WorldWideScience

Sample records for density plasma region

  1. Interferometric density measurements in the divertor and edge plasma regions for the additionally heated JT-60 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, T.; Yoshida, H.; Nagashima, A.; Ishida, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Yokomizo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The first divertor plasma density measurement and the interferometric edge plasma density measurement with boundary condition preserving millimeter waveguides were demonstrated to elucidate the mutual correlation among the divertor plasma, scrape-off layer plasma and the bulk plasma properties in the additionally heated JT-60 plasmas. The electron density in the divertor region exhibited a nonlinear dependence on the bulk plasma density for the joule-heated plasmas. When neutral beam heating is applied on the plasmas with the electron density above 2x10 19 /m 3 , however, the bulk plasma density is scraped off from the outer region to lead to density clamping, and the electron density in the divertor region rapidly increases over 1x10 20 /m 3 , from which we can deduce that the particle flow along the magnetic field is dominant, resulting in the apparent degradation of the particle confinement time. As for the case when neutral beam injection is applied to low-density plasmas, the bulk plasma electron density profile becomes flattened to yield a smaller density increase in the divertor region and no density clamping of the bulk plasma was observed. Simulation analysis which correlates the transport of the divertor plasma and the scrape-off layer plasma was also carried out to find the consistency with the experimental results. (orig.)

  2. Direct evidence of plasma - density structuring in the auroral F-region ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.; Haeggstroem, I.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Steen, Aa.; Wannberg, G.

    1985-03-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that large-scale plasma-density enhancements found in the auroral F layer become structured via a magnetic-flux-tube interchange (MFTI) process. In such a process, plasma structure is produced when spatially irregular electric fields transport higher number-density plasma into a region containing lower number-density plasma, and vice versa. Direct experimental evidence of this process can be obtained by measuring concurrently the spatial distributions of F-region plasma density and electric field. Using the tristatic EISCAT radar facility, we measured these quantities in a two-dimensional plane transverse to the geomagnetic field, at 300-km altitude. We show, in a case study, that plasma-density structure found along the poleward wall of a blob was indeed accompanied by similar-scale variations in the ionospheric electric field, and that the sense of relative motion between high- and low-number-density plasma is consistent with ongoing structuring of the plasma via a MFTI process. From the estimated growth rate of 3 x 10 -3 s -1 , the observed plasma structure could have been produced in several minutes by the irregular electic field pattern. The source of the MFTI process, however, is not clear. The MFTI process did not appear to be driven by F-region polarization electric fields, a conclusion based on (1) the apparent lack of inverse correlation between plasma density and 'slip' velocity patterns, and (2) the positive growth rate found along the poleward wall of the blob in the presence of a westward Pedersen current. This conclusion excludes (at least for this data set) the gradient-drift and current-convective instabilities as primary sources of the ongoing structuring process. (Author)

  3. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  4. Spectral classification of medium-scale high-latitude F region plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Sachs Freeman Associates, Bowie, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The high-latitude ionosphere represents a highly structured plasma. Rodriguez and Szuszczewicz (1984) reported a wide range of plasma density irregularities (150 km to 75 m) at high latitudes near 200 km. They have shown that the small-scale irregularities (7.5 km to 75 m) populated the dayside oval more often than the other phenomenological regions. It was suggested that in the lower F region the chemical recombination is fast enough to remove small-scale irregularities before convection can transport them large distances, leaving structured particle precipitation as the dominant source term for irregularities. The present paper provides the results of spectral analyses of pulsed plasma probe data collected in situ aboard the STP/S3-4 satellite during the period March-September 1978. A quantitative description of irregularity spectra in the high-latitude lower F region plasma density is given. 22 references

  5. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  6. Plasma heating in collisionless plasma at low plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    The high frequency heating of a collisionless, fully ionized low density plasma is investigated in the range: 2ωc 2 2 under pumping frequencies. A pulsed 1 MHz transmitter excites a fast standing, magneto-acoustical wave in the plasma, via the high frequency magnetic field of a Stix solenoid. The available modulation degrees are between 0.7 and 7.0%. As power consumption measurements show, there appears at all investigated pumping frequencies an effective energy transfer to the plasma that cannot be explained with the classical MHD models. Measurements with electrostatic probes and further with a miniature counter-field spectrometer yield an electron and ion temperature gain of two to three factors and 15-18, compared to the corresponding values in the initial plasma. (orig./HT) [de

  7. On the origin of plasma density blobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu

    2016-12-01

    By keeping nonlinear Boltzmann factor in electron density dependence on electrostatic potential it is demonstrated that large plasma density blobs, often seen in experiment inside separatrix, can exist within the framework of drift wave dynamics. The estimates show that plasma density in a blob can be ∼3 times higher that average plasma density, but hardly exceeds this limit, which in a ball park is in agreement with experimental observations.

  8. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2001-01-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  9. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  10. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  11. Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.; Shaw, R.R.; Poynter, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Three basic techniques are discussed for determining the electron density: (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are critically reviewed. In all cases the electron densities are unaffected by spacecraft charging or sheath effects, which makes these measurements of particular importance for verifying in situ plasma and low-energy charged particle measurments. In the outer regions of the dayside magnetosphere, beyond about 40 R/sub J/, the electron densities range from about 3 x 10 -3 to 3 x 10 -2 cm -3 . On Voyager 2, several brief excursions apparently occurred into the low-density region north of the plasma sheet with densities less than 10 -3 cm -3 . Approaching the planet the electron density gradually increases, with the plasma frequency extending above the frequency range of the plasma wave instrument (56 kHz, or about 38 electrons cm -3 ) inside of about 8 R/sub J/. Within the high-density region of the Io plasma torus, whistlers provide measurements of the north-south scale height of the plasma torus, with scale heights ranging from about 0.9 to 2.5 R/sub J/

  12. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  13. Plasma probe characteristics in low density hydrogen pulsed plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Bijkerk, F; Goedheer, W J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Zotovich, A I; Zyryanov, S M; Lopaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    Probe theories are only applicable in the regime where the probe’s perturbation of the plasma can be neglected. However, it is not always possible to know, a priori, that a particular probe theory can be successfully applied, especially in low density plasmas. This is especially difficult in the case of transient, low density plasmas. Here, we applied probe diagnostics in combination with a 2D particle-in-cell model, to an experiment with a pulsed low density hydrogen plasma. The calculations took into account the full chamber geometry, including the plasma probe as an electrode in the chamber. It was found that the simulations reproduce the time evolution of the probe IV characteristics with good accuracy. The disagreement between the simulated and probe measured plasma density is attributed to the limited applicability of probe theory to measurements of low density pulsed plasmas on a similarly short time scale as investigated here. Indeed, in the case studied here, probe measurements would lead to, either a large overestimate, or underestimate of the plasma density, depending on the chosen probe theory. In contrast, the simulations of the plasma evolution and the probe characteristics do not suffer from such strict applicability limits. These studies show that probe theory cannot be justified through probe measurements. However, limiting cases of probe theories can be used to estimate upper and lower bounds on plasma densities. These theories include and neglect orbital motion, respectively, with different collisional terms leading to intermediate estimates. (paper)

  14. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Density and geometry of single component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, A.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W.S.; McConnell, R.; Wrubel, J.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; George, M.C.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The density and geometry of p-bar and e + plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required to understand and optimize antihydrogen (H-bar) formation. An aperture method and a quadrupole oscillation frequency method for characterizing such plasmas are compared for the first time, using electrons in a cylindrical Penning trap. Both methods are used in a way that makes it unnecessary to assume that the plasmas are spheroidal, and it is shown that they are not. Good agreement between the two methods illustrates the possibility to accurately determine plasma densities and geometries within non-idealized, realistic trapping potentials

  16. Density and geometry of single component plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Speck, A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Wrubel, J; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zhang, Z; Comeau, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Walz, J

    2007-01-01

    The density and geometry of p¯ and e+ plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required to understand and optimize antihydrogen (H¯) formation. An aperture method and a quadrupole oscillation frequency method for characterizing such plasmas are compared for the first time, using electrons in a cylindrical Penning trap. Both methods are used in a way that makes it unnecessary to assume that the plasmas are spheroidal, and it is shown that they are not. Good agreement between the two methods illustrates the possibility to accurately determine plasma densities and geometries within non-idealized, realistic trapping potentials.

  17. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  18. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D J; Clement, S; Gottardi, N; Gowers, C; Harbour, P; Loarte, A; Horton, L; Lingertat, J; Lowry, C G; Saibene, G; Stamp, M; Stork, D [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  20. Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.

    1980-01-01

    Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant

  1. Particle acceleration in near critical density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y.J.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Nagashima, T.

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration schemes driven by ultra intense laser and near critical density plasma interactions are presented. They include electron acceleration in a plasma channel, ion acceleration by the Coulomb explosion and high energy electron beam driven ion acceleration. It is found that under the near critical density plasma both ions and electrons are accelerated with a high acceleration gradient. The electron beam containing a large charge quantity is accelerated well with 23 GeV/cm. The collimated ion bunch reaches 1 GeV. The investigations and discussions are based on 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. (author)

  2. Measuring the Plasma Density of a Ferroelectric Plasma Source in an Expanding Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The initial density and electron temperature at the surface of a ferroelectric plasma source were deduced from floating probe measurements in an expanding plasma. The method exploits negative charging of the floating probe capacitance by fast flows before the expanding plasma reaches the probe. The temporal profiles of the plasma density can be obtained from the voltage traces of the discharge of the charged probe capacitance by the ion current from the expanding plasma. The temporal profiles of the plasma density, at two different distances from the surface of the ferroelectric plasma source, could be further fitted by using the density profiles for the expanding plasma. This gives the initial values of the plasma density and electron temperature at the surface. The method could be useful for any pulsed discharge, which is accompanied by considerable electromagnetic noise, if the initial plasma parameters might be deduced from measurements in expanding plasma

  3. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  4. Resonant transducers for solid-state plasma density modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallock, Gary A., E-mail: hallock@ece.utexas.edu [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78701 (United States); Meier, Mark A., E-mail: mark.a.meier@exxonmobil.com [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas 77389 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have developed transducers capable of modulating the plasma density and plasma density gradients in indium antimonide. These transducers make use of piezoelectric drivers to excite acoustic pressure resonance at 3λ/2, generating large amplitude standing waves and plasma density modulations. The plasma density has been directly measured using a laser diagnostic. A layered media model shows good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  5. Interferometric measurements of plasma density in high-β plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The coupled-cavity laser interferometer technique is particularly applicable to the measurement of pulsed plasma densities. This technique is based on the fact that if a small fraction of a gas laser's output radiation is reflected into the laser with an external mirror, the intensity of the laser output is modulated. These amplitude or intensity modulations are produced by changes in the laser gain. A rotating corner mirror or an oscillating mirror can be used to produce a continuous feedback modulation of the interferometer which produces a continuous background fringe pattern. The presence of plasma in the outer cavity causes an additional change which results in a phase shift of the regular period of the background fringe pattern. The integral of the plasma density along the line of sight can be evaluated by comparison of the time history of the fringes obtained with and without plasma

  6. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  7. Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van G.J.; Veremiyenko, V.P.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Versloot, T.W.; Whyte, D.G.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5×1020 m-3 electron density, ~2 eV electron and ion

  8. Quadrature interferometry for plasma density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warthen, B.J.; Shlachter, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A quadrature interferometer has been used routinely in several pulsed power experiments to measure the line-averaged electron density. The optical source is a 30 mW, continuous wave Nd-YAG laser operating at 1,300 nm. The light is coupled directly to an optical fiber and split into reference and scene beams with a fiber splitter. The scene beam is transported to and from the plasma using single mode optical fibers up to 100 m in length. To simplify alignment through the plasma, the authors have used GRIN lenses on both the launch and receive sides of the single pass transmission diagnostic where this is possible. The return beam passes through a half-wave plate which is used to compensate for polarization rotation associated with slow (hour) time scale drift in the single mode fibers. The reference beam is sent through a quarter-wave plate to produce circular polarization; mixing of the reference and scene beams is accomplished using a non-polarizing beam splitter, and the interference signals are focused into additional fibers which relay the light to fast photodiodes. The quadrature optics allow for an unambiguous determination of the slope of the density changes at inflection points. All of the beam processing optics are located on a stable optical table which is remote and protected from the experiment. Final setup of the interferometer is facilitated by looking at the Lissajous figure generated from the two quadrature components. The authors have used this interferometer to diagnose the background density in the Pegasus-II power flow channel, to study the plasma plume generated in foil implosion experiments, to measure the plasma blowoff during implosions, and to understand the plasma formation mechanism in a fusion target plasma system

  9. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  10. An investigation of pulsed high density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis a wall-stabilized argon cascade arc is studied at values of pulsed pressure up to 14 bar and a pulsed current range up to 2200 A with a time duration of about 2 ms. The basic plasma is a CW cascade arc with a 5 mm diameter plasma column and a length of 90 mm, which operates at a 60 A DC current and at one atmosphere filling pressure. The author starts with an extensive summary of the CW arc investigations. After a brief introduction of the basic transport equations the mass equations of the constituent particles are treated using the extended collisional radiative model. The energy balance equations and the momentum balance are discussed. The electron density is determined from measurements of the continuum radiation. The final chapter contains the experimental results on the electron temperatures and electron densities in the pressure and current pulsed plasma. Attention is given to the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium values of the ground level densities of the different argon systems. (Auth.)

  11. Interacting Eigenmodes of a plasma diode with a density gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, T.; Gunell, H.

    1997-08-01

    The formation of narrow high frequency electric field spikes in plasma density gradients is investigated using one-dimensional particle in cell simulations. It is found that the shape of the plasma density gradient is very important for the spike formation. The spike appears also in simulations with immobile ions showing that a coupling to the ion motion, as for example in wave interactions, is not necessary for the formation of HF spikes. However, the HF spike influences the ion motion, and ion waves are seen in the simulations. It has been found, in experiments and simulations, that the electron velocity distribution function deviates from the Maxwellian distribution. Dispersion relations are calculated using realistic distribution functions. The spike can be seen as a coupled system of two Eigenmodes of a plasma diode fed by the beam-plasma interaction. Based on a simplified fluid description of such Eigenmodes, explanations for the localization of the spike, spatially and in frequency, are given. The density amplitude is comparable with the DC density level close to the cathode. Space charge limits of waves in this region seem to determine the amplitude of the spike through the Poisson's equation

  12. Magnetic energy density and plasma energy density in the Venus wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Zhang, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Sauvaud, J.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic energy density and plasma energy density in the Venus wake H. Pérez-de-Tejada1, H. Durand-Manterola1, R. Lundin2, S. Barabash2, T. L. Zhang3, A. Sauvaud4, M. Reyes-Ruiz5. 1 - Institute of Geophysics, UNAM, México, D. F. 2 - Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umea, Sweden 3 - Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria 4 - CESR, Toulouse, France 5 - Institute of Astronomy, UNAM, Ensenada, México Measurements conducted in the Venus wake with the magnetometer and the Aspera-4 plasma instrument of the Venus Express spacecraft show that average values of the kinetic energy density of the plasma in that region are comparable to average local values of the magnetic energy density. Observations were carried out in several orbits of the Venus Express near the midnight plane and suggest that the total energy content in the Venus wake is distributed with nearly comparable values between the plasma and the magnetic field. Processes associated with the solar wind erosion of planetary ions from the polar magnetic regions of the ionosphere are involved in the comparable distribution of both energy components.

