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Sample records for dental caries remains

  1. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  2. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    , exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  3. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  4. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  5. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  6. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  7. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  8. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  9. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  10. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  11. PUFA - an index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dental caries is a global public health problem, especially in children. Most caries in developing countries remains untreated. Only limited data are available on the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries because there is no measure to quantify the prevalence and severity of or

  12. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Surrinder

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66% patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  13. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  14. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  15. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  16. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村,俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  17. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  18. AUTHORITARIANISM AND DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    in particular. If so, dental decay among nonauthoritarians might well progress further than among authoritarians. To determine whether or not there...is any relationship between dental decay and authoritarianism is the purpose of the present study. (Author)

  19. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  20. Classification and management of dental caries. New concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayanan R; Carounnanidy U

    2002-01-01

    There has been a tremendous change in the understanding of carious lesion in all aspects from pathogenesis to prevention. The profession has also seen a revolutionary change in the material science and technology. In spite of these changes, the caries classification provided by Dr. G. V. Black remains unchanged, deterring the radical changes needed in the understanding of caries as a disease process. This article propose a new classification of dental caries to suit the present day changes in...

  1. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.

  2. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  3. Diagnostic Methods for Dental Caries Used by Private Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... types of diagnostic tools and methods used by private dental practitioners in. Ankara for .... and treatment approaches, and patient records. ..... detection aids. ... approximal and occlusal dental caries in a low risk population.

  4. Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C Albert; Chong, Lee Yee; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-09-03

    Dental caries remains a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Milk may provide a relatively cost-effective vehicle for fluoride delivery in the prevention of dental caries. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. To assess the effects of milk fluoridation for preventing dental caries at a community level. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (inception to November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to November 2014) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to November 2014). We also searched the U.S. National Institutes of Health Trials Register (https://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch) for ongoing trials. We did not place any restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with an intervention and follow-up period of at least two years, comparing fluoridated milk with non-fluoridated milk. Two authors independently assessed trial risk of bias and extracted data. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one unpublished RCT, randomising 180 children aged three years at study commencement. The setting was nursery schools in an area with high prevalence of dental caries and a low level of fluoride in drinking water. Data from 166 participants were available for analysis. The study carried a high risk of bias. After three years, there was a reduction of caries in permanent teeth (mean difference (MD) -0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.24 to -0.02) and in primary teeth (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.86 to -0.42), as measured by the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT for permanent teeth and dmft for primary teeth). For primary teeth

  5. Dental caries in Victorian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Hopcraft, M; Morgan, M

    2014-09-01

    The poor oral health of nursing home residents is the cause of substantial morbidity and has major implications relating to health care policy. The aim of this study was to measure dental caries experience in Australians living in nursing homes, and investigate associations with resident characteristics. Clinical dental examinations were conducted on 243 residents from 19 nursing homes in Melbourne. Resident characteristics were obtained from nursing home records and interviews with residents, family and nursing home staff. Two dental examiners assessed coronal and root dental caries using standard ICDAS-II criteria. Residents were elderly, medically compromised and functionally impaired. Most required assistance with oral hygiene and professional dental care was rarely utilized. Residents had high rates of coronal and root caries, with a mean 2.8 teeth with untreated coronal caries and 5.0 root surfaces with untreated root caries. Functional impairment and irregular professional dental care were associated with higher rates of untreated tooth decay. There were no significant associations with medical conditions or the number of medications taken. Nursing home residents have high levels of untreated coronal and root caries, particularly those with high needs due to functional impairment but poor access to professional services. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  7. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as “precision medicine” and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)—a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and “precision dentistry

  9. A new model for caries classification and management: the FDI World Dental Federation caries matrix

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Julian; Glick, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The proposed FDI World Dental Federation Caries Matrix was developed by the FDI Science Committee to integrate existing caries lesion classification system into a comprehensive framework that could...

  10. Evidence for dental caries decline among children in an East European country (Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, J.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren......Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren...

  11. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  12. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  13. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed. PMID:26064846

  14. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyvad, B.; Crielaard, W.; Mira, A.; Takahashi, N.; Beighton, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial

  15. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  16. Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2016-03-01

    (1) To describe caries lesions development and the role of fluoride in controlling disease progression; (2) to evaluate whether the use of fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants, bonding orthodontic agents and restorative materials, in comparison to a non-fluoride releasing material, reduces caries incidence in children or adults, and (3) to discuss how the anti-caries properties of these materials have been evaluated in vitro and in situ. The search was performed on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and on Medline via Pubmed. Caries is a biofilm-sugar dependent disease and as such it provokes progressive destruction of mineral structure of any dental surface - intact, sealed or restored - where biofilm remains accumulated and is regularly exposed to sugar. The mechanism of action of fluoride released from dental materials on caries is similar to that of fluoride found in dentifrices or other vehicles of fluoride delivery. Fluoride-releasing materials are unable to interfere with the formation of biofilm on dental surfaces adjacent to them or to inhibit acid production by dental biofilms. However, the fluoride released slows down the progression of caries lesions in tooth surfaces adjacent to dental materials. This effect has been clearly shown by in vitro and in situ studies but not in randomized clinical trials. The anti-caries effect of fluoride releasing materials is still not based on clinical evidence, and, in addition, it can be overwhelmed by fluoride delivered from dentifrices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth: would it be problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udijanto Tedjosasongko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries still remain as the most prevalent oral health disease in children. Many efforts have been done to prevent dental caries in children, but unfortunately there are dental practitioners who still have false mindset and prefer not to treat the dental caries case in primary teeth with the most common reasons are because it will be replaced with the permanent teeth. There are many negative effect will occur if the dental caries treatments in primary teeth are neglected.This topic would review the effects of untreated dental caries in children based on research reports.Severely decayed teeth have an important impact on children’s general health, nutrition, growth and body weight by causing discomfort, pain, sleeping problems, learning disorders and absence from school.  Untreated caries may affect seriously the quality of children’s life because of pain and discomfort, which could lead to acute and chronic infections, oral mucosal conditions and altered eating and sleeping habits. Furthermore, untreated caries in primary teeth can have a lasting detrimental impact on the permanent dentition by causing high caries risk or developmental defects of the permanent successor tooth. Moreover it has been reported that children at each higher level of caries had significantly lower height and weight outcomes than those with lower caries levels. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth would lead the children to poor growth and health which lowering the their quality of life.

  18. Changes in the prevalence of dental caries in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Mar-Apr 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 2 ... Conclusion: The study showed no overall changes in caries severity ...... Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and.

  19. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-08-01

    Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  20. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  1. Dental caries: an infectious and transmissible disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, Page W; Li, Yihong; Dasanayake, Ananda

    2005-05-01

    By definition, dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease because it is caused by bacteria colonizing the tooth surfaces. Unlike most infectious diseases affecting humans, caries is the result of an imbalance of the indigenous oral biota rather than a nonindigenous, exogenous pathogen. The introduction of refined sugar into modern society's diet has tipped the balance from health to disease. New insight into the natural history of the leading cariogenic bacteria, the mutans streptococci, may contribute ways to control or prevent this infectious disease. Here, we use the host-parasite model as a platform for viewing the pathogenicity of the caries process in contrast to other infectious diseases.

  2. A vaccine against dental caries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, S M; Katz, J; Childers, N K

    2001-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a costly and prevalent oral disease. Research efforts towards developing a well tolerated and effective vaccine against dental caries were initiated following the demonstration of a specific bacterial aetiology for this disease. The cariogenic mutans streptococci are the principal bacteria causing this disease. Specific immune defence against these bacteria is provided mainly by secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies present in saliva, which are generated by the common mucosal immune system. Progress in the development of a vaccine against dental caries has increased due to both advancements in molecular biology and our understanding of the mucosal immune system and mucosal vaccines. Advancements in molecular biology have facilitated the cloning and functional characterisation of virulence factors of the mutans streptococci, including the cell-surface fibrillar proteins, which mediate adherence to the tooth surface, and the glucosyltransferase enzymes, which synthesise adhesive glucans and allow microbial accumulation on the teeth. Current strategies for immunisation against dental caries are using these virulence factors as key antigens and incorporating them into novel mucosal vaccine systems and delivering them with or without adjuvants to mucosal IgA inductive sites. The most popular routes of mucosal immunisation are via the oral or nasal route. The mucosal immune system is functional in newborn infants, who develop salivary IgA antibodies as they become colonised by oral micro-organisms. Mucosal immunisation strategies result in the induction of salivary IgA antibody responses and pose fewer problems than parenteral injection of antigen. Therefore, mucosal immunisation of infants prior to the appearance of their first teeth may be a well tolerated and effective way to induce immunity against the colonisation of teeth by mutans streptococci and protection against subsequent dental caries. The purpose of this article is to

  3. Social inequalities and dental caries in six-year-old children from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tas, Justin T; Kragt, Lea; Elfrink, Marlies E C; Bertens, Loes C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of different socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with dental caries in six-year-old children. Furthermore, we applied a district based approach to explore the distribution of dental caries among districts of low and high socioeconomic position (SEP). In our cross-sectional study 5189 six-year-olds were included. This study was embedded in a prospective population-based birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, the Generation R Study. Parental education level, parental employment status, net household income, single parenting, and teenage pregnancy were considered as indicators for SEP. Dental caries was scored on intraoral photographs by using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index. We compared children without caries (dmft=0) to children with mild caries (dmft=1-3) or severe caries (dmft >3). Multinomial logistic regression analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between SEP and caries, and between district and caries, respectively. Only maternal education level remained significantly associated with mild caries after adjusting for all other SEP-indicators. Paternal educational level, parental employment status, and household income additionally served as independent indicators of SEP in children with severe caries. Furthermore, living in more disadvantaged districts was significantly associated with higher odds of dental caries. Dental caries is more prevalent among six-year-old children with a low SEP, which is also visible at the district level. Maternal educational level is the most important indicator of SEP in the association with caries. Our results should raise concerns about the existing social inequalities in dental caries and should encourage development of dental caries prevention strategies. New knowledge about the distribution of oral health inequalities between districts should be used to target the right audience

  4. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  5. Prediction of dental caries activity

    OpenAIRE

    Crossner, Claes-Göran

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to find a test for prediction of caries activity which would be useful in routine clinical work.Correlations between oral health, general health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions were investigated in 4- and 8-year-old children. It was found that the salivary secretion rate and the prevalence of oral lactobacilli were factors which might be useful in caries prediction.In 5- and 8-year-old children negative correlations between caries frequency and secr...

  6. Relationship between caries and dental plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Sule; Okte, Zeynep; Fidanci, Ulvi Reha

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dental caries and the biochemical composition of dental plaque and to determine the effect of a 10% sucrose solution on the biochemical structure of dental plaque in children. 60 children grouped according to caries status took part in this study [Caries-free (CF), DMFS=0, df-s = 0; Caries-positive (CP), DMFS > or =10, df-s > or =10]. Dental plaque samples were collected before (baseline) and at 3 and 30 minutes after a 1-minute rinse with 10% sucrose. Fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) levels were determined using ion chromatography, and insoluble polysaccharide (IEPS) concentrations were determined using colorimetric analysis. Although the mean baseline Ca and Pi levels in plaque were higher in the CF group than in the CP group, these differences were not statistically significant. Baseline IEPS levels were significantly higher in the CP group than in the CF group. Following exposure to sucrose, plaque F, Ca and Pi concentrations decreased significantly in both groups. However, insoluble polysaccharide concentrations increased significantly in the CF group only.

  7. Dental caries vaccine: some problems solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D L; Mallett, C P; Doyle, G

    1985-10-01

    The interest in a dental caries vaccine has been great over the past few years. Studies have shown two possible problems using Streptococcus mutans as an immunogen: (i) the production of heart reactive antibody, and (ii) the need to protect against several serotypes. Possible solutions to these problems are discussed.

  8. Salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Andrea; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo; Pintor, Andrea Vaz Braga; Santos, Diana Amado Baptista Dos; Bachinski, Rober; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-06-05

    Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by means of a systematic review of the current literature. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Virtual Health Library. The following search terms were used: "dental caries susceptibility," "dental caries," "polymorphism, genetics," "saliva," "proteins," and "peptides." Related MeSH headings and free terms were included. The inclusion criteria comprised clinical investigations of subjects with and without caries. After application of these eligibility criteria, the selected articles were qualified by assessing their methodological quality. Initially, 338 articles were identified from the electronic databases after exclusion of duplicates. Exclusion criteria eliminated 322 articles, and 16 remained for evaluation. Eleven articles found a consistent association between salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries, for proteins related to antimicrobial activity (beta defensin 1 and lysozyme-like protein), pH control (carbonic anhydrase VI), and bacterial colonization/adhesion (lactotransferrin, mucin, and proline-rich protein Db). This systematic review demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and risk of dental caries for most of the salivary proteins.

  9. Evaluation and association of serum iron and ferritin levels in children with dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Venkatesh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 90% of all types of anemia in the world. Although the prevalence has declined in recent years, it remains an important pediatric public health problem. Iron deficiency has also been associated with dental caries. It impairs salivary gland function causing reduced salivary secretion and buffering capacity leading to increased caries activity. Aim: The aim of the study is to explore an association between dental caries and serum levels of iron and ferritin in children aged 3–12 years. Subjectsand Methods: The study group included 120 children, hospitalized for uncomplicated medical problems. Blood reports were evaluated to determine serum iron and ferritin levels. Dental caries experience was assessed using deft index. Statistical Analysis Used: The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Out of 120 children, 38 children showed low serum iron levels of which 31 children had dental caries and nine out of 15 children in the high serum iron level group showed dental caries. High ferritin levels were seen in three children among which two children were caries-free and only one child had a low ferritin level who also had a positive deft score. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that there is an inverse association between serum iron levels and dental caries whereas there is no association between serum ferritin levels and dental caries.

  10. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Soet, J.J.; van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; Laine, M.L.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Morré, S.A.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of chil

  11. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  12. Dental caries experience and barriers to care in young children with disabilities in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Nunn, June H

    2013-02-01

    Dental caries among preschool children remains a significant dental public health problem. In Ireland, there are no national data available regarding dental caries levels in preschool children. Furthermore, the number of young children with disabilities and their dental caries levels remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the dental caries levels in a sample of preschool children with disabilities. A team of trained and calibrated dentists examined a sample of all 0- to 6-year old preschool children with disabilities in two health service administrative areas under standardized conditions. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Of a total of 422 participants, 337 datasets were included in the study. Of these 337 examined children, approximately 75.1% had a cognitive disability and 12.9% had a noncognitive disability. In 12% of the children, a diagnosis had not yet been established. Dental caries at dentin level was detected from the age of 4 years. The overall mean decayed/missing/ filled teeth (dmft) was 0.49 (SD, 1.39). The analysis of mean dmft levels in children with positive (dmft > 0) scores revealed a mean dmft of 1.14. The evidence from this study demonstrated that dental caries levels in preschool children with disabilities in Ireland are low when compared with the general population. Furthermore, children aged 3 years or younger exhibited no dental caries at dentin level and therefore were not affected by early childhood caries. An adjustment of current oral health prevention practice may lead to a further reduction in dental caries levels in this section of the child population.

  13. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries...

  14. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  15. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  16. Exploring the determinants of secular decreases in dental caries among Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ju; Han, Dong-Hun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of sealant and water fluoridation to the time trends in dental caries from 2003 to 2010. Data were from three waves of the Korean National Oral Health Surveys between 2003 and 2010, including a total of 23 059 children (11 889 boys and 11 170 girls) aged 8, 10, and 12 years. The impacts of sealant and water fluoridation on dental caries were obtained by logistic regression for each age group of children. The contributions of sealant and water fluoridation to the time trends in the prevalence of dental caries were examined by a series of logistic regression models, and changes in the adjusted odds ratios for each survey year were also calculated. Over the past 7 years, the prevalence of dental caries decreased dramatically. Although sealant had a significant impact on dental caries in each survey year, remarkable decreases in dental caries from 2003 to 2010 were not explained by the secular changes in the dental sealant or water fluoridation factor. We observed important population declines in dental caries in Korea in children aged 8-12 years; however, the likely causes for these secular trends remain to be determined. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...

  18. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  19. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  20. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  1. Salivary IgA versus HIV and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pradip Kumar; Mitra, Malay; Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mohanty, Susant; Saha, Subrata

    2016-09-01

    The inter-relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and dental caries as well as Salivary Immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) level appear to remain under explored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV positive children. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV positive and negative children and determine the dental caries status in HIV positive and HIV negative children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. A total of 28 HIV positive children aged between 6-14 years and 28 age matched HIV negative children were included in this study and both samples were randomly selected from the same Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. Only 2cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and CPI probe. In HIV +ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean deft was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ± 17.83μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong-ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, p 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong -ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4.42, p IgA and deft (r = -0.942, t =14.32, p=IgA deficiency in general, are more susceptible to dental caries than normal individuals.

  2. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Etemad-Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk.The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD and Caries Check (CC detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated.Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%,respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%.Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth.

  3. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to ex

  4. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to e

  5. Fluoride varnish: a primary prevention tool for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Neerrajah

    2008-01-01

    Fluoride varnish is an effective tool that has been proven to prevent dental caries both in primary and permanent dentition. Its ease of use, acceptability and efficacy make it an important tool in the primary prevention of dental caries in high-caries-risk children. There has been an increase in third-party reimbursement for fluoride varnish applications in high-risk children and adults.

  6. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  7. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  8. Prevalence of dental caries among adults and elderly in an urban resettlement colony of New Delhi

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    Patro Binod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years and in the elderly (60 years and above in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. Results: A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those ≥60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 ± 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 ± 9.6 in the ≥60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026. The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.

  9. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...

  10. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  11. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  12. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  13. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  14. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 5. Preventive and treatment planning for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    The practice of operative dentistry continues to evolve, to reflect the many changes occurring in society and in dental diseases and conditions. However, the belief that all questionable and early carious lesions should be restored still persists. This belief is largely based upon the concept that the removal of all carious tissue followed by meticulous restoration of the tooth is the treatment of choice for dental caries. Yet restorations are not permanent and do not cure caries, as the causes remain. On the other hand, preventive measures can remove or partially remove the causes, thereby reducing the risks for future caries recurrence at the same site or elsewhere in the mouth.

  15. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  16. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  17. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries ...

  18. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  19. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  20. Prevalence and Measurement of Dental Caries in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Hsu, Kuei-Ling C; Afful, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in preschool children was historically considered to have a unique and more intense pattern of decay and was known by a variety of terms. In 1999, the term early childhood caries (ECC), along with a classification system, was proposed to facilitate epidemiologic research of dental caries in young children. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of those early childhood caries recommendations on the prevalence and measurement of caries in preschool children. A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was performed. Key search words included: ECC, dental decay, dental caries, carious dentin, baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, maxillary anterior caries, and labial caries. English language studies and studies on more than 100 children younger than six years old were eligible for selection. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2011 to 2012 were used to assess ECC prevalence using different operational definitions. There were 87 articles selected for this review. The term ECC was used in 55 percent of the selected articles as the primary outcome measure. The majority of studies used a cross-section study design, but diagnostic criteria varied greatly. Caries experience in young children may be shifting away from majority of untreated surfaces to a majority of restored surfaces. Little difference was observed by dental surface type in the distribution of decayed and filled surfaces in primary teeth. Although the term early childhood caries is widely used, varied use of diagnostic criteria and operational definitions continue to limit comparability across studies. Emerging changes in the proportion of decayed and filled surfaces in the United States also raises questions regarding the ECC case definition limiting our ability to understand the epidemiology of dental caries in preschool children.

  1. Mineral content of the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, H K; Beeley, J A; Stevenson, A G

    1995-01-01

    Although the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal appears sound by normal clinical criteria, no definitive evidence has yet been obtained to confirm that the dentine surface is in fact mineralised. The aim of this study was to use backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) to ascertain the level of mineralisation of the dentine remaining in cavities prepared by this technique. Carious dentine was removed from carious lesions by means of N-monochloro-DL-2-aminobutyric acid (NMAB) or NMAB containing 2 mol/l urea. Sections of teeth in which caries removal was complete by normal clinical criteria were examined by EPMA and BSE. Dentine adjacent to the pulp was found to be less mineralised than the surrounding dentine. Although the superficial layer of dentine remaining on the cavity floors frequently appeared to have a slightly reduced mineral content, the results clearly indicated that there was no significant difference between this dentine and the underlying sound dentine.

  2. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

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    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  3. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  4. Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macigo, Francis Githua; James, Regina Mutave; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Gathece, Loice Warware

    2016-06-01

    There have been claims that dental caries experience and prevalence in Kenya has been increasing as a result of increased sugar consumption. A review of the literature in 1986 failed to link dental caries experience with an increase in gross national sugar consumption. Subsequently, a number of studies were conducted, necessitating further review to examine trends in dental caries experience and to relate this to changes in per capita sugar consumption. Studies conducted since 1980 for children 3-15 years of age were examined. Dental caries prevalence and experience for 3-5 years' (deciduous teeth) and 12 years' (permanent teeth) age groups were analysed. Calculation of per capita sugar consumption was performed using gross national annual sugar consumption for 1969-2009 national population census years. There was a gradual increase in per capita sugar consumption, from 35.5 g/day in 1969 to 60.8 g/day in 2009. Dental caries experience in deciduous teeth for children 3-5 years of age increased from a decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (dmft/dft) index of 1.5 in the 1980s to 2.95 in the 2000s. At 12 years of age, caries experience for permanent teeth increased from a DMFT of 0.2 to a DMFT of 0.92 over the same period. Dental caries prevalence for both deciduous and permanent teeth also increased with time. These observations suggest that dental caries prevalence and experience increased with time, in parallel to an increase in per capita sugar consumption. However, a clearer understanding can be derived from longitudinal studies, based on actual household age-specific sugar consumption and dental caries incidence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Dental caries and periodontal status of mentally handicapped institutilized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jitender; Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-07-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population.

  6. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo The dental caries associated with risk factor during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    bajo, se vieron afectadas por caries dental en ambos trimestres.The gestational period is related to a great incidence of dental caries although the association between pregnancy and the caries's increase has not possible to determine scientifically yet. To determine the presence of dental caries and some associated risk factors during the first and the third trimester of pregnancy to detect the appearance of new carious lesions and the changes related to risk factors between both trimesters. A longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted from December, 2006 to February, 2008 in Florida municipality of Camagüey province. Study universe included 38 pregnants and sample included 21 interviewed and examined during both trimesters to determine the presence of caries y the risk factors, a poor oral hygiene, cardiogenic diet, a low salivary pH, occurrence of vomiting and a previous pregnancy. The necessary information was registered in a form designed to that end. At the first trimester the 80.95 % had dental caries with appearance of new lesions in 6 pregnants for the third trimester. The more frequent risk factors during the first trimester were the cariogenic diet in the 66.66 % and a poor oral hygiene in the 47.61 % of patients. None of the pregnants modified its diet during pregnancy; however, the poor oral hygiene only remained in the 14.28 %. The 52.38 % of the pregnants involved during the first trimester had a cariogenic diet and the 47.61 % had a previous pregnancy. There was involvement due to new caries during pregnancy. The more frequent risk factors were a cariogenic diet, a poor oral hygiene and a previous pregnancy. The pregnants not modified their diet but improved the oral hygiene during pregnancy and all of them with vomiting and a low salivary pH had dental caries in both trimesters.

