to prevent/minimize iatrogenic dental injury.

  8. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  9. Community socioeconomic status and children's dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillcrist, J A; Brumley, D E; Blackford, J U

    2001-02-01

    Although a substantial decline in dental caries has occurred among U.S. children, not everyone has benefited equally. The first-ever surgeon general's report on oral health in America indicates that the burden of oral diseases is found in poor Americans. This study investigates the relationship between community socioeconomic status, or SES, and dental health of children. An oral health survey of 17,256 children, representing 93 percent of children residing in 62 Tennessee communities, was conducted in public elementary schools during the 1996-1997 school year. Portable dental equipment was used for examinations, and data from each examination were entered directly into a laptop computer. The authors performed analyses of covariance to examine the relationship between community SES (low/medium/high) and dental health, controlling for community fluoridation. Community SES was significantly related to caries experience in the primary teeth, the proportion of untreated caries in the primary and permanent teeth, dental treatment needs, dental sealants and incisor trauma. Overall, dental health was significantly worse for low-SES communities than for medium- and high-SES communities. The authors conclude that all specific dental indexes used to measure children's dental health in this study, with the exceptions of caries experience in the permanent teeth and sealant presence, were inversely related to the communities' SES. The percentage of children with dental sealants was directly related to the community's SES. Further improvements in oral health will necessitate that community-based preventive programs and access to quality dental care be made available to children who are identified as being at highest risk of experiencing oral disease.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of pre-treatment hypodontia patients using the Dental Aesthetic Index: how does it compare with other commonly used indices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A T; Hobson, R S; Slater, D

    2008-06-01

    There is currently no specific occlusal index related to hypodontia and there is a paucity of published literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship, if any, between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON), and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) score and the severity of hypodontia. All new patients attending the Newcastle Dental Hospital hypodontia clinic between February 2002 and March 2003 were included in the study. Of the 60 patients, two were excluded as the models were unavailable and one because they were predominantly in the primary dentition, making scoring impractical. The patient casts were scored with respect to PAR, ICON, and DAI. The mean patient age at presentation was 12 years, with a standard deviation of 1.89 and a range of 9-16 years, and a female to male ratio of 1.1:1. A significant positive correlation, using Kendall tau b, was found between the number of missing teeth, excluding third molars, and the DAI score (tau = 0.215, P = 0.027). There was no significant positive correlation between PAR (tau = -0.186, P = 0.056) and ICON (tau = 0.017, P = 0.861) score and the number of missing teeth. The results of this investigation indicate that further research is required in order to assess if the DAI could be used to determine whether or not to refer hypodontia patients for specialist advice.

  11. Comparative evaluation of diffusion hypoxia and psychomotor skills with or without postsedation oxygenation following administration of nitrous oxide in children undergoing dental procedures: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Inder Singh Khinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diffusion hypoxia is the most serious potential complication associated with nitrous oxide. It occurs during the recovery period. Hence, administration of 100% oxygen is mandatory as suggested by many authors. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence/nonoccurrence of diffusion hypoxia in two groups of patients undergoing routine dental treatment under nitrous oxide sedation when one group is subjected to 7 min of postsedation oxygenation and the second group of the patients is made to breathe room air for the similar period. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty patients within the age group of 7–10 years requiring invasive dental procedures were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each using chit method. In the control group, patients were administered 100% oxygen postsedation, whereas, in the study group, patients were made to breathe room air postsedation. Various parameters (pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation [SpO2] were recorded pre- and post-operatively. Data were collected and then sent for statistical analysis. Results: The mean postoperative SpO2 at measurement times 1, 3, 5, and 7 min in both the groups was higher than the mean preoperative SpO2. This increase was statistically significant. No significant difference was found between the Trieger test scores. Conclusion: This study proves that clinical occurrence of diffusion hypoxia is not possible while following the routine procedure of nitrous oxide sedation.

  12. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tribology of dental materials: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z R; Zheng, J [Tribology Research Institute, Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: zrzhou@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-06-07

    The application of tribology in dentistry is a growing and rapidly expanding field. Intensive research has been conducted to develop an understanding of dental tribology for successful design and selection of artificial dental materials. In this paper, the anatomy and function of human teeth is presented in brief, three types of current artificial dental materials are summarized, and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as typical clinical applications, are compared based on the literature. Possible tribological damage of tooth structure, which is induced by complex interfacial motion, and friction-wear test methods are reported. According to results obtained by the authors and from the literature, the main progress in the area of dental tribology on both natural teeth and artificial dental materials is reviewed. Problems and challenges are discussed and future research directions for dental tribology are recommended. (topical review)