  13. Electron density measurements on the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckle, B.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a determination of the maximum electron density in a plasma focus, produced with the NESSI experimental setup, by the method of laser beam deflection. For each discharge a time-resolved measurement was performed at four different places. Neutron efficiency as well as the time of the initial X-ray emission was registrated. The principle and the economic aspects of the beam deflection method are presented in detail. The experimental findings and the resulting knowledge of the neutron efficiency are discussed. (GG) [de

  14. Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.

    1976-06-01

    This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change

  15. Electron and current density measurements on tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammeren, A.C.A.P. van.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this thesis describes the Thomson-scattering diagnostic as it was present at the TORTUR tokamak. For the first time with this diagnostic a complete tangential scattering spectrum was recorded during one single laser pulse. From this scattering spectrum the local current density was derived. Small deviations from the expected gaussian scattering spectrum were observed indicating the non-Maxwellian character of the electron-velocity distribution. The second part of this thesis describes the multi-channel interferometer/ polarimeter diagnostic which was constructed, build and operated on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) tokamak. The diagnostic was operated routinely, yielding the development of the density profiles for every discharge. When ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) is switched on the density profile broadens, the central density decreases and the total density increases, the opposite takes place when ECRH is switched off. The influence of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) activity on the density was clearly observable. In the central region of the plasma it was measured that in hydrogen discharges the so-called sawtooth collapse is preceded by an m=1 instability which grows rapidly. An increase in radius of this m=1 mode of 1.5 cm just before the crash is observed. In hydrogen discharges the sawtooth induced density pulse shows an asymmetry for the high- and low-field side propagation. This asymmetry disappeared for helium discharges. From the location of the maximum density variations during an m=2 mode the position of the q=2 surface is derived. The density profiles are measured during the energy quench phase of a plasma disruption. A fast flattening and broadening of the density profile is observed. (author). 95 refs.; 66 figs.; 7 tabs

  16. A Method to Construct Plasma with Nonlinear Density Enhancement Effect in Multiple Internal Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhipeng; Li Hong; Liu Qiuyan; Luo Chen; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed to built up plasma based on a nonlinear enhancement phenomenon of plasma density with discharge by multiple internal antennas simultaneously. It turns out that the plasma density under multiple sources is higher than the linear summation of the density under each source. This effect is helpful to reduce the fast exponential decay of plasma density in single internal inductively coupled plasma source and generating a larger-area plasma with multiple internal inductively coupled plasma sources. After a careful study on the balance between the enhancement and the decay of plasma density in experiments, a plasma is built up by four sources, which proves the feasibility of this method. According to the method, more sources and more intensive enhancement effect can be employed to further build up a high-density, large-area plasma for different applications. (low temperature plasma)

  17. Vacuum heating evaluation for plasmas of exponentially decreasing density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S.J.; Mohammadnejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers have opened a regime of laser-plasma interaction where plasmas have scale lengths shorter than the laser wavelength and allow the possibility of generating near-solid density plasmas. The interaction of high-intensity laser beams with sharply bounded high-density and small scale length plasmas is considered. Absorption of the laser energy associated with the mechanism of dragging electrons out of the plasma into the vacuum and sending them back into the plasma with the electric field component along the density gradient, so called vacuum heating, is studied. An exponentially decreasing electron density profile is assumed. The vector potential of the electromagnetic field propagating through the plasma is calculated and the behaviour of the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field is studied. The fraction of laser power absorbed in this process is calculated and plotted versus the laser beam incidence angle, illumination energy, and the plasma scale length

  18. Interferometer for electron density measurement in exploding wire plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Jigyasa; Jaiswar, Ashutosh; Kaushik, T.C.

    2016-12-01

    Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) has been developed for measuring electron density profile in pulsed plasmas. MZI is to be used for characterizing exploding wire plasmas for correlating electron density dynamics with x-rays emission. Experiments have been carried out for probing electron density in pulsed plasmas produced in our laboratory like in spark gap and exploding wire plasmas. These are microsecond phenomenon. Changes in electron density have been registered in interferograms with the help of a streak camera for specific time window. Temporal electron density profiles have been calculated by analyzing temporal fringe shifts in interferograms. This report deals with details of MZI developed in our laboratory along with its theory. Basic introductory details have also been provided for exploding wire plasmas to be probed. Some demonstrative results of electron density measurements in pulsed plasmas of spark gap and single exploding wires have been described. (author)

  19. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  20. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Pucci, Daniele; Piesco, F.; Zarfati, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Mazzitelli, G. [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Monaco, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1].

  2. Density dependence of line intensities and application to plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Kuniaki.

    1993-02-01

    Electron density dependence of spectral lines are discussed in view of application to density diagnostics of plasmas. The dependence arises from competitive level population processes, radiative and collisional transitions from the excited states. Results of the measurement on tokamak plasmas are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of line intensity ratios for density diagnostics. Also general characteristics related to density dependence are discussed with atomic-number scaling for H-like and He-like systems to be helpful for application to higher density plasmas. (author)

  3. Enhanced resonant second harmonic generation in plasma based on density transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Niti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resonant second harmonic generation of a relativistic self-focusing laser in plasma with density ramp profile has been investigated. A high intense Gaussian laser beam generates resonant second harmonic beam in plasma with density ramp profile. The second harmonic undergoes periodic focusing in the plasma channel created by the fundamental wave. The normalized second harmonic amplitude varies periodically with distance and attains maximum value in the focal region. Enhancement in the second harmonic amplitude on account of relativistic self-focusing of laser based on plasma density transition is seen. Plasma density ramp plays an important role to make self-focusing stronger which leads to enhance the second harmonic generation in plasma.

  4. DAQ system for low density plasma parameters measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Rashmi S.; Gupta, Suryakant B.

    2015-01-01

    In various cases where low density plasmas (number density ranges from 1E4 to 1E6 cm -3 ) exist for example, basic plasma studies or LEO space environment measurement of plasma parameters becomes very critical. Conventional tip (cylindrical) Langmuir probes often result into unstable measurements in such lower density plasma. Due to larger surface area, a spherical Langmuir probe is used to measure such lower plasma densities. Applying a sweep voltage signal to the probe and measuring current values corresponding to these voltages gives V-I characteristics of plasma which can be plotted on a digital storage oscilloscope. This plot is analyzed for calculating various plasma parameters. The aim of this paper is to measure plasma parameters using a spherical Langmuir probe and indigenously developed DAQ system. DAQ system consists of Keithley source-meter and a host system connected by a GPIB interface. An online plasma parameter diagnostic system is developed for measuring plasma properties for non-thermal plasma in vacuum. An algorithm is developed using LabVIEW platform. V-I characteristics of plasma are plotted with respect to different filament current values and different locations of Langmuir probe with reference to plasma source. V-I characteristics is also plotted for forward and reverse voltage sweep generated programmatically from the source meter. (author)

  5. Potential formation and confinement in high density plasma on the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.

    2002-01-01

    After the attainment of doubling of the density due to the potential confinement, GAMMA 10 experiments have been directed to realization of a high density plasma and also to study dependence of the confining potential and confinement time on the plasma density. These problems are important to understand the physics of potential formation in tandem mirrors and also for the development of a tandem mirror reactor. We reported high density plasma production by using an ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency in the last IAEA Conference. However, the diamagnetic signal of the high density plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was applied due to some instabilities. Recently, the high density plasma production was much improved by adjusting the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions, which enabled us to produce a high density plasma without degradation of the diamagnetic signal with ECRH and also to study the density dependence. In this paper we report production of a high density plasma and dependence of the confining potential and the confinement time on the density. (author)

  6. Large density amplification measured on jets ejected from a magnetized plasma gun

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gunsu S.; You, Setthivoine; Bellan, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of a large density amplification in the collimating plasma jet ejected from a coplanar coaxial plasma gun is reported. The jet velocity is ~30 km s^-1 and the electron density increases from ~10^20 to 10^(22–23) m^-3. In previous spheromak experiments, electron density of the order 10^(19–21) m^-3 had been measured in the flux conserver region, but no density measurement had been reported for the source gun region. The coplanar geometry of our electrodes permits direct observation...

  7. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.

    2001-01-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)

  8. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2000-03-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)

  9. Research on high energy density plasmas and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Recently, technologies on lasers, accelerators, and pulse power machines have been significantly advanced and input power density covers the intensity range from 10 10 W/cm 2 to higher than 10 20 W/cm 2 . As the results, high pressure gas and solid targets can be heated up to very high temperature to create hot dense plasmas which have never appeared on the earth. The high energy density plasmas opened up new research fields such as inertial confinement fusion, high brightness X-ray radiation sources, interiors of galactic nucleus,supernova, stars and planets, ultra high pressure condensed matter physics, plasma particle accelerator, X-ray laser, and so on. Furthermore, since these fields are intimately connected with various industrial sciences and technologies, the high energy density plasma is now studied in industries, government institutions, and so on. This special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research reviews the high energy density plasma science for the comprehensive understanding of such new fields. In May, 1998, the review committee for investigating the present status and the future prospects of high energy density plasma science was established in the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. We held three committee meetings to discuss present status and critical issues of research items related to high energy density plasmas. This special issue summarizes the understandings of the committee. This special issue consists of four chapters: They are Chapter 1: Physics important in the high energy density plasmas, Chapter 2: Technologies related to the plasma generation; drivers such as lasers, pulse power machines, particle beams and fabrication of various targets, Chapter 3: Plasma diagnostics important in high energy density plasma experiments, Chapter 4: A variety of applications of high energy density plasmas; X-ray radiation, particle acceleration, inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics

  10. Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, A; Bornath, T; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Laarmann, T; Meiwes-Broer, K H; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Toleikis, S; Truong, N X; Tschentscher, T; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U

    2006-11-21

    We propose a collective Thomson scattering experiment at the VUV free electron laser facility at DESY (FLASH) which aims to diagnose warm dense matter at near-solid density. The plasma region of interest marks the transition from an ideal plasma to a correlated and degenerate many-particle system and is of current interest, e.g. in ICF experiments or laboratory astrophysics. Plasma diagnostic of such plasmas is a longstanding issue. The collective electron plasma mode (plasmon) is revealed in a pump-probe scattering experiment using the high-brilliant radiation to probe the plasma. The distinctive scattering features allow to infer basic plasma properties. For plasmas in thermal equilibrium the electron density and temperature is determined from scattering off the plasmon mode.

  11. PIII Plasma Density Enhancement by a New DC Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.

    2006-01-01

    In practical terms, those plasmas produced by a DC voltage power supply do not attain densities above the 108 to 109 cm-3 band. Here we present a power supply, controlled in current and voltage, which has been successfully designed and constructed delivering plasma densities in the orders of 109 - 1010 cm-3. Its experimental performance test was conducted within one toroidal and one cylindrical chambers capable of 29 and 35 litres, respectively, using nitrogen gas. The DC plasma was characterized by a double electric probe. Several physical phenomena present in the PIII process have been keenly investigated including plasma sheath dynamics, interaction of plasma and surface, etc. In this paper we analyze the effect of the implantation voltage, plasma density and pulse time in the PIII average heating power and fluence density

  12. Temporal evolution of plasma density in femtosecond light filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haitao; Fan Chengyu; Shen Hong; Qiao Chunhong; Zhang Jinghui; Zhang Pengfei; Ma Huimin; Xu Huiling

    2012-01-01

    By using a legible and comprehensive physical model describing the generation and evolvement of ion densities in the plasma channel induced by intense femtosecond laser pulse, the work studied the temporal evolution of the plasma densities in femtosecond light filaments. It shows that the contribution of the ionization of oxygen and nitrogen molecules to the total electron densities varies much for different laser pulse shapes, and the pulse shapes have more effects on the lifetime of the higher density plasma. It is necessary to control the pulse shape for efficient using of the plasma channel. Pulses of long duration and short wavelength can obtain a plasma channel with higher electron density, but the channel lifetime thoroughly depends on the later evolution of the self-guided channel. (authors)

  13. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  14. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  15. Study of density limit in JT-60 joule heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Hirayama, Toshio; Azumi, Masafumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    Impurities which mingle in tokamak plasmas cause dominant radiation loss in the high density regime and the energy balance of plasma is lost. This gives rise to MHD instability and results in major disruption. Density limit in joule heated plasmas has been studied by using one dimensional transport code combined with MHD instability analysis code. When the diffusion of impurity is taken into account, the numerically obtained density limit diagram or Hugill diagram quantitatively agrees well with that obtained in the experiment. It is also clarified that the corona-equilibrium model overestimates the density limit. (author).