  7. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  8. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  9. Prevalence and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries using PUFA index in suburban Nigerian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziegbe, E O; Esan, T A

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries is the most common childhood disease and the most frequent non-communicable disease worldwide. In developing countries, a vast majority of the caries remains unrestored. However, the severity and consequences of untreated dental caries among Nigerian children is unknown. To determine the prevalence using the DMFT/dmft index and severity of oral conditions related to dental caries using the PUFA/pufa index in suburban Nigerian children. The study population consisted of 1,266 randomly selected school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT/dmft index, described by WHO for epidemiological studies. The PUFA/pufa index was used to assess the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. The mean dmft was 0.58 for the 4-6 years age group while the mean pufa score was 0.16 for the same age group. The mean DMFT score (0.16) was highest for the 13-16 years age group, while the mean PUFA score was 0.05 for the same age group. The prevalence of dmft > 0 was highest in the 4-6 years age group (16.9 %) while the prevalence of DMFT > 0 was highest in the 13-16 years age group (7.2 %). The mean pufa > 0 was highest in the 4-6 years age group (9.2 %). The overall caries prevalence was highest in the 4-6 years age group (17.4 %). Thirty-three percent of decayed teeth in the permanent dentition and 28.2 % of the primary dentition had signs of odontogenic infections. Despite the increase in the consumption of westernised diets by Nigerian children coupled with limited access to dental care, the prevalence was low but the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries was still high.

  10. Parents' perception of dental caries in intellectually disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Solange Aparecida Modesto; Weckwerth, Giovana Maria; Ferrairo, Bunna Mota; Chicrala, Gabriela Moura; Ambrosio, Alexandre Macedo Natitucci; Toyoshima, Guilherme Hideki Lima; Bastos, José Roberto Magalhães; Pinto, Edu Cassiano; Velasco, Sofia Rafaela Maito; Bastos, Roosevelt Silva

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parents' perception of dental caries in children with intellectual disability. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 6 to 14 years old schoolchildren: Group 1 (50 children diagnosed with intellectual disabilities) and Group 2 (50 children without it). The dental caries was assessed by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for primary and permanent teeth. Parents' psychosocial perception was assessed by Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Similar prevalence of caries free children was found between groups in both dentitions. In primary dentition the caries index was higher in Group 2, and the opposite occurred in permanent teeth. Group 1 presented higher impact (p dental caries on parents' perception of the oral health related quality of life of children with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Malnutrition and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there are deficiencies in protein, energy foods or both, relative to a body's needs. This paper reviews the association of early childhood malnutrition with: (1) dental caries, (2) enamel hypoplasia, (3) salivary gland hypofunction, and (4) delayed eruption. Studies suggest that caries of the primary dentition is associated with early childhood malnutrition, though the effect on caries of the permanent dentition has essentially not been studied. Enamel ...

  12. Clinical evaluation of sodium flouride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, S S; Tandon, S; Aithal, K S

    1999-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage flouride content were prepared using two varities of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low flouride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  13. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple...

  14. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  15. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414) selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered...

  16. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    OpenAIRE

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method...

  17. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  18. [Inequalities in untreated dental caries prevalence in preschool children in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of social inequalities of individual and contextual nature on untreated dental caries in Brazilian children. The data on the prevalence of dental caries were obtained from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) Project, an epidemiological survey of oral health with a representative sample for the country and each of the geographical micro-regions. Children aged five (n = 7,217) in 177 municipalities were examined and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire. Contextual characteristics referring to the municipalities in 2010 (mean income, fluorodized water and proportion of residences with water supply) were supplied by the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Multilevel Poisson regression analysis models were used to assess associations. The prevalence of non-treated dental caries was 48.2%; more than half of the sample had at least one deciduous tooth affected by dental caries. The index of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 2.41, with higher figures in the North and Northeast. Black and brown children and those from lower income families had a higher prevalence of untreated dental caries. With regards context, the mean income in the municipality and the addition of fluoride to the water supply were inversely associated with the prevalence of the outcome. Inequalities in the prevalence of untreated dental caries remain, affecting deciduous teeth of children in Brazil. Planning public policies to promote oral health should consider the effect of contextual factors as a determinant of individual risk.

  19. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo; Miriela Betancourt Valladares; Nelia Espeso Nápoles; Madelín Miranda Naranjo; Beatriz González Barreras

    2011-01-01

    El periodo gestacional se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries dental, aunque la asociación entre gestación e incremento de caries no ha podido aún ser científicamente demostrada. Se propuso realizar un estudio para determinar la presencia de caries dental y algunos factores de riesgo asociados en el primer y tercer trimestre del embarazo, para detectar la aparición de lesiones cariosas nuevas y cambios relacionados con los factores de riesgo entre ambos trimestres. Se realizó un estu...

  20. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  1. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  2. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  3. Prevention of dental caries through the effective use of fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    , lifestyles, and the existence of preventive oral health programmes. Research conducted in high income countries documents that systematic use of fluoride reduces the burden of dental caries; such research is scarce in low and middle income countries. Objectives: This article reviews the evidence on effective...... use of fluoride, highlights the public health approach to fluoridation, and clarifies how automatic fluoridation contributes to breaking social inequities in dental caries. Data collection: Scientific publications on fluoride administration stored in PubMed/Medline and caries data from the WHO...... databank. Outcome: Dental caries identified from national surveys or country relevant data; extraction of scientific reports is based on their public health relevance. Conclusions: The article outlines the history of fluoridation programmes and describes the sound evidence on automatic fluoridation through...

  4. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  5. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  6. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  7. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  8. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  9. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Guedes, Sarah F F; Xu, Hockin H K; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established.

  10. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this relationship. PMID:24621226

  11. EVALUATION IMPACT AFFECTIONAL INTERACTIONS MOTHER & CHILD IN NURSING DENTAL CARIES

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    AR JABBARIFFAR

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of oral disorder in childhood period is Nursing Dental caries. Causes of this disorder are Multiple. Aim of this proposal evolution of effect affectional Interaction mother & child is on Nursing dental caries. Method: For this proposal 250 children 2-5 years were randomly simple sampling selected & divided two equal group (case & control Mother two child group filled design questionaire & data of this proposal was analysed. Result: There were not significant difference between affectional Interaction in two groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The result of this study shows the affectional Interaction has not effect on Nursing dental caries but for precise Judgment have necessary studding as longitudinal study. Pedodontic Depart dental school university medical sciences Isfahan, Iran.

  12. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  13. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations across the world, problems still persist particularly among poor and disadvantaged groups in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Oral Health Report 2003, dental caries remains a major public health problem......, due to changing living conditions and dietary habits, and inadequate exposure to fluorides. Research on the oral health effects of fluoride started around 100 years ago; the focus has been on the link between water and fluorides and dental caries and fluorosis, topical fluoride applications, fluoride...

  14. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17 or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37 presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68 and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87. Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  15. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  16. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  17. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  18. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    This study explored ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults and assessed the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in explaining those inequalities. We analysed data on 2013 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults and children living in East London in 2009-10. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries at home. Dental caries was measured using the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or DMFT index. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (sex and age groups) and SEP measures (education and socioeconomic classification). White Eastern European and White Other had higher DMFT, whereas all Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Other) and all Black (African, Caribbean and Other) ethnic groups had lower DMFT than White British. Similar inequalities were found for the number of filled and missing teeth, but there were no differences in the number of decayed teeth between ethnic groups. This study showed considerable disparities in dental caries between and within the major ethnic categories, which were independent of demographics and SEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Has dental caries prevalence some connection with caries index values in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmas, M

    2010-01-01

    DMF index values have been used for 70 years and were originally meant to describe both dental status and treatment need in elementary school children. Since then its application to caries experience and severity determination has expanded. Today, WHO has standardized its use in oral health surveys in describing past and present caries experience in adults and the elderly as well. This expansion to all age cohorts creates some problems if the index is limited to dental caries, which can be easily avoided when individual values are not combined. This has been performed in some of the 7,187 DMF index publications included in PubMed. The high number of scientific articles using this index underlines its leading role in the present epidemiological caries research. On the other hand, WHO uses different determinations for clinical dental caries and missing teeth in ICD-10, the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, which does not include dental restorations. Combining the individual parameters of Oral Health Surveys and diseases of ICD-10, and analyzing the mean value of each parameter separately, will give a precise picture of dental health at different ages. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  1. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  2. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  4. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To undertake formative studies investigating how the experience of dental caries in young children living in diverse settings relates to familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs, oral health-related behaviour and oral microflora. PARTICIPANTS: The scientific consortium came from 27...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....... sites in 17 countries, each site followed a common protocol. Each aimed to recruit 100 families with children aged 3 or 4 years, half from deprived backgrounds, and within deprived and non-deprived groups, half to be "caries-free" and half to have at least 3 decayed teeth. OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents...

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technolog ies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting and diagnosis ofdental caries at the earliest stage of its formation , assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion , and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time .

  6. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  7. Conceptualization of dental caries by undergraduate dental students from the first to the last year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with pcaries.

  8. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  9. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  10. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng-Yu Yang; Wan-Lu Lu; Xiao-Qian Wang; Jiao Chen; Yun Feng; Xue-Dong Zhou; Ping Zhang; Wen-Jie Zhou; Yue Du; Song-Tao Wu; Wen-Wen Yuan; Yu Yu; Lin Su; Yang Luo; Jie-Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries.Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asignificantly decreased concentration of salivaryPR3was notedwith increasing severity of dental caries (P,0.01); a positive correlation (r50.87; P,0.01; Pearson’s correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pHand PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng?mL21 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P,0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3.

  11. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couve, E; Osorio, R; Schmachtenberg, O

    2014-08-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach in human teeth from young adult individuals. Reactionary dentin formation during dentin caries progression is associated with changes in the integrity of junctional complexes within the odontoblast layer. Diminished coexpression of Cx43 and zonula occludens 1 implies a reduced level of intercellular connectivity between odontoblasts. Dentin caries also causes overexpression of growth-associated protein 43, a modulator of neural plasticity that promotes extensive sprouting of nerve endings into the reactionary dentin matrix. At the same time, an elevated number of HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells infiltrate the odontoblast layer and subsequently invade reactionary dentin formed underneath the early caries-affected regions. Simultaneous odontoblast layer remodeling, nerve fiber sprouting, and activation of dendritic cells during caries progression suggest a coordinated neuroimmune response to fight caries pathogen invasion and to promote dentin-pulp healing. We propose that reactionary dentin formation hinders pathogen invasion and supports defensive neuroimmune interactions against infection. The eventual understanding of this complex scenario may contribute to the development of novel approaches to dental caries treatment.

  12. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  13. Potential risk factors in systemic hypoplasia and dental caries at odontogenesis stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion of hard dental tissue with caries process and lesions not connected with caries present overwhelming majority of dental diseases. Causes leading to damage of enamel integrity and dentin with progressing demineralization are known; they allow to choose justified method of primary prophylaxis. Along with it, etiology and pathogenesis of enamel lesions with demineralization signs remains unexplored. Epidemiologic study of prevalence, incidence and severity of lesion of hard dental tissues in 330 pupils, who constantly live on endemic iodine-defficient territory, of three zones – mountain zone, foothill and valley. For comparison, schoolchildren migrated to this territory 2-3 years after birth, and children – residents of favorable as for iodine level in drinking water were examined, 30 children in each group. It was established, that overwhelming number of schoolchildren of endemic zone suffer from endemic goiter of various severity, which sufficiently impacts on protein-mineral ratio of the organism, bone skeleton and teeth including. It was also established, that residents of three various levels of iodine consumption are prone to development of multiple dental caries and systemic enamel hypoplasia. Children, residents of mountain zone suffer the most, with simultaneous lesion of thyroid gland. The role of endemic goiter in systemic dental enamel hypoplasia and multiple caries, which changes protein matrix, negatively impacts on odontogenesis and mineralization degree is underlined.

  14. Dental fluorosis, dental caries, and quality of life factors among schoolchildren in a Colombian fluorotic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, M; Santamaria, R M; Gomez, J; Martignon, S

    2012-03-01

    To assess dental fluorosis, dental caries and quality of life factors associated with dental fluorosis among schoolchildren living in a Colombian endemic dental fluorosis area. 110 12-year olds were visually examined for dental caries (ICDAS) and dental fluorosis (TF) and a self-administered quality of life and fluorosis questionnaire was applied. The prevalence of dental fluorosis reached 100% in this sample with most children falling within the TF 3 severity category. Varying degrees of severity were observed as follows for TF 1 to 6: 1%, 16%, 62%, 16%, 4%, 2%. The prevalence of caries experience (DF-S2) was 54%. The DF-S2 mean was 4.4 (sd 4.3). The principal contributor to the DF-S2 outcome was the decayed component. When initial caries lesions were included (ICDAS-scores 1-3) the mean DF-S1,2 increased to 10 (sd 5.1). The association between fluorosis and dental caries was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Children not only detected the presence of something abnormal in their teeth but also reported feeling embarrassed, and worried due to their dental appearance. Almost 60% of the children reported avoiding smiling because of their teeth's appearance. The high prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries combined with the schoolchildren's negative perception about their dental health reflects the need to propose effective dental public health policies to regulate multiple exposures to fluoride at an early age, and to improve health outcomes in a highly vulnerable population.

  15. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  17. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. The role of school-based dental programme on dental caries experience in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amalia, Rosa; Schaub, Rob M. H.; Widyanti, Niken; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness of a school-based dental programme (SBDP) in controlling caries by measuring the relationship between the SBDP performance and caries experience in children aged 12 in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, by taking into account influencing factors. Methods. A cross

  19. Dental status and dental caries in 85-year-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Lene; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports findings on the dental status and the prevalence of dental caries among a group of 85-year-old Danes from the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, Denmark. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether caries experience was related to number of teeth and to indicators...... of functional ability and cognitive function. METHODS: A total of 191 individuals (78 men and 113 women) participated in a cross-sectional population study conducted in 2000. Using mobile dental equipment, a clinical oral examination and an interview were administered to all participants in their homes...... and cognitive impairment tended to have more active caries than 85-year-olds with no impairment. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of 85-year-old individuals had retained a natural dentition; however, active dental caries is a problem of concern among the most elderly....

  20. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic

  1. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: Dental caries and periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikiran N; Reddy V.V.S; Raju P

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their peri...

  2. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 2. Dental caries and assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-07-27

    Dental caries or tooth decay may be defined as a dynamic process causing progressive destruction of hard tooth substance (enamel, dentine and cementum) involving demineralisation of the inorganic portion of the tooth, and dissolution of the organic portion. The onset and progression of carious lesions involves multiple host, micro-organism and substrate factors interacting in a continuous flux. The diagnosis of initial lesions remains a challenge for practitioners and, despite numerous studies, the assessment of future caries risk is still based largely on a patient's past caries experience. If caries is allowed to progress then pulpitis will occur, which may result in subsequent pulpal necrosis and lead to a local periapical and perhaps a systemic infection.

  3. Salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    LIPS,Andrea; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Lívia Azeredo ANTUNES; PINTOR,Andrea Vaz Braga; SANTOS,Diana Amado Baptista dos; BACHINSKI,Rober; Erika Calvano KÜCHLER; Alves,Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by me...

  4. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  5. The influence of dental caries on body growth in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; van Amerongen, E.W.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wennink, J.M.B.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental decay and dental treatment are suggested to be related to body growth in children. The aim of this study was first to assess the relation between dental caries and body proportions cross-sectionally in a Suriname caries child population and secondly to investigate whether dental treatment had

  6. Caries and dental erosion: are Soroti children and adolescents at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sample of 84 children (ages 8-10) and adolescents (ages 16-19) were ... Keywords: Caries , dental erosion, soft-drink availability in Uganda. ... low pH render soft-drinks a real threat to the develop-.

  7. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; van Loveren, C.; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) sco

  8. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and mi...

  9. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  10. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  11. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Loveren, C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft)

  12. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee

    2015-06-15

    Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in

  13. Overweight and dental caries: the association among German children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Ghalib; Alkilzy, Mohammed; Feng, You-Shan; Splieth, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iso-body mass index (iso-BMI) and both dental caries status and caries increment among German school children. Six hundred and ninety-four students (age range 9-12 years, mean 10.34 ± 0.56, 48% females) were recruited from the fifth grade of 18 primary schools. Weight, height, and oral health data number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) as well as parent/legal guardian questionnaire (measuring SES) were collected during school dental examination at baseline and after one and a half-year follow-up. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the international classification system for childhood overweight and obesity (iso-BMI). Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression models. Iso-BMI was significantly associated with dental caries prevalence and severity in the permanent dentition (P = 0.039). Low-normal weight children had a lower mean DMFT (0.56) than did overweight/obese children (0.70). In addition, a border-line significant association was found between overweight/obese children and caries increment (P = 0.055). Although iso-BMI was associated with dental caries prevalence and severity, the association between caries increment and iso-BMI did not reach a statistical significance. Overweight/obese children however acquired more additional carious lesions during the follow-up period than children with low-normal weight. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi, Sitana M; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2016-08-01

    Dental caries in preschool children remains a major dental public health problem and affects significant numbers of children in developed and developing countries. The incidence is increasing in developing countries, such as Sudan, because of lifestyle changes, absence of oral health-preventive services and inadequate access to oral health care. This study assessed the prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan, and described the correlation between the mean decayed, missing and filled tooth (dmft) score for primary teeth with toothbrushing and sugar consumption. The subjects were 553 preschool children with their mothers/guardians, selected by random sampling from the kindergartens of the seven localities of Khartoum State, Sudan. Data were obtained through clinical examination using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) examination data-capture sheet and through structured administered interviews with mothers/guardians. The prevalence of dental caries was 52.4%, with a mean dmft score of 2.3. There was an increase in the dmft scores with increasing age. The frequency of children who brushed their teeth regularly at least once a day was high (83.4%), lower dmft scores were associated with starting toothbrushing earlier in life and with increased frequency of brushing per day. Eating sugar-containing food was significantly associated with dmft score. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be high among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children, and caries experience increased with age. This was mostly associated with sugar consumption and therefore calls for educational interventions to control sugar intake. The toothbrushing habit is well established in Khartoum State, Sudan, as a large number of children were found to be brushing their teeth regularly. No significant association was found between feeding habits and dmft score. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Managing dental caries in children in Turkey--a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E

    2009-11-25

    This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may lead to pain, discomfort and functional limitation and, further, may impact negatively upon general health and cognitive development. As a first step to controlling dental caries, a national health programme including promotional, preventive and minimal intervention approaches for managing dental caries is proposed. The pros and cons of community-oriented caries-preventive measures are discussed. Daily tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste at home, in mother- and child-care centres, kindergartens, and schools is highlighted. The dental profession, government, university officials and other stakeholders need to meet and determine how best the oral health of children in Turkey can be improved. The present proposed plan is considered a starting point.

  16. Factors for determining dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Vidigal, Evelyn Alvarez; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Sá, Stella Núbia Coelho de; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA) index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children's dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS). Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53%) experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6), and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4-5-year old) experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old) (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17-0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04-0.76, respectively), and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06-4.87). Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.

  17. Relationships between daily total fluoride intake and dental fluorosis and dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanyong Xiang; Minghao Zhou; Ming Wu; Xinya Zhou; Li Lin; Jiuning Huang; Youxing Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationships between the dally total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis and dental caries.Methods:An epidemiological method was used to investigate the daily total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis,and dental caries among 236 and 290 children aged 8-13 years in a severe endemic area and in a non-fluorosis control area,respectively.The children were divided into eight subgroups according to each child's estimated dally total intake of fluoride.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in each group was calculated.Results:As expected,elevated levels of fluoride intake were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis and an increasing amount of more severe defect dental fhiorosis.When the dally total F intake was 2.78 rag/child/day,the prevalence of dental fluorosis was nearly 100%,with the prevalence of defect dental fluorosis increasing with increasing fluoride intake.There was also a significant negative(inverse) dose-response relationship between the dally total intake of fluoride and the overall preva-lence of dental caries,the prevalence of which decreased when the daily total intake of fluoride increased up to 3.32 mg/child/day.However,at higher levels of daily total intake of fluoride the prevalence of dental caries increased,giving rise to a U-shaped dose-response relationship curve.Conclusion:It is important to monitor total fluoride exposure and protect children from excessive fluoride intake,especially during the years of tooth development.

  18. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  19. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean's criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in the age group between 12-13 years followed by the age group between 13-14 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased upto grade 2 and then decreased from grade 3 to grade 5.

  20. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  1. Maternal dental anxiety as a risk factor for dental caries in children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem S. Ain

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that occurrence of dental caries was more in children of highly anxious mother's and hence there exists the association between the mother's dental anxiety and their children's dental caries prevalence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4867-4872

  2. The Correlation Between Dietary Habits and Dental Hygiene Practice with Dental Caries Among School Children at Urban Area in Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaran Ibrahim Mohammed Ali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a major cause of tooth loss in children and young adults. Dental caries have been linked to the situation of underprivileged families, nutritional imbalance, and poor oral hygiene techniques, including lack of tooth brushing or flossing the teeth, and also have a genetic etiology. Dietary habits and dental hygiene practice can result in high caries in school children. This research aimed to reveal the correlation between dietary habits and dental hygiene practice with dental caries among school children in urban area of Semarang. The subjects of this research are the elementary student 7 – 9 years old enrolled in schools located in at urban area in Semarang in 2016 and the mother of a student who became the study sample. Data were statisically analyzed usingbivariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Based on the research result, it can be concluded that: there was no correlation between total carbohydrate intake, refined carbohydrate intake, fiber intake, dental hygiene practice with dental caries, bottle feeding and duration of bottle feeding were assosiated with dental cariest-score. Overall, def-t score in the study was very bad with high median of dental caries score and many children have dental caries t-score more than 6.How to CiteAli, O. I. M., Muis, F. & O, Oedijani. (2016. The Correlation Between Dietary Habits and Dental Hygiene Practice with Dental Caries Among School Children at Urban Area in Semarang. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 178-184.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  5. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  6. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  8. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  9. [Validity of self-perceived dental caries as a diagnostic test and associated factors in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Roberto, Luana Leal; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to analyze the validity of self-perceived dental caries and associated factors in a sample of 795 adults (35-44 years). The dependent variable was self-perceived dental caries, and the independent variables were combined in blocks. Three logistic models were performed: (1) all adults; (2) adults with a formal diagnosis of caries; and (3) adults without such caries. Self-perceived dental caries showed 77.7% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 65% accuracy, 52% positive predictive value, and 81% negative predictive value. In Model 1, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, formal diagnosis of caries, self-perceived need for treatment, toothache, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 2, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 3, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health. Self-perceived dental caries showed limited utility as a diagnostic method.

  10. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A I; Sohn, W; Tellez, M; Amaya, A; Sen, A; Hasson, H; Pitts, N B

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity.