  14. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  15. Impact of Dental Health Education on “Specific Learning Needs” Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Shital; Bhatt, Rohan; Patel, Megha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This article compares and evaluates the effect of dental health education through schoolteachers and dental health professionals to “specific learning needs” children attending special school. Materials and methods: A total of 71 “specific learning needs” children attending special school participated in the study. The baseline oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) for all the participants was recorded. The training of schoolteachers was done using audiovisual and verbal methods on dental health facts and how to provide instructions on oral hygiene measures for reinforcing to the students. The students were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 – No further dental health education by the schoolteachers or by the dental professionals was given to these students after the initial oral health education. Group 2 – In this group, the trained teachers taught students about the importance of oral health and demonstrated them brushing technique at intervals of 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Group 3 – The dental professionals imparted dental health education and also demonstrated brushing techniques to these students at intervals of 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Six months following the intervention a second examination was done to find out the OHI-S scores. Data analysis were done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test. Results: Group 2 demonstrated significant decline in OHI-S scores after intervention and all the three groups showed a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI-S score and the scores after 6 months. Conclusion: Schoolteachers can be utilized for reinforcing dental health education among “specific learning needs” children effectively. How to cite this article: Relwani AH, Kiran S, Bhatt R, Patel M. Impact of Dental Health Education on “Specific Learning Needs” Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016

  16. Modern dental imaging: a review of the current technology and clinical applications in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Dental erozyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; Yönel, N.; Çetiner, S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erozyon, plak içermeyen diş yüzeyleri üzerinde içsel ve dışsal asitlerin veya şelatların etkileriyle oluşan kimyasal bir aşınmadır. İçsel ve/veya dışsal kaynaklar nedensel faktörler olarak tanımlanırken tükürük ve pelikıl gibi biyolojik faktörler, yeme ve içme alışkanlıkları ve ağız hijyeni

  18. Effect of flouride varnish (Duraphat) treatment every six months compared with weekly mouthrinses with 0.2 per cent NaF solution on dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, G; Petersson, L G; Rydén, H

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a high fluorine uptake in the enamel and a considerable caries reduction following the application of varnished containing fluoride. As the application is easy to carry out it may in certain situations serve as an alternative to other topical fluoride school programmes. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to compare the caries increment in schoolchildren exposed to a fluoride varnish (Duraphat) every six months and in children receiving the conventional weekly fluoride mouthrinsing programme with 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride over a two-year period. Two hundred 14-year-old children, divided into one test and one control group took part in the study. They were clinically and radiographically examined every year. Preexperimental data revealed no differences between the groups. During the experimental period the children in the fluoride varnish group developed a statistically significant lower number of new carious lesions compared with those in the mouthrinsing group. The difference in caries increment was about 30 per cent. Further clinical studies to compare the effects of various topical fluoride programmes are recommended.

  19. Voluntary medical male circumcision: a cross-sectional study comparing circumcision self-report and physical examination findings in Lesotho.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Goldzier Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overwhelming evidence, including three clinical trials, shows that male circumcision (MC reduces the risk of HIV infection among men. However, data from recent Lesotho Demographic and Health Surveys do not demonstrate MC to be protective against HIV. These contradictory findings could partially be due to inaccurate self-reported MC status used to estimate MC prevalence. This study describes MC characteristics among men applying for Lesotho Defence Force recruitment and seeks to assess MC self-reported accuracy through comparison with physical-examination-based data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: During Lesotho Defence Force applicant screening in 2009, 241 (77% of 312 men, aged 18-25 y, consented to a self-administered demographic and MC characteristic survey and physician-performed genital examination. The extent of foreskin removal was graded on a scale of 1 (no evidence of MC to 4 (complete MC. MC was self-reported by 27% (n = 64/239 of participants. Of the 64 men self-reporting being circumcised, physical exam showed that 23% had no evidence of circumcision, 27% had partial circumcision, and 50% had complete circumcision. Of the MCs reportedly performed by a medical provider, 3% were Grade 1 and 73% were Grade 4. Of the MCs reportedly performed by traditional circumcisers, 41% were Grade 1, while 28% were Grade 4. Among participants self-reporting being circumcised, the odds of MC status misclassification were seven times higher among those reportedly circumcised by initiation school personnel (odds ratio = 7.22; 95% CI = 2.29-22.75. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 27% of participants self-reported being circumcised. However, only 50% of these men had complete MC as determined by a physical exam. Given this low MC self-report accuracy, countries scaling up voluntary medical MC (VMMC should obtain physical-exam-based MC data to guide service delivery and cost estimates. HIV prevention messages promoting VMMC should provide

  20. Asymptotic dental score and prevalent coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janket, Sok-Ja; Qvarnström, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H; Baird, Alison E; Nuutinen, Pekka; Jones, Judith A