  16. Density measurements of microsecond-conduction-time POS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.; Goodrich, P.J.; Weber, B.V.; Commisso, R.J.; Grossmann, J.M.; Kellogg, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the electron density in a coaxial microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch during switch operation are described. Current conduction is observed to cause a radial redistribution of the switch plasma. A local reduction in axial line density of more than an order of magnitude occurs by the time opening begins. This reduction, and the scaling of conduction current with plasma density, indicate that current conduction in this experiment is limited by hydrodynamic effects. It is hypothesized that the density reduction allows the switch to open by an erosion mechanism. Initial numerical modeling efforts have reproduced the principal observed results. A model that predicts accurately the conduction current is presented

  17. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  18. CO2 laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2001-04-01

    A CO 2 laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  19. Atomic processes in high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    This review covers dense atomic plasmas such as that produced in inertial confinement fusion. The target implosion physics along with the associated atomic physics, i.e., free electron collision phenomena, electron states I, electron states II, and nonequilibrium plasma states are described

  20. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  1. Measurement of temperature, electric conductivity and density of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevova, I.; Nefedov, A.; Oberman, F.; Urinson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Three instruments are briefly described developed by the High Temperatures Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the measurement of plasma temperature, electric conductivity and density. The temperature measuring instrument uses as a standard a light source whose temperature may significantly differ from plasma temperature because three light fluxes are compared, namely the flux emitted by the plasma, the flux emitted directly by the standard source, and the flux emitted by the standard source after passage through the plasma. The results of measurement are computer processed. Electric conductivity is measured using a coil placed in a probe which is automatically extended for a time of maximally 0.3 seconds into the plasma stream. The equipment for measuring plasma density consists of a special single-channel monochromator, a temperature gauge, a plasma pressure gauge, and of a computer for processing the results of measurement. (Ha)

  2. Pulsed high-density plasmas for advanced dry etching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banna, Samer; Agarwal, Ankur; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Pargon, Erwine; Joubert, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Plasma etching processes at the 22 nm technology node and below will have to satisfy multiple stringent scaling requirements of microelectronics fabrication. To satisfy these requirements simultaneously, significant improvements in controlling key plasma parameters are essential. Pulsed plasmas exhibit considerable potential to meet the majority of the scaling challenges, while leveraging the broad expertise developed over the years in conventional continuous wave plasma processing. Comprehending the underlying physics and etching mechanisms in pulsed plasma operation is, however, a complex undertaking; hence the full potential of this strategy has not yet been realized. In this review paper, we first address the general potential of pulsed plasmas for plasma etching processes followed by the dynamics of pulsed plasmas in conventional high-density plasma reactors. The authors reviewed more than 30 years of academic research on pulsed plasmas for microelectronics processing, primarily for silicon and conductor etch applications, highlighting the potential benefits to date and challenges in extending the technology for mass-production. Schemes such as source pulsing, bias pulsing, synchronous pulsing, and others in conventional high-density plasma reactors used in the semiconductor industry have demonstrated greater flexibility in controlling critical plasma parameters such as ion and radical densities, ion energies, and electron temperature. Specifically, plasma pulsing allows for independent control of ion flux and neutral radicals flux to the wafer, which is key to eliminating several feature profile distortions at the nanometer scale. However, such flexibility might also introduce some difficulty in developing new etching processes based on pulsed plasmas. Therefore, the main characteristics of continuous wave plasmas and different pulsing schemes are compared to provide guidelines for implementing different schemes in advanced plasma etching processes based on

  3. High density plasma heating in the Tokamak à configuration variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curchod, L.

    2011-04-01

    The Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) is a medium size magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion experiment designed for the study of the plasma performances as a function of its shape. It is equipped with a high power and highly flexible electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system. Up to 3 MW of 2 nd harmonic EC power in ordinary (O 2 ) or extraordinary (X 2 ) polarization can be injected from TCV low-field side via six independently steerable launchers. In addition, up to 1.5 MW of 3 rd harmonic EC power (X 3 ) can be launched along the EC resonance from the top of TCV vacuum vessel. At high density, standard ECH and ECCD are prevented by the appearance of a cutoff layer screening the access to the EC resonance at the plasma center. As a consequence, less than 50% of TCV density operational domain is accessible to X 2 and X 3 ECH. The electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been proposed to overcome this limitation. EBW is an electrostatic mode propagating beyond the plasma cutoff without upper density limit. Since it cannot propagate in vacuum, it has to be excited by mode conversion of EC waves in the plasma. Efficient electron Bernstein waves heating (EBH) and current drive (EBCD) were previously performed in several fusion devices, in particular in the W7-AS stellarator and in the MAST spherical tokamak. In TCV, the conditions for an efficient O-X-B mode conversion (i.e. a steep density gradient at the O 2 plasma cutoff) are met at the edge of high confinement (H-mode) plasmas characterized by the appearance of a pedestal in the electron temperature and density profiles. TCV experiments have demonstrated the first EBW coupling to overdense plasmas in a medium aspect-ratio tokamak via O-X-B mode conversion. This thesis work focuses on several aspects of ECH and EBH in low and high density plasmas. Firstly, the experimental optimum angles for the O-X-B mode conversion is successfully compared to the full-wave mode conversion calculation

  4. Production of low-density plasma by coaxially segmented rf discharge for void-free dusty cloud in microgravity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzukawa, Wataru; Ikada, Reijiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Iizuka, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    A technique is presented for producing a low density plasma by introducing a coaxially segmented parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge for void-free dusty-cloud formation. Main plasma for the dusty plasma experiment is produced in a central core part of the parallel-plate discharge, while a plasma for igniting the core plasma discharge is produced in the periphery region surrounding the core plasma. The core plasma density can be markedly decreased to reduce the ion drag force, which is important for a formation of void-free dusty cloud under microgravity

  5. Collimated fast electron beam generation in critical density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwawaki, T., E-mail: iwawaki-t@eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Habara, H.; Morita, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility (XFEL) GmbH (Germany); Rousseaux, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Filippi, F. [La SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, 00161 Rome (Italy); Nazarov, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is observed when an ultra-intense laser pulse (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 300 fs) irradiates a uniform critical density plasma. The uniform plasma is created through the ionization of an ultra-low density (5 mg/c.c.) plastic foam by X-ray burst from the interaction of intense laser (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 600 ps) with a thin Cu foil. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation well reproduces the collimated electron beam with a strong magnetic field in the region of the laser pulse propagation. To understand the physical mechanism of the collimation, we calculate energetic electron motion in the magnetic field obtained from the 2D PIC simulation. As the results, the strong magnetic field (300 MG) collimates electrons with energy over a few MeV. This collimation mechanism may attract attention in many applications such as electron acceleration, electron microscope and fast ignition of laser fusion.

  6. Computational Simulation of High Energy Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-30

    the imploding liner. The PFS depends on a lithium barrier foil slowing the advance of deuterium up the coaxial gun to the corner. There the plasma ...the coaxial gun section, and Figure 4 shows the physical state of the plasma just prior to pinch. Figure 5 shows neutron yield reaching 1014 in this...details the channel geometry between the center cylinder and coaxial gas gun . The deuterium injection starts when the pressure of the deuterium gas in

  7. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.

    1999-01-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)

  8. Recent measurements of electron density profiles of plasmas in PLADIS I, a plasma disruption simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J. III; Sharp, G.; Gahl, J.M. Kuznetsov, V.; Rockett, P.; Hunter, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tokamak disruption simulation experiments are being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) using the PLADIS I plasma gun system. PLADIS I is a high power, high energy coaxial plasma gun configured to produce an intense plasma beam. First wall candidate materials are placed in the beam path to determine their response under disruption relevant energy densities. An optically thick vapor shield plasma has been observed to form above the target surface in PLADIS I. Various diagnostics have been used to determine the characteristics of the incident plasma and the vapor shielding plasma. The cross sectional area of the incident plasma beam is a critical characteristic, as it is used in the calculation of the incident plasma energy density. Recently, a HeNe interferometer in the Mach-Zehnder configuration has been constructed and used to probe the electron density of the incident plasma beam and vapor shield plasma. The object beam of the interferometer is scanned across the plasma beam on successive shots, yielding line integrals of beam density on different chords through the plasma. Data from the interferometer is used to determine the electron density profile of the incident plasma beam as a function of beam radius. This data is then used to calculate the effective beam area. Estimates. of beam area, obtained from other diagnostics such as damage targets, calorimeter arrays and off-axis measurements of surface pressure, will be compared with data from the interferometer to obtain a better estimate of the beam cross sectional area

  9. Discharge regimes and density jumps in a helicon plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, S.; Yonekura, K.

    1999-01-01

    A high density plasma source using a helicon wave is becoming very attractive in plasma processing and confinement devices. In the previous work, the characteristics of this wave and plasma performance with diameters of 5 and 45 cm have been studied, and the helicon wave was only observed after the density jump. Recently, density jumps from the low to high electron densities with a level of 10 13 cm -3 were investigated by changing the antenna wavenumber spectrum, and the obtained results were compared with the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). However, the mechanisms of density jumps and plasma production are still open questions to be answered. Here, the authors try to investigate the discharge regimes and density jumps in a helicon plasma source, by changing the antenna wavenumber spectrum. For he case of the parallel current directions in the antenna, where the low wavenumber spectrum part is large, the density jump was observed with the low RF input power of P in < 300 W regardless of the magnetic field. On the other hand, for the case of the opposite directions, where the low wavenumber spectrum part is small, the threshold power to obtain the jump became high with the increase in the magnetic field. This can be understood from the dispersion relation of the helicon wave. The wave structures and the dispersion relations in the discharge modes will be also shown

  10. Plasma density measurements from the GEOS-1 relaxation sounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheto, J.; Bloch, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The relaxation sounder uses the characteristics of the propagation of radiowaves to sound the plasma surrounding the spacecraft. It determines, in particular, the plasma frequency, which gives the electron density. Measurements over the whole dayside of the magnetosphere, from the evening to the night sectors, are now available. The behaviour of the plasma resonance depends on local time, the nighttime echoes being generally weaker. Density measurements thus obtained are shown and discussed in the context of what is presently known about the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere. In particular, the density around apogee is studied as a function of magnetic activity. On the dayside, it appears to vary between a few and a few tens of electrons per cubic centimeter. The evolution of the density profile for several consecutive days is studied and interpreted tracing back the drift of the particles. (Auth.)

  11. Density Structures, Dynamics, and Seasonal and Solar Cycle Modulations of Saturn's Inner Plasma Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, M. K. G.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Morooka, M. W.; Vigren, E.; André, N.; Garnier, P.; Persoon, A. M.; Génot, V.; Gilbert, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    We present statistical results from the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir probe measurements recorded during the time interval from orbit 3 (1 February 2005) to 237 (29 June 2016). A new and improved data analysis method to obtain ion density from the Cassini LP measurements is used to study the asymmetries and modulations found in the inner plasma disk of Saturn, between 2.5 and 12 Saturn radii (1 RS=60,268 km). The structure of Saturn's plasma disk is mapped, and the plasma density peak, nmax, is shown to be located at ˜4.6 RS and not at the main neutral source region at 3.95 RS. The shift in the location of nmax is due to that the hot electron impact ionization rate peaks at ˜4.6 RS. Cassini RPWS plasma disk measurements show a solar cycle modulation. However, estimates of the change in ion density due to varying EUV flux is not large enough to describe the detected dependency, which implies that an additional mechanism, still unknown, is also affecting the plasma density in the studied region. We also present a dayside/nightside ion density asymmetry, with nightside densities up to a factor of 2 larger than on the dayside. The largest density difference is found in the radial region 4 to 5 RS. The dynamic variation in ion density increases toward Saturn, indicating an internal origin of the large density variability in the plasma disk rather than being caused by an external source origin in the outer magnetosphere.

  12. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  13. Stationary Density Variation Produced by a Standing Plasma Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field.......Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field....

  14. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion line emissions in the time window of 300–2000 ns. An echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions.

  15. Charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 吕保维; O.Havnes

    1997-01-01

    The charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma, which is derived from the longitudinal dielectric permittivity of the dusty plasma, has been studied by kinetic theory. The results show that the P value, which describes the relative charge density on the dust in the plasma, and the charging frequency of a dust particle Ωc, which describes the ratio of charge changing of the dust particles, determine the character of the charge density fluctuation of low frequency. For a dusty plasma of P<<1, when the charging frequency Ωc is much smaller than the dusty plasma frequency wd, there is a strong charge density fluctuation which is of character of dust acoustic eigen wave. For a dusty plasma of P>>1, when the frequency Ωc, is much larger than wd there are weaker fluctuations with a wide spectrum. The results have been applied to the ionosphere and the range of radius and density of dust particles is found, where a strong charge density fluctuation of low frequency should exist.

  16. Numerical studies on the ramped density plasma lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Katsouleas, T.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the so-called adiabatic plasma lens when the plasma density is ramped too quickly to be considered adiabatic. The lens length can be much shorter in such a case, but the final spot size is shown to be larger by a factor of √1+α 2 than for a slowly ramped plasma lens with the same initial and final density (where α=-β'/2 is proportional to the plasma density gradient). We find that the final spot size is the same whether or not the Courant-Snyder parameters of the beam (α and β) are matched to the lens. However, matched beams allow the plasma density to be lower while unmatched beams allow the lens to be shorter (for the same α and for the same final to initial plasma density ratio). Finally, we find that a smaller spot size can be obtained for a given lens length and density ratio by starting at smaller α and increasing α along the lens

  17. Control of plasma density distribution via wireless power transfer in an inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Young-Cheol; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    With an enlargement of the wafer size, development of large-area plasma sources and control of plasma density distribution are required. To control the spatial distribution of the plasma density, wireless power transfer is applied to an inductively coupled plasma for the first time. An inner powered antenna and an outer resonant coil connected to a variable capacitor are placed on the top of the chamber. As the self-resonance frequency ω r of the resonant coil is adjusted, the power transfer rate from the inner powered coil to the outer resonant coil is changed and the dramatic evolution of the plasma density profile is measured. As ω r of the outer resonant coil changes from the non-resonant condition (where ω r is not the driving angular frequency ω rf ) to the resonant condition (where ω r = ω rf ), the plasma density profile evolves from a convex shape with maximal plasma density at the radial center into a concave shape with maximal plasma density in the vicinity of the resonant antenna coil. This result shows that the plasma density distribution can be successfully controlled via wireless resonance power transfer. (fast track communication)

  18. Evolution of the SOL plasma background at density shoulder formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isa, Federico Antonio; Carralero, Daniel; Lunt, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of our age is the ever increasing demand of energy. This prompts the search for new energy sources which should have the advantages of being nearly inexhaustible and usable to produce a predictable amount of energy. A possible solution is to build a reactor based on nuclear fusion. ITER will be the first divertor Tokamak to reach fusion break even and it will pave the way to a commercial use of fusion to produce sustainable and clean energy. One of the biggest obstacles to the construction of a commercial fusion reactor is represented by the heat and particle flux toward the main chamber plasma facing components and the divertor targets. A fusion reactor will likely experience power loads and erosion on the verge of the technical limits of available plasma facing materials. To predict properly the distribution of those fluxes between the divertor and the main chamber, a better understanding of the physics in the open field lines region (called Scrape-off layer or SOL) is required. This thesis, being developed in partnership with the Max-Planck-institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Garching bei Muenchen, DE), is framed in this context. In the SOL of L-mode (low confinement) discharges, qualitatively two kinds of density profiles can be distinguished. The first one is characterized by a strong density gradient in the vicinity of the separatrix, followed by a flat region towards the far SOL. The second profile lacks such a strong gradient and displays an almost linear decay in the whole SOL. The latter kind of density profile is characterized by stronger fluxes toward the first wall with respect to the first kind. This my be a threat for the ITER unlike the divertor targets which are made of tungsten, the first wall will be made beryllium which can suffer damage from sputtering. This work is focused on understanding the physics behind the transition between those two profiles, the so-called density shoulder formation. After the shoulder formation it is