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  12. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  13. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  14. Exploration of different school of thoughts among undergraduate dental students regarding dental caries and periodontal diseases

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    Anmol Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concepts about dental caries and periodontal diseases are learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of these diseases. Aim: To assess the variation in the understanding of the concepts of dental caries and periodontal diseases among first to final year undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among 400 students pursuing their graduation in a private dental college situated in Sri Ganganagar city, Rajasthan, India. Descriptive analysis was done, and Chi-square test with a significance level of 5% was done to compare the frequency based data. Results: For concepts related to dental caries, the 1st year students' response showed shift toward biological concept, which was also present for the 2nd year but the 3rd year onwards the majority of students cited the comprehensive multi-factorial concept (P = 0.0002. Final year students were more knowledgeable than the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year students regarding gingival bleeding, swelling, redness, and bad breath being the most important signs of periodontal disease (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Significant variation in the school of thoughts and limited knowledge regarding the concepts of common dental diseases among dental undergraduate students is seen. There might be a need to reform the initial concept building methods utilized in dental institutions to improve the basic knowledge of undergraduate students of the common dental diseases.

  15. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

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    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  16. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Caries Prevention in Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once

  18. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    Dental caries is a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children. Community water fluoridation was initiated in the USA in 1945 and is currently practised in about 25 countries around the world; health authorities consider it to be a key strategy for preventing dental caries. Given the continued interest in this topic from health professionals, policy makers and the public, it is important to update and maintain a systematic review that reflects contemporary evidence. To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries.To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 February 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2015); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 February 2015); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 February 2015); Proquest (to 19 February 2015); Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 19 February 2015); ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 19 February 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization's WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on language of publication or publication status in the searches of the electronic databases. For caries data, we included only prospective studies with a concurrent control that compared at least two populations - one receiving fluoridated water and the other non-fluoridated water - with outcome(s) evaluated at at least two points in time. For the assessment of fluorosis, we included any type of study design, with concurrent control, that compared populations exposed to different water fluoride concentrations. We included populations of all ages that received fluoridated water (naturally or artificially

  19. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

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    Bastos João Luiz Dornelles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  20. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  1. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  2. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content, plaque... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental...

  3. Dental History Predictors of Caries Related Dental Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    proportion of caries-related emergencies among all emergencies, as compared to other incidence studies (3,4). However, the high prevalence of DT in the...towards those individuals who have the greatest prevalence of caries. Most recall systems presently used by the Navy employ as primary criteria the time...Trauma related emergencies Recent .05 .06 .18 >72 hrs 0 0 .01 Combined .05 .06 .20 Pericoronitis .29 .04 .11 Periodontally related .25 .02 .10

  4. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo

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    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo gestacional se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries dental, aunque la asociación entre gestación e incremento de caries no ha podido aún ser científicamente demostrada. Se propuso realizar un estudio para determinar la presencia de caries dental y algunos factores de riesgo asociados en el primer y tercer trimestre del embarazo, para detectar la aparición de lesiones cariosas nuevas y cambios relacionados con los factores de riesgo entre ambos trimestres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal desde diciembre de 2006 a febrero de 2008 en el municipio de Florida, Camagüey, Cuba. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 38 embarazadas y la muestra por 21, que fueron interrogadas y examinadas en ambos trimestres con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de caries y los factores de riesgo asociados como: higiene bucal deficiente, dieta cariogénica, pH salival bajo, ocurrencia de vómitos y embarazo previo. La información necesaria fue recogida en un formulario confeccionado al efecto. En el primer trimestre el 80,95 % estaban afectadas por caries dental y se observó aparición de lesiones nuevas en 6 embarazadas, en el tercer trimestre. Los factores de riesgo presentados con mayor frecuencia en el primer trimestre fueron la dieta cariogénica en el 66,66 % y la higiene bucal deficiente en el 47,61 % de las pacientes. Ninguna embarazada modificó la dieta durante el embarazo, sin embargo la higiene bucal deficiente persistió en el 14,28 %. El 52,38 % de las embarazadas afectadas en el primer trimestre consumían dieta cariogénica y el 47,61 % habían tenido embarazo previo. Se concluyó que hubo afectación por nuevas caries durante el embarazo, los factores de riesgo que predominantes fueron la dieta cariogénica, la higiene bucal deficiente y el embarazo previo. Las pacientes no modificaron la dieta durante el embarazo, pero sí mejoraron la higiene bucal. Todas las que presentaban vómitos y pH salival

  5. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

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    Francesca Cura

    2012-01-01

    The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1 the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2 the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3 an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4 the type of alimentary diet and 5 the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  6. Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease

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    Amit Bhardwaj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been found to be beneficial to host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. There has also been a change in understanding of the oral disease process because of better understanding of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity. Very encouraging studies exploring probiotics in the fields of caries, periodontal diseases and few other areas have come up in the recent past and the results tend to suggest beneficial effects of probiotics on oral health and on the whole body in general. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. This article reviews the role of probiotics in dental caries and periodontal disease. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 45-49

  7. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    iii     EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS: A META-ANALYSIS by Derek T. Fagen LCDR...not be re-printed without the expressed written permission of the author. vi     ABSTRACT EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES ...presence or absence of dental caries is of the utmost importance since errors may lead to either performance of irreversible, but unnecessary

  8. Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiana Piovesan; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the inequality in the distribution of dental caries and the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and caries experience in a representative sample of schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of this age group in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status and a dental examination provided information on the dental caries experience (DMF-T). Ineq...

  9. Relationship between untreated dental caries and dental neglect among mentally handicapped children: A cross-sectional study

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    Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is the most prevalent disease among mentally handicapped (MH children worldwide. Dental neglect may throw light on complex relationships between individual behavior, environmental factors, and dental caries in children. Objectives: The objective was to assess the prevalence and severity of untreated dental caries and to explore the relationship between untreated dental caries and dental neglect among MH children and healthy children in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 130, 6-17 years MH and 152 healthy school children in Bangalore city. A questionnaire on the children′s sociodemographic background, oral health-related behaviors, and dental neglect scale was completed by the parents. Caries was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria (1997. Odontogenic infections were recorded using the pufa/PUFA index. Statistical tests such as Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, Spearmans correlation, and step-wise linear regression were performed at significance level P < 0.05. Results: Dental caries was present in 89.2% of MH children as compared with 88.15% of the healthy children. Caries experience significantly correlated with consequences of untreated dental caries in both the groups (P = 0.001. No statistical significant correlation was observed between dental neglect and dental caries experience and its consequences in both the groups. Conclusions: High prevalence of dental caries and dental neglect in both the groups calls for an integrated approach. Oral health promotion and intervention programs should be targeted and concentrated toward these risk groups.

  10. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  11. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

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    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  12. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  13. [A socioeconomic classification and the discussion related to prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Kozlowski, Fábio Carlos; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Zuleica M de A Pedroso

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a socioeconomic classification model and prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Piracicaba, Sâo Paulo, Brazil. For this classification five indicators were used (family monthly income, number of residents in the same household, parents' formal educational level, type of housing and occupation of person responsible for the family). A scoring system was used in order to arrange in a hierarchy, 812 12 year old school children distributed between six different social classes. Volunteers were examined in the school's back patio under natural light with a dental mirror, by two examiners calibrated for DMFT index (dental caries) and T-F (dental fluorosis). The qui-square test (pcaries.

  14. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  15. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis......The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride.......72, respectively). When individual DFS counts were compared across examinations using Bland-Altman plots and estimation of prediction intervals for the differences, we observed a greater variability of the differences between recordings among children from the low-fluoride area. Contrary to our expectations...

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  17. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  18. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Keller Celeste

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm. We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban. Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30 for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  19. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Fritzell, Johan; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis) and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm). We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban). Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30) for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  20. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  1. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to dental caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  2. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  3. Dental caries risk indicators in early childhood and their association with caries polarization in adolescence: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemaitiene, Migle; Grigalauskiene, Ruta; Andruskeviciene, Vilija; Matulaitiene, Zivile Kristina; Zubiene, Jurate; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle

    Based on the hypothesis that biological and social risks accumulate during life, it is important to identify possible dental caries risk indicators from the life course of early childhood and assess...

  4. Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Tadakamadla

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent′s occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.

  5. Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Liu, Y; Kalra, R; Perry, S; Adewumi, A; Xu, X; Primosch, R E; Burne, R A

    2013-07-01

    Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the local pH, which can neutralize the effects of acidification from sugar metabolism and reduce the cariogenicity of oral biofilms. To explore the relationship between oral arginine metabolism and dental caries experience in children, we measured ADS activity in oral samples from 100 children and correlated it with their caries status and type of dentition. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces that were caries-lesion-free (PF) and from dentinal (PD) and enamel (PE) caries lesions. Regardless of children's caries status or type of dentition, PF (378.6) had significantly higher ADS activity compared with PD (208.4; p caries status. Mixed-model analysis showed that plaque caries status is significantly associated with ADS activity despite children's age, caries status, and dentition (p caries.

  6. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Larmas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods: A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries was undertaken using MEDLINE (PubMed and Scopus. Keywords for the search were: enzymes and odontoblasts, enzymes and different forms of dentinogenesis as well as dental caries. Results: Search revealed studies which described odontoblasts harbouring numerous enzymes (hydrolases, including metalloproteinases, transaminases and dehydrogenases during primary dentinogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase activity sharply decreased when odontoblasts turned into quiescent odontoblasts. Tertiary dentinogenesis was characterized first by reactionary dentine formation when alkaline phosphatase was highly reactivated. Then later some of these odontoblasts may die out and be replaced by other progenitor cells of pulpal origin. This tertiary dentine was called reparative dentine. Pulpal progenitor/stem cells revealed alkaline phosphatase activity in areas encircling inflamed pulp sections. Soft carious dentine revealed high hydrolase, transaminase and dehyrogenase activities that may have originated from invading microbes, saliva or were endogenous. Proteolytic activity was especially demonstrable using histochemical and biochemical means. Specifically, matrix metalloproteases may have originated partly from activated proenzymes of host origin. Conclusions: Though dental studies are scanty when compared to bone, the active role of large spectrum of enzymes in healthy and carious dentine was given support.

  7. DENTAL CARIES AND TREATMENT NECESSITY IN INSTITUTIONALIZED DRUG USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferraz Neves Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on drugs is a complex disease, incurable and that its use persists in the face of extremely negative consequences. Objective: was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of caries in users of legal drugs. Methods:It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study, held with adults, users of legal and illegal drugs, institutionalized in rehabilitation centers of municipalities in the southwestern region of the state of Bahia. We used a form with sociodemographic questions about the use of licit and illicit drugs. To assess tooth decay, we used the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT, and the dental units were assessed with a World Health Organization (WHO Model probe and a dental mirror. Data were tabulated and analyzed in Excel. Results: 73 individuals were evaluated, aged between 18 and 64, mean age 35.5 (SD ± 10.7. It was found that 71.4% are single, 73,7% with low level of education, 74.6% do not use dental floss. Caries prevalence was 98.6%, DMF-T average 15.6. In 18-34 years old individuals, the DMF-T average was 12.1 and from 35 to 64 years old it was 19.8. Regarding dentition, 52.6% of the teeth were affected by the disease. Among the affected teeth, 39.9% were decayed, 44.1% lost and 16% filled. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of caries in this population. Among the dental needs, the restoration of the dental element has to be highlighted.

  8. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Dental health of children: where we are today and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common disease in man and presents a tremendous health-affecting challenge and fiscal burden to both developed and underdeveloped countries. Changing demographics including increased number of ethnic minorities, cultural practices and diet, the number of children living in poverty or near poverty, and the special needs of medically compromised children have made solutions more complex and evasive. Systemic and topical fluoride contacts remain the most cost-effective public health response to preventing caries among children. The time-honored impact of reducing sugars and carbohydrates in the diet and improving oral hygiene practices also remain essential. New technology has the potential of offering remineralization strategies. The dental profession is challenged to be proactive in identifying alternatives and implementing new and creative ways to embrace underserved children and improve their access to care including trauma prevention. The impact on families and society, including financial and general well-being, due to poor oral health is significant. Lower income families absorb disproportionately the effect of dental diseases due to lack of education, food availability and selection, and access to early preventive care.

  11. Salivary IgA and dental caries in HIV patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Mandal, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The interrelationship of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dental caries, as well as Salivary IgA (S-IgA) level, appear to remain underexplored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV +ve children. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV +ve and HIV -ve children and to determine the dental caries status in HIV +ve and HIV -ve children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. Twenty-eight HIV +ve children aged between 6 and 14 years and 28 age matched HIV -ve children were included in this study, and both samples were randomly selected from the same nongovernmental organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. 2 cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes, and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to the WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and Community periodontal index (CPI) probe. In HIV +ve group, mean salivary IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft) was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group, the mean salivary IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ±17.83 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong -ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, P 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong -ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4.42, P IgA and deft (r = -0.942, t = 14.32, P IgA deficiency in

  12. Dental caries, parents educational level, family income and dental service attendance among children in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianetti, S; Lombardo, G; Lupatelli, E; Rossi, G; Abraha, I; Pagano, S; Paglia, L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether socioeconomic determinants, such as parents' educational level, family income and dental service attendance by children, are associated with the presence of caries among an Italian population of children. An observational retrospective study was carried out in a population of children aged 4-14 years who visited the Paediatric Dentistry Department of the University of Perugia, Italy. Children were stratified according to familial socioeconomic level (father's and mother's educational level, family income) and dental service attendance of children. Age- and sex- adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression models. A sample of 231 children (mean age 8.1 yrs, SD 2.6; 127 males, 104 females) was recruited. One hundred and sixty three (70.46%) children in the study had caries. Caries presence in children was higher in children where the mothers' educational level was lower (OR =6.1; 95% CI = 3.1 to 12.7), in children where the fathers' educational level was lower (OR =2.9; 95% CI =1.6 to 5.5) and in children with lower family income (OR = 9.9; 95% 95% CI = 5.1 to 20.1). No statistically significant difference were observed in terms of caries presence between the children who were visited at least once by a dentist and children who were not previously seen by a dental practitioner (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4 to 1.6). Socioeconomic level was an important predictor of caries presence among children. Both low income and low parental educational level were related to an increased presence of caries, whereas previous dental visits experience did not affect caries presence in children.

  13. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  14. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  15. Microanalysis of dental caries using laser-scanned fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Paton, Barry E.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.

    1992-06-01

    It is well known that enamel and dentin fluoresce when illuminated by short-wavelength optical radiation. Fluorescence emission from carious and non-carious regions of teeth have been studied using a new experimental scanning technique for fluorescence analysis of dental sections. Scanning in 2 dimensions will allow surface maps of dental caries to be created. These surface images are then enhanced using the conventional and newer image processing techniques. Carious regions can be readily identified and contour maps can be used to graphically display the degree of damage on both surfaces and transverse sections. Numerous studies have shown that carious fluorescence is significantly different than non-carious regions. The scanning laser fluorescence spectrometer focuses light from a 25 mW He-Cd laser at 442 nm through an objective lens onto a cross-section area as small as 3 micrometers in diameter. Microtome prepared dental samples 100 micrometers thick are laid flat onto an optical bench perpendicular to the incident beam. The sample is moved under computer control in X & Y with an absolute precision of 0.1 micrometers . The backscattered light is both spatial and wavelength filtered before being measured on a long wavelength sensitized photomultiplier tube. High precision analysis of dental samples allow detailed maps of carious regions to be determined. Successive images allow time studies of caries growth and even the potential for remineralization studies of decalcified regions.

  16. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations around the world. It is recognized that fluoride plays a significant role in dental caries reduction. Meanwhile, several low- and middle-income countries of Asia have not yet implemented systematic fluoride programs...... coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition...... need further dissemination. The meeting was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the International Association for Dental Research, and the World Dental Federation....

  17. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashri Prabakar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.

  18. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: Dental caries and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikiran N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  19. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: dental caries and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, V V S; Raju, P Krishnam

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  20. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  1. [Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Canhua; Zhang, Shinan; Li, Yanhong

    2011-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47 +/- 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42 +/- 1.83. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.

  2. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  3. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  4. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  5. Salivary SIgA and dental caries activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawda, Jyoti G; Chaduvula, Nandini; Patel, Hemali R; Jain, Shikha S; Lala, Arti K

    2011-09-01

    This case-control study was conducted to determine the protective role of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of dental caries active (Group I and II) and caries free children (Group III). Thirty children aged 4-8 years were selected. Their DMFT (Decayed Missing Filled teeth for permanent teeth) and/or df-t (decayed, filled teeth for deciduous teeth) scores were determined and the salivary SIgA levels were measured using Immunoturbidometry. SIgA levels of all three groups were in the the normal range of 4-30 mg/dL. The SIgA levels for both Group I and II were less than that in Group III (P=0.018 and P=0.0013, respectively).

  6. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM from 293 stimulated saliva samples was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries.

  7. Social inequalities and dental caries in six-year-old children from the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, J.T. van der; Kragt, L.; Elfrink, M.E.; Bertens, L.C.M.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Moll, H.A.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Wolvius, E.B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of different socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with dental caries in six-year-old children. Furthermore, we applied a district based approach to explore the distribution of dental caries among districts of low and high

  8. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples...... was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries....

  9. Influence of host-related risk indicators on dental caries in permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the individual and grouped influence of host-related factors on dental caries experience in permanent dentition of 7-9 year-old children. One hundred and twenty one children were recruited applying a stratified cluster sampling without replacement. Clinical examinations, Colorimetric Test and non-stimulated and stimulated saliva collection were performed; the samples obtained were later incubated using Snyder culture medium. Simple and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the individual and grouped influence of the host-related factors and establish a modelfor predicting dental caries in permanent dentition. 78.5% of the evaluated children presented dental caries in permanent dentition. Binary logistic regression analyses revealMd that only dental caries in deciduous dentition and stimulated salivary flow were significantly associated to dental caries in permanent dentition. The final multivariate model showed that the adjusted OR was 1.76 for an increase of 1 tooth in dmft and 2.29 for a decrease of 1 ml in stimulated salivary flow. Dental caries in deciduous dentition is a risk indicator for dental caries in permanent dentition, and stimulated salivary flow is a protective factor Variables like enamel resistance to acid dissolution and buffer capacity are not related to dental caries in permanent dentition, making them inappropriate for risk studies.

  10. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  11. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  12. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  13. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  14. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  15. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Dommelen, P. van; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries an

  16. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries a

  17. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries a

  18. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; van Dommelen, P.; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries an

  19. Dental caries in an elderly population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated dental caries according to the presence of natural teeth and sociodemographic conditions of an elderly population in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Examinations were performed according to the World Health Organization's guidelines. The sample of 1,192 elderly individuals aged 65 to 74 years was stratified according to the presence of teeth and the following variables: gender, race, age, city size and Human Development Index (HDI. The Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests were applied at a confidence level of 95% for analysis of results. In the total sample, 68.9% (n=822 were edentulous; the mean of present teeth was 3.5 and the DMFT was 30.2, being 28.5 of missing teeth. Among dentate individuals (n=370, the mean of present teeth was 11.3, the DMFT was 26.2 and the missing component accounted for 20.7 teeth. The differences observed in the evaluated conditions should be highlighted: the mean number of present teeth was higher among younger individuals (from 65 to 69 years [12.1] and among those living in cities with high HDI [12.9]; the DMFT was lower among men [24.9] and non-Caucasians [25.1]. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that specific dental programs should be established, with emphasis on oral health promotion and dental caries control, as well as public health policies that may enhance the access to the services provided.

  20. Untreated dental caries: impact on quality of life of children of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, P A; Oliveira, M; Marques, L S; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children of low socioeconomic status. One hundred twelve impoverished 8- to 10-year-olds from a city in southeastern Brazil were selected. OHRQoL was measured using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10; total and subscale scores) and its global question on oral health. The clinical examination recorded the prevalence of untreated dental caries (corresponding to a non-zero D or d component in the DMFT or dmft indices). The children were categorized as without untreated dental caries=0 or with untreated dental caries ≥1. Malocclusions and dental trauma were determined using the Dental Aesthetic Index and Andreasen and Andreasen (1994) classification, respectively. Descriptive analysis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square test, and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models were employed. Eighty-four children (75%) had 1 or more carious teeth. The relative risk of having a negative perception of oral health was greater among the children with untreated dental caries (RR-1:41; 95% confidence interval=1.13-1.75), regardless of gender or malocclusion. Eight- to 10-year-olds with untreated dental caries have a greater relative risk of having a negative perception of oral health status than those without dental caries.

  1. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries Microorganismos probióticos en la prevención de caries dentales

    OpenAIRE

    Yensi Díaz Martell; Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón; Ileana Hidalgo-Gato Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12), BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasser...

  2. [Helicobacter pylori in the development of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseeva, M V; Belova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2010-01-01

    It is shown, that in patients with erosive and ulcer defects of gastroduodenal zone at settling Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in an oral cavity in 100% of cases caries develops at intensity 13.6 +/- 1.4 teeth. Produced Hp protease and ammonia cause disintegration connected to protein silica acids and reduce activity lysocim, worsening, thus, fluid and protective properties of a saliva. In the subsequent infringement of autopurification of a teeth results in accumulation of a dental strike where protease activity conditionally pathogenic microflora conducts to depolymerization and demineralization enamels of a teeth.

  3. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    been little attention devoted to oclusal surface pit and fissure dental caries. There is so= evidence that tooth morphology is related to susceptibility...AD-A0CM 755 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/S 6/5 THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES I--ETC(U) JUN 80 M R...THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL RECRUITS M. R. WIRTHLIN 1. L. SHKLAIR R. G. WALTER J. C. CECIL 0 M. E. COHEN

  4. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  5. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte; Vasconcelos, Mara; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2013-12-01

    It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  6. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  7. Dental Caries Prevalence among 6-12 Years Old School Children in Ardabil City, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Asdagh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dental caries is one of the most chronic diseases in children. Various factors were effective in incidence andprevalence of dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries prevalence among 6-12 yearsold school children in Ardabil city.   Methods : In this descriptive–cross sectional study a total of 847 school children (444 girls and 403 boys were randomly selected from public and private schools in all over of Ardabil city.Clinical examination of children have been done for dental caries according to world health organization (WHO criteria including determination of DMFT, dmft, DMFS and dental caries prevalence. Data were analysedin SPSS.16 by statistical methods.   Results: Total prevalence of dental caries was 79.7% in children with 71.1 % in permanent and 88.3 % in primary dentition. The mean of dmft, DMFT, DMFS indexes were 2.74± 0.09, 1.6±0.1, and 3.5± 0.1, repectively.Results showed that there was a significant relation between DMFT, dmft and DMFS and age group.   Conclusion : Results showed that the dental caries prevalence among 6-12 years-old school children in Ardabil city was higher than the world standard. Therefore, improving the existing dental services, programing and performing education, prevention and treatment programs for oral health between school children seems tobe necessary in the future.