    2004-03-09

    Oral infections have been postulated to produce cytokines that may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that by estimating the combined production of inflammatory mediators attributable to several oral pathologies, we might be able to explain CHD with better precision. A total of 256 consecutive Finnish cardiac patients from Kuopio University Hospital with angiographically confirmed CHD and 250 age-, gender-, and residence-matched noncardiac patients (controls) were recruited. All dental factors expected to generate inflammatory mediators, including pericoronitis, dental caries, dentate status, root remnants, and gingivitis, were examined, and an asymptotic dental score (ADS) was developed by logistic regression analyses with an appropriate weighting scheme according to the likelihood ratio. We validated the explanatory ability of ADS by comparing it to that of the Total Dental Index and examining whether the ADS was associated with known predictors of CHD. A model that included ADS, C-reactive protein, HDL, and fibrinogen offered an explanatory ability that equaled or exceeded that of the Framingham heart score (C statistic=0.82 versus 0.80). When ADS was removed from this model, the C-statistic decreased to 0.77, which indicates that the ADS was a significant contributor to the explanatory ability of a logistic model. ADS may be useful as a prescreening tool to promote proactive cardiac evaluation among individuals without overt symptoms of CHD. However, additional prospective study is needed to validate the use of an oral health score as a predictor of incident CHD.

  1. Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close Home > Medicaid > Benefits > Dental Care Dental Care Dental Care Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees Dental health ... services and opportunities and challenges to obtaining care. Dental Benefits for Children in Medicaid Medicaid covers dental ...

  2. A Correlational Study of Preadmission Predictor Variables and Dental School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Gerard C.; Dogon, I. Leon

    1981-01-01

    Undergraduate performance and standardized test scores were correlated with dental school performance for 131 members of nine Harvard School of Dental Medicine classes to determine the predictive validity of the earlier variables. The only significant positive correlation was of the Dental Admission Test and dental National Board Examination, part…

  3. A comparative examination of currency risk pricing and market integration in the stock markets of Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odongo Kodongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the pricing of currency risk and market integration in the equity markets of Nigeria and South Africa. Using the Generalized Method of Moments with a multi-beta asset pricing model and firm-level data, we find that currency risk is partly unconditionally priced in South Africa's stock market, with this market being largely integrated with the world equity markets. Conversely, currency risk is not priced in Nigeria's equity market, which also shows no evidence of integration with the world equity markets. Interestingly, a portfolio analysis of firms reveals a size based return sensitivity to both world equity markets and exchange rate volatility across the two countries. Therefore, while general results suggest that Nigeria, rather than South Africa, would provide greater diversification benefits to international investors with little or no worry about hedging unconditional exchange rate risk, that view must be nuanced when considering large size firms which are consistently sensitive to the two factors across both countries.

  4. Comparative examinations on the activity and variant selection of twinning during tension and compression of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dejia [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Hongni, Yu; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Xuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Liu, Qing, E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-03-21

    In the present study, an Mg weld with β-type fiber texture was produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and then was subjected to tension and compression along the transverse direction (TD). The deformed microstructure by 5% strain was examined in various regions of the Mg weld by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. It was found that profuse twinning was activated in stir zone (SZ) -side after tension and in SZ-center and crown zone (CZ) -center after compression due to the presence of relatively large Schmid factor (SF). However, a few twins (2–3%) were also observed in SZ-center after tension and in SZ-side after compression. In this case, the twins have very small and even negative SF. For the twins with large SF, they were likely connected at grain boundaries forming twin pairs, while for those with small or negative SF, they were mostly confined within grains. For connected twins, most of the active variants have favorable SF and geometric compatibility factor (m′). However, the distributions of SF and m′ are different between the twins formed in compression and tension. For isolated twins, the adjacent grains connected with the twins were generally in favorable orientation for basal slip, and the selection of twin variants was likely affected by m′ between the most favorable basal slip and the twins.

  5. An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the Identity Capital Model: American and Japanese students compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, James E; Mizokami, Shinichi; Roberts, Sharon E; Nakama, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    The Identity Capital Model proposes that forms of personal agency are associated with identity development as part of the transition to adulthood. This model was examined in two cultural contexts, taking into account age and gender, among college and university students aged 18 to 24 (N = 995). Confirmatory Factor Analyses verified cultural, age, and gender invariance of the two key operationalizations of the model. A Structural Equation Model path analysis confirmed that the model applies in both cultures with minor variations-types of personal agency are associated with the formation of adult- and societal-identities as part of the resolution of the identity stage. It was concluded that forms of personal agency providing the most effective ways of dealing with "individualization" (e.g., internal locus of control) are more important in the transition to adulthood among American students, whereas types of personal agency most effective in dealing with "individualistic collectivism" (e.g., ego strength) are more important among Japanese students.