  19. Evolution of the SOL plasma background at density shoulder formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Isa, Federico Antonio; Carralero, Daniel; Lunt, Tilmann; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-12-15

    One of the main problems of our age is the ever increasing demand of energy. This prompts the search for new energy sources which should have the advantages of being nearly inexhaustible and usable to produce a predictable amount of energy. A possible solution is to build a reactor based on nuclear fusion. ITER will be the first divertor Tokamak to reach fusion break even and it will pave the way to a commercial use of fusion to produce sustainable and clean energy. One of the biggest obstacles to the construction of a commercial fusion reactor is represented by the heat and particle flux toward the main chamber plasma facing components and the divertor targets. A fusion reactor will likely experience power loads and erosion on the verge of the technical limits of available plasma facing materials. To predict properly the distribution of those fluxes between the divertor and the main chamber, a better understanding of the physics in the open field lines region (called Scrape-off layer or SOL) is required. This thesis, being developed in partnership with the Max-Planck-institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Garching bei Muenchen, DE), is framed in this context. In the SOL of L-mode (low confinement) discharges, qualitatively two kinds of density profiles can be distinguished. The first one is characterized by a strong density gradient in the vicinity of the separatrix, followed by a flat region towards the far SOL. The second profile lacks such a strong gradient and displays an almost linear decay in the whole SOL. The latter kind of density profile is characterized by stronger fluxes toward the first wall with respect to the first kind. This my be a threat for the ITER unlike the divertor targets which are made of tungsten, the first wall will be made beryllium which can suffer damage from sputtering. This work is focused on understanding the physics behind the transition between those two profiles, the so-called density shoulder formation. After the shoulder formation it is

  20. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n plu , which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v gas is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n plu ∝ log(v gas ). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity

  1. Edge density profiles in high-performance JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, D.D.R.; Viaccoz, B.; Vince, J.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed electron density profiles of the scrape-off layer in high-performance JET plasmas (plasma current, I p nbi ∝17 MW) have been measured by means of a lithium beam diagnostic system featuring high spatial resolution [Kadota (1978)[. Measurements were taken over a period of several seconds, allowing examination of the evolution of the edge profile at a location upstream from the divertor target. The data clearly show the effects of the H-mode transition - an increase in density near the plasma separatrix and a reduction in density scrape-off length. The profiles obtained under various plasma conditions are compared firstly with data from other diagnostics, located elsewhere in the vessel, and also with the predictions of an 'onion-skin' model (DIVIMP), which used, as initial parameters, data from an array of probes located in the divertor target. (orig.)

  2. On lower hybrid wave scattering by plasma density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering of lower hybrid waves on plasma density fluctuations in a thin turbulent layer at the plasma periphery is studied numerically. The lower hybrid waves are supposed to be radiated by a four-waveguide grill used on the CASTOR tokamak. A great number of calculated scattered wave spectra show that the scattered spectrum shifts to larger values of the parallel-to-magnetic-field component of the wave vector (to slower waves) with increasing central plasma density and with the decreasing safety factor at the boundary. As known, this shift of the wave spectra results in a decrease in current drive efficiency. The current drive efficiency will hence decrease with growing plasma density and with decreasing safety factor. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs

  3. Simulation of density measurements in plasma wakefields using photo acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Sadler, James; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Holloway, James; Wing, Matthew; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One obstacle in plasma accelerator development is the limitation of techniques to diagnose and measure plasma wakefield parameters. In this paper, we present a novel concept for the density measurement of a plasma wakefield using photon acceleration, supported by extensive particle in cell simulations of a laser pulse that copropagates with a wakefield. The technique can provide the perturbed electron density profile in the laser’s reference frame, averaged over the propagation length, to be accurate within 10%. We discuss the limitations that affect the measurement: small frequency changes, photon trapping, laser displacement, stimulated Raman scattering, and laser beam divergence. By considering these processes, one can determine the optimal parameters of the laser pulse and its propagation length. This new technique allows a characterization of the density perturbation within a plasma wakefield accelerator.

  4. Simulation of density measurements in plasma wakefields using photon acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firmansyah Kasim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One obstacle in plasma accelerator development is the limitation of techniques to diagnose and measure plasma wakefield parameters. In this paper, we present a novel concept for the density measurement of a plasma wakefield using photon acceleration, supported by extensive particle in cell simulations of a laser pulse that copropagates with a wakefield. The technique can provide the perturbed electron density profile in the laser’s reference frame, averaged over the propagation length, to be accurate within 10%. We discuss the limitations that affect the measurement: small frequency changes, photon trapping, laser displacement, stimulated Raman scattering, and laser beam divergence. By considering these processes, one can determine the optimal parameters of the laser pulse and its propagation length. This new technique allows a characterization of the density perturbation within a plasma wakefield accelerator.

  5. Solid density, low temperature plasma formation in a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Jones, L.A.; Maestas, M.D.; Shepherd, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the ability of the authors to produce solid density, low temperature plasmas in polyurethane capillary discharges. The initial capillary diameter is 20 μm. The plasma is produced by discharging a one Ohm parallel plate waterline and Marx generator system through the capillary. A peak current of 340 kA in 300 ns heats the inner wall of the capillary, and the plasma expands into the surrounding material. The authors studied the evolution of the discharge using current and voltage probes, axial and radial streak photography, axial x-ray diode array and schlieren photography, and have estimated the peak temperature of the discharge to be approximately 10 eV and the density to be near 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/. This indicates that the plasma may approach the strongly coupled regime. They discuss their interpretation of the data and compare their results with theoretical models of the plasma dynamics

  6. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  7. PWFA plasma source - interferometric diagnostics for Li vapor density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumaran, V.; Mohandas, K.K.; Singh, Sneha; Ravi Kumar, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype (40 cm long) plasma source based on Li heat pipe oven has been developed for the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) experiments at IPR (IPR), Gujarat as a part of the ongoing Accelerator Programme. Li vapor in the oven is produced by heating solid Li in helium buffer gas. A uniform column of Li plasma is generated by UV photo ionization (193 nm) of the Li vapor in the heat pipe oven. In these experiments, an accurate measurement of Li vapor density is important as it has got a direct consequence on the plasma electron density. In the present experiment, the vapor density is measured optically by using Hook method (spectrally resolved white light interferometry). The hook like structure formed near the vicinity of the Li 670.8 nm resonance line was recorded with a white light Mach Zehnder interferometer crossed with an imaging spectrograph to estimate the Li vapor density. The vapor density measurements have been carried out as a function of external oven temperature and the He buffer gas pressure. This technique has the advantage of being insensitive to line broadening and line shape, and its high dynamic range even with optically thick absorption line. Here, we present the line integrated Lithium vapor density measurement using Hook method and also compare the same with other optical diagnostic techniques (White light absorption and UV absorption) for Li vapor density measurements. (author)

  8. Electron density measurement for steady state plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Chiba, Shinichi; Inoue, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Electron density of a large tokamak has been measured successfully by the tangential CO 2 laser polarimeter developed in JT-60U. The tangential Faraday rotation angles of two different wavelength of 9.27 and 10.6 μm provided the electron density independently. Two-color polarimeter concept for elimination of Faraday rotation at vacuum windows is verified for the first time. A system stability for long time operation up to ∼10 hours is confirmed. A fluctuation of a signal baseline is observed with a period of ∼3 hours and an amplitude of 0.4 - 0.7deg. In order to improve the polarimeter, an application of diamond window for reduction of the Faraday rotation at vacuum windows and another two-color polarimeter concept for elimination of mechanical rotation component are proposed. (author)

  9. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  10. Semi-analytical model of laser resonance absorption in plasmas with a parabolic density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S J; Mohammadnejad, M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for mode conversion and resonance absorption of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous, unmagnetized plasmas are required for laboratory and simulation studies. Although most of the analyses of this problem have concentrated on the linear plasma density profile, there are a few research works that deal with different plasma density profiles including the parabolic profile. Almost none of them could give clear analytical formulae for the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field propagating through inhomogeneous plasmas. In this paper, we have considered the resonant absorption of laser light near the critical density of plasmas with parabolic electron density profiles followed by a uniform over-dense region and have obtained expressions for the electric and magnetic vectors of laser light propagating through the plasma. An estimation of the fractional absorption of laser energy has also been carried out. It has been shown that, in contrast to the linear density profile, the energy absorption depends explicitly on the value of collision frequency as well as on a new parameter, N, called the over-dense density order.

  11. Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyj, A; Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H{sub {alpha}}-light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudyj, A.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Theimer, G.

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H α -light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Dark-ground illumination: a quantitative diagnostic for plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Radial electron density profiles of a toroidal belt pinch plasma have been obtained by a single measurement. Collimated ruby laser light, incident on the plasma, is focused to a diffraction limited spot (100 μm). The technique, a variation of the dark-ground microscope, involves masking the center of the plasma diffraction pattern with a thin wire. Undiffracted light is blocked by a thin wire, whereas light diffracted by the plasma passes around the wire and onto a photoplate. The resulting interference generates a high contrast fringe pattern whose intensity varies as 1-cosΔ phi, where Δ phi is the phase shift induced by the plasma. The fringes are recorded on Polaroid type 46L transparency film. Using this technique, radial density profiles of the plasma produced in the Columbia Torus I belt pinch have been measured. The plasma minor cross section is elliptical with a approx. 2 cm, b approx. 30 cm and approx. 3 x 10 16 /cm 3 . Average densities as low as 2 x 10 15 /cm 3 have been measured

  14. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B. [Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies LLC (United States); Smith, Jonathan [Tech-X UK Ltd, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G. [Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Hidding, Bernhard [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical “plasma torch” distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  15. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  16. The Properties of the Space-Charge and Net Current Density in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model is used to investigate the properties of positive space-charge and net current density in the sheath region of magnetized, collisional plasmas with warm positive ions. It is shown that an increase in the ion-neutral collision frequency, as well as the magnitude of the external magnetic field, leads to an increase in the net current density across the sheath region. The results also show that the accumulation of positive ions in the sheath region increases by increasing the ion-neutral collision frequency and the magnitude of the magnetic field. In addition, it is seen that an increase in the positive ion temperatures causes a decrease in the accumulation of positive ions and the net current density in the sheath region. (basic plasma phenomena)

  17. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  18. Is the bulk mode conversion important in high density helicon plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayama, Shogo; Hada, Tohru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Kohen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Shinohara, Shunjiro [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Tanikawa, Takao [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Tokai University 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    In a high-density helicon plasma production process, a contribution of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) wave for surface power deposition is widely accepted. The TG wave can be excited either due to an abrupt density gradient near the plasma edge (surface conversion) or due to linear mode conversion from the helicon wave in a density gradient in the bulk region (bulk mode conversion). By numerically solving the boundary value problem of linear coupling between the helicon and the TG waves in a background with density gradient, we show that the efficiency of the bulk mode conversion strongly depends on the dissipation included in the plasma, and the bulk mode conversion is important when the dissipation is small. Also, by performing FDTD simulation, we show the time evolution of energy flux associated with the helicon and the TG waves.

  19. Density profile measurements from a two-gun plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, C.C.; Yen, C.K.; Yeh, T.R.; Kuo, Y.Y.; Shang, D.J.; Yu, Y.Z.; Hou, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of the plasma evolution in a two-gun plasma focus device has been studied using the laser shadowgraphy as well as the laser interferometry. The experiments were carried out from a 700 kJ two-gun plasma focus device reported earlier, which consisted of a pair of Mather type coaxial electrodes connected muzzle to muzzle. Previous results indicated that the simultaneous formation of the two deuterium plasma foci occurred earlier and then after ∼ 100 ns a disk-shaped plasma of ∼ 1.5 cm in diameter appeared in the middle region between the anodes. It is, therefore, the authors' goal to study the density profiles in the plasma foci and the middle region in order to understand further the formation of the plasma foci and their time evolution. The laser shadowgraphy was done with a XeCl excimer pumped dye laser system which operated at 550 nm with pulse width of ∼ 10 ns. The laser interferometry, on the other hand, was carried out using a TEA-TEA oscillator-amplifier N 2 -laser system with 337.1 nm and subnano-second pulse width. Both results show that the maximum electron density is ≥2 x 10 19 cm -3 and, in addition, the growth of the hydrodynamic instabilities are observed. These results together with the detailed density profiles are presented and discussed

  20. Density functional and many-body theories of Hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, F.; Dharma-Wardana, M.W.C.

    1983-11-01

    This work is an attempt to go beyond the standard description of hot condensed matter using the well-known ''average atom model''. The first part describes a static model using ''Density functional theory'' to calculate self-consistent coupled electron and ion density profiles of the plasma not restricted to a single average atomic sphere. In a second part, the results are used as ingredients for a many-body approach to electronic properties: the one-particle Green-function self-energy is calculated, from which shifted levels, populations and level-widths are deduced. Results for the Hydrogen plasma are reported, with emphasis on the 1s bound state

  1. Density effects on electronic configurations in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We present a quantum mechanical model to describe the density effects on electronic configurations inside a plasma environment. Two different approaches are given by starting from a quantum average-atom model. Illustrations are shown for an aluminum plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium at solid density and at a temperature of 100 eV and in the thermodynamic conditions of a recent experiment designed to characterize the effects of the ionization potential depression treatment. Our approach compares well with experiment and is consistent in that case with the approach of Stewart and Pyatt to describe the ionization potential depression rather than with the method of Ecker and Kröll.

  2. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  3. Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Helle, M.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ∼1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called ''bucket jumping'' where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.

  4. Optimum design of a microwave interferometer for plasma density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.; Eriksson, A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical and practical problems arising in the application of microwave interferometry to density measurements on transient plasmas are discussed. The conditions for unambiquous measurements in a density range as wide as possible are analyzed. It is shown that the initial zero adjustment of the interferometer bridge recommended in many text books is the worst possible choice of initial condition when the aim is high initial sensitivity at low densities. The analytic expressions needed for unambiquous evaluation of any phase shift from a few degrees to several times π (counting of fringes) are derived. The practical design of the interferometer circuit and its inherent error sources due to reflexions and non-ideal component properties are discussed. The results are applied to an interferometer operating at 80 GHz used on a pulsed plasma experiment. The minimum measurable phase shift is 2deg and the range of linear densities that have been measured is = 1 . 10 16 - 3 . 10 18 m -2

  5. Effect of beam density and of higher harmonics on beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacina, J.; Krlin, L.; Koerbel, S.