  8. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sandra S; Kumar, Sajeesh; Williams, Nancy J

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects, if any, of specific medication used to manage the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for dental caries. A reported side-effect of the medication is a reduction in saliva. Healthy saliva has been shown to play many important functions in the prevention of dental caries. The focus of this review is to determine if any evidence exists to confirm that stimulant medication used to treat the symptoms of ADHD in children increases the risk of dental caries by virtue of its effect on the reduction of salivary flow. A MEDLINE search was conducted for relevant studies. Search terms used were dental caries, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, pharmacologic treatment of ADHD, stimulant medication, xerostomia, dry-mouth and saliva flow. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2012. Although dental caries prevalence has been found to be higher in children with ADHD, decreased salivary flow as a side-effect of pharmacological treatment does not appear to be responsible. Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease process. The most effective method of reducing dental caries in ADHD children is more frequent recare visits focusing on home plaque removal practices along with dietary counseling to reduce the consumption of cariogenic foods and drinks. This can only be accomplished with inclusion of the parent/guardian in the process. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  10. General evaluation of hard dental tissue and risk factors of dental caries in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антоніна Михайлівна Політун

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The prognostication of caries in youth is important for determination and prescription of individual prophylactic arrangements and its further influence on mineralization of the hard dental tissues.Aim of the work: the study of the prevalence and intensity of caries among the young people and determination of possible connection with the risk factor of caries development for further choice of the reasonable prophylactic arrangement.Materials and methods of research: epidemiological, clinical, statistic ones.Results of research: The article describes results of the comprehensive dental examination of 135 persons18-25 years old. There was determined the high prevalence of caries (96,3±0,74 % with considerable intensity (8,87±0,39. The main etiological factors among youth are: poor nutrition with prevalence of carbohydrate (74,81±0,56 %, lack of oral hygiene (59,27±0,73 %, quantitative and qualitative composition of oral fluid, presence of somatic diseases (40±0,30 %, bad habits (31,85±0,24 %, neglect of the sport (48,88±0,36 %, chronic emotional stress (38,51±0,29 %, due to the increased workload and related stress factors.Conclusions: the high prevalence (96,3±0,74 % and intensity of carious process (8,87±0,39 is caused by the unsatisfactory state of oral cavity, (1,91±0,06, under the influence of general factors (somatic diseases, stress, poor nutrition the reactivity of protective mechanisms is lowered and the risk of dental morbidity of youth increases. So, it proves the necessity of elaboration and introduction of the active arrangements of primary prophylaxis directed on the raise of caries resistance of the hard dental tissues in young people

  11. Cognitive Impairment, Oral Self-care Function and Dental Caries Severity in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer JJ; Chen, Hong; Naorungroj, Supawadee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether oral self-care function mediates the associations between cognitive impairment and caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. Background Cognitive impairment significantly affects activities of daily living and compromises oral health, systemic health and quality of life in older adults. However, the associations among cognitive impairment, oral self-care capacity and caries severity remain unclear. This increases difficulty in developing effective interventions for cognitively impaired patients. Materials and methods Medical, dental, cognitive and functional assessments were abstracted from the dental records of 600 community-dwelling elderly. 230 participants were selected using propensity score matching and categorised into normal, cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) and dementia groups based on their cognitive status and a diagnosis of dementia. Multivariable regressions were developed to examine the mediating effect of oral self-care function on the association between cognitive status and number of caries or retained roots. Results Cognitive impairment, oral self-care function and dental caries severity were intercorrelated. Multivariable analysis showed that without adjusting for oral self-care capacity, cognition was significantly associated with the number of caries or retained roots (p = 0.003). However, the association was not significant when oral self-care capacity was adjusted (p = 0.125). In contrast, individuals with impaired oral self-care capacity had a greater risk of having a caries or retained root (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.15, 2.44). Conclusion Oral care capacity mediates the association between cognition and dental caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23758583

  12. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided.

  13. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODEL FOR DENTAL CARIES ASSESSMENT USING NON-GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries. PMID:27807470

  14. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  15. The social and behavioural pathway of dental caries experience among Jewish adults in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, A; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    To report dental caries status, related health behaviours and social determinants among a representative sample of adults residing in Jerusalem. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified sample of 254 Jewish and married adults aged 35-44 years in Jerusalem. Dental caries status was examined according to DMFT, percentage of caries-free persons and of people maintaining all their natural teeth (no teeth missing due to caries). The results were analysed by the independent variables and interpreted by weighted caries scores for the total Jerusalem population. The mean age was 38.63 years. Weighted DMFT was found to be 10.59; 6.8% of the population were caries-free; 67.1% demonstrated maintenance of all natural teeth. Level of education was the distal factor, associated with number of natural teeth, DMFT and untreated decay. Mediating behavioural determinants included dental attendance, plaque level and sugar consumption. The findings of this study demonstrated that caries experience among Jewish married adults in Jerusalem was moderate with low unmet dental caries needs. Additionally, data confirmed that a low level of education was a strong distal social determinant of caries experience, which affected dental health status via a pathway mediated by behavioural factors. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  18. Prevalence of dental caries among 12-14 year old children in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-07-01

    To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12-14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12-14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  19. Social-dental and social representation aspects of dental caries in the mother-child context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Brger Fadel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate social and dental maternal characteristics related to the child’s caries experience and to verify the social representation of mothers with regard to the oral health-illness process. Methods: The sample consisted of 272 pairs of mothers and children who attending public institutions of early childhood education in Ponta Grossa city. The information of interest was collected through a structured, oral clinical examination and semi-structured interview. The test used for statistical analysis was a chi-square for independence. Results: The results confirmed the association between the mothers’ need for treatment and the children’s dental caries experience as well as their relationship with socio-economic variables. Education, income, number of children and frequency of visits to the dentist were the variables that showed statistical significance. Conclusion: Unfavorable maternal social inclusion, the number of children the mother has, their need for dental treatment and their frequency of visits to the dentist were associated with the children’s dental caries experience. Moreover, it appears that the mother’s social representations was an important tool for health information, and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  20. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  1. Reliability of specific finger dermatoglyphic patterns and their association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Pratibha; Sentamilselvi, G; Narayan, Vinod; Premkumar, Priya; Anuja, N; Sherlin, Herald; Abilasha, R

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries is generally agreed to be a complex problem with many indirect factors that may obscure the direct cause or causes. There is substantial evidence that heredity plays an important role in this disease. Dermatoglyphics is a study that can be used to indicate congenital abnormalities. This study sought to determine a correlation between the prevalence of dental caries and dermatoglyphic fingerprint patterns, and thus assess the reliability of such patterns for identifying a susceptibility to dental caries. The results showed that the association between people with dental caries and whorls in their fingerprints was 60.4% . The association between people without caries who had loops in their fingerprints was 55.7%. These associations had a statistical significance of P < 0.001.

  2. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Woodward, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s - some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolán Bánóczy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.

  4. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  5. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

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    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  6. Examiner training and reliability in two randomized clinical trials of adult dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, David W; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gullion, Christina M; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V; Singh, Mabi L; Vollmer, William M

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra-examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Study examiners were trained to use a modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2), and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3,604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4 percent to 13.5 percent of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23-0.35), but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42-0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 versus D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90. Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classifications employed. The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures.

  8. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  9. The Epidemic Tendency of Dental Caries Prevalence of School Students from 1991 to 2005 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐杰; 余毅震; 马颖

    2010-01-01

    The epidemic tendency of dental caries of school students over the past 15 years in China was analyzed in order to provide bases for prevention of dental caries.Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7,9,12 years(deciduous caries)and 7,9,12,14,17 years(permanent caries)were collected from the series of Chinese National Surveillance on Students' Constitution and Health(CNSSCH)between 1991 to 2005,a survey that covers 30 provinces of and autonomous regions of China,with Tibet Autonomous Region and Taiwan P...

  10. Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kojima, Azusa; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; pfood education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries.

  11. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among Brazilian prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Rodrigues, Iris Sant Anna Araujo; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento

    2014-11-25

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, "decayed" and "missing" components contributed to the high mean DMFT index.

  12. The colony number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva of dental caries and free caries children

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    Seno Pradopo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans are regarded as the main initiator microorganism of caries, with Lactobacilli participating on caries progression, due to its carcinogenic capacity. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp in children with in children’s saliva with dental caries and free caries. Twenty children attending the Paediatric Dental Clinic in Airlangga University participated in our study. Their age ranged from 1–14 years old. Subject was divided into two groups, which were study group consisting of 10 children with 3–5 dmft/DMFT and control group with 10 caries free children. Subjects were examined and their caries number was recorded using WHO index. Stimulated saliva was collected from each subject for bacterial assessment. Colony counting of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp count in each saliva sample group were done. The study showed that subject with 3–5 dmft/DMFT had higher number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp than caries free.

  13. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  14. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  15. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  16. Prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level: consensus report of group 3 of joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Blanco, Juan; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Carvalho, Joana C; Dietrich, Thomas; Dörfer, Christof; Eaton, Kenneth A; Figuero, Elena; Frencken, Jo E; Graziani, Filippo; Higham, Susan M; Kocher, Thomas; Maltz, Marisa; Ortiz-Vigon, Alberto; Schmoeckel, Julian; Sculean, Anton; Tenuta, Livia M A; van der Veen, Monique H; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2017-03-01

    , affecting both dental caries and periodontal diseases, is routinely performed oral hygiene with fluoride; (vi) population-based interventions address behavioural factors to control dental caries and periodontitis through legislation (antismoking, reduced sugar content in foods and drinks), restrictions (taxes on sugar and tobacco) guidelines and campaigns; however, their efficacy remains to be evaluated; (vii) psychological approaches aimed at changing behaviour may improve the effectiveness of oral health education; (viii) different preventive strategies have proven to be effective during the course of life; (ix) management of both dental caries and gingivitis relies heavily on efficient self-performed oral hygiene, that is toothbrushing with a fluoride-containing toothpaste and interdental cleaning; (x) professional tooth cleaning, oral hygiene instruction and motivation, dietary advice and fluoride application are effective in managing dental caries and gingivitis. The prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases and the prevention of ultimate tooth loss is a lifelong commitment employing population- and individual-based interventions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism

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    Mohamed Abdullah Jaber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI and Met Need Index (MNI for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61 or fair 37.8% (23/61 oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61 of the autistic children had gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  18. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  19. Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Scapini, Annarosa; Busato, Adair Luiz Stefanello; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis. A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT  =  1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean  =  29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P  =  .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P  =  .021). Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

  20. Diagnostic and Preventive Approaches for Dental Caries in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Karami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral health status plays an essential role in human health. Recently, enhancement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and developing countries. Dental caries is still very common among children. Screening and preventive interventions is necessary. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic and preventive approaches for dental caries in children. Evidence Acquisition Searching PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library (for 5 recent years from 2011 - 2016, and reference lists for keywords and phrases such as “dental caries in children” and prevention and diagnosis, we included trials and controlled observational studies regarding the diagnosis and preventive techniques for dental caries in children. Results We found no study demonstrating the effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. In a cohort study, pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 was reported to identify dental caries in children. The results of the new randomized trials that were confirmed by previous studies showed that the efficacy of fluoride varnish is more than no varnish in reduction of dental caries from 18% to 59%. Some of the trials regarding xylitol had no results regarding the effects on dental caries. New observational studies have shown an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. There is no evidence on the accuracy of prediction instruments in primary care settings. Conclusions We found no direct evidence that reveals that screening by primary care clinicians can decrease early childhood caries. Previous evidences reviewed by the United State Preventive Services Task Force demonstrated that oral fluoride supplementation is effective in decreasing caries incidences, and recent evidences supported the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.

  1. Salud dental: relación entre la caries dental y el consumo de alimentos

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    Ángel Miguel González Sanz

    Full Text Available A pesar de que la reducción de la incidencia y prevalencia de la caries dental en muchos países se relaciona en gran medida con el uso sistemático del flúor en las pastas dentífricas y la mejora de la higiene dental, se debe tener presente la importancia de los hábitos alimentarios en la prevención primaria y secundaria de la caries dental. En este sentido, destacan los carbohidratos fermentables, determinadas características de los alimentos, la frecuencia de consumo, distintos tipos de alimentos, algunos como factores protectores, la cantidad y la calidad de la saliva, en tanto que ello determina el índice de remineralización de los dientes etc. Todos estos elementos son analizados a través de los factores sociodemográficos, de comportamiento, físico-ambientales y biológicos relacionados directa o indirectamente con dieta y caries.

  2. Korean version of child perceptions questionnaire and dental caries among Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ(8-10) overall score (partial r = 0.15, P caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14.

  3. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC. The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3, 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0. The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC.

  4. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Salas, M M S; Nascimento, G G; Tarquinio, S B C; Faggion, C M; Peres, M A; Thomson, W M; Demarco, F F

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries is the main problem oral health and it is not well established in the literature if the enamel defects are a risk factor for its development. Studies have reported a potential association between developmental defects enamel (DDE) and dental caries occurrence. We investigated the association between DDE and caries in permanent dentition of children and teenagers. A systematic review was carried out using four databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct), which were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2014. Population-based studies assessing differences in dental caries experience according to the presence of enamel defects (and their types) were included. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the pooled effect, and meta-regression was carried out to identify heterogeneity sources. From the 2558 initially identified papers, nine studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria after checking the titles, abstracts, references, and complete reading. Seven of them were included in the meta-analysis with random model. A positive association between enamel defects and dental caries was identified; meta-analysis showed that individuals with DDE had higher pooled odds of having dental caries experience [OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.3; 3.54)]. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that adjustment for sociodemographic factors, countries' socioeconomic status, and bias (quality of studies) explained the high heterogeneity observed. A higher chance of dental caries should be expected among individuals with enamel defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of dental caries: knowledge, practice and opinion of paediatricians in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatosi, O O; Sote, E O; Akinsola, O J; Oredugba, F A; Adenaike, A S

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children and this is preventable. Paediatricians are the first professionals whom children visit and are in good position to begin the process of prevention of dental caries if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits. To determine the knowledge, practice and opinion of pediatricians in prevention of dental caries. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among pediatricians in Lagos. Questionnaires were administered to pediatricians practicing in Teaching hospitals, general and private hospitals in Lagos. The questionnaire assessed their personal details, knowledge about caries, practice guidelines and opinion towards its prevention. Less than one-third (27.7%) of the pediatricians knew that bacteria causing caries can be transmitted from mother to child. Only about one-third (30.8 %) of the paediatricians examine children's teeth for dental caries. Majority (87.7%) were of the opinion that paediatricians have a role in promoting oral health. A total of 59% of the paediatricians had moderate knowledge, while (71%) of them had poor practice and their opinion for prevention of dental caries was positive in more than two-thirds of them (71%). We concluded that most paediatricians in Lagos had moderate knowledge, poor practice and lacked proper awareness about prevention of dental caries. Recommendation: we recommend that preventive dentistry topics in oral health promotion and prevention of dental caries be part of their postgraduate curriculum, continued dental health education programme for paediatricians, referral of related cases to paediatric dentists and oral health related topics be published in paediatric medical journals.

  6. Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Alessandra; Araujo Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries. Twenty four rats were orally inoculated with Streptococcus mutans cells (ATCC 25175) for three consecutive days. The animals were fed with a cariogenic diet and water with 10% of sucrose ad libitum, during all experimental period. Caries lesion formation was confirmed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. Then, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group: twelve animals were untreated by either light or photosensitizer; and PDT Group: twelve animals were treated with 100μM of methylene blue for 5min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) at λ = 640+/-30nm, fluence of 172J/cm2, output power of 240mW, and exposure time of 3min. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately after, 3, 7 and 10 days after treatment and the number of total microaerophiles was counted. OCT images showed areas of enamel demineralization on rat molars. Microbiological analysis showed a significant bacterial reduction after PDT. Furthermore, the number of total microaerophiles in PDT group remained lower than control group until 10 days posttreatment. These findings suggest that PDT could be an alternative approach to reduce bacteria in dental caries.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pdental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  8. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  9. Characterization of early dental caries by polarized Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Hewko, Mark D.; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-02-01

    The early approximal caries lesion in enamel is observed clinically as a white spot and is difficult to detect and/or monitor with current methods available to dentists. New methods with high sensitivity and specificity are required to enable improved early dental caries diagnosis. Using unpolarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned teeth, peak intensity changes in the phosphate (PO 4 3-) vibrations (ν II, ν 3 and ν 4) were observed between spectra of sound and carious enamel. However, there is little change in the ν I vibration with this approach. In contrast, when tooth sections were examined by unpolarized Raman spectroscopy, marked changes in the ν I peak at 959 cm -1 were noted between healthy and carious enamel. These differences suggest that sampling orientation play a role in understanding the spectral changes. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned samples, cross polarized measurements from sound enamel exhibited significant reduction of the ν I peak compared with parallel polarized measurements. A similar reduction was observed with carious enamel, however, the reduction was not as prominent. By calculating the depolarization ratio of the area under the ν I peak, sound enamel can be clearly distinguished from demineralized regions. The spectral changes observed are attributed to changes in the structure and/or orientation of the apatite crystals as a result of the acid demineralization process.

  10. Degradation of a dental filling material after high caries challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antonio Paraizo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available New types of copolymers using monomers which form inorganic polymers network (glass-like and organic networks have been developed, known as ormocers. The aim of this work was to study how a particular dental filling material is degraded when subjected to a caries challenge by using low pH solutions. The supernadants were studied by HPLC to detect the presence of molecules from the resin, while the changes of the material surface were evaluated by contact angle. An organic modified ceromer (ormocer called Definite® (Degussa was tested. Samples were built following manufacturer's instructions. After pH cycles, solutions were injected in a HPLC. The contact angle was obtained using a goniometer after and before the cycles. HPLC results showed material degradation, only detected in acid solutions. Bis-GMA and TEGDMA were detected in Definite® residues. Means and S.D. of contact angle were (p < 0,05: baseline: 85.16° ± 3.90° and after pH cycles: 69.77° ± 7.12°. The authors concluded that an ormocer filling material degraded on a caries simulated environment.

  11. Impact of parent-related factors on dental caries in the permanent dentition of 6-12-year-old children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Kroon, Jeroen; Johnson, Newell W

    2016-03-01

    To synthesise data from the literature on the effects of various parent-related characteristics (socio-demographic, behavioural and family environment) on dental caries in the permanent dentition of children. Available studies in which the effects of parent-related characteristics on dental caries experience in the permanent dentition of children aged 6-12 years were evaluated. PubMed, Medline via OVID and CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, restricted to scientific articles, were searched in April 2015. English language and time filters (articles published from 2000) were used. A total of 4162 titles were retrieved, of which 2578 remained after duplicates were removed. After review of titles and their abstracts by two independent reviewers, 114 articles were considered relevant for full text review. Of these, 48 were considered for final inclusion. Data extraction was performed by two authors using piloted data extraction sheets. Most of the literature on determinants of dental caries has been limited to socio-economic and behavioural aspects: we found few studies evaluating the effects of family environment and parental oral hygiene behaviour. Children belonging to lower socio-economic classes experienced more caries. In more than half the studies, children of highly educated, professional and high income parents were at lower risk for dental caries. There were conflicting results from studies on the effect of variables related to family environment, parents' oral hygiene behaviour and parent's disease status on dental caries in their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

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    K L Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  13. Oral fluoride reservoirs and the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Current models for increasing the anti-caries effects of fluoride (F) agents emphasize the importance of maintaining a cariostatic concentration of F in oral fluids. The concentration of F in oral fluids is maintained by the release of this ion from bioavailable reservoirs on the teeth, oral mucosa and - most importantly, because of its association with the caries process - dental plaque. Oral F reservoirs appear to be of two types: (1) mineral reservoirs, in particular calcium fluoride or phosphate-contaminated 'calcium-fluoride-like' deposits; (2) biological reservoirs, in particular (with regard to dental plaque) F held to bacteria or bacterial fragments via calcium-fluoride bonds. The fact that all these reservoirs are mediated by calcium implies that their formation is limited by the low concentration of calcium in oral fluids. By using novel procedures which overcome this limitation, the formation of these F reservoirs after topical F application can be greatly increased. Although these increases are associated with substantive increases in salivary and plaque fluid F, and hence a potential increase in cariostatic effect, it is unclear if such changes are related to the increases in the amount of these reservoirs, or changes in the types of F deposits formed. New techniques have been developed for identifying and quantifying these deposits which should prove useful in developing agents that enhance formation of oral F reservoirs with optimum F release characteristics. Such research offers the prospect of decreasing the F content of topical agents while simultaneously increasing their cariostatic effect. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Predictors of dental caries among children 7-14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Fenta A; Taye, Belaynew W; Ayele, Tadesse A; Gelaye, Kassahun A

    2013-01-18

    Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Four hundred sixty three (55%) children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%).The educational status of children's father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80), monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45), regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20) and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80) were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem.

  15. Dental Caries Trend among Adolescents in Lagos, South-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studied. A high caries-free prevalence of 457(76.2%) was found among the subjects. Mean(SD) DMFT ... Among the ethnie groups the Igbo and Edo/l)clta had the highest ... Keywords: Dental Caries, Adolescents, Social class, Itïthnicity,.

  16. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used was a...

  17. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  18. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  19. [Dental caries found in the human skull of Tang dynasty excavated fron Xi'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yong; Shao, Jin-ling; Li, Hai-tao; Xiao, Dan; Liu, Dai-yun

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the status of dental caries in the human of Tang dynasty. All teeth in 62 human skulls of Tang dynasty excavated from the Chang'an county in Xi'an city were examined and analyzed by statistics. The difference of prevalence in different group including age, sex and tooth position was tested with Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 62.9%. And there were 92 caries teeth, which was 14.6% of the whole teeth. The root caries (33.3%) was more than the occlusal caries (28.7%). The most frequent recorded caries were the third molar, followed by the second molar, then the first molar. There was no significant difference between male and female. The dental caries was popular in human of Tang dynasty, but the prevalence lowers than the modern people. And with the human evolution and the improvement of the social productivity, the prevalence of dental caries was gradually ascending.

  20. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M. M.; Maher, B. S.; Slayton, R. L.; Willing, M. C.; Reis, S. E.; Crout, R. J.; Weyant, R. J.; Levy, S. M.; Marazita, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10−8) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue. PMID:28348596

  1. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used was a...

  2. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan

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    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to examine caries prevalence and corresponding treatment needs in school children of rural areas of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : A total of 750 children of rural areas in the age group of 6-10 years were examined, using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results : Dental caries was found in 63.20% children, and 85.07% children needed dental treatment. The highest need was of one surface filling (85.73% followed by sealant (51.20%. Conclusion : Dental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population requiring immediate attention.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  4. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

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    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  5. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

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    Martin Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.