  6. Impacted teeth in the maxilla: usefulness of 3D Dental-CT for preoperative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Tsuyoshi E-mail: tsuyo@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Minowa, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2003-09-01

    Objective: To compare the shapes of roots of impacted teeth shown in three-dimensional computed tomographic images (3D Dental-computed tomography (CT) images) and plain radiographs and to determine whether 3D Dental-CT images are useful for examination before performing an operation for extraction of a maxillary impacted tooth. Methods and patients: Images obtained from patients who had impacted teeth in the maxilla, including impacted mesial supernumerary teeth in 13 patients, impacted incisors in two patients, impacted canines in 11 patients, impacted premolars in four patients and impacted molars in three patients, were used in this study. In all patients, plain radiographs and 3D Dental-CT images were retrospectively reviewed by an oral radiologist for evidence of root dilaceration before operations to extract the impacted teeth were performed. The findings in the images were compared with intraoperative findings in all cases. Results: The mean specificity and sensitivity of plain radiographs were 95 and 8%, respectively, while those of 3D Dental-CT images were 100 and 77%, respectively. There was a statistically significant (P<0.01) difference between the depiction capabilities of plain radiographs and 3D Dental-CT images with regard to dilacerations of roots of impacted teeth. Discussion and conclusion: CT may enable radiologists to make a quick and accurate diagnosis of tooth impaction. 3D Dental-CT images are useful for determining the root shape of an impacted tooth in the maxilla.

  7. Dental erosion: causes, diagnostics and treatment.

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    Cecilia Sosa-Puente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a commonly studied topic, it is difficult to find studies which explain the problem of dental erosion. For this article, literature was analyzed to find information on the agents which trigger dental erosion, the main diagnosis methods, the most common treatments used nowadays and the interrelationship with dental materials. The etiology of dental erosion is multifactorial, including acids, eating disorders and gastro-esophageal reflux. However, biological factors such as saliva or habits also play a part in the establishment of this condition. In order to establish a reliable diagnosis, clinical appearance becomes decisive. The Basic Index Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE, created in 2008, is an auxiliary diagnosis tool for assessing the status and progress of the erosion. Treatment should be linked to the eradication of the causative agent and it can range from simple observational monitoring of slightly affected teeth to the placement of total crowns in the most severe cases, but this will depend entirely on the extent, severity, symptoms and type of dentition. Regarding dental materials used in the treatment of eroded parts, there are glass ionomer and composite; the latter presents the greatest resistance to biodegradation when interacting with acids. Glass ionomers are the most vulnerable material while resin is seen as the most resistant. In conclusion, dental erosion has become an issue of great importance in the dental practice because of its serious impact on dental structures. Consequently, it is ranked among the most important dental disorders in the present day.

  8. Dental students' perception of patient anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, J; Tripp, G

    1993-04-01

    This study examined the ability of dental students to assess patients' anxiety during dental treatment, and the relationship between patients' general, waiting room and clinic levels of anxiety. Sixty-six restorative dental patients and 35 Final-year dental students participated in the study. Prior to a routine dental appointment, patients completed visual analogue scales indicating their general and waiting room levels of anxiety. During treatment, patients and dental students completed similar scales to indicate patients' levels of anxiety up to and at that time. Patients' general and waiting room levels of anxiety were found to correlate significantly with their reports of anxiety during treatment. Female patients reported higher levels of anxiety than male patients. The correlations between patient and student ratings of patients' anxiety were small and non-significant, suggesting the students were not accurate in their estimates of patients' anxiety during treatment. It is suggested, therefore, that dental students be encouraged to ask patients directly how they are feeling about the dental situation. Such discussion could take place prior to, or at the beginning of, the dental appointment.

  9. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism

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    Mohamed Abdullah Jaber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI and Met Need Index (MNI for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61 or fair 37.8% (23/61 oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61 of the autistic children had gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  10. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  11. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  12. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium.

  13. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  14. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection.

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    Ewa Teresa Łukaszewicz

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L., one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 10(6 mL(-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 10(6 mL(-1 for massage method was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P ≥ 0.05. Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN TO DENTAL ENAMEL CONDITIONED WITH PHOSPHORIC ACID OR Nd: YAG LASER

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    EDUARDO Carlos de Paula

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been focused on a comparison between the shear bond strength of a composite resin attached to dental enamel surface, after a 35% phosphoric acid etching and after a Nd:YAG laser irradiation with 165.8 J/cm2 of energy density per pulse. After etching and attaching resin to these surfaces, the specimens were thermocycled and then underwent the shearing bond strength tests at a speed of 5 mm/min. The results achieved, after statistical analysis with Student's t-test, showed that the adhesion was significantly greater in the 35% phosphoric acid treated group than in the group treated with the Nd:YAG laser, thus demonstrating the need for developing new studies to reach the ideal parameters for an effective enamel surface conditioning as well as specific adhesives and composite resins when Nd:YAG laser is used

  16. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students Interpretação de anomalias craniofaciais em TC: análise comparativa por alunos de graduação em Odontologia

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    Bruno Felipe Gaia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an ind