    1974-10-01

    The interaction in a cold electron beam-plasma system is investigated numerically in a density ratio region of nsub(B)/nsub(P) = 2 x 10 -3 to 2 x 10 -2 . The one-dimensional model of a collisionless plasma is used. The time development of the wave with maximal growing rate and its spatial harmonics is studied. The plasma effect is simulated by direct computation of plasma particle trajectories (this being different from the usual plasma simulation by means of a dielectric). The calculations show the following effects of the finite parameter (nsub(B)/nsub(P))sup(1/3): the ratio of the plasma energy to the electric field energy is increased, the damping character of the field and macroscopic amplitudes reveals, and the influence of the second harmonic is not negligible for nsub(B)/nsub(P) >= 10 -2 . (author)

  6. Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A.; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.

    2001-11-01

    The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)

  7. Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    2001-11-01

    The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)

  8. Edge plasma density reconstruction for fast monoenergetic lithium beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Takamura, S.; Ueda, M.; Iguchi, H.; Fujita, J.; Kadota, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two different electron density reconstruction methods for 8-keV neutral lithium beam probing have been developed for the Compact Helical System (CHS). Density dependences on emission and ionization processes are included by using effective rate coefficients obtained from the collisional radiative model. Since the two methods differ in the way the local beam density in the plasma is determined, the methods have different applicable electron densities. The beam attenuation is calculated by iteration from the electron density profile in method I. In method II, the beam remainder at the observation point z is determined by integrating the Li I emission intensity from z toward the position of emission tail-off. At the emission tail-off, the fast lithium beam is completely attenuated. Selecting an appropriate method enables us to obtain edge electron density profile well inside the last closed flux surface for various ranges of plasma densities (10 12 --5x10 13 cm -3 ). The electron density profiles reconstructed by these two different methods are in good agreement with each other and are consistent with results from ruby laser Thomson scattering

  9. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  10. Potential and electron density calculated for freely expanding plasma by an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C. Y.; Tsai, Y. H.; Ma, C.; Wen, M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the radial distributions of potential and electron density in free expansion plasma induced by an electron beam irradiating on the plate. The region of plasma production is assumed to be cylindrical, and the plasma expansion is assumed to be from a cylindrical source. Therefore, the one-dimensional model in cylindrical coordinates is employed in order to analyze the radial distributions of the potential and electron density. The Runge-Kutta method and the perturbation method are utilized in order to obtain the numerical and approximate solutions, respectively. The results reveal that the decrease in the initial ion energy makes most of the ions gather near the plasma production region and reduces the distribution of the average positive potential, electron, and ion density along the radial direction. The oscillation of steady-state plasma along the radial direction is also presented in this paper. The ions induce a larger amplitude of oscillation along the radial direction than do electrons because the electrons oscillate around slowly moving ions due to a far smaller electron mass than ion mass. The radial distributions of the positive potential and electron density predicted from this study are compared with the available experimental data.

  11. Density fluctuations due to Raman forward scattering in quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Punit, E-mail: punitkumar@hotmail.com; Singh, Shiv; Rathore, Nisha Singh, E-mail: nishasingh-rathore@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Density fluctuations due Raman forward scattering (RFS) is analysed in the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with high density quantum plasma. The interaction model is developed using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model which consist of a set of equations describing the transport of charge, density, momentum and energy of a charged particle system interacting through a self-consistent electrostatic potential. The nonlinear source current has been obtained incorporating the effects of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and electron spin. The laser spectrum is strongly modulated by the interaction, showing sidebands at the plasma frequency. Furthermore, as the quiver velocity of the electrons in the high electric field of the laser beam is quit large, various quantum effects are observed which can be attributed to the variation of electron mass with laser intensity.

  12. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Barbato, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Buratti, P [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-12-15

    A tokamak plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) is the best candidate for a steady ITER operation, since the high energy confinement allows working at plasma currents (I{sub p}) lower than the reference scenario. To build and sustain an ITB at the ITER high density ({>=}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) and largely dominant electron (e{sup -}) heating is not trivial in most existing tokamaks. FTU can instead meet both requests, thanks to its radiofrequency heating systems, lower hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and electron cyclotron (EC up to 1.2 MW). By the combined use of them, ITBs are obtained up to peak densities n{sub e0} > 1.3 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, with central e{sup -} temperatures T{sub e0} {approx} 5.5 keV, and are sustained for as long as the heating pulse is applied (>35 confinement times, {tau}{sub E}). At n{sub e0} {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T{sub e0} can be larger than 11 keV. Almost full current drive (CD) and an overall good steadiness is attained within about one {tau}{sub E}, 20 times faster than the ohmic current relaxation time. The ITB extends over a central region with an almost flat or slightly reversed q profile and q{sub min} {approx} 1.3 that is fully sustained by off-axis lower hybrid current drive. Consequent to this is the beneficial good alignment of the bootstrap current, generated by the ITB large pressure gradients, with the LH driven current. Reflectometry shows a clear change in the turbulence close to the ITB radius, consistent with the reduced e{sup -} transport. Ions (i{sup +}) are significantly heated via collisions, but thermal equilibrium with electrons cannot be attained since the e{sup -}-i{sup +} equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than {tau}{sub E}. No degradation of the overall ion transport, rather a reduction of the i{sup +} heat diffusivity, is observed inside the ITB. The global confinement has been improved up to 1.6 times over the scaling predictions. The ITB radius can be controlled by adjusting the

  13. Effect of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fulin

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of radial distribution of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by toroidal rotation. The effect of radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity on stability is also examine for comparison. It is found that within the range of tokamak parameters the only radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity cannot induce Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the contrary, when there is a radial distribution of plasma density, i.e. P 01 =P 0 e -tx and V 0 1 = const, plasma becomes unstable, and instability will increase proportionally to the value of t. Meanwhile when the value of t remains constant, the instability growth rate will decrease if P 0 grows or the distance between plasma and wall of container decreases too. It shows that the Kelvin-Helmoltz instability is not only influenced by the steepness of density profile but also by the inertia of plasma in central region, which is helpful for depressing the instability. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, F A N; Kakehasi, A M; Guimarães, M F B R; Machado, C J; Barbosa, A J A

    2017-05-18

    Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD) in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years). Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008) compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007). However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03). The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  15. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.N. Maksud

    Full Text Available Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years. Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008 compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007. However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03. The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  16. Downshift of electron plasma oscillations in the electron foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.; Gurnett, D.A.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1985-01-01

    Electron plasma oscillations in the earth's electron foreshock region are observed to shift above and below the local electron plasma frequency. As plasma oscillations shift downward from the plasma frequency, their bandwidth increases and their wavelength decreases. Observations of plasma oscillations well below the plasma frequency are correlated with times when ISEE 1 is far downstream of the electron foreshock boundary. Although wavelengths of plasma oscillations below the plasma frequency satisfy k x lambda-De approximately 1 the Doppler shift due to the motion of the solar wind is not sufficient to produce the observed frequency shifts. A beam-plasma interaction with beam velocities on the order of the electron thermal velocity is suggested as an explanation for plasma oscillations above and below the plasma frequency. Frequency, bandwidth, and wavelength changes predicted from the beam-plasma interaction are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of plasma oscillations in the foreshock region. 28 references

  17. Downshift of electron plasma oscillations in the electron foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electron plasma oscillations in the Earth's electron foreshock region are observed to shift above and below the local electron plasma frequency. As plasma oscillations shift from the plasma frequency, their bandwidth increases and their wavelength decreases. Observations of plasma oscillations well below the plasma frequency are correlated with times when ISEE-I is far downstream of the electron foreshock boundary. Although wavelengths of plasma oscillations below the plasma frequency satisfy klambda/sub De/ approx. = 1, the Doppler shift due to the motion of the solar wind is not sufficient to produce the observed frequency shifts. A beam-plasma interaction with beam velocities on the order of the electron thermal velocity is suggested as an explanation for plasma oscillations above and below the plasma frequency. Frequency, bandwidth, and wavelength changes predicted from the beam-plasma interaction are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of plasma oscillations in the foreshock region

  18. Density and magnetic field measurements in the Tormac IV-c plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coonrod, J.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Tormac is a concept for magnetically confining a high-β fusion plasma in a toroidal, stuffed line cusp. A Tormac plasma has two regions: an interior confined on the closed toroidal field lines of the stuffing field, and an exterior sheath on open, cusped field lines. The interior plasma gives the device a longer confinement time than a standard mirror, while the favorable curvature of the cusp fields allow the plasma to be stable at higher values of β (the ratio of the plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) than a totally closed configuration like Tokamak. This thesis describes the design, construction and operation of Tormac IV-c, and reports on the results, with emphasis on describing the behavior of the density compression and field penetration

  19. Magnetohydrodynamically stable plasma with supercritical current density at the axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdakov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Lavrentjev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marks Avenue, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postupaev, V. V., E-mail: V.V.Postupaev@inp.nsk.su; Sudnikov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Lavrentjev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova st., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, an analysis of magnetic perturbations in the GOL-3 experiment is given. In GOL-3, plasma is collectively heated in a multiple-mirror trap by a high-power electron beam. During the beam injection, the beam-plasma interaction maintains a high-level microturbulence. This provides an unusual radial profile of the net current (that consists of the beam current, current of the preliminary discharge, and the return current). The plasma core carries supercritical current density with the safety factor well below unity, but as a whole, the plasma is stable with q(a) ≈ 4. The net plasma current is counter-directed to the beam current; helicities of the magnetic field in the core and at the edge are of different signs. This forms a system with a strong magnetic shear that stabilizes the plasma core in good confinement regimes. We have found that the most pronounced magnetic perturbation is the well-known n = 1, m = 1 mode for both stable and disruptive regimes.

  20. Interaction of the modulated electron beam with inhomogeneous plasma: plasma density profile deformation and langmuir waves excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Kelnyk, O.I.; Soroka, S.V.; Siversky, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear deformation of the initially linear plasma density profile due to the modulated electron beam is studied via computer simulation. In the initial time period the field slaves to the instantaneous profile of the plasma density. Langmuir waves excitation is suppressed by the density profile deformation. The character of the plasma density profile deformation for the late time period depends significantly on the plasma properties. Particularly, for plasma with hot electrons quasi-periodic generation of ion-acoustic pulses takes place in the vicinity of the initial point of plasma resonance

  1. Pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costley, A; Prentice, R [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Laviron, C [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Prentice, R [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d` Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements

    1994-07-01

    On tokamaks and other toroidal machines, reflectometry is a very rapidly developing technique for density profile measurements, particularly near the edge. Its principle relies on the total reflection of an electromagnetic wave at a cutoff layer, where the critical density is reached and the local refractive index goes to zero. With the new fast frequency synthesizers now available, a method based on pulse compression radar is proposed for plasma reflectometry, overcoming the limitations of the previous reflectometry methods. The measurement can be made on a time-scale which is effectively very short relatively to the plasma fluctuations, and the very high reproducibility and stability of the source allows an absolute calibration of the waveguides to be made, which corrects for the effects of the parasitic reflections. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Plasma density measurement with ring-type cutoff probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.; You, S.J.; Na, B.K.; Kim, J.H.; Shin, Y.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Oh, W.Y.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a cutoff probe with a ring-type detection tip enclosing a bar-type radiation tip. A comparative study between a proposed ring-type cutoff (RTC) probe and a conventional bar-type cutoff (BTC) probe showed that the RTC probe solved the problem of the BTC probe, the large measurement uncertainty of the electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma source. This improved characteristics of the RTC probe might have originated from the geometrical structure of the RTC probe concerning the monopole antennae radiation. This proposed cutoff probe can be expected to expand the applicable diagnostic range and to enhance the sensitivity of the cutoff probe. - Highlights: ► A cutoff probe with a ring type detection tip is proposed. ► Comparative experiment and simulation were conducted. ► The proposed probe showed a small uncertainty of measured plasma density. ► Improved characteristics might be originated from the geometrical structure

  3. Current density distribution during disruptions and sawteeth in a simple model of plasma current in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovskii, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that are likely to accompany discharge disruptions and sawteeth in a tokamak are considered in a simple plasma current model. The redistribution of the current density in plasma is supposed to be primarily governed by the onset of the MHD-instability-driven turbulent plasma mixing in a finite region of the current column. For different disruption conditions, the variation in the total plasma current (the appearance of a characteristic spike) is also calculated. It is found that the numerical shape and amplitude of the total current spikes during disruptions approximately coincide with those measured in some tokamak experiments. Under the assumptions adopted in the model, the physical mechanism for the formation of the spikes is determined. The mechanism is attributed to the diffusion of the negative current density at the column edge into the zero-conductivity region. The numerical current density distributions in the plasma during the sawteeth differ from the literature data.

  4. Feasibility study of the plasma electron density measurement by electromagnetic radiation from the laser-driven plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S

    2012-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.

  5. Bremsstrahlung spectra for Al, Cs, and Au atoms in high-temperature, high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Pratt, R.H.; Tseng, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented from a numerical calculation for the bremsstrahlung spectrum and Gaunt factors of Al, Cs, and Au atoms in high-temperature (-T), high-density (-rho) plasmas. Plasma temperatures kT = 0.1 and 1.0 keV and plasma densities rho = rho 0 (the normal solid density) and rho = 100rho 0 are considered. This allows us to determine the generality and identify the origins of features which we had previously identified in calculations for Cs. We also now present results for the total energy loss of an electron in such a plasma. We use a relativistic multipole code which treats the bremsstrahlung process as a single-electron transition in a static screened central potential. We take for the static potential corresponding to an atom in a hot dense plasma the finite-temperature, finite-density Thomas-Fermi model. This approach corresponds to an average atom in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In comparison to isolated-neutral-atom results we observe general suppression of cross sections and a particular suppression in the tip region of the spectrum. Within this model, both superscreening and shape resonances are found in the circumstances of extreme density. At more normal densities and except for the soft-photon end, the spectrum at these energies for an atom in a hot plasma (characterized by an average degree of ionization) can be well represented by the spectrum of the corresponding isolated ion, which has a similar potential shape at the distances which characterize the process

  6. Time dependent density functional theory of light absorption in dense plasmas: application to iron-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.; Dharma-Wardana, M.W.C.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a simple time-dependent calculation of the light absorption cross section for a strongly coupled partially degenerate plasma so as to transcend the usual single-particle picture. This is achieved within the density functional theory (DFT) of plasmas by generalizing the method given by Zangwill and Soven for atomic calculations at zero temperature. The essential feature of the time dependent DFT is the correct treatment of the relaxation of the system under the external field. Exploratory calculations for a Fe-plasma at 100 eV show new features in the absorption cross section which are absent in the usual single particle theory. These arise from inter-shell correlations, channel mixing and self-energy effects. These many-body effects introduce significant modifications to the radiative properties of plasmas and are shown to be efficiently calculable by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)

  7. Time dependent density functional theory of light absorption in dense plasmas: application to iron-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.; Dharma-Wardana, M.W.C.