  6. Factors attributable for the prevalence of dental caries in Queensland children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc Giang; Ha, Diep Hong; Spencer, A John

    2015-10-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial condition, prevention of which requires comprehensive understanding of both contextual and compositional determinants and their population impact. To investigate contextual and compositional factors associated with the prevalence of dental caries in children and to estimate the population impact of those factors. Children in one Australian state were selected through stratified random sampling selection in 2010-2011. Oral epidemiological examinations provided individual-level outcomes: prevalence of dental caries in the primary (among 5- to 8-year-olds) and permanent dentitions (9- to 14-year-olds). Socioeconomic status, oral health behaviours and practices and dietary patterns were explanatory factors at the individual-level, school-level and area-level fluoridation status. Three-level multilevel multivariable models were sequentially specified for the prevalence of dental caries to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) associated with explanatory factors, adjusting for covariates and between- and within-group variances. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as the population impact of the statistically significant explanatory factors. Data from 2214 5- to 8-year-olds and 3186 9- to 14-year-olds from 207 schools in 16 areas were analysed. The prevalence of dental caries in the primary and the permanent dentitions was 47.1% (43.9-50.4) and 38.8% (36.1-41.6), respectively. The highest prevalence of dental caries was observed in the nonfluoridated areas. In bivariate associations, factors at three levels were associated with prevalence of dental caries. In the full models, children in the nonfluoridated areas had significantly higher prevalence of dental caries [PR for the primary: 1.29 (1.11-1.50); PR for the permanent 1.49 (1.01-2.21)] compared with children in fluoridated areas, controlling for other factors. PAF estimates indicated that lack of water fluoridation attributed to 21% and 31% of primary and permanent dental

  7. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  8. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

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    Tássia Cristina de Almeida Pinto-Sarmento

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS. Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%. The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23, in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43 and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23. Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00. The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  9. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  10. Development of fibre-optic confocal microscopy for detection and diagnosis of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, C; Poland, S; Girkin, J M; Hall, A F; Whitters, C J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of a fibre-optics-based confocal imaging system for the detection and potential diagnosis of early dental caries. A novel optical instrument, capable of recording axial profiles through caries lesions using single-mode optical fibres, has been developed. The practical study illustrates that miniature confocal devices based around single-mode optical fibres may provide additional diagnostic information for the general dental practitioner.

  11. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or

  12. Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli on healthy and carious teeth in the same mouth of children with and without dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, C. S.; Mogodiri, R.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mutans streptococci and lactobacilli contribute towards the microbial challenge of dental caries. A comparison was made between numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in plaque from primary teeth in healthy children and between caries-free teeth and carious lesions in the same mouth of children with caries. The study group comprised 107 nursery-school children with a clinically healthy dentition and 117 children with caries. After a dental examination with mirror...

  13. Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    Caries incidence and prevalence have decreased significantly over the last few decades due to the widespread use of fluoride. However, an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis has been reported simultaneously in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Dental fluorosis occurs due to excessive fluoride intake during the critical period of tooth development. For the permanent maxillary central incisors, the window of maximum susceptibility to the occurrence of fluorosis is the first 3 years of life. Thus, during this time, a close monitoring of fluoride intake must be accomplished in order to avoid dental fluorosis. This review describes the main sources of fluoride intake that have been identified: fluoridated drinking water, fluoride toothpaste, dietary fluoride supplements and infant formulas. Recommendations on how to avoid excessive fluoride intake from these sources are also given. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Association of salivary triglycerides and cholesterol with dental caries in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Sharma, Akhliesh; Kaje, Keerthan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus can affect oral health. Altered levels of salivary lipids have been suggested as a risk for dental caries. There has been lack of research in this regard and in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To assess the salivary triglycerides and cholesterol levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlate them with their dental caries status. Thirty children aged 12-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy children were included in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each child and evaluated for salivary triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Dental caries status (DMFT) was recorded. Salivary cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (p ≤ 0.05). In comparison to controls, mean DMFT score was higher in the diabetic children. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant correlation with dental caries status in the study group (p = 0.035). In normal children, salivary cholesterol levels showed a significant association with dental caries. (p = 0.008). Both salivary cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant association with dental caries in these children. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Associations among dental caries experience, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure from drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer

    2010-01-01

    a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.

  16. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  17. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG THE POPULATION OF JAGDALPUR, CHHATTISGARH

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    Raichoor Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a major and significant oral health condition that affects about 50 to 60% of the population in India among oral diseases. Unfortunately in rural areas oral health care is often limited due to lack of perceived need for dental care among the rural population, financial constraints as well as shortage of dental manpower. AIM This study aims to determine the prevalence of dental caries among the general population of Jagdalpur and also determine the important factors that could have contributed to the disease. SETTING AND DESIGN Case records of patients who reported to the Department of Dentistry were studied retrospectively. Information about decayed, missed, filled teeth, occupation, oral hygiene techniques as well as dental visits was recorded. METHODS AND MATERIAL Retrospective data of 100 patients who visited the Department of Dentistry was collected from the medical records division. Case sheets having incomplete information or patients who were aged below 5 years and above 75 years were not considered for the study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using software SPSS 17.0 version. Chi square test (Descriptive Statistics was done to test the significance of nonparametric analysis. P values were considered significant at 0.05% level. RESULTS Of the 100 case records that were examined, dental caries was more prevalent in males than females with asymptomatic significance of both dental caries and missing teeth to be statistically significant. Restored teeth contributed to almost 72.72% of the population. CONCLUSION The prevalence of dental caries among the rural general population is significantly high. Less frequent dental visits and improper or inadequate brushing technique/methods could have contributed to the high incidence of dental caries. Creating awareness regarding proper oral hygiene methods as well as regular dental checkup is recommended.

  18. Xerostomy, dental caries and periodontal disease in HIV+ patients

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    Julio César Cavasin Filho

    Full Text Available We studied xerostomy and its correlation with periodontal and dental cavity diseases in HIV patients, through measurement of salivary flow and through variables such as saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, periodontal index, MDF index, dental carie risk and risk of periodontal disease. One hundred patients were analyzed. They were distributed into two groups: Group I (test - 50 patients evidently HIV+, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases, levels of T-CD4 lymphocytes, viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; and Group II - (control 50 HIV- patients, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases. In both groups, measurement of salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity was made. Group I presented high MDF, bacteria plaque and bleeding, with a greater susceptibility to the risks of oral cavities and periodontal disease. The salivary flow and the buffering capacity of the saliva were low, indicating a high level of xerostomy. Two important modifying factors influence these pathologies in an incisive way: one is immunossuppression and the other is HAART therapy. The control exhibited results that are closer to normality; it had better oral-health conditions.

  19. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  20. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries.

  1. Genome-wide association study of dental caries in the Hispanic Communities Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean; Laurie, Cathy C; Marazita, Mary L; Sanders, Anne E; Offenbacher, Steven; Salazar, Christian R; Conomos, Matthew P; Thornton, Timothy; Jain, Deepti; Laurie, Cecelia A; Kerr, Kathleen F; Papanicolaou, George; Taylor, Kent; Kaste, Linda M; Beck, James D; Shaffer, John R

    2016-02-15

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease worldwide, and exhibits profound disparities in the USA with racial and ethnic minorities experiencing disproportionate disease burden. Though heritable, the specific genes influencing risk of dental caries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) for dental caries in a population-based cohort of 12 000 Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-74 years from the HCHS/SOL. Intra-oral examinations were used to generate two common indices of dental caries experience which were tested for association with 27.7 M genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms separately in the six ancestry groups. A mixed-models approach was used, which adjusted for age, sex, recruitment site, five principal components of ancestry and additional features of the sampling design. Meta-analyses were used to combine GWAS results across ancestry groups. Heritability estimates ranged from 20-53% in the six ancestry groups. The most significant association observed via meta-analysis for both phenotypes was in the region of the NAMPT gene (rs190395159; P-value = 6 × 10(-10)), which is involved in many biological processes including periodontal healing. Another significant association was observed for rs72626594 (P-value = 3 × 10(-8)) downstream of BMP7, a tooth development gene. Other associations were observed in genes lacking known or plausible roles in dental caries. In conclusion, this was the largest GWAS of dental caries, to date and was the first to target Hispanic/Latino populations. Understanding the factors influencing dental caries susceptibility may lead to improvements in prediction, prevention and disease management, which may ultimately reduce the disparities in oral health across racial, ethnic and socioeconomic strata.

  2. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs of Down syndrome children in Chennai, India

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    Asokan Sharath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the prevalence of caries and the treatment needs of Down syndrome children in the Indian city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Among the130 Down syndrome children examined, only the children aged £15 years were included in the study ( n = 102. There were 57 male and 45 female children in the total study sample. A specially prepared case record was used to record the findings for each child. The dentition status and the treatment needs required were recorded. Comparisons of the findings were done based on age and gender distribution. Results: Twenty-nine per cent of the total sample of Down syndrome children was found to be caries-free. Extraction (in 38 children and one-surface filling (in 26 children were the most needed specific treatments for primary and permanent teeth, respectively. Oral prophylaxis (99% was the most required treatment in the overall treatment category. Conclusions: Contrary to the findings of earlier studies, the percentage of caries-free Down syndrome children was found to be lower in our study. However, their basic needs like oral prophylaxis, restorations and extractions remain the same and can be easily fulfilled by an efficient, community-based dental team.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Pondicherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Anuradha, K P; Bhaskar, D J

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries is an important Dental public Health problem. Its high morbidity potential has brought this disease into the focus of dental health professionals. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among 5 and 12 years old school children of urban Pondicherry. The study population consisted of 2022 school children of both the sexes, (1009, 5-year-old children) and (1013, 12-year-old children). A simple random sampling method was used to select the schools. Dental caries was assessed by Dentition Status and Treatment Needs described by WHO (1997). The prevalence of dental caries was 44.4% in 5 years age group with 47.4% for males (mean dmft = 1.91 +/- 2.64 S.D.) and 41.1% for females (mean dmft = 1.45 +/- 2.18 S.D.). In 12 years age group the prevalence of dental caries was 22.3% with 20.6% for males (mean DMFT = 0.40 +/- 0.94 S.D.) and 24.1% for females (mean DMFT = 0.55 +/- 1.15 S.D). Evaluation of treatment needs revealed that the greatest need was for one surface restorations followed by two or more surface restorations. It may be concluded that FDI/WHO Oral Health Goals for the year 2000 have been achieved for the ages 5-6 and 12 years in Pondicherry.

  4. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors.

  5. Dental caries status in 6–14-year-old schoolchildren of rural Channagiri, Davangere: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Nikhat Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a major public health issue and schools remain an important setting for an efficient and effective way to reach over billion children worldwide and through them, families, and community members. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 6–14-year-old-school going children of rural areas of Channagiri taluk. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among government schools at Thyavanige, Nallur, Pandomatti, Tavarakere, Daginakatte, and Ajjihalli in Channagiri taluk of Davangere district. The study population comprised school children from 6 to 14 years. A total of 1140 children of both genders were surveyed for dental caries prevalence. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, and one-way ANOVA test. Results: The prevalence of caries in the present study was higher in boys (45.08% than girls (28.42% (P > 0.5. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT was 0.47 ± 0.95 for boys and 0.44 ± 0.91 for girls and the mean dmft for boys was 0.50 ± 1.04 and 0.66 ± 1.12 for girls. Conclusions: Caries prevalence was higher in boys and also a large amount of untreated carious lesions among the children. These results suggest that emphasis should be given to scientific monitoring, effective implementation and evaluation of school based oral health promotion and preventive programs to increase the dental awareness and oral hygiene practices, in the rural areas of Channagiri taluk of Davangere district.

  6. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

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    Jong-Lenters, M. de; van Dommelen, P.; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries and overweight in childhood can be targeted using a common risk factor approach, it is necessary to establish whether the two diseases are indeed linked. The aim of the present study was therefore to...

  7. Concepts in critical thinking applied to caries risk assessment in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra; Warren, John J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; von Bergmann, HsingChi; Johnsen, David C

    2014-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the science of caries risk assessment and ways to analyze caries risk, yet dental education has seen little movement toward the development of frameworks to guide learning and assess critical thinking in caries risk assessment. In the absence of previous proactive implementation of a learning framework that takes the knowledge of caries risk and critically applies it to the patient with the succinctness demanded in the clinical setting, the purpose of this study was to develop a model learning framework that combines the science of caries risk assessment with principles of critical thinking from the education literature. This article also describes the implementation of that model at one dental school and presents some preliminary assessment data.

  8. Experience of dental caries and its effects on early dental occlusion: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Valeria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Coloni, Camilla; Mastrantoni, Cristina; Mirra, Carla; Bossù, Maurizio; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim Describe the occurrence of dental caries in a sample of pre-school children and school children, aged 3 and 12, and study the possible association between caries and malocclusion. Methods We selected and analyzed the medical records of a sample of 588 patients who had their first dental examination at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences of Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome. Results In the sample, 55.4% of the children had no decayed deciduous elements, while 44.6% had at least one decayed deciduous element. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 10.2%, while 89.8% had no decayed permanent teeth. In the sample, 9.4% of the children showed advanced carious lesions, that needed tooth extraction and 6.6% needed a space maintainer for post-extractive interceptive treatment. In the sample, 26.7% of the examined patients had increased overjet, while 3.7% had decreased overjet and 25.4% of the sample had an increased overbite, 11, 2% had reduced over-bite values. A percentage over 10% of the sample had an anterior openbite in centric occlusion. The prevalence of posterior crossbite among entire samples was 19.8%. Conclusions Although the incidence of caries disease was high in the selected samples, the study did not show a statistically significant association between caries and clinical orthodontic abnormalities, except for the association between the midline deviation and the severe carious diseases, necessitating extraction. PMID:22238717

  9. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

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    Lu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed-filled teeth (DFT indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197. T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40, and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195, smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288, and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754 with dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  10. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries Microorganismos probióticos en la prevención de caries dentales

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    Yensi Díaz Martell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12, BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasseri Lactobacillus, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oligofermentans. In vitro studies on the use of probiotics for the prevention of dental caries have shown interesting results, but in vivo they are not very encouraging. It is necessary to deepen in the therapeutic effects of probiotics strains already discovered in order to obtain from them an effective preventive agent against dental caries and so ensuring a better quality of life, especially in children.Los probióticos tienen el potencial de brindar beneficios muy importantes para la salud humana, por lo que se decidió investigar las especies probióticas que pudiesen tener acción preventiva contra la caries dentales fundamentalmente en los niños, para determinar la existencia de un medicamento contra ellas, a partir de microorganismos probióticos presentes en la cavidad bucal. Los probióticos bucales que han demostrado acciones alentadoras en la prevención de las caries dentales son: el Estreptococos salivarius (cepa K12, Lactobacilos salivarius BGH01, Lactobacilos gasseri BGH089, Estreptococos sanguinis y Estreptococos oligofermentans. Los estudios in vitro sobre el uso de probióticos para la prevención de las caries dentales poseen resultados interesantes, pero, in vivo, estos no son muy alentadores. Se debe profundizar en los efectos terapéuticos de las cepas probióticas ya descubiertas para que se puedan obtener de estas un agente preventivo efectivo contra las caries, para poder

  11. MOTHERS' DENTAL HEAL TH BEHAVIORS AND MOTHER-CHILD'S DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCES: STUDY OF A SUBURB AREA IN INDONESIA

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    Diah Ayu Maharani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of conducting regular epidemiological surveys to monitor dental health in lower socio-economic citizens especially of preschool children, only few papers were published respectively. The aims of this study were to describe preschool children's and their mother's dental caries experiences and to describe mothers' knowledge and behaviors' towards dental health in a suburb area near the capital city of Indonesia. The samples were 152 mother-childpairs with children age less than 5 years old. Intra oral examination by decay-missing-filling-teeth index was performed. Moreover, interviews were conducted to gain information regarding mothers’ oral health behavior and knowledge. 70% children had caries with mean dmf-t= 3.7, consisting 100% of component decay. 90% mothers had caries with DMF-T=7.8, consisting 99% of component decay. More than 50% of mothers had low knowledge and behaviors towards dental health, which comprises of: (1 never checked their children’s dental health, (2 starting to clean their child's teeth after child's age is more than 1 years old, (3 don’t know that caries is an infectious disease, (4 frequently using same feeding and drinking equipments together with their children, (5 considering deciduous teeth are not importantbecause it will be replaced with permanent teeth anyway. It could beconcluded that the prevalence of dental caries in studied sample were high, these were relevant to the findings that the mother's knowledge and behaviors' towards dental health were low. The results of this study demonstrated that mothers might have a high contribution in their child’s caries risk. Prevention should be undertaken at an early age and actively including caregivers is essential in planningand conducting any dental health interventions.

  12. Dental caries induction in experimental animals by clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ooshima, T; Torii, M; Imanishi, H; Masuda, N; Sobue, S; Kotani, S

    1978-01-01

    Oral implantation and the cariogenic activity of clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans which had been isolated from Japanese children and labeled with streptomycin-resistance were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. All the seven strains tested were easily implanted and persisted during the experimental period. Extensive carious lesions were produced in rats inoculated with clinical strains of S. mutans belonging to serotypes c, d, e, and f, and maintained on caries-inducing diet no. 2000. Noninfected rats did not develop dental caries when fed diet no. 2000. Type d S. mutans preferentially induced smooth surface caries in the rats. Strains of other serotypes primarily developed caries of pit and fissure origin. Caries also developed in rats inoculated with reference S. mutans strains BHTR and FAIR (type b) that had been maintained in the laboratories for many years. However, the cariogenicity of the laboratory strains was found to have decreased markedly. All three S. sanguis strains could be implanted, but only one strain induced definite fissure caries. Two S. salivarius strains could not be implanted well in the rats and therefore they were not cariogenic. Four different species of lactobacilli also failed to induce dental caries in rats subjected to similar caries test regimen on diet no. 200. S. mutans strain MT6R (type c) also induce caries in golden hamsters and ICR mice, but of variable degrees.

  13. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.

  14. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Marta; Lencova, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area. PMID:26347009

  15. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Marta Novotna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.

  16. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Zeng, J; Thomson, W M; Peres, M A; Demarco, F F

    2014-05-01

    Despite improvement, dental caries is still the main public oral health problem worldwide and the major cause of pain, tooth loss and chewing difficulties in children and adolescents; and it impacts negatively on oral health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a multistage representative sample of 8-12-year-old Brazilian school children was carried out in order to investigate the association between enamel defects and dental caries. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics at home. Firth's bias reduced logistic regression models were undertaken to assess the association between the main exposure (enamel defects) and caries experience. The prevalence of any enamel defect was 64.0%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 35.0%, 29.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.4%, with mean DMFT of 0.6 (SD, 1.2). Dental caries experience was more common among children who had enamel hypoplasia in their posterior teeth (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.51) than among those with none. In anterior teeth, there was no association. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be an important risk factor for dental caries.

  17. [Influence of tooth crowding on the prevalence of dental caries. A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of the mineralized tissues of teeth. It usually has a chronic course and is caused by external factors which can be modified. Current opinions about the contribution of malocclusions to the etiology of dental caries are conflicting. Some researchers believe that malocclusions like crowded teeth cause improper contacts between neighboring teeth and make effective oral hygiene more difficult. The difficulty in cleaning crowded teeth is believed to increase plaque accumulation and consequently predisposes the tooth to the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Others claim that malocclusion has a minimal influence on the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Ideal oral hygiene is of basic importance for plaque elimination which is the harmful factor in caries and in this way is decisive for the health of mineral and soft tissues to a much greater extent than lack of malocclusion. However, if a person with malocclusion is more susceptible to dental caries, oral hygiene cannot be the decisive factor.

  18. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries amongst pediatricians in Bangalore: A cross-sectional study

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    Murthy G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries comprise the single most chronic disease affecting children today. Evidence increasingly suggests that for successful prevention of dental caries, preventive interactions must begin within the first year of life. Pediatricians are responsible for the primary care of the child and are well positioned to begin this process if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits and refer appropriately. Insufficient information about their role in prevention of dental caries led us to conduct a survey among pediatricians in Bangalore urban to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries.

  20. A Comparative Study on Dental Caries Prevalence in Diabetic Children in Isfahan in the Summer of 2000

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    P Samimi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relationship between dental caries and high blood sugar. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among diabetic children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Diabetic children from pediatric ward of hospitals were compared to a control healthy group of children. Results: The mean DMFT was significantly higher in diabetic children compared to the control group. Conclusion: The result of this study confirms previous researches on prevalence of dental caries in children. Keywords: Dental Caries, Diabetes Mellitus, Pediatrics

  1. Relationship between dental caries and metabolic syndrome among 13 998 middle-aged urban Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Wang, Dongliang; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2017-04-01

    The association between dental caries and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dental caries and MetS and its components in a middle-aged Chinese population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of 13 998 participants aged 45-65 years undergoing a health check during 2013-14. An index variable of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for sex, age, education level, dietary habits, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and periodontitis. Of the 13 998 participants, 6164 had dental caries and 7834 did not; 3571 had MetS, whereas 10 427 did not. Participants with severe caries showed a higher prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia than those with mild or no caries (all P dental caries and those with two or more DMFT were 1.12 (95 % CI 1.14-1.74) and 1.09 (95 % CI, 0.89-1.21), respectively (P trend  caries were associated with MetS among subjects with hyperglycemia (OR 1.14 [95%CI, 0.98-1.34]; P caries and abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure (adjusted ORs [95 % CIs] 0.98 [0.82-1.16], 1.01 [0.85-1.19], 0.84 [0.70-1.00], and 0.96 [0.86-1.13], respectively; all P > 0.05). Dental caries were associated with MetS among middle-aged Chinese in the present study. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

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    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  3. Trends in dental caries among Brazilian schoolchildren: 40 years of monitoring (1971-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Helena Mendes; Souza, Marina Leite; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in the distribution of dental caries in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2011, and to compare the results with data from previous studies carried out since 1971. All 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school were eligible. Dental caries were assessed according to the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces and teeth (DMFS/DMFT) indexes, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and the Gini coefficient (to assess inequalities in the distribution of dental caries) were estimated. The response rate was 82.3% (n = 130). The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-100.0) in 1971 to 36.9% (95% CI 28.5-45.3) in 2011. The mean DMFT ranged from 9.2 in 1971 to 0.7 in 2011. The mean DMFS index was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) in 2011. The Gini coefficient was 0.624 in 2002 but increased to 0.725 in 2011; the Lorenz curve showed that 70-75% of dental caries attacks was restricted to 20% of the population in 2011. A reduction of 41.2% in the mean SiC index was observed between 2002 (3.4, 95% CI 3.0-3.8) and 2011 (1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.1). An effective decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in schoolchildren was observed throughout 40 years of monitoring. However, a small proportion of the population has experienced most of the caries burden in the recent years studied.

  4. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  6. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  7. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  8. Distribution of Dental Caries among Primary School Children in Al-Mukalla Area, Yemen

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    AM. Al-Haddad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Dental caries are considered as one of the most common health problems and have been shown to be more prevalent in children.Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the distribution of dental caries among 400 twelve-year-old schoolchildren, in the Al-Mukalla area in Yemen.Materials and Methods: Multistage stratified sampling was used to obtain a sample size of 400 children, consisting of 200 males and 200 females with mixed dentitions.All subjects were selected from two private schools and five public schools. Clinical examinations were performed under standardized conditions by a trained examiner.Results: Dental caries was found in 198 (49.5% of the 400 schoolchildren including 51.5% males and 48.5% females. The prevalence of caries was higher (p<0.05 in permanent teeth (76.6%, in urban areas and in the mandible (54%; compared to deciduous teeth, rural regions and the maxilla, respectively. Private schools (57%revealed a larger number of affected cases as compared to public schools. Dental caries were more prevalent in children living in areas that received their water supply from Al-Ghail, in comparison to those residing in regions supplied from Al-Taweela water source (p<0.05. Caries were the primary cause of missing teeth in 8% of the subjects.Conclusion: Considering that dental caries can be associated with children’s school grade, dental services should be directed toward preschool children with a preventive policy through dental health education.