    1985-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a simple time-dependent calculation of the light absorption cross section for a strongly coupled partially degenerate plasma so as to transcend the usual single-particle picture. This is achieved within the density functional theory (DFT) of plasmas by generalizing the method given by Zangwill and Soven for atomic calculations at zero temperature. The essential feature of the time dependent DFT is the correct treatment of the relaxation of the system under the external field. Exploratory calculations for an Fe-plasma at 100 eV show new features in the absorption cross section which are absent in the usual single particle theory. These arise from inter-shell correlations, channel mixing and self-energy effects. These many-body effects introduce significant modifications to the radiative properties of plasma and are shown to be efficiently calculable by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)

  8. Cluster observations of near-Earth magnetospheric lobe plasma densities – a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Svenes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster-mission has enabled a study of the near-Earth magnetospheric lobes throughout the waning part of solar cycle 23. During the first seven years of the mission the satellites crossed this region of space regularly from about July to October. We have obtained new and more accurate plasma densities in this region based on spacecraft potential measurements from the EFW-instrument. The plasma density measurements are found by converting the potential measurements using a functional relationship between these two parameters. Our observations have shown that throughout this period a full two thirds of the measurements were contained in the range 0.007–0.092 cm−3 irrespective of solar wind conditions or geomagnetic activity. In fact, the most probable density encountered was 0.047 cm−3, staying roughly constant throughout the entire observation period. The plasma population in this region seems to reflect an equilibrium situation in which the density is independent of the solar wind condition or geomagnetic activity. However, the high density tail of the population (ne>0.2 cm−3 seemed to decrease with the waning solar cycle. This points to a source region influenced by the diminishing solar UV/EUV-intensity. Noting that the quiet time polar wind has just such a development and that it is magnetically coupled to the lobes, it seems likely to assume that this is a prominent source for the lobe plasma.

  9. Do plasma proteins distinguish between liposomes of varying charge density?

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura

    2012-03-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are one of the most employed nonviral nanovector systems in gene therapy. However, their transfection efficiency is strongly affected by interactions with plasma components, that lead to the formation of a "protein corona" onto CL surface. The interactions between nanoparticles entering the body and biomolecules have an essential role for their biodistribution. Because the knowledge of proteins adsorbed onto vector surface could be useful in the screening of new, more efficient and more biocompatible liposomal formulations, the behavior of three CLs with different membrane charge densities was investigated. The proteins of the three coronas were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified with label-free spectral counting strategy. Fibrinogen displayed higher association with CLs with high membrane charge density, while apolipoproteins and C4b-binding protein with CLs with low membrane charge density. These results are discussed in terms of the different lipid compositions of CLs and may have a deep biological impact for in vivo applications. Surface charge of nanoparticles is emerging as a relevant factor determining the corona composition after interaction with plasma proteins. Remarkably, it is also shown that the charge of the protein corona formed around CLs is strongly related to their membrane charge density. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Glenzer, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Rambo, P.W.; Stone, G.F.; Trebes, J.E.; Weber, F.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 μm. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments

  11. Impact of the storm-time plasma sheet ion composition on the ring current energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Cohen, I.

    2017-12-01

    The adiabatic inward transport of the night-side near-earth ( 6 Re) hot plasma sheet is the dominant contributor to the ring current pressure during storm times. During storm times, the plasma sheet composition in the 6 - 12 Re tail region changes due to O+ entry from the lobes (from the cusp) and the direct feeding from the night side auroral region. In addition, at substorm onset the plasma sheet O+ ions can be preferentially accelerated. We use MMS and observations during two magnetic storms, 5/8/2016 and 7/16/2017, to monitor the composition changes and energization in the 6 - 12 Re plasma sheet region. For both storms the MMS apogee was in the tail. In addition, we use subsequent Van Allen Probe observations (with apogee in the dawn and dusk respectively) to test if the 6-12 Re plasma sheet, observed by MMS, is a sufficient source of the O+ in the ring current. For this we will compare the phase space density (PSD) of the plasma sheet source population and the PSD of the inner magnetosphere at constant magnetic moment values as used in Kistler et al., [2016].

  12. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  13. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, R S

    2015-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 10 10 J/m 3 . The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I 4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  14. The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section

  15. Modification of K-line emission profiles in laser-created solid-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengebusch, A.; Reinholz, H.; Roepke, G.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. X-ray emissions in the keV energy range have shown to be suitable radiation to investigate the properties of laser-created solid-density plasmas. We use the modifications of inner shell transitions due to the environment to characterize these plasmas. A theoretical treatment of spectral line profiles based on a self-consistent ion sphere model is applied on moderately ionized mid-Z materials, such as titanium, silicon and chlorine. We observe large contributions of satellite transitions due to M-shell ionization and excitation. To determine the composition a mixture of various excited and ionized ionic states embedded in a plasma has to be considered. Plasma polarization effects that cause shifts of the emission and ionization energies are taken into account. K-line profiles are calculated for bulk temperatures up to 100 eV and free electron densities up to 10 24 cm -3 in order to analyze recent measurements with respect to the plasma parameters of electron heated target regions. Moreover, in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, inevitable prepulses are likely to create preplasma and shocks within the target before the main pulse arrives. We investigate the influence of density gradients due to prepulses on the spectral profiles. Further, radial bulk temperature distributions as well the composition of the created warm dense matter are inferred.

  16. Core density fluctuations in reverse magnetic shear plasmas with internal transport barrier on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.; Shinohara, K.; Yoshino, R.; Fujita, T.; Shirai, H.; Kramer, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    First measurements of the radial correlation length of density fluctuations in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier (ITB) is reported. The measurements are obtained using a newly installed correlation reflectometer operating in the upper X-mode. Before transport barrier formation in the low beam power current ramp-up phase of the discharge, reflectometer measurements indicate density fluctuation levels n-tilde/n∼0.1-0.2% and radial correlation lengths 2-3 cm (k r p i ≤0.5) in the central plasma region (r/a r p i ∼3. However, fluctuation levels are considerably higher than measured near the magnetic axis. Reflectometer measurements obtained at the foot of the ITB also indicate high fluctuation levels compared to measurements in the central region of the discharge. (author)

  17. Advection of long lived density blobs in the turbulent state of a simple magnetized torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barni, R; Riccardi, C

    2009-01-01

    The turbulent regime of a simple magnetized toroidal plasma column has been studied in the plasma device Thorello. The detection and the study of the spatio-temporal evolution of structures have been performed by means of conditional sampling techniques as well as other statistical tools. As a result the evidence of plasma blob formation and expulsion from the edge of the main plasma column has been obtained. The relation between structure phenomenology and statistical characteristics of the turbulent regime has been investigated. The motion of the density structures in the edge region of our device does not look ballistic but rather driven by the overall potential profile established in the turbulent state. Potential fluctuations are strongly anti-correlated with density structures, located in the same position and somewhat more extended. They provide a shallow potential well with a flat bottom and quite sharp edges surrounding and co-moving with the blobs. Blob lifetime exceeds the residence time associated with the overall E x B drift field. Then such persistent structures provide a means for a net convection of the charged particles to the limiter, across the magnetic field and beyond the edge region of the plasma.

  18. Effect of density control and impurity transport on internal transport barrier formation in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Arimoto, Hideki; Yamazaki, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    In future fusion reactors, density control, such as fueling by pellet injection, is an effective method to control the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) in reversed magnetic shear plasma, which can improve plasma performance. On the other hand, an operation with ITB can cause accumulation of impurities inside the core ITB region. We studied the relation between pellet injection and ITB formation and the effect of impurity transport on the core of ITB for tokamak plasmas by using the toroidal transport analysis linkage. For ITB formation, we showed that the pellet has to be injected beyond the position where the safety factor q takes the minimum value. We confirmed that the accumulation of impurities causes the attenuation of ITB owing to radiation loss inside the ITB region. Moreover, in terms of the divertor heat flux reduction by impurity gas, the line radiation loss is high for high-Z noble gas impurities, such as Kr, whereas factor Q decreases slightly. (author)

  19. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  20. Analysis of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Kim, T. C.; Mishin, E. V.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y. S.; Paraschiv, I.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At mid-latitudes the source of F-region Field Aligned Irregularities (FAI) is yet to be determined. They can be created in enhanced subauroral flow channels (SAI/SUBS), where strong gradients of electric field, density and plasma temperature are present. Another important source of FAI is connected with Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. This approach allows to resolve density irregularities on the meter scale. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code will be used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the mid-latitude region. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ data obtained during the 2016 Daejeon (Korea) and MU (Japan) radar campaign and data collected simultaneously by the Swarm satellites passed over Korea and Japan. PA approved #: 88ABW-2017-3641

  1. One-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with sinusoidal densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Shang, L.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of electromagnetic waves with normal and oblique incidence have been studied for one-dimensional plasma layers with sinusoidal densities. Wave transmittance as a function of wave frequency exhibits photonic band gaps characteristic of photonic crystals. For periodic structures, increasing collision frequency is demonstrated to lead to greater absorption, increasing the modulation factor enlarges the gap width, and increasing incidence angle can change the gap locations of the two polarizations. If a defect layer is introduced by inserting a new plasma layer in the center, a defect mode may appear within the gap. Periodic number, collision frequency, and modulation factor can affect magnitude of the defect mode. The incidence angle enables the frequency to be tuned. Defect layer thickness affects both frequency and number of defect modes. These results may provide theoretical guidance in designing tunable narrow-band filters

  2. Soliton formation at critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Bondeson, A.; Lisak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The generation of Langmuir solitons at the resonance layer in a plasma irradiated by a strong high-frequency pump is investigated. The process is modelled by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation including an external pump, a density gradient and linear damping. The evolution equation is reformulated as an exact variational principle and the one-soliton generation process is studied by substituting various trial solutions. The applicability conditions for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation are re-examined and found to be more restrictive than previously stated. (author)

  3. Plasma density calculation based on the HCN waveform data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liaoyuan; Pan Li; Luo Cuiwen; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhongchao

    2004-01-01

    A method to improve the plasma density calculation is introduced using the base voltage and the phase zero points obtained from the HCN interference waveform data. The method includes making the signal quality higher by putting the signal control device and the analog-to-digit converters in the same location and charging them by the same power, and excluding the noise's effect according to the possible changing rate of the signal's phase, and to make the base voltage more accurate by dynamical data processing. (authors)

  4. Density gradients in the solar plasma observed by interplanetary scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapper, G.R.; Hewish, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique is described which overcomes the limitation set by Fresnel filtering in previous IPS studies of the small-scale density irregularities in the solar plasma. Phase gradients introduced by irregularities larger than the Fresnel limit cause transverse displacements of the small-scale scintillation pattern. In the presence of the solar wind, such refraction effects may be revealed by simultaneous measurements of intensity scintillation at two radio frequencies. Observations show that the structure corresponding to temporal frequencies approximately 0.02 Hz is in agreement with an extrapolation of the Kolmogorov spectrum derived from spacecraft data at lower frequencies. (author)

  5. Plasma density remote control system of experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxin; Luo Jiarong; Li Guiming; Wang Hua; Zhao Dazheng; Xu Congdong

    2007-01-01

    In Tokamak experiments, experimental data and information on the density control are stored in the local computer system. Therefore, the researchers have to be in the control room for getting the data. Plasma Density Remote Control System (DRCS), which is implemented by encapsulating the business logic on the client in the B/S module, conducts the complicated science computation and realizes the synchronization with the experimental process on the client. At the same time, Web Services and Data File Services are deployed for the data exchange. It is proved in the experiments that DRCS not only meets the requirements for the remote control, but also shows an enhanced capability on the data transmission. (authors)

  6. Flare plasma density determination using observed temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Observed electron temperature variations derived from flux intensity ratios of whole-disk continuum soft X-ray spectra recorded by GOES satellites are presently subjected to an analysis that is based on the nonequilibrium energy balance equation in order to obtain the physical properties of a large solar flare from onset through the gradual phase. A self-similar formalism which reduces the nonlinear, second-order PDE in length and time to a more tractable, nonlinear, first-order Ricatti equation is invoked. Plasma density is the principal unknown variable contained in the Ricatti equation, which also contains first-order time derivatives and first- and second-order spatial derivatives of temperature. This methodology is presently applied to the moderate size flare of January 28, 1982, for which a density profile is deduced under various parametric conditions. 37 references

  7. Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises dt, dd, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 1017 to 1020 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 mev, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner

  8. Physical Modeling of the Processes Responsible for the Mid-Latitude Storm Enhanced Plasma Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Maruyama, N.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Heelis, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Certain magnetic local time sectors at mid latitudes see substantial increases in plasma density in the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. The St. Patrick's Day storms of 2013 and 2015 were no exception, both producing large increases of total electron content at mid latitudes. There are theories for the build up of the storm enhanced density (SED), but can current theoretical ionosphere-thermosphere coupled models actually reproduce the response for an actual event? Not only is it necessary for the physical model to contain the appropriate physics, they also have to be forced by the correct drivers. The SED requires mid-latitude zonal transport to provide plasma stagnation in sunlight to provide the production. The theory also requires a poleward drift perpendicular to the magnetic field to elevate the plasma out of the body of the thermosphere to regions of substantially less loss rate. It is also suggested that equatorward winds are necessary to further elevate the plasma to regions of reduced loss. However, those same winds are also likely to transport molecular nitrogen rich neutral gas equatorward, potentially canceling out the benefits of the neutral circulation. Observations of mid-latitude zonal plasma flow are first analyzed to see if this first necessary ingredient is substantiated. The drift observations are then used to tune the driver to determine if, with the appropriate electric field driver, the latest physical models can reproduce the substantial plasma build up. If it can, the simulation can also be used to assess the contribution of the equatorward meridional wind; are they an asset to the plasma build up, or does the enhanced molecular species they carry counteract their benefit.