  9. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

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    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  10. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

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    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  11. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilisation in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T; Billings, R J

    2011-06-01

    To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilisation in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative effectiveness study. Cross-sectional study. Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomised into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0-34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. The data showed that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilisation by inner-city preschool children.

  12. ON THE UTILITY OF SOME SALIVARY TESTS FOR THE DETECTION AND MONITORIZATION OF DENTAL CARIES RISK

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    Daniela Luminița ICHIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries represents a destructive condition of the hard dental tissue.The occurrence and advance of carious lesions is a complex phenomenon, involving the interaction of the microbial factor (the action of bacteria upon the tooth with the factors related to the host, alimentary regime, time factor. For an as correct as possible appreciation of the cariogenic risk of an individual, several tests, based on different (microbiological, clinical, epidemiological principles, are usually recommended [1]. Also, especially important is to check up the existence of a possible statistical association between the prevalence of dental caries and the results of the salivary tests performed on the experimental group [2].

  13. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  14. Dental caries experience in 12-year-old schoolchildren in southeastern Brazil

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    Silvia Cypriano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997 was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0, with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62. There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries on Pit and Fissure and Smooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J.R.; Wang, X.; DeSensi, R.S.; Wendell, S.; Weyant, R.J.; Cuenco, K.T.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Carious lesions are distributed nonuniformly across tooth surfaces of the complete dentition, suggesting that the effects of risk factors may be surface-specific. Whether genes differentially affect caries risk across tooth surfaces is unknown. We investigated the role of genetics on two classes of tooth surfaces, pit and fissure surfaces (PFS) and smooth surfaces (SMS), in more than 2,600 subjects from 740 families. Participants were examined for surface-level evidence of dental caries, and caries scores for permanent and/or primary teeth were generated separately for PFS and SMS. Heritability estimates (h2, i.e. the proportion of trait variation due to genes) of PFS and SMS caries scores were obtained using likelihood methods. The genetic correlations between PFS and SMS caries scores were calculated to assess the degree to which traits covary due to common genetic effects. Overall, the heritability of caries scores was similar for PFS (h2 = 19–53%; p caries scores for both PFS and SMS in the primary dentition was greater than in the permanent dentition and total dentition. With one exception, the genetic correlation between PFS and SMS caries scores was not significantly different from 100%, indicating that (mostly) common genes are involved in the risk of caries for both surface types. Genetic correlation for the primary dentition dfs (decay + filled surfaces) was significantly less than 100% (p caries risk in PFS versus SMS in the primary dentition. PMID:22286298

  16. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

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    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de caries de la población militar española de la base "General Almirante" Marines, Valencia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal para el que se seleccionó una muestra de 387 militares para un IC del 95%. En el gabinete dental de la base se realizó la exploración oral siguiendo los criterios de la OMS (1997, 4ª edición. Un solo profesional experimentado con un explorador patrón llevó a cabo la encuesta entre diciembre del 2003 y julio del 2004. Resultados: El índice de dientes con caries, ausentes y obturados (CAO-D fue de 4,05. El 23% de la muestra estaba libre de caries. Presentaban caries sin tratar el 40% de los explorados, siendo significativamente superior el porcentaje en la tropa y en los que referían no cepillarse de forma regular. El índice de restauración (% O/ CAO-D fue del 60%. La población de tropa presentó con significación estadística mas caries y menos dientes con caries tratada (A,O que el grupo de oficiales y suboficiales. Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población encuestada precisa tratamiento por caries. Estrategias de asistencia basadas en políticas preventivas de diagnostico precoz y de asistencia personalizada en función del riesgo individual de caries, adaptadas al medio militar, pudieran ser la clave para poder desplegar en un futuro tropas que no ocasionen emergencias en futuras operaciones.Object: The target of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in a population of Spanish military personnel at the "General Almirante " base at Marines (Valencia. Material and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of a sample of 387 military personnel, (95% CI. The oral examinations were conducted at the dental clinic at the base, in accordance with the WHO (1997, 4th ed. criteria, by a single dentist calibrated against an experienced examiner. The survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Results: The decayed, missed and

  17. Oral Health Education Program on Dental Caries Incidence for School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, R A; Carvalho, T S; Bonini, G C; Imparato, Jcp; Mendes, F M

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year retrospective controlled clinical trial assessed the effect of a school-based oral health education program on caries incidence in children. A total of 240 students, aged 5 to 7 years, from two public schools in Monte Sião, Brazil, were included in this study. A school-based oral health education program was developed in one of the schools (experimental group), including 120 students, while the 120 students from the other school did not participate in the program (control group). All children were initially examined for dental caries (dmf-t), and after 3 years, 98 children from the experimental group and 96 from the control group were again examined and answered a questionnaire on oral health issues. The between-groups difference in caries incidence on permanent teeth was calculated using Poisson regression analyses. Logistic regression was used to observe the association between caries incidence and other variables. More students from the experimental group stated knowing what was dental caries and declared that they use dental floss daily, but no significant differences in caries incidence was observed between the experimental and control groups. The school-based oral health education program is not adequately efficient to decrease caries incidence after three years, but some issues about oral health knowledge could be slightly improved.

  18. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

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    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  19. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and "life-history" etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R; Largaespada, Leah L

    2006-01-01

    When dental caries rates are reported by sex, females are typically found to exhibit higher prevalence rates than males. This finding is generally true for diverse cultures with different subsistence systems and for a wide range of chronological periods. Exceptions exist, but are not common. In this paper, we present new data for sex differences in dental caries rates among the Guanches (Tenerife, Canary Islands), summarize results of meta-analyses of dental caries prevalence, and emphasize new research that stresses the critical role of female hormones and life-history events in the etiology of dental caries. Among the Guanches, corrected tooth-count caries rates for females (8.8%, 158/1,790) are approximately twice the frequency of caries among males (4.5%, 68/1,498). Higher caries prevalence among females is often explained by one of three factors: 1) earlier eruption of teeth in girls, hence longer exposure of girls' teeth to the cariogenic oral environment, 2) easier access to food supplies by women and frequent snacking during food preparation, and 3) pregnancy. Anthropologists tend to favor explanations involving behavior, including sexual division of labor and women's domestic role in food production. By contrast, the causal pathways through which pregnancy contributes to poorer oral health and higher caries rates are deemphasized or discounted. This paper presents recent research on physiological changes associated with fluctuating hormone levels during individual life histories, and the impact these changes have on the oral health of women. The biochemical composition of saliva and overall saliva flow rate are modified in several important ways by hormonal fluctuations during events such as puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy, making the oral environment significantly more cariogenic for women than for men. These results suggest that hormonal fluctuations can have a dramatic effect on the oral health of women, and constitute an important causal factor in

  20. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

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    Tomasz Żyła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z-Q; Hu, X-P; Zhou, J-Y; Xie, X-D; Zhang, J-M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI gene (rs2274328, rs17032907, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186) and the possible association between these polymorphisms and dental caries susceptibility in a Northwestern Chinese population. We collected samples from 164 high caries experience and 191 very low caries experience and conducted a case-control study according to the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and genotyped the 7 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs17032907 TT genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of dental caries compared with carriers of the C/C genotype in the co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.144 (1.096-4.195). We also found that the haplotype (ACA) (rs2274328, rs17032907 and rs11576766) was associated with a low number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.635 (0.440-0.918). However, we found no association between dental caries susceptibility and the rs2274328, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186 polymorphisms and other haplotypes. The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.

  2. Dental Caries Level and Sugar Consumption in 12-Year-Old Children from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Turska, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The frequent and high consumption of sugar products, particularly sucrose, is one of the causative factors of dental caries. Meta-analyses assessing the relationship between sugar intake and dental caries revealed that a restricted sugar intake to less than 10% of the daily energy intake results in substantial health benefits. Sugar consumption in Poland is 2-fold higher than recommended by the WHO. As change in dietary habits is slow, knowledge of whether a gradual reduction of sugar consumption influences beneficially the dental condition is important. Assessment of the relationship between caries experience and sugar consumption in 12-year-old children. The data obtained from the Statistical Agricultural Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office in Poland regarding the average yearly sugar intake by a person in the years 1995-2013, and caries prevalence (frequency and DMFT) resulting from the national epidemiological studies of the 12-year-old children conducted by the Ministry of Health in those years were analyzed. The data was analyzed by linear regression. Regression function parameters and coefficients of determination were assessed for a possible link between sugar consumption and dental caries frequency and severity was expressed as DMFT value. The mean yearly sugar intake by a statistical Pole ranged from 43.6 kg (2002) to 35.3 kg (2006). Despite a slight trend to lower the sugar consumption, its mean intake in 1995 and 2013 was the same (41.9 kg). Caries frequency and DMFT decreased in 2012 compared to 1995 from 90.5% to 79.6% and from 4.3 to 3.53 kg in 2012, respectively. The increased sugar intake by 1 kg/year caused the increase of caries frequency by 1% and DMFT value by 0.2. Even a relatively low decrease in sugar consumption can exert some beneficial influence on the dental condition in adolescents, particularly upon the severity of caries.

  3. Xylitol-containing products for preventing dental caries in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Moore, Deborah; Ahmed, Farooq; Sharif, Mohammad O; Worthington, Helen V

    2015-03-26

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent chronic disease which affects the majority of people. It has been postulated that the consumption of xylitol could help to prevent caries. The evidence on the effects of xylitol products is not clear and therefore it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine its effectiveness and safety. To assess the effects of different xylitol-containing products for the prevention of dental caries in children and adults. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 14 August 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 14 August 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 14 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 14 August 2014), Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 14 August 2014), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 14 August 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We attempted to contact study authors for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, we used means and standard deviations to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the continuous data to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, we reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. As there were less than four studies included in the meta-analysis, we used a fixed-effect model. We planned

  4. Risk factors for dental caries in childhood: a five-year survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jin-Bom; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors of dental caries at the level of an individual person with survival analysis of the prospective data for 5 years. A total of 249 first-grade students participated in a follow-up study for 5 years. All participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors. They also received an oral examination and were tested for Dentocult SM and LB. Over 5 years, the participants received yearly oral follow-up examinations to determine the incidence of dental caries. The incidence of one or more dental caries (DC1) and four or more dental caries (DC4) were defined as one or more and four or more decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth increments, respectively. Socio-demographic variables, oral health behaviors, and status and caries activity tests were assessed as risk factors for DC1 and DC4. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of risk factors for DC1 and DC4 were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. During the 5-year follow-up period, DC1 and DC4 occurred in 87 and 25 participants, respectively. In multivariate hazard models, five or more decayed, missing, and filled primary molar teeth [HR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.13], and Dentocult LB of two or three (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.37-3.56) were independent risk factors of DC1. For DC4, only Dentocult LB of two or three was an independent risk factor (HR 2.95, 95% CI 1.11-7.79). Our results suggest that dental caries incidence at an individual level can be associated with the experience of dental caries in primary teeth and Dentocult LB based on the survival models for the 5-year prospective data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal, Priscila Ariede Petinuci; OLYMPIO, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997) criteria for de...

  6. Association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Adriana R; Aznar, Fábio D C; Tinós, Adriana M F G; Yamashita, Joselene M; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Sales-Peres, Silvia H C

    2014-12-01

    The impact of oral conditions on quality of life in overweight/obesity needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. This study was conducted at public schools in Brazil, on a sample of 202 adolescents, 12 years of age. For anthropometric evaluation, the body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used. In oral examinations, the Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth (DMFT), significant caries (SiC) and dental caries activity (DCA) indices were used (κ > 0.94). The Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index was applied. The sample was divided into two groups: O (overweight/obese; n = 101) and N (normal weight; n = 101). For data analysis, chi-square, odds ratio (OR), Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation tests were used (P Obesity, dental caries and quality of life were not correlated. Adolescents with normal weight presented a low perception of the impact of oral conditions on quality of life; however, it seemed to affect psychological aspects in their daily performances. Providing adolescents with nutritional assistance may prevent obesity and dental caries, and improve their quality of life. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. [Effectiveness of 3 different methods in prevention of dental caries in permanent teeth among children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-hong; Shi, Le; Yuan, Shuang; Lv, Jin; Lu, Hai-xia

    2014-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness of fluoride vanish, fluoride foam, pit and fissure sealant with fluoride in prevention of dental caries, and investigate appropriate approach to prevent dental caries at schools. A randomized controlled clinical trial with 4 parallel groups was conducted. Totally 1016 children from 4 schools and 33 classes with a mean age of 7 to 8 years were included. They were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) fluoride vanish, semi-annual application; (2) fluoride foam, semi-annual application; (3) resin sealant, single placement; and (4) placebo control with oral hygiene instruction. Follow-up examinations were conducted after 2 years to monitor dental caries increment of first molars among these children. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0 software package. Two years later, 977 children (96.2%) were examined. The results of multiple factor ANCOVA showed that fluoride vanish and resin sealant had significantly lower mean dental caries increment on tooth surface compared with control group (P0.05). The placement of resin sealant with fluoride and annual application of fluoride protector are effective in prevention of dental caries in permanent teeth of children.

  8. Dental caries characteristics in the first permanent molar in school age children.

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    Yoel González Beriau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective: To describe the characteristics of dental caries in the first permanent molars in children between 6 and 13 years-old, and to assess oral hygiene and knowledge about the subject in all the patients treated in the stomatology consultation Barrio adentro “El Guapo”, from November 2005 to March 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transversal study showed that most of the patients had dental caries. It was proved that many of them had, at least, on of the first molars affected by dental caries. The quotient first molar affected/ patient was higher than one. Results: There was a decrease in the percentage of healthy permanent first molars. Poor oral hygiene prevailed, with a medium knowledge level on the subject. Most of the parents didn´t know about the first molar dental cavity. Conclusions: It was needed to perform educative tasks aimed at this age group to avoid further damage to this important tooth, central for the development of the stomatognathic system.

  9. Prevalence of enamel defects and association with dental caries in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massignan, C; Ximenes, M; da Silva Pereira, C; Dias, L; Bolan, M; Cardoso, M

    2016-12-01

    This was to evaluate the prevalence of the developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in primary teeth and its association with dental caries. A cross-sectional study with a randomised representative sample was carried out with 1101 children aged 2-5 years enrolled in public preschools (50% prevalence of DDE in primary teeth, a standard error of 3%, and a confidence level of 95%). Three calibrated dentists (K > 0.62) performed clinical examination. Data collected were: sex, age, DDE (Modified DDE Index) and dental caries (WHO). Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Among children, 565 (51.3%) were boys; mean age was 3.7 (±0.9 years). The prevalence of enamel defect was 39.1%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 25.3, 19.1 and 6.1%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 31.0%, with mean def-t 1.14 (±2.44). Primary teeth with enamel hypoplasia had three times the odds of having dental caries than those with absence of enamel defects (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.91, 5.01). The presence of enamel defects was moderate and associated with dental caries.

  10. High burden of dental caries in geriatric population of India: A systematic review

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    Rahul Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Poor oral health and untreated oral diseases can have a significant impact on the quality of life of the elderly. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of dental caries among the elderly persons in India in the past two decades. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. Six community-based articles were included in this review. The selected studies were screened by using STROBE checklist for observational studies. All studies were found to contain the required essentials of observational studies. Weighted prevalence of dental caries experience was calculated. Trend was generated using Microsoft Excel program. The prevalence of dental caries experience ranged from 31.5 to 100%. Weighted prevalence of dental caries experience was 83.6% and 82.3% for 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, respectively. There is a high burden of dental caries in the elderly population. Treatment and restorative services need to be provided to alleviate this problem.

  11. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  12. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  13. Diagnostic Performance of the Intraoral Radiographs on the Interproximal Dental Caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kang, Byung Cheol [Faculty of Dental Science, Graduate School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluated the diagnostic performance of the senior dental students for the proximal dental caries in intraoral radiographs and to compare it with the dental hospital residents, the reference group. It was also investigated the diagnostic performance according to the carious lesion depth. Thirty-five intraoral periapical and bitewing radiographs with 213 proximal surface included in this study were selected from the dental patients at Chonnam National University Hospital. The observers were 181 senior dental students from 5 dental schools and 40 dentists who were second year resident from 5 dental hospitals. They were asked to evaluate the presence ro the absence of the proximal dental caries. The results were as follows : 1. The mean of the hitting rate for the overall observers was 184.51 surfaces and the diagnostic accuracy was 86.62%. 2. The diagnostic performance of the sound proximal tooth surfaces was very high, i.e., 91.5% true negative rate and 8.5% false positive rate. 3. The diagnostic performance of the dentist group was higher than the student group (P<0.05). 4. The proximal dental caries perceptibility increased as the lesion depth increased significantly (P<0.001) except no difference between the carious lesion depth III and IV (P>0.001).

  14. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, Petr; Poláček, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to map the dental health status in non-adult individuals and to verify whether and how the existence of caries in the non-adult age group is associated with the different socio-economic status of early medieval populations. We studied the dental remains from the acropolis of the Mikulčice settlement agglomeration, where members of the higher social classes were buried, and from the Mikulčice hinterland. Overall, we evaluated 2544 teeth/3714 alveoli of deciduous dentition and 1938 teeth/2128 alveoli of permanent dentition. We determined the number of individuals with dental caries (i.e., caries frequency index, F-CE) and the proportion of teeth/alveoli with caries/ante-mortem tooth loss (i.e., caries intensity index, I-CE). We found no statistical significant difference in the F-CE values between the Mikulčice hinterland and the acropolis. In addition, we found no statistically significant difference in the proportion of teeth with carious lesions (I-CE) either in the case of deciduous dentition or in the case of permanent dentition between the hinterland and the acropolis. In the case of permanent dentition, the statistically significant highest proportion of carious lesions (I-CE) was found in Mikulčice I (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed an increase in the rate of caries with age. The level of caries at all of the studied medieval locations was very low. We presume that lifestyle and the associated dietary habits and hygienic practices of the individuals or population groups had a greater influence on dental caries than did the socio-economic status of these individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkarimi Heba A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test or regular (control dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children and control (44 groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1 weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006 (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51] and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001 (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51] compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01 (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82] compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44 of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866

  16. Dental demineralization and caries in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Jackson, Leanne; Epstein, Joel B; Migliorati, Cesar A; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) therapy is a standard treatment for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It is well documented that CCR causes profound acute and late toxicities. Xerostomia (the symptom of dry mouth) and hyposalivation (decreased salivary flow) are among the most common treatment side effects in this cohort of patients during and following treatment. They are the result of radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands. Patients with chronic hyposalivation are at risk for demineralization and dental cavitation (dental caries), often presenting as a severe form of rapidly developing decay that results in loss of dentition. Usual post-radiation oral care which includes the use of fluoride, may decrease, but does not eliminate dental caries associated with radiation-induced hyposalivation. The authors conducted a narrative literature review regarding dental caries in HNC population based on MEDLINE, PubMed, CLNAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1985 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, dental caries, dental decay, risk factor, physical symptom, physical sequellea, body image, quality of life, measurement, assessment, cost, prevention, and treatment. The authors also reviewed information from National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), American Dental Association (ADA), and other related healthcare professional association web sites. This literature review focuses on critical issues related to dental caries in patients with HNC: potential mechanisms and contributing factors, clinical assessment, physical sequellea, negative impact on body image and quality of life, potential preventative strategies, and recommendations for practice and research in this area.

  17. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  19. Use of laser fluorescence in dental caries diagnosis: a fluorescence x biomolecular vibrational spectroscopic comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos de; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Zanin, Fátima Antonia Aparecida; Brugnera Júnior, Aldo; Silveira Júnior, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the existence of correlation between Raman spectroscopy readings of phosphate apatite (~960 cm-1), fluoridated apatite (~575 cm-1) and organic matrix (~1450 cm-1) levels and Diagnodent® readings at different stages of dental caries in extracted human teeth. The mean peak value of fluorescence in the carious area was recorded and teeth were divided in enamel caries, dentin caries and sound dental structure. After fluorescence readings, Raman spectroscopy was carried out on the same sites. The results showed significant difference (ANOVA, pcaries. There was significant negative correlation (pcaries. It may be concluded that the higher the fluorescence detected by Diagnodent the lower the peaks of phosphate apatite and fluoridated apatite. As the early diagnosis of caries is directly related to the identification of changes in the inorganic tooth components, Raman spectroscopy was more sensitive to variations of these components than Diagnodent.

  20. Sugary drink consumption and dental caries in New South Wales teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A; Johnson, G

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of water, milk and various sugary drinks and their relationship with the caries experience of a random sample of teenagers aged 14 to 15 years living in New South Wales, Australia was investigated. Data were obtained from both clinical and questionnaire components of the NSW Teen Dental Survey, 2010. The analyses allowed for various demographic and behavioural risk factors using caries experience (DMFT >0) and mean DMFT as the key outcome variables. Males were more likely than females to consume large volumes of sugary drinks. Consuming two or more glasses of sugary drinks per day led to significantly increased caries experience amongst this sample of 14 and 15 year olds. Factors found to be associated with elevated sugary drink consumption included family income, gender, and mother's education level. There is a strong correlation between increased caries experience of NSW teenagers and high levels of consumption of sugary drinks. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Dental caries prevalence and risk factors among 12-year old schoolchildren from Baghdad, Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Nibras A M; Astrøm, Anne N; Skaug, Nils

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren from Baghdad after the end of the United Nations' economic sanctions and to investigate related dental caries risk factors including gender, socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene and sugar intake. DESIGN: A cross...... mothers with low education, living in a low socio-economic area and brushing at least once-a-day. Positive oral hygiene practices were higher for girls. Western sweet snacks were preferred and sweet tea was frequently consumed. The fluoride content in drinking water was too low for caries prevention....... CONCLUSION: It is important to maintain the low prevalence of caries among children by increasing awareness and promoting oral health care strategies....

  2. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  3. Differential cell-mediated immune response to S. mutans in children with low and high dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, H; Sharma, A; Banerjee, U; Sidhu, S S; Sundaram, K R

    1993-08-01

    Role of cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in dental caries was studied in 171 subjects, comprising of 86 children with low caries (LC), 31 with high caries (HC), and 54 age matched controls. [3H]thymidine mediated lymphoblast transformation test (LTT) using mutans streptococci antigen as stimulant was used to study the stimulation index (SI) of in vitro cultured lymphocytes from these children. The analysis revealed low stimulation index in high caries children whereas low caries children exhibited high stimulation index normally ranging between 2 to 6. The findings indicated that low caries children had strong CMI response as compared to high caries children. Although, the findings are based on limited number of samples, it certainly lays emphasis on protective or regulatory role of CMI in different phases of dental caries.

  4. History of dental caries and need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities, Chile, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guidotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la historia de caries y la necesidad de tratamiento odontológico de niños con discapacidad visual entre 6-12 años, pertenecientes a Escuelas Especiales de Chile, el año 2014. Material y método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal. Se examinaron niños con discapacidad visual de escuelas especiales en Chile, según los criterios de la OMS, para obtener el ceod, COPD y la necesidad de tratamiento. Se registraron las lesiones de esmalte clínicamente detectables en superficies cavitadas y no cavitadas. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: 94 niños fueron examinados, pertenecientes a 7 escuelas especiales. El ceod promedio fue 2,05 (SD ± 2,6 y el COPD fue de 0,96 (SD ± 1,3. A los 6 años el ceod/COPD fue de 3/0 respectivamente. A los 12 años el ceod fue 0,17 y COPD fue 1,42. La prevalencia de caries fue de 56,3%. El 95% necesita sellantes, el 50% necesita a lo menos una restauración de una cara, y el 29% una restauración de 2 o más superficies. En cuanto a las lesiones de esmalte, el 34% de los niños presentaban al menos una lesión no cavitada y un 48% de ellos tenían una lesión cavitada.Conclusión: La historia de caries es similar a lo descrito en la población general, sin embargo, existe una alta necesidad de tratamiento preventivo. Es necesario realizar más investigaciones que permitan esclarecer si poseen un mayor riesgo cariogénico debido a su alteración visual, para así establecer estrategias promocionales/preventivas efectivas. Abstract: Objective: To determine the history of dental caries and the need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities 6-12 years, belonging to Chile Special Schools, 2014.Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The target population was children with visual disabilities in special schools in Chile. A clinical examination was performed to obtain a deft, DMFT and

  5. Prevention, diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Study the news overtures to prevention, diagnosis and therapy of caries disease. Methods: We conducted one randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), one cross-sectional study and one systematic review with meta-analysis. The RCT evaluated the efficacy of the Carisolv and CeraBur. In the cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy of a new device to detect caries lesions: DIAGNOcam. The systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate efficacy of polyols in caries pr...

  6. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    OpenAIRE

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluo...

  7. The oral health in Precolombian Peru before - The dental caries in the Precolombian epoch befare -

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    There havent been made much investigación work this item our intention in this article is give an approach about the considerations and conclusions of them The pre Columbian Peruvian habitant was afected, gum descases, abrasion, etc. Dental caries affected the litoral habitante more than Andean habitant due to the different geographic regiens show diverse exogenic factors such as climate, diet, uses. As we go through in time and the pre colombian cultures got more development, also caries sus...

  8. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMADA, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (...

  9. Relación entre obesidad y caries dental en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farith Damián González Martínez

    Full Text Available El estado de salud bucal se ha relacionado con la presencia de algunas alteraciones sistémicas; en la población infantil se ha sugerido que la caries dental se asocia con la obesidad. El objetivo de esta revisión fue comparar los resultados de la evidencia sobre la relación entre obesidad y caries dental en niños, por lo cual se realizó una búsqueda computarizada y sistemática utilizando el término "dental caries" combinado con "obesity", "overweight" y "underweight" en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Pubmed y Ovid, arrojando 439 artículos, de estos se seleccionaron 15 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y superaron una evaluación de calidad metodológica. Los hallazgos fueron almacenados y organizados en una base de datos, se procesaron y analizaron estadísticamente teniendo en cuenta razones de disparidad y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson reportados. Se presentó un prevalencia general de caries dental de 49,6 %, para los obesos fue de 52,5 % y para los no obesos de 46,8 %. No se encontró asociación entre caries y obesidad en 9 de 15 estudios. La evidencia consultada sugiere que no existe relación entre obesidad y caries dental en niños, pues la prevalencia de caries no mostró diferencias estadísticamente significantes entre niños obesos y no obesos.

  10. Dental caries in the primary dentition of german children with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberg, Anja; Makuch, Almut; Hemprich, Alexander; Hirsch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Objective : The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in children with cleft lip, alveolus, and/or cleft palate living in central Germany between 1996 and 2010. Participants : A total of 295 children 1 to 6 years of age from three birth cohorts (BC) with clefts from central Germany were included in the study. They were compared with 548 1- to 6-year-old cleft-free children from the same region. Setting : Children with clefts underwent a dental examination in an outpatient dental clinic at the University of Leipzig. The first BC was examined between 1996 and 1998, the second between 2002 and 2004, and the third between 2008 and 2010. Controls were examined at day-care centers in Leipzig during the same periods. Main Outcome Measure : The standard dental caries index for the primary dentition (dmf/t3-4) was used for clinical assessment. Results : Over the entire study period, the mean prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth was significantly higher (1.32 dmf/t3-4) in children with clefts compared with cleft-free children. However, a decline in caries (approximately 1 dmf/t3-4) and an increase in the proportion of children with healthy primary dentition were observed in both groups. These results represent a caries decline of 61% in children with clefts. Conclusions : Caries rates for children 1 to 6 years of age with clefts from central Germany showed a considerable decline over the last years. The caries rates for clefts patients in the third BC (2008 to 2010) was similar to that of cleft-free children in the first BC (1996 to 1998).

  11. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Carvalho Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821, and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875. The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05. The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  12. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  13. Gender differences in practice patterns for diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: Findings from The Dental PBRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rouisse, Kathleen M.; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A number of articles have addressed gender differences in the productivity of dentists, but little is known about differences in practice patterns for caries management. This study compared the use of a comprehensive range of specific diagnostic methods, preventive agents, and restorative decision making for caries management between male and female dentists who were members of The Dental Practice-Based Research Network(DPBRN). Methods This study surveyed general dentists who were members of DPBRN and who practiced within the United States. The survey asked about dentist, practice, and patient characteristics, as well as prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries. Differences in years since dental school graduation, practice model, full/part-time status, and practice owner/employee were adjusted in the statistical models, before making conclusions about gender differences. Results Three hundred ninety-three male (84%) and seventy-three female (16%) dentists participated. Female dentists recommended at-home fluoride to a significantly larger proportion of their patients, whereas males had a preference for using in-office fluoride treatments with pediatric patients. Female dentists also choose to restore interproximal lesions at a significantly later stage of development, preferring to use preventive therapy more often at earlier stages of dental caries. There were few differences in diagnostic methods, time spent on or charges for restorative dentistry, and busyness of their practices. Conclusion DPBRN female dentists differ from their male counterparts in some aspects of the prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries, even with significant covariates taken into account. Practice patterns of female dentists suggest a greater caries preventive treatment philosophy. PMID:21454850

  14. Dental Caries and its Socio-Behavioral Predictors- An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    To assess dental caries status and oral health related behavior of 12 year old school children in relation to urbanization and gender; to analyze the effect of socio-demographic and behavioral variables on dental caries experience. Study sample comprised 831, 12 year old school children in, India. Caries status was assessed by Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index and a 16 item closed ended questionnaire was administered to children for assessing their oral health related knowledge, beliefs and behavior. Mean caries experience and prevalence was 1.94 and 64.9% respectively. Decay was the dominant component of DMFT. Greater proportion of female and urban children presented better oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices. Boys were more liable (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.10-1.96) for having caries than girls. Children living in rural areas and whose parents were not professionals or semiprofessionals were more likely to experience caries. Children whose mothers were unskilled or house wives were more than twice likely to present caries (OR=2.14, 95% CI-2.03-2.45) than those children whose mothers were skilled or semi-skilled. Children of illiterate fathers and mothers were 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.13-1.99) times more likely to have dental caries than those children whose parents had greater than 10 years of education. Children, those who cleaned their teeth less than once a day presented an odds ratio of 1.36 (CI-1.17-1.86) also higher odds of dental caries was observed in children consuming sweets or soft drinks more than once a day. The prevalence and severity of dental caries was low among urban children and girls than their rural and boy counterparts. In general, oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices were low, predominantly in rural and male children. Caries experience was significantly associated with gender, location of residence, brushing frequency, frequency of consumption of soft drinks and sweets, parents' occupation and education.

  15. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

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    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  16. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  17. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

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    M. Haeri Maybodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children.Materials and Methods: The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls. The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI (=bodyweight/body height2 kg/m2 corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages.To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients.Results: The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08 and permanent dentitions (p=0.06.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  18. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses.

  19. DENTAL CARIES LEADING TO PREMATURE LOSS OF BABY TEETH- IMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

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    Rachana Bahuguna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth. Dental caries can occur soon after eruption of the primary teeth, starting at 6 months of age. Primary teeth are present for a reason. One key reason is that they save space for the permanent tooth, which will erupt into its position when the deciduous / primary tooth is lost normally. If a primary tooth (baby or milk tooth, has to be removed early due to say, an abscess which is mostly a result of dental caries, a space maintainer may be recommended to save the space. If the space is not preserved, the other teeth may drift causing difficult to treat crowding and orthodontic problems. These "spacers" are placed temporarily, and are not permanent. They are removed when the new tooth (usually a bicuspid erupts or the abutment teeth get loose.

  20. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

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    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  1. A staged intervention dental health promotion programme to reduce early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G M; Duxbury, J T; Boothman, N J; Davies, R M; Blinkhorn, A S

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a community trial to assess the effects of a multi-stage dental health promotion programme in reducing Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Two health districts (Primary Care Groups) were matched for dental disease levels and socio-demographic factors. One was randomly allocated to be the test Primary Care Group (PCG), the other the control PCG. Children in the test PCG received a series of interventions to support positive dental health behaviour from the age of 8 to 32 months. Interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 21 months and clinical examinations were undertaken on a larger cohort of children aged 3-4 years in test and control PCGs. The interventions were gift bags containing a trainer cup, toothpaste containing 1,450 ppm F and toothbrush, and advice given to the children's parents on attendance at designated clinics and medical practices and further paste and brushes posted to the children's homes. Parents were interviewed on the telephone. Examinations took place at Children's Centres and nursery departments attached to primary schools. Severity and prevalence of ECC and general caries and proportion of parents reporting adopting dentally healthy behaviours. In the test PCG the prevalence of ECC in children who had received the interventions was 16.6% compared with 23.5% of children in the control area, a reduction of 29% (p=0.003). The mean dmft (1.17) and prevalence of general caries experience (28.7%) in the test children were also significantly lower than for children in the control PCG (1.72: 39.2%) (p=0.001). Analysis from a community perspective, which included data from all children examined in both areas, showed the prevalence of ECC in the test and control PCGs was 21.3% and 22.8% respectively and the mean dmft 1.47 and 1.72. The proportion with general caries experience remained statistically significant in favour of the test area 33.8% vs 39.9% (p=0.01). Parents in the test PCG were more likely to

  2. Nine years' trend of dental caries and severe early childhood caries among 3-6-year-old children in Babol, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi; Hataminia, Zohreh; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud; Khodadadi, Effat

    2017-06-01

    Malnutrition, pain, and insomnia are common adverse effects of early dental caries among 3-6-year-old children. To increase our understanding of the dental caries status which will help in the control and prevention of it, this study aimed to assess the trend of dental caries, Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and its related factors among 3-6-year-old children during a 9-year period in Babol, Northern Iran. This was a cross-sectional study among 2,080 children aged 3-6 years old in Babol, Northern Iran. The studied samples were examined from May 2007 to June 2015. Oral examinations were performed with visual-touch technique. S-ECC was measured as number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth surface (dmfs). Data were evaluated by SPSS software for Windows version 23 and were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA, chi-square test and independent-samples t-test. Level of significance was set at ≤ 0.05. The trend of dental caries and S-ECC rose among 3-6-year-old children over a 9-year period. Of the children, 26.3% were caries free. The mean dmft was increased significantly among boys (ptrend over the study period in Babol preschool children, therefore effective preventive strategies are required to decrease the prevalence of dental caries in children.

  3. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  4. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  5. Can the development of new dental caries in Danish schoolchildren be predicted from surveillance data in the School Dental Service?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Berit Anna; Foldspang, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Background:  Dental screening programmes for Danish children generally target all children, irrespective of their individual caries risk. The standard screening interval is approximately 12 months. A valid systematic screening tool based on routine information sources is however indispensable......, if more selective screening strategies should be developed to target the children at highest risk. Objective:  To estimate the precision with which Danish schoolchildren at high risk for developing dental caries within 1 year can be identified based on information from routine registers. Methods:  Based...... on data from the Danish National Board of Health's Recording System for the Danish Child Dental Services and from the Central Office of Civil Registration, 3705 schoolchildren aged 7–12 years were followed through 1994–1996. Dental health information as of 1994 and changes 1994–1995 were applied...

  6. Prevalence, Severity and Related Factors of Dental Caries in School Going Children of Vadodara City – An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Niyanta; Sujan, SG; Joshi, Keyur; Parekh, Harshik; Dave, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Among dental diseases, dental caries is an important dental public health problem in India which is irreversible in nature, and is predominantly a disease of childhood. Till date no study has been carried out in Vadodara. As baseline data of caries is required to improve oral health of children, the present study was undertaken to determine the pattern of dental caries in school children of Vadodara city in the mixed dentition period considering age, sex and dietary patterns. Methods: An epidemiological cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 1600 school children aged 6-12 years in Vadodara city. A closed ended questionnaire according to World Health Organisation 1997 methodology was used to collect the data. The children were examined for the presence of dental caries using decayed missing filled teeth/decayed missing filled surfaces and Decayed Missing Filled Teeth/Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces index. Related factors which predispose caries such as age, sex and dietary patterns were recorded. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 69.12%. The mean dmft/dmfs and DMFT/DMFS were 3.00/4.79 and 0.45/0.56 respectively. The prevalence was higher in deciduous teeth than in permanent teeth. Positive association was found between dental caries and age, sex, frequency of sugar consumption in between meals. Conclusion: The study concludes that the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Vadodara city is high. So, in developing country like India, it is imperative to introduce primary prevention and increased restorative care for the purpose of both reducing the caries prevalence and maintaining those caries free children. How to cite this article: Joshi N, Sujan SG, Joshi K, Parekh H, Dave B. Prevalence, Severity and Related Factors of Dental Caries in School Going Children of Vadodara City – An Epidemiological Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):40-48. PMID:24155618

  7. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

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    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  8. Diabetes, periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Manz, Michael C; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2004-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus, is a common chronic disease, and its prevalence in the United States, particularly type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Complications associated with diabetes impose a heavy burden on many people, especially among certain minority populations. Periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss also are common conditions in the United States, but their prevalence is generally decreasing. Nevertheless, among important subgroups of the population, particularly certain minority and economically disadvantaged groups, there is a disproportionately higher burden of periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss. This article reviews the post-1960 English-language literature on the relationship between diabetes and oral health, specifically focusing on periodontal disease, dental caries, and tooth loss. Substantial evidence exists to support the role of diabetes and poorer glycemic control as important risk factors for periodontal disease. Additionally, the evidence provides support for viewing the relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases as bidirectional. However, additional research is necessary to firmly establish that treating periodontal infections can contribute to glycemic control management and possibly to the reduction of type 2 diabetes complications. The literature does not describe a consistent relationship between type 2 diabetes and dental caries. It reports increased, decreased, and similar caries experiences between those with and without diabetes. This review suggests that currently there is insufficient evidence to determine whether a relationship between diabetes and risk for coronal or root caries exists. Most of the reviewed studies reported greater tooth loss in people with diabetes. However, the differences were slight and not significant in several of the reports. Furthermore, this review of the association between diabetes and tooth loss reveals that valid population-based evidence generalizable to the US

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Salivary Albumin Level and Dental Caries

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    H. Abdolsamadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recently, it has been suggested that there might be an association between oral diseases such as dental caries, as well as periodontitis and general health . Re-garding the fact that albumin is an indicator of general health, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of salivary albumin concentration with dental caries. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 108 patients aged 13-19 years old who had teeth caries were placed in 3 groups with mild, moderate and severe dental caries according to their DMFT value (n=36. Five ml of unstimulated saliva were taken from each participant via Navazesh method and their albumin concentrations were assessed by nephelometery method. Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: The mean concentration of salivary albumin in three experimental groups was 84.442±42.915, 97.964±66.717 and 89.850±33.003, respectively. ANOVA showed that the difference among the mean values was not significant (P=0.09 but the relationship between salivary albumins and sex was significant (P=0.009. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study there was no significant relationship between albumin and dental caries in 13-19 year old individuals. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:101-106

  10. Laser diagnostic and therapy of dental caries: the clinic point of view; Laser diagnostico e tratamento da carie dental: uma visao clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Priscila Faria

    2001-07-01

    Dental caries's diagnosis is a major dentistry problem from the clinic point of view. The laser beam on the region of 655 nm induces the fluorescence of the compounds present in the hard tissue, quantifying differences between sound and carious enamel and dentine. Diagnodent (Kavo, Germany), showed to be effective regarding dental caries's diagnosis in the present research sampling. The Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser 2, Germany) performed efficient cavity preparations in caries lesions of I and V class type, using up energies that ranged from 300 mJ to 350 mJ with 4 Hz repetition rate for the enamel; and from 250 mJ to 300 mJ with 4 Hz repetition rate for the dentine, and with 80 mJ with 6 Hz of repetition rate for laser conditioning. In the Er:YAG laser preparations no patient was anesthetized even when there were deeper cavities, and the maximum degree of pain ( which ranged from 0 to 10) was 4. In the control group with conventional high-speed drill two patients were anesthetized and the maximum degree of pain was 7. Restorations performed by conventional method of composite were equally satisfying both in caries groups of I and V class type and in the control group. The laser application in the operative dentistry office as a new method of diagnosis and dental preparations should be a good alternative to the use of the conventional dental drill. Nevertheless, dentistry practice has a lot to improve from technology progress, as well as new researches on laser dentistry are necessary in a long term. New types of lasers will come about and will increasingly improve the dental practice assistance and procedures quality. (author)

  11. Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities

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    Leroux Brian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Methods/design Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. Discussion In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting

  12. Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rosamund; Veronneau, Jacques; Leroux, Brian

    2010-05-13

    The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough

  13. Dental Caries and General Health in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...

  14. Dental fear-related cognitive vulnerability perceptions, dental prevention beliefs, dental visiting, and caries: a cross-sectional study in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Crego, Antonio; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the role that psychosocial elements may play concerning dental attendance and oral health in children. In particular, we explored the associations among dental fear-related cognitive vulnerability perceptions, dental prevention beliefs, the pattern of dental visits, and the number of decayed teeth. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren who completed a questionnaire. Oral health status was evaluated by pediatric dentists. Statistical analyses were mainly based on binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression, which allowed us to test possible associations among variables as well as interaction and mediation effects. Children with more vulnerability-related cognitions (Adj. OR = 0.74 P dental prevention beliefs (Adj. OR = 1.47 P dental prevention beliefs and cognitive vulnerability perceptions was associated with more decayed teeth (β = -0.13 P dental visit, associated with fearful and unfavorable dental prevention cognitions, accounted for 20% of the effects of these variables on dental caries. The combination of greater cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions and low awareness of the benefits of dental prevention increased the risk of dental caries. Children with this profile also tended to demonstrate a more inadequate pattern of dental attendance. Preventive oral health programs would benefit from considering the role of children's cognitions on their oral health habits and dental health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Concordance between preoperative and postoperative assessments of primary caries lesion depth: results from the Dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Bader, James D; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concordance between pre- and postoperative assessments of primary caries lesion depths by dentists from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN; www.DentalPBRN.org). A total of 229 DPBRN dentists collected data on 8,351 consecutive restorations inserted due...... was at an advanced stage: 88% concordance at the D3 depth, compared to 54% concordance at the E1 depth. DPBRN dentists can discriminate caries lesions at different depths, but the accuracy of their depth assessments was higher for dentin than for enamel lesions. In general, DPBRN dentists were more likely...

  16. Impacto de la caries dental y enfermedad periodontal sobre la sexualidad de la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    R. Fuentes Fernández; V.G.H. Oporto; Silva, M.A.; Soto, P.C.; Prieto, R.; Sanhueza, A; Cantín,M

    2015-01-01

    El desarrollo de la sexualidad es imprescindible para lograr un estado de salud integral en un individuo. El sistema estomatognático participa activamente en el desarrollo pleno y armónico de ésta, por lo que patologías como la caries dental y enfermedad periodontal, y la consecuente pérdida de dientes afectan el aspecto físico, psicológico y social de quien las padece. El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar si la caries dental, la enfermedad periodontal o pérdida de dientes afecta...

  17. Asociacion del nivel de riesgo familiar total y caries dental en escolares de la boquilla, cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Shyrley Díaz Cárdenas; Ketty Ramos Martínez; Katherine Margarita Arrieta Vergara

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Asociar caries dental con el nivel de riesgo familiar total en escolares de la Boquilla, Cartagena.Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal, en 202 escolares. Se evaluó clínicamente la prevalencia, experiencia y severidad de las lesiones de caries dental (índice COP, ICDAS II) en escolares y a través de un cuestionario aplicado a las familias de los niños se evaluaron los factores  socio demográficos y familiares (estructura, rol y autoridad de los padres, antecedentes médicos fami...

  18. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-06-01

    Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ(2)-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks.

  19. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-12-23

    Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the children. Structured questionnaire was used to interview children and/or parents to collect socio demographic variables. Clinical dental information obtained by experienced dentist using dental caries criteria set by World Health Organization. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were computed to investigate factors associated with dental caries. Of the 147 children, 82 (55.4%) were girls. Majority of the children (67.6%) cleaned their teeth using traditional method (small stick of wood made of a special type of plant). The proportion of children having dental caries was 32 (21.8%). Primary tooth decay accounted for 24 (75%) of dental caries. The proportion of missed teeth was 7 (4.8%). The overall proportion of toothache and dental plaque among school children were 40 (27.2%) and 99 (67.3%), respectively. Grade level of 1-4 (AOR = 3.9, CI = 1.49 -10.4), poor habit of tooth cleaning (AOR = 2.6, CI = 1.08 - 6.2), dental plaque (AOR = 5.3, CI = 1.6 - 17.7) and toothache (AOR = 6.3, CI = 2.4 - 15.4) were significantly associated with dental caries. Dental caries is a common public health problem in school children associated with poor oral hygiene, dietary and dental visit habits. Therefore, prevention measures such as health education on oral hygiene, dietary habits and importance of dental visit are obligatory for children.

  20. Dental caries among children in Georgia by age, gender, residence location and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Margvelashvili, V; Bilder, L; Kalandadze, M; Gordon, M; Margvelashvili, M; Zini, A

    2014-09-01

    To provide prevalence data for dental caries in Georgia. This World Health Organization pathfinder survey was conducted among 1,351 (6, 12 and 15 year-old) Georgian children, representing the main ethnic groups in urban and rural locations. Caries was analysed at univariate and multivariate levels, according to age, gender, urban/rural locality and ethnic group. Caries experience levels among 6-year-olds were dmft = 4.57, sd 3.42 (14.8% caries-free); DMFT = 2.04 (sd 2.02) among 12-year-olds (31.1% caries-free); and DMFT = 3.51 (sd 3.14) for the 15-year-olds (17.7% caries-free). Urban children at ages 6 and 12 years were more likely to be caries-free and have both lower levels of caries-experience and higher levels of filled or restored teeth. In multivariate regression analyses, most age groups showed a significant contribution from residence location. No differences were found by age and no consistent differences were detected by ethnic group. These data should provide the baseline for formulating and conducting public oral health efforts in Georgia, with emphases on rural residence locations.