  9. A microwave interferometer for density measurement and stabilization in process plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.I.C.; Campbell, G.A.; Domier, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    A low-cost heterodyne microwave interferometer system capable of measuring and/or controlling the plasma density over a dynamic range covering two orders of magnitude is demonstrated. The microwave frequency is chosen to match the size and density of plasma to be monitored. Large amplitude, high frequency fluctuations can be quantitatively followed and the longer-time-scale density can be held constant over hours of operation, for example during an inline production process to maintain uniformity and stoichiometry of films. A linear relationship is shown between plasma density and discharge current in a specific plasma device. This simple relationship makes control of the plasma straightforward using the interferometer as a density monitor. Other plasma processes could equally well benefit from such density control capability. By combining the interferometer measurement with diagnostics such as probes or optical spectroscopy, the total density profile and the constituent proportions of the various species in the plasma could be determined

  10. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedeji, O.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1991-01-01

    We have finished the first stages of our experimental and theoretical investigations on models for energy and momentum transport and for photon-particle collision processes in a turbulent quasi-stationary high density plasma. The system is explored by beginning to determine the turbulence phenomenology associated with an ionizing shock wave. The theoretical underpinnings are explored for phonon particle collisions by determining the collisional redistribution function, using Lioville Space Green's Function, which will characterize the inelastic scattering of the radiation from one frequency to another. We have observed that a weak magnetic field tends to increase the apparent random-like behaviors in a collisional turbulent plasma. On the theoretical side, we have been able to achieve a form for the collisional redistribution function. It remains to apply these concepts to a stationary turbulent plasma in the reflected ionizing shock wave and to exercise the implications of evaluations of the collisional redistribution function for such a system when it is probed by a strong radiation source. These results are discussed in detail in the publications, which have resulted from the this effort, cited at the end of the report

  11. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  12. Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed

  13. The study of field and density cavity in the near wake region of a space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qing; Wang Jing; Hu Taoping

    2011-01-01

    Under the static limit,using the method of Fourier transformation, the non-steady, nonlinear interactions between plasma and field in the near wake region of a space vehicle are investigated. Numerical calculations are performed and the results show that there are the formation of the electromagnetic soliton and density caviton in the near wake region of the space vehicle, which can be detected due to the collapse of electric field. Therefore, we can trace out the space vehicle by means of observing the structure and intensity of the density caviton and electromagnetic soliton although the space vehicle may be have a disguised characteristic. (authors)

  14. The solar wind plasma density control of night-time auroral particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available DMSP F6 and F7 spacecraft observations of the average electron and ion energy, and energy fluxes in different night-time precipitation regions for the whole of 1986 were used to examine the precipitation features associated with solar wind density changes. It was found that during magnetic quietness |AL|<100nT, the enhancement of average ion fluxes was observed at least two times, along with the solar wind plasma density increase from 2 to 24cm–3. More pronounced was the ion flux enhancement that occurred in the b2i–b4s and b4s–b5 regions, which are approximately corresponding to the statistical auroral oval and map to the magnetospheric plasma sheet tailward of the isotropy boundary. The average ion energy decrease of about 2–4kev was registered simultaneously with this ion flux enhancement. The results verify the occurrence of effective penetration of the solar wind plasma into the magnetospheric tail plasma sheet. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere, particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (solar windmagnetosphere interaction

  15. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  16. Plasma density fluctuation measurements from coherent and incoherent microwave reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.D.; Schott, L.; Hirose, A.

    1996-01-01

    Using the spatial coherency present in a reflected microwave signal (Conway et al 1994 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 2920) it is possible to measure a coherent, Γ c , and an incoherent, Γ i , reflection coefficient (proportional to the radar cross section) from a turbulent plasma cutoff layer. Results acquired with a 17 GHz reflectometer from a STOR-M tokamak edge region (r/a ∼ 0.8) give significant Γ c and Γ i , which suggests two-dimensional structure in the reflection layer. Using a 'distorted-mirror' model for the plasma fluctuations, estimates of an effective radial width, σ, and poloidal correlation length, L p , can be derived from the reflection coefficients. STOR-M results typically give a σ of a few millimetres and an L p of a couple of centimetres. (author)

  17. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegnered, D; Oberparleiter, M; Nordman, H; Strand, P

    2016-01-01

    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/L T , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/L n region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/L n and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/L n . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. (paper)

  18. The calculation of electron density of the non-ideal argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ming; Cheng Xinlu; Yang Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    By the screened hydrogenic model, the paper calculates the electron densities of shock-generated argon plasma with temperature T∼2.0 eV and density of plasma ρ∼0.01 g/cm 3 -0.49 g/cm 3 , and studies the influence on electron density caused by interparticle interaction at the different temperature and density of plasma. (author)

  19. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (B z ) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (B x , B y , B z ). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T 2 or T* 2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy B z data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured B z data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging

  20. Edge density X-mode reflectometry of RF-heated plasmas on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, R.

    1991-09-01

    In the present work microwave reflectometry is extended to the outermost part of tokamak plasmas (n e ≅ 10 11 to 1.5x10 13 cm -3 ), which is subject to strong electron density fluctuations. The perturbations of electron density profile measurements by these fluctuations, which lead to strong modulations in intensity and phase of the reflected signal is analysed in detail. By increasing the frequency of the interference fringes to values between 800 kHz and 2.4 MHz it is possible to make reliable profile measurements even in the region of very strong fluctuations. Measurements in the low density region are only possible with reasonable errors in the X-mode (Eperpendicular toB), as only the cut-off frequency of this mode, in contrast to that of the O-mode (EparallelB), takes a finite value (f ce ) for n e ->O. Taking advantage of this property, a method is presented to calibrate the measurements on the first reflection, which occurs directly in front of the microwave antennas (1-4 mm from the opening) thus giving a high precision even in the outermost part of the plasma close to the microwave antennas. For the calculation of the electron density profile a new and numerically stable algorithm has been developed. Measurements in connection with Lower Hybrid have been made with a set of 2 reflectometer antennas installed in ASDEX. (orig./AH)

  1. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  2. Drift resonance in high density non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the operation of crossed-field electron vacuum devices such as magnetrons and crossed-field amplifiers (CFA) have usually centered on their initial growth, taking this as an indication of their operating modes. In such an analysis one solves the equations for the density profile, the operating frequency, the growth rate, and other features of these devices. What one really obtains then are only the conditions for the device to turn on. The dominant interaction in this stage is a Rayleigh-type instability which initiates a quasilinear diffusion process whereby the electron density profile redistributes itself into a profile which will be in equilibrium with the ponderomotive-like forces produced by the growing rf fields. Eventually the rf fields will saturate and an operating device will settle into a stationary operating regime. This stage of a device's operation is called the ''saturation stage.'' This latter stage involves a different set of physical interactions from the initiation stage. No longer is there a growth rate; rather the rf amplitudes have saturated and as a result, the ponderomotive-like forces have also vanished along with the quasilinear diffusion. In this saturation stage, we find that new rf modes appear. In fact, there are a total of five rf modes, two of which are the usual slow modes of the initiation stage, and three of which have fast oscillations in the vertical direction. One fast mode corresponds to a drift plasma oscillation while the other two fast modes are drift cyclotron modes. In this paper, we will describe how the drift plasma oscillation interacts and couples with the slow rf modes at the diocotron resonance

  3. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  4. High density plasmas and new diagnostics: An overview (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the limiting factors for the full understanding of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) fundamental mechanisms consists of few types of diagnostic tools so far available for such compact machines. Microwave-to-plasma coupling optimisation, new methods of density overboost provided by plasma wave generation, and magnetostatic field tailoring for generating a proper electron energy distribution function, suitable for optimal ion beams formation, require diagnostic tools spanning across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwave interferometry to X-ray spectroscopy; these methods are going to be implemented including high resolution and spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy made by quasi-optical methods (pin-hole cameras). The ion confinement optimisation also requires a complete control of cold electrons displacement, which can be performed by optical emission spectroscopy. Several diagnostic tools have been recently developed at INFN-LNS, including “volume-integrated” X-ray spectroscopy in low energy domain (2-30 keV, by using silicon drift detectors) or high energy regime (>30 keV, by using high purity germanium detectors). For the direct detection of the spatially resolved spectral distribution of X-rays produced by the electronic motion, a “pin-hole camera” has been developed also taking profit from previous experiences in the ECRIS field. The paper will give an overview of INFN-LNS strategy in terms of new microwave-to-plasma coupling schemes and advanced diagnostics supporting the design of new ion sources and for optimizing the performances of the existing ones, with the goal of a microwave-absorption oriented design of future machines

  5. DENSITY PERTURBATION BY ALFVÉN WAVES IN MAGNETO-PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Moon, Y.-J. [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sharma, R. P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2016-12-20

    In this article, we attempt to investigate the density perturbations along magnetic field by ponderomotive effects due to inertial Alfvén waves (AWs) in auroral ionosphere. For this study, we take high-frequency inertial AWs (pump) and their nonlinear interactions with low-frequency slow modes of AWs in that region. The dynamical equations representing these wave modes are known as the Zakharov like equation, and are solved numerically. From the results presented here, we notice the density perturbations in the direction of background magnetic fields. We also find that the deepest density cavity is associated with the strongest magnetic fields. The main reason for these nonlinear structures could be the ponderomotive effects due to the pump waves. The amplitude of these density structures varies with time until the modulation instability saturates. From our results, we estimate the amplitude of most intense cavity as ∼15% of the unperturbed plasma number density n {sub 0}, which is consistent with the observations. These density structures could be the locations for particle energizations in this region.

  6. A unified model of density limit in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, P.; Sattin, F.; Escande, D. F.; Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we identify by analytical and numerical means the conditions for the existence of a magnetic and thermal equilibrium of a cylindrical plasma, in the presence of Ohmic and/or additional power sources, heat conduction and radiation losses by light impurities. The boundary defining the solutions’ space having realistic temperature profile with small edge value takes mathematically the form of a density limit (DL). Compared to previous similar analyses the present work benefits from dealing with a more accurate set of equations. This refinement is elementary, but decisive, since it discloses a tenuous dependence of the DL on the thermal transport for configurations with an applied electric field. Thanks to this property, the DL scaling law is recovered almost identical for two largely different devices such as the ohmic tokamak and the reversed field pinch. In particular, they have in common a Greenwald scaling, linearly depending on the plasma current, quantitatively consistent with experimental results. In the tokamak case the DL dependence on any additional heating approximately follows a 0.5 power law, which is compatible with L-mode experiments. For a purely externally heated configuration, taken as a cylindrical approximation of the stellarator, the DL dependence on transport is found stronger. By adopting suitable transport models, DL takes on a Sudo-like form, in fair agreement with LHD experiments. Overall, the model provides a good zeroth-order quantitative description of the DL, applicable to widely different configurations.

  7. Quasi-quadrature interferometer for plasma density radial profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A cw Mach Zehnder multichannel interferometer has been developed to measure time-dependent fractional fringe shifts with an accuracy of one-fortieth fringe. The design is quasi-quadrature in that known phase shifts, introduced in the reference beam, are time multiplexed with the normal reference beam. This technique requires only one detector per interferometer channel as compared to two detectors for most quadrature designs. The quadrature information makes the sense of density changes unambiguous, it automatically calibrates the instrument during the plasma event, and it makes fringe shift measurements virtually independent of fringe contrast fluctuations caused by plasma refractive and/or absorptive effects. The interferometer optical design is novel in that the electro-optic crystal used to introduce the 90 0 phase shifts is located in the common 2-mm-diam HeNe entrance beam to the interferometer, by exploiting polarization techniques, rather than in the expanded 1--2-cm reference beam itself. This arrangement greatly reduces the size, cost, and high-voltage requirements for the phase modulating crystal

  8. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung Yu, Dae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kihong [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  9. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung Yu, Dae; Kim, Kihong

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region

  10. Study on electron density and average degree of ionization for the non-ideal argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Ming; Huang Hua; Zhou Yisu; Wang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    Electron density and average degree of ionization of the non-ideal argon plasmas under different plasma temperature and density are calculated by using SHM model. It comes to a conclusion that the average degree of ionization is less than 0.5 for the non-ideal argon plasmas at temperature T=2.0eV and plasma density ρ=(0.01-0.5)g·cm -3 , and the average degree of ionization is reduced with the increase of plasma density ρ. This indicates that the non-ideal argon plasma has a very low degree of ionization so that most argon has not been ionized. In addition, the discussion on the ionization decrease with the increase of plasma density ρ is given. (authors)

  11. Experimental study of a swept reflectometer with a single antenna for plasma density profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.A.G.; Simonet, F.

    1984-12-01

    The feasibility of a swept microwave reflectometer, with one antenna only, for plasma electron density measurement is studied. Experimental results obtained in the laboratory by simulating the plasma with a metallic mirror are presented

  12. Plasma density control with ergodic divertor on Tore Supra; Controle de la densite du plasma en presence du divertor ergodique dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin, B

    1998-04-30

    Plasma density control on the tokamak Tore Supra is important for the optimization of every experimental scenario dealing with the improvement of plasma performances. Specific conditions are required both in the plasma bulk and at the edge. Within the framework of the present study, a magnetic configuration is used in the e plasma edge of Tore Supra: the ergodic divertor configuration. A magnetic perturbation which is resonant with the permanent field destroys the plasma confinement locally, opening the field lines onto the material components. They aim of the study is the characterization of the edge density in every relevant scenario for Tore Supra. The first part of this work is dedicated to density and temperature measurements by a series of fixed Langmuir probes located at the very edge of the plasma. Thanks to them, density regimes have been put in evidence during experiments where the volume averaged density , an usual control parameter of the plasma, was varied. The analysis of heat and particle transport through the plasma edge region explains the mechanisms leading to those regimes. The essential factor in our analysis is the dependence of the electron conductivity and ionization depth on temperature. While heat conduction governs the heat transport, the edge density varies linearly according to . Below a critical temperature, reached when the ion flux amplification at constant power density is large enough, a parallel temperature gradient appears leading to a density gradient in the opposite direction in order to maintain the pressure constant along the field lines. A high recycling regime is obtained and the edge density varies like {sup 3}. The pressure conservation is no more satisfied during the detachment of the plasma, which is characterized by a high neutral density at low temperatures leading to a ion momentum loss by friction against the neutrals. The edge density drops in those conditions. These regimes are similar

  13. Analysis of line integrated electron density using plasma position data on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.

    2010-01-01

    A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.