  1. Epidemiology of dental caries among adults in a rural area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Ami M; Narendran, Sena

    2012-05-01

    Data on epidemiology of dental caries of adults in rural India appear to be sparse. The purpose of the study was to assess the oral health status and dental treatment needs of a rural Indian population. The study population consisted of 189 volunteer subjects with a mean age of 34.9 ± 14.2 years and 54% males. Decayed, missing due to caries and filled teeth (DMFT) and tooth surfaces (DMFS) assessed the dental caries experience. Structured interviews collected data on perception of health including oral health, oral hygiene practices and snacking habits. While only 38.1% perceived themselves to be in good or very good dental health, nearly 85% felt the same about general health. The most common sugar exposure was sweetened tea; 75% consumed the beverage at least once a day. More than 80% of the subjects had untreated caries with mean DMFT and DMFS scores of 5.1 ± 3.9 and 13.8 ± 17.8, which lacked any gender differences. Dental treatment needs ranged from 16.9% two-surface fillings to 60.8% one-surface fillings; 23.8% crowns or bridges and 37.6% extractions. Those who perceived themselves to be in better oral health had significantly lower DMFT (4.0 ± 3.2 vs 5.9 ± 4.1) and DMFS (8.4 ± 11.7 vs 17.1 ± 20.0) scores (p dental caries as well as dental treatment needs among the study participants.

  2. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: A path analytic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both caregiver and child. The results supported the hypothesis: Caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists themselves compared with those who did not complete high school (e0.56=1.76, 95%CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e1.76=5.78, 95%CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e-0.31=0.74, 95%CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e-0.42=0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e-0.32=0.72, 95%CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  3. [DYNAMICS OF DENTAL CARIES' INDEXES IN CHILDREN WITH DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskova, L F; Marchenko, K V; Berezhnaja, E E; Amosova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dentition anomalies in children and adolescents according to different authors, ranging from rising 50.8 to 81%. Anomalies of dental systems lead to aesthetic and functional disturbances affecting the child's psyche, and often lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. So, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamics of dental caries' indexes in children with dentoalveolar anomalies under the influence of preventive measures. We observed 50 children aged 12, who were divided into four groups. The most effective prophylactic complex in terms of reduction of growth of caries (59.4%) was the one that involved the use of "Tooth Mousse" (applying to the surface of the teeth 5 minutes after eating one time a day, in the morning after brushing teeth), "Osteovit" (one tablet three times a day), "Pektodent--dentifrice? (dental cleaning powder twice a day--in the morning and evening). This complex creates conditions for increasing the resistance of hard dental tissues, resulting in low levels of intensity of caries in children.

  4. What Maryland adults with young children know and do about preventing dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine Maryland adults' knowledge, understanding, opinions, and practices with respect to prevention and early detection of dental caries. We conducted a statewide random-digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone survey in 2010 among 770 adults who had a child aged 6 years or younger living in their home. A traditional random-digit sample and a targeted low-income sample were included. Analyses included frequencies, percentages, the χ(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression. Respondents' overall level of knowledge about preventing dental caries was low. Those with higher levels of education were more likely to have correct information regarding prevention and early detection of dental caries. Nearly all respondents (97.9%) reported that they were aware of fluoride, but only 57.8% knew its purpose. More than one third (35.1%) of the respondents were not aware of dental sealants. Those with lower levels of education were significantly less likely to drink tap water, as were their children, and significantly less likely to have had a dental appointment in the preceding past 12 months. Our results demonstrate the need to increase oral health literacy regarding caries prevention and early detection.

  5. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

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    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  6. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yingshui; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Guo, Daoxia; Ding, Lingling; Tang, Hui; Wei, Ningkai; Qiu, Shenwei; Li, Chaopin

    2014-07-01

    Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years in Wannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF) BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079) more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618) more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Dental caries characteristics in the first permanent molar in school age children. Comportamiento de la caries dental en el primer molar permanente en escolares.

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    Ana Gloria Vázquez de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective: To describe the characteristics of dental caries in the first permanent molars in children between 6 and 13 years-old, and to assess oral hygiene and knowledge about the subject in all the patients treated in the stomatology consultation Barrio adentro “El Guapo”, from November 2005 to March 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transversal study showed that most of the patients had dental caries. It was proved that many of them had, at least, on of the first molars affected by dental caries. The quotient first molar affected/ patient was higher than one. Results: There was a decrease in the percentage of healthy permanent first molars. Poor oral hygiene prevailed, with a medium knowledge level on the subject. Most of the parents didn´t know about the first molar dental cavity. Conclusions: It was needed to perform educative tasks aimed at this age group to avoid further damage to this important tooth, central for the development of the stomatognathic system.Fundamento: La caries dental continúa siendo el principal problema de salud de la población infantil. El diente

  8. Effect of dental care programme and fluoridation in the prevention of dental caries in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Gulser; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of a regular dental care programme on the dental health of asthmatic children. This prospective, controlled study was conducted at Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey, between 2012 and 2014, and comprised asthmatic and non-asthmatic children between 4 and 16 years of age who used inhaler corticosteroid treatment for at least 1 year. Patients were examined for dental caries, gingival index, salivary flow rate, and salivary pH values at baseline, 6 months, and at the end of the first year. Demographic features and tooth-brushing habits of the asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were also analysed. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 102 patients, there were 51(50%) each in asthmatic and non-asthmatic groups. Besides, 38(70.6%) participants were boys and 15(29.4%) were girls in the first group compared to 30(58.8%) boys and 21(41.2%) girls in the second group. The mean age was 11.16±3.10 years and 10.33±2.62 years, respectively, in the two groups. The number of asthmatic patients was 45(88.2%) in visit 2 and 37(72.5%) in visit 3, whereas the number of participants for the control group was 41(80.4%) in visit 2 and 36(70.4%) in visit 3. During the first visit, mean values for salivary pH and flow rate were 7.135 0.15 and 3.878 0.71 mL/min among asthma patients, and 7.158 0.14 and 4.684 0.50 among controls. In the first visit, the rate of gingivitis was 31(60.8%) in asthmatic children and 12(23.5%) in the control group. During the third visit, the rate was 4(11.1%) and 5(13.5%) among the two groups, respectively. Decreased salivary flow rates associated with the drugs used by asthmatic patients caused an increase in the rate of dental caries and gingival disorders.

  9. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries.

  10. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children

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    PKS Virk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. Aims: To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. Settings and Design: The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. Patients and Methods: 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin′s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997. StatisticaL Analysis Used : To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student′s unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson′s coefficient of co-relation was applied. Results: the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Conclusions: Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  11. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S

    2012-01-01

    India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  12. Comments on Soltysiak's paper: "Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora compositions?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    A low frequency of dental caries in Neandertal population is still puzzling. Many authors stress that the lower frequency of dental caries was related to a meat diet. However, a recent publication in HOMO - Journal Comparative Human Biology presented a new interpretation of dental caries in Neandertals. In this article, Soltysiak supports the thesis that the lower frequency of caries in the Neandertal population from the Near East could not be related to the low-sugar diet, but rather to the absence of cariogenic bacteria species (S. mutans). Although this hypothesis is interesting, I suspect it to be based on several erroneous assumptions, and a misunderstanding of caries as a disease. Although he stressed that the caries lesion is related to many different factors, in his argument he considers one of two alternatives "a low-sugar diet or a lack of cariogenic bacterial species". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between dental caries and nutritional status: preschool children in a Brazilian municipality

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    Angela Xavier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental caries and nutritional status in children in preschool age are serious public health problems, with multifactorial etiology, with diet as a common risk factor. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between dental caries and nutritional status of preschool children attending public schools in a city in the State of Sao Paulo. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study population was comprised of 3-5 year-old preschool children (n = 229 attending public schools, in which dmft (decay, missing, filled, teeth was used for dental caries assessment and Body Mass Index (BMI was used for nutritional status in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Statistical analysis was performed in a descriptive way through absolute and relative frequencies and Spearman Correlation test and Kruskal Wallis (P<0.05. RESULT: A dmft of 1.65 (2.87 and a SiC index (Significant Caries Index of 4.88 (3.20 have been found, indicating polarization of dental caries. It was observed that 66.81% of children presented with nutritional status within the normal range and children with malnutrition had a mean dmft of 4.0 (3.66, which is two times higher than the other categories of nutritional status. No statistically significant correlation has been found by correlating dmft and components with Body Mass Index. CONCLUSION: This research did not identify a significant correlation between the occurrence of dental caries and nutritional status of preschool children, researches should be conducted to elucidate this relationship.

  14. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study (n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, Norman; Palmer, Carol A

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review, commissioned by the Administration for Children and Families, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service, was to update the evidence of the dietary factors that affect dental caries, and subsequently formulate dietary recommendations for preschool children based on principles of cariology. Literature on the dental caries process, dietary factors affecting dental caries initiation and progression, nutrition education and counseling were reviewed and synthesized. Dietary guidelines for children at various ages were then constructed based on the review. Dental caries in preschool children is due to a combination of factors, including colonization of teeth with cariogenic bacteria, type of foods and frequency of exposure of these foods to the cariogenic bacteria, and susceptible teeth. Caries risk is greatest if sugars are consumed at high frequency and are in a form that is retained in the mouth for long periods. Sucrose is the most cariogenic sugar because it can form glucan that enables firm bacterial adhesion to teeth and limits diffusion of acid and buffers in the plaque. There is emerging interest in the effects of tooth development and its role in the future dental caries risk of the child. Nutrition education and counseling for the purposes of reducing caries in children is aimed at teaching parents the importance of reducing high frequency exposures to obvious and hidden sugars. Guidelines include: avoiding frequent consumption of juice or other sugar containing drinks in bottle or sippy cup; discouraging the behavior of a child sleeping with a bottle; promoting non-cariogenic foods for snacks; fostering eating patterns consistent with Food Guide Pyramid; limiting cariogenic foods to mealtimes; rapidly clearing cariogenic foods from the child's oral cavity either by tooth brushing or by consumption of protective foods; and

  16. Dermatoglyphic patterns and salivary pH in subjects with and without dental caries: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Banu, Safeena; Fathima, Nilofar; Ganapathy; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Ilayaraja, Vadivel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphic patterns, which are regularly used in judicial and legal investigations, can be valuable in the diagnosis of many diseases associated with genetic disorders. Dental caries although of infectious origin, may have a genetic predisposition. Hence, we evaluated the correlation between dental caries and dermatoglyphic patterns among subjects with and without dental caries and evaluated its association with environmental factors such as salivary pH. Materials and Methods: Totally, 76 female students within the age group of 18-23 years were clinically examined, and their decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) score and oral hygiene index-simplified were recorded. Based on their DMFT score, they were divided into following three groups; group I (n = 16, DMFT score = 0), group II (n = 30, DMFT score Dermatoglyphic pattern distribution in caries-free group showed more ulnar loops than high caries group (group III) while high caries group showed more whorl patterns. Presence of whorl with double loop, whorl within a loop was associated with high DMFT score. The total finger ridge count was lower in caries group. The mean salivary pH was higher in caries-free group than high caries group. Thus, we conclude that dermatoglyphic patterns may be potential diagnostic tool for detecting patients prone to develop dental caries. PMID:26283816

  17. Caries dental y ecología bucal, aspectos importantes a considerar Dental caries and oral ecology, important aspects to be considered: Bibliographic review

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    Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La caries dental constituye actualmente la enfermedad más frecuente en el ser humano. Existen algunos elementos de la ecología bucal que pueden favorecer su desarrollo. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo fundamental de profundizar en los conocimientos teóricos sobre las características del tejido adamantino, aspectos específicos del Streptococcus mutans, papel de la saliva en el medio bucal e influencia de la ingesta de carbohidratos que pueden predisponer a la aparición de caries dental. Se concluye que se debe aumentar la resistencia del esmalte e impedir la adhesión inicial del Streptococcus mutans para prevenir esta enfermedad; la saliva debe ser considerada como un sistema y debemos fomentar la educación nutricional e higiénica de la familia.Dental caries are nowadays the most frequent disease among human beigns. There are some elements of oral ecology that may favor their development. A bibliographic review is made aimed at going deep into the theoretical knowledge of the characteristics of the adamantine tissue, the specific aspects of Streptococcus mutans, the role of saliva in the oral environment, and the influence of the ingestion of carbohydrates that may predispose the appareance of dental caries. It is concluded that the enamel resistance should be increased and that the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans should be impeded to prevent this disease. Saliva should be considered as a system and we should promote the family nutritional and hygiene education.

  18. Analysis of the Permanent Tooth Eruption and Contraction of Dental Caries Based on Physical Development in School Children

    OpenAIRE

    相澤 徳久; 結城 昌子; アイザワ ノリヒサ; ユキ マサコ; Aizawa, Norihisa; Masako YUKI

    2006-01-01

    We performed a cohort study on the physical development, eruption of permanent teeth, and contraction of dental caries in school children. To establish criteria for the effective maintenance of dental hygiene, we analyzed the relationship between the eruption of permanent teeth and contraction of dental caries based on the physical development. The subjects were 373 elementary school children in Koriyama City, consisting of 215 boys and 158 girls, who were examined from their first to sixth g...

  19. Dental caries: risk assessment and treatment solutions for an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-10-01

    Caries remains one of the top three most common infectious diseases in the world today. Although caries prevalence decreased markedly in children and in adults up to age 40 between 1975 and 2000, the overall risk for caries in older age groups (45 to 64, 65 to 84, and > 85 years of age) has not decreased appreciably. In fact, the risk for caries in individuals 70 years of age and older has increased. The increase in restorative work needed between 1990 and 2030 will be highest in adults over the age of 44 years. Root caries prevalence and the number of restored teeth will be greatest in the elderly population. Approximately 30% of individuals over the age of 65 will have no permanent teeth. It is also apparent that additional caries risk factors are associated with a significant proportion of the older population, including reduced saliva flow, inadequate oral hygiene, frequent sugar intake, Asian ethnicity, and the presence of partial dentures. The principles of modern caries management focus on risk assessment, risk reduction, monitoring noncavitated carious lesions, and the assignment of specific treatment options according to risk. Because a relatively high proportion of elderly patients will remain at high risk for caries, therapeutic regimens for managing caries as an infectious disease must focus on the use of antibacterial treatment; high-fluoride dentifrices; supplementary low-dose, high-frequency fluoride rinses; patient education; and shorter recall intervals.

  20. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  1. Sugar, dental caries and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever: a cohort study of Māori and Pacific children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger J; Bach, Katie; Koopu, Pauline; Reynolds, Gary; Sundborn, Gerhard; Ei, Win Le Shwe Sin

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether dental caries, as an indicator of cumulative exposure to sugar, is associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, in Māori and Pacific children aged 5 and 6 years at their first dental visit. A cohort study was undertaken which linked school dental service records of caries with national hospital discharge and mortality records. Cox models were used to investigate the strength of the association between dental caries and rheumatic fever incidence. A total of 20 333 children who were free of rheumatic heart disease at enrolment were available for analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 96 children developed acute rheumatic fever or chronic rheumatic heart disease. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with five or more primary teeth affected by caries were 57% (95% CI: 20% to 106%) more likely to develop disease during follow-up, compared to children whose primary teeth were caries free. The population attributable to the risk for caries in this cohort was 22%. Dental caries is positively associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in Māori and Pacific children. Sugar intake, an important risk factor for dental caries, is also likely to influence the aetiology of rheumatic fever. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II- Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carounanidy Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated, assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested, monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time, and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient.

  3. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  4. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces....../teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...... fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively...

  5. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  6. The Monitor Practice Programme: is non-invasive management of dental caries in private practice cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, B; Warren, E; Pollicino, C; Evans, R W; Schwarz, E; Sbaraini, A

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a non-invasive approach to dental caries management in private dental practice. Private dental practices from a variety of locations in New South Wales were randomly allocated to either non-invasive management of caries, or continue with usual care. Patients were followed for three years and caries incidence assessed. A patient-level decision analytic model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention at two years, three years, and hypothetical lifetime. Twenty-two dental practices and 920 patients were recruited. Within the clinical trial there was a significant difference in caries increment favouring non-invasive therapy at both two and three years. Efficacy was independent of age, gender, medical concerns, fluoride history, or previous history of dental caries, in a population of patients attending for treatment in private dental practices, in a variety of locations both urban and rural. Cost per DMFT avoided estimate was A$1287.07 (two years), A$1148.91 (three years) decreasing to A$702.52 in (medium) and A$545.93 (high) risk patients (three years). A joint preventive and non-invasive therapeutic approach appears to be cost-effective in patients at medium and high risk of developing dental caries when compared to the standard care provided by private dental practice. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  9. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process......, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended...

  10. Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, L; Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Broffitt, B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience of primary second molars. The study sample was 491 subjects who received dental examinations at both age 5 and 9 by the calibrated examiners. Four primary second molars (n = 1,892) were scored for the presence of enamel hypoplasia for each participant. Caries presence and number of decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) were determined at age 5 and 9. The relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience were assessed. Among primary second molars, 3.9% of children and 1.7% of primary second molars had enamel hypoplasia. At age 5, 36.8% of children with hypoplasia had caries, while 16.9% of children without enamel hypoplasia had caries. At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 52.6% for children with hypoplasia and 34.5% for children without hypoplasia, respectively. At the tooth level, for age 5, 28.1% of teeth with hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.40), and 7.6% of teeth without hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.11). At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 41.9% (mean dfs = 0.76) for teeth with hypoplasia and 18.3% (mean dfs = 0.34) for teeth without hypoplasia. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, teeth of subjects with enamel hypoplasia had a significantly higher risk for caries at age 5 and 9 after controlling for other risk factors. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries and should be considered in caries risk assessment.

  11. Risk assessment of dental caries by using Classification and Regression Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ataru; Hayashi, Mikako; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2011-06-01

    Being able to predict an individual's risks of dental caries would offer a potentially huge natural step forward toward better oral heath. As things stand, preventive treatment against caries is mostly carried out without risk assessment because there is no proven way to analyse an individual's risk factors. The purpose of this study was to try to identify those patients with high and low risk of caries by using Classification and Regression Trees (CART). In this historical cohort study, data from 442 patients in a general practice who met the inclusion criteria were analysed. CART was applied to the data to seek a model for predicting caries by using the following parameters according to each patient: age, number of carious teeth, numbers of cariogenic bacteria, the secretion rate and buffer capacity of saliva, and compliance with a prevention programme. The risks of caries were presented by odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to confirm the results obtained by CART. CART identified high and low risk patients for primary caries with relative odds ratios of 0.41 (95%CI: 0.22-0.77, p = 0.0055) and 2.88 (95%CI: 1.49-5.59, p = 0.0018) according the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. High and low risk patients for secondary caries were also identified with the odds ratios of 0.07 (95%CI: 0.01-0.55, p = 0.00109) and 7.00 (95%CI: 3.50-13.98, p caries. Cariogenic bacteria play a leading role in the incidence of caries. CART proved effective in identifying an individual patient's risk of caries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PRESENCE OF Streptococcus Mutans IN SALIVA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DENTAL CARIES: ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Gamboa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a localized, transmissible, pathological infectious process that ends up in the destruction of hard dental tissue. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the main cause of dental caries. Indeed, numerous reports have shown the close relationship between salivary levels of S. mutans and dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 53 3 to 5-year-old children from the Diego Torres school in Turmequé (Boyacá, Colombia. Saliva samples were vortexed and serially diluted in 0.05 M phosphate buffer. Aliquots of 100 ul of the appropriate dilutions were cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar medium for the selective isolation of S. mutans, and incubated anaerobically for two days at 37 o C. The minimal inhibitoryconcentrations of the S. mutans isolates were evaluated against penicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin by an agar dilution method. The dental caries experience in these children was 66% (35/53 and S. mutans was found in the saliva of 33 children (62%; 21 of them had dental caries and 12 did not. In the 20 children from whom S. mutans was not isolated, 14 (70% were found to have caries. There were no statistically significant differences in S. mutans counts between the group with dental caries and the caries-free group (p=0.21. All isolates were highly sensitive to penicillin, amoxycillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin; 50 and 90% of the strains from S. mutans were inhibited by concentrations of less than 0.12 and 0.5 ug/ml, respectively, for all antibiotics studied. In conclusion, not all of the children hosting this microorganism had caries, and the S. mutans strains were highly sensitive to the antibiotics tested.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries among 3–6-year-old Anganwadi children in Mudhol town, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena V Kashetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease among childhood. Dental caries in primary dentition is often neglected since they exfoliate, and its treatment is considered as economic burden among lower socioeconomic families. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in the primary teeth of 3–6–year-old preschool Anganwadi children in Mudhol town of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 758 children, aged 3–6 years studying in 15 Anganwadis of Mudhol. Type III WHO method of examination was followed, and decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft index was recorded according to the WHO criteria. The data were analyzed by Z-test and Chi-square test using SPSS version 17 software. Results: Among the study population, 62.14% were found to be affected by dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries increased with increase in age. No significant difference was found with respect to gender. The mean dmft was 2.34. The filled component was nonexistent among these children. Second primary molars were the teeth most affected by caries followed by first molars and central incisors. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence of 62.14% and mean dmft of 2.34 among Anganwadi children of Mudhol town is a cause for concern. The nonexisting filled component among these children indicates high unmet restorative treatment needs. Dental health services should be made available in the peripheral areas to meet the needs of young children.

  14. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF DENTAL CARIES, GINGIVITIS, AND CALCULUS DEPOSITS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF SARGODHA DISTRICT, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Muhammad Farooq; Farooq, Umer; Shabbir, Arham; Zofeen, Shumaila; Mujtaba, Hasan; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5%, 14.3%, and 45.9% respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p children. More children living in urban area were detected with gingivitis (p dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p dental caries in primary (p children who were not brushing their teeth. Experience of dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores.

  15. Caries with Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-Year School Children in Moderate-Fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Atotal of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2%) with mean DMFT0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6% of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5%). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries.

  16. Interaction of lifestyle, behaviour or systemic diseases with dental caries and periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapple, Iain L C; Bouchard, Philippe; Cagetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requir......Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors......-γRIIA) and Interleukin 10 (IL10) genes. For caries, genes involved in enamel formation (AMELX, AMBN, ENAM, TUFT, MMP20, and KLK4), salivary characteristics (AQP5), immune regulation and dietary preferences had the largest impact. No common genetic variants were found. Fermentable carbohydrates (sugars and starches) were...

  17. Gestação e cárie dental Pregnancy and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Viegas

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar se a incidência de cárie aumenta durante a gestação. Foram incluídas neste estudo 82 gestantes e 40 não gestantes nas quais se observou a incidência de superfícies atacadas pela cárie durante um período de 6 meses. À análise dos dados constatamos que não ocorreu diferença estatìsticamente significante entre os dois grupos quanto à incidência de cárie.The purpose of this investigation was to verify if the incidence of dental decay increases during pregnancy.In this study 82 pregnant and 40 nonpregnant women were included. In both groups the incidence of attacked surfaces was studied in a period of six months. The observed incidence of dental caries between the groups was not statistically significant.

  18. Has the decline in dental caries been halted? Changes in caries prevalence amongst 6- and 12-year-old children in Friesland, 1973-1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1973, 1976, 1979, 1982 and 1988 caries investigations were carried out amongst 6- and 12-year-old primary schoolchildren to study the effectiveness of a dental health campaign begun in 1973. This campaign and the school dental health services were stopped in 1985. In all the years, except 1988,

  19. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong-Lenters; D. Duijster; M.A. Bruist; J. Thijssen; C. de Ruiter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  20. Factores de riesgo asociados con la enfermedad caries dental en niños