  14. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  15. Scattering effects of small-scale density fluctuations on reflectometric measurements in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.P.; Manso, M.E.; Serra, F.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    When a wave propagates in a non homogeneous fluctuating plasma part of the incident energy is scattered out to the nonlinear interaction between the wave and the oscillating modes perturbing the plasma. The possibility of enhanced scattering at the cutoff layer, where reflection of the incident wave occurs, has been recently suggested as the basis of a reflectometric experiment to determine the spatial location of small scale fluctuations in a fusion plasma. Here we report on the development of a theoretical model to evaluate the flux of energy scattered by fluctuations, in order to give insight about the interpretation of measurements using a microwave reflectometry diagnostic in a tokamak. The scattered field is obtained through the resolution of a (non-homogeneous) wave propagation equation where the source term is related with the nonlinear current due to the interaction between the incident wave and local fluctuations. We use a slab model for the plasma, and an ordinary (0) wave propagation along the density gradient is considered. The amplitude of the scattered wave at the border of the plasma is estimated. In order to know the contributions to the energy scattered both from the propagation region and the reflecting layer, an approach was used where perturbations are modelled by spatial step functions at several layers. The main contribution to the scattered power comes from the cutoff region, where the electric field amplitude swells as compared with the incident value. Considering the reflectometric system recently installed on the ASDEX tokamak, and using typical density profiles, expected values of the 'swelling factor' have been numerically evaluated. The role of incoherent scattering due to drift wave activity is discussed as well as the coherent scattering due to fluctuations induced by lower hybrid (LH) waves. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs

  16. Regions of low electron density in the Earth plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, V.P.; Pisareva, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Regions with low electron density N e were detected in night, morning and evening hours according to observations of natural noise, made on board ''Prognos-5'' satellite from January till June, 1977 in the plasmasphere for the southern Earth semisphere. The largest regions with low N e values were located in the region of the Brazil magnetic anomaly in the range of geographic latitudes ∼ ± 30 deg from the equator and longitudes from 100 up to 240 deg E, as well as in the latitudes near-by the geomagnetic equator and in the regions with slight shift from it to the winter hemisphere

  17. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  18. Interferometric characterization of density dynamics of an ultradense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackenhusen, J.G.; Bach, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have measured the spatially and temporally resolved density in a Z-pinch plasma by holographic interferometry. The high electron density (4 x 10 19 e/cm 3 ), short density scale length (100 μm), and low temperature (about 20 eV) make the plasma source suitable for simulation of laser-pellet interaction experiments at 10.6-μm laser wavelengths. A cinema of density evolution, indicating plasma pinching and subsequent relaxation, provides an experimental view of plasma dynamics which is then compared to simple theoretical models

  19. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the proposed ITER scenarios foresees the creation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in order to improve the confinement properties of the hot core plasma. The more stringent requests are: the ITB must be sustained with electron heating only with no or very small external momentum source, the strong collisional coupling at the envisaged density (line average >1.0 1020 m-3) must not prevent the barrier existence, the bootstrap current created by the large induced gradients must have a radial profile consistent with that requested by the barrier creation and sustainment. To all these items the studies carried out in FTU in the same density range (ne0 ?1.5 1020 m-3) provide encouraging prospects. With pure electron heating and current drive (LH+ECH) steady electron barrier are generated and maintained with central e- temperature >5.0 keV. Almost full CD conditions are established with a bootstrap current close to 25% of the total and well aligned with that driven by the LH waves and responsible for the barrier building. The clear change in the density fluctuations close to the ITB radius, observed by reflectometry, indicates stabilization of turbulence that is consistent with the drop of the thermal electron diffusivity inside the ITB to very low values, ?e<0.5 m2/s estimated by the transport analysis. The 10 fold neutron rate increase testifies a significant collisional ion heating, even though usually ?Ti0/Ti0 does not exceed 40%, because the e--i + equipartition time, always 4-5 times longer than the energy confinement time, does not allow thermal equilibrium with electrons to be attained. The ion thermal diffusivity inside the barrier must be lowered to the neoclassical level to account for the observed Ti(r) profiles, clearly indicating at least a non-degraded ion transport. The global confinement in turn improves by 1.6 times above the FTU L-scaling. The ITB radius can be controlled by varying the LH power deposition profile that is

  20. Charge modes of pulsed high energy and high density plasma injection source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Detonation (snowplow), deflagration and other modes of discharge can be produced in a single coaxial plasma gun. Conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy together with the entropy production condition of the discharge phenomena are used to identify dense discharge modes. The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for a magnetized plasma is derived. Discussions of how to design a deflagration plasma gun to yield a prescribed plasma kinetic energy and plasma beam density are given

  1. Theoretical transport analysis of density limit with radial electric field in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2010-11-01

    The confinement property in helical toroidal plasmas is clarified. The analysis is performed by use of the one-dimensional transport equations with the effect of the radiative loss and the radial profile of the electric field. The analytical results in the edge region show the steep gradient in the electron temperature, which indicates the transport barrier formation. Because of the rapid increase of the radiative loss at the low electron temperature, the anomalous heat diffusivity is reduced near the edge. Next, the efficiency of the heating power input in the presence of the radiative loss is studied. The scaling of the critical density in helical devices is also derived. (author)

  2. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  3. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  4. Spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in ionospheric D region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Expression for spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in D-region with regard to the effect of ionization-recombination proceses and negative ions is obtained in terms of atmospheric turbulence model which obeys Kolmogorov-Obukhov 2/3 law

  5. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Giovenale, D. Di; Pirro, G. Di; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Cianchi, A.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  6. Effects of density gradients and fluctuations at the plasma edge on ECEI measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanovac, B.; Wolfrum, E.; Denk, S. S.; Mink, F.; Laggner, F. M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; Viezzer, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Freethy, S. J.; Dunne, M. G.; Lessig, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-04-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) provides measurements of electron temperature (T e ) and its fluctuations (δT e ). However, when measuring at the plasma edge, in the steep gradient region, radiation transport effects must be taken into account. It is shown that due to these effects, the scrape-off layer region is not accessible to the ECEI measurements in steady state conditions and that the signal is dominated by the shine-through emission. Transient effects, such as filaments, can change the radiation transport locally, but cannot be distinguished from the shine-through. Local density measurements are essential for the correct interpretation of the electron cyclotron emission, since the density fluctuations influence the temperature measurements at the plasma edge. As an example, a low frequency 8 kHz mode, which causes 10%-15% fluctuations in the signal level of the ECEI, is analysed. The same mode has been measured with the lithium beam emission spectroscopy density diagnostic, and is very well correlated in time with high frequency magnetic fluctuations. With radiation transport modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation in the ECEI geometry, it is shown that the density contributes significantly to the radiation temperature (T rad) and the experimental observations have shown the amplitude modulation in both density and temperature measurements. The poloidal velocity of the low frequency mode measured by the ECEI is 3 km s-1. The calculated velocity of the high frequency mode measured with the magnetic pick-up coils is about 25 km s-1. Velocities are compared with the E × B background flow velocity and possible explanations for the origin of the low frequency mode are discussed.

  7. The plasma-sheath boundary region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N

    2003-01-01

    In this review an attempt is made to give a broad coverage of the problem of joining plasma and sheath over a wide range of physical conditions. We go back to the earliest works quoting them, where appropriate, to understand what those who introduced the various terms associated with the structure of the plasma-sheath had in mind. We try to bring out the essence of the insights that have been gained subsequently, by quoting from the literature selectively, indicating how misunderstandings have arisen. In order to make it accessible to the generality of those currently working in low temperature plasmas we have sought to avoid mathematical complexity but retain physical insight, quoting from published work where appropriate. Nevertheless, in clarifying my own ideas I have found it necessary to do additional original work in order to give a consistent picture. In this way I have sought to bring together work in the late 1920s, the 1960s, and now mindful of the commercial importance of plasma processing, work over the past 15 years that adds to the general understanding. (topical review)

  8. Control-oriented modeling of the plasma particle density in tokamaks and application to real-time density profile reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, T.C.; Felici, F.; Rapson, C.J.; de Baar, M.R.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2018-01-01

    A model-based approach to real-time reconstruction of the particle density profile in tokamak plasmas is presented, based on a dynamic state estimator. Traditionally, the density profile is reconstructed in real-time by solving an ill-conditioned inversion problem using a measurement at a single

  9. Plasma characteristics in the discharge region of a 20 A emission current hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingming, SUN; Tianping, ZHANG; Xiaodong, WEN; Weilong, GUO; Jiayao, SONG

    2018-02-01

    Numerical calculation and fluid simulation methods were used to obtain the plasma characteristics in the discharge region of the LIPS-300 ion thruster’s 20 A emission current hollow cathode and to verify the structural design of the emitter. The results of the two methods indicated that the highest plasma density and electron temperature, which improved significantly in the orifice region, were located in the discharge region of the hollow cathode. The magnitude of plasma density was about 1021 m-3 in the emitter and orifice regions, as obtained by numerical calculations, but decreased exponentially in the plume region with the distance from the orifice exit. Meanwhile, compared to the emitter region, the electron temperature and current improved by about 36% in the orifice region. The hollow cathode performance test results were in good agreement with the numerical calculation results, which proved that that the structural design of the emitter and the orifice met the requirements of a 20 A emission current. The numerical calculation method can be used to estimate plasma characteristics in the preliminary design stage of hollow cathodes.

  10. Hybrid Fluid/Kinetic Modeling Of Magnetized High Energy Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David; Held, Eric; King, Jacob; Stoltz, Peter; Masti, Robert; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2017-10-01

    MHD modeling with an equation of state (EOS) of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabily in Z indicates that it is seeded by the electro-thermal instability. Large thermodynamic drives associated with gradients at the interface between the liner and the coronal regions distort distribution functions and likely lead to non-local transport effects in a plasma which varies from weakly to strongly coupled. In this work, we discuss using effective potential theory along with a Chapman-Ensksog-like (CEL) formalism to develop hybrid fluid/kinetic modeling capabilities for these plasmas. Effective potential theory addresses the role of Coulomb collisions on transport across coupling regimes and the CEL approach bridges the gap between full-blow kinetic simulations and the EOS tables, which only depend locally on density and temperature. Quantitative results on the Spitzer problem across coupling coupling regimes will be presented as a first step. DOE Grant No. DE-SC0016525.

  11. Plasma guns for controlled fussion at megagauss energy-densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, Peter J.; Roderick, Norman F.; Degnan, James H.; Frese, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) at a low power level has been used on Tore Supra to induce local perturbations of the current density profile. Regimes with strong MHD activity have been analysed, and compared with similar stable discharges, in order to investigate the possible causes of their instability and relate the evolution of the discharge to the localization of EC power deposition. Both co- and counter-current drive pulses have been applied to dominantly or fully non-inductive discharges, sustained by a lower hybrid current drive. Detailed reconstructions by current diffusion calculations have been performed and the error bars evaluated. This method has proved valuable for shedding light on the complex interplay between the evolutions of temperature and safety factor profiles in steady-state tokamak plasmas. The crucial role of the dynamic evolution of rational surfaces has been identified. Moreover, we demonstrate that the operational domain in which ECCD can be employed must cope with the overall current profile characteristics, in particular the position where the safety factor has a minimum.

  12. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  13. Angular filter refractometry analysis using simulated annealing [An improved method for characterizing plasma density profiles using angular filter refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angland, P.; Haberberger, D.; Ivancic, S. T.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new method of analysis for angular filter refractometry images was developed to characterize laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas using an annealing algorithm to iterative converge upon a solution. Angular filter refractometry (AFR) is a novel technique used to characterize the density pro files of laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas. A synthetic AFR image is constructed by a user-defined density profile described by eight parameters, and the algorithm systematically alters the parameters until the comparison is optimized. The optimization and statistical uncertainty calculation is based on a minimization of the χ2 test statistic. The algorithm was successfully applied to experimental data of plasma expanding from a flat, laser-irradiated target, resulting in average uncertainty in the density profile of 5-10% in the region of interest.

  14. The plasma-wall interaction region: a key low temperature plasma for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G F

    2002-01-01

    The plasma-wall interaction region of a fusion device provides the interface between the hot core plasma and the material surfaces. To obtain acceptably low levels of erosion from these surfaces requires most of the power leaving the core to be radiated. This is accomplished in existing devices by encouraging plasma detachment, in which the hot plasma arriving in the region is cooled by volume recombination and ion-neutral momentum transfer with a dense population of neutrals recycled from the surface. The result is a low temperature (1 eV e e >10 19 m -3 ) but weakly ionized (n 0 >10 20 m -3 , n e /n 0 <0.1) plasma found nowhere else in the fusion environment. This plasma provides many of the conditions found in industrial plasmas exploiting plasma chemistry and the presence of carbon in the region (in the form of carbon-fibre composite used in the plasma facing materials) can result in the formation of deposited hydrocarbon films. The plasma-wall interaction region is therefore among the most difficult in fusion to model, requiring an understanding of atomic, molecular and surface physics issues

  15. Diagnosis of Unmagnetized Plasma Electron Number Density and Electron-neutral Collision Frequency by Using Microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhongcai; Shi Jiaming; Xu Bo

    2005-01-01

    The plasma diagnostic method using the transmission attenuation of microwaves at double frequencies (PDMUTAMDF) indicates that the frequency and the electron-neutral collision frequency of the plasma can be deduced by utilizing the transmission attenuation of microwaves at two neighboring frequencies in a non-magnetized plasma. Then the electron density can be obtained from the plasma frequency. The PDMUTAMDF is a simple method to diagnose the plasma indirectly. In this paper, the interaction of electromagnetic waves and the plasma is analyzed. Then, based on the attenuation and the phase shift of a microwave in the plasma, the principle of the PDMUTAMDF is presented. With the diagnostic method, the spatially mean electron density and electron collision frequency of the plasma can be obtained. This method is suitable for the elementary diagnosis of the atmospheric-pressure plasma

  16. Dosimetric Properties of Plasma Density Effects on Laser-Accelerated VHEE Beams Using a Sharp Density-Transition Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Hoon; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Won-Gyun; Kim, Geun Beom; Kim, Kum Bae [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung Jun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hojin [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kitae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Michigan (United States)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, the effects of the plasma density on laser-accelerated electron beams for radiation therapy with a sharp density transition are investigated. In the sharp density-transition scheme for electron injection, the crucial issue is finding the optimum density conditions under which electrons injected only during the first period of the laser wake wave are accelerated further. In this paper, we report particle-in-cell simulation results for the effects of both the scale length and the density transition ratio on the generation of a quasi-mono-energetic electron bunch. The effects of both the transverse parabolic channel and the plasma length on the electron-beam's quality are investigated. Also, we show the experimental results for the feasibility of a sharp density-transition structure. The dosimetric properties of these very high-energy electron beams are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Experimental evidence of widespread regions of small-scale plasma irregularities in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, G.; Kintner, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Small-scale (≤ 1 km) plasma irregularities have previously been observed in situ from the E region to an altitude of 8,000 km. In this paper the authors report results from the Viking plasma wave experiments which extends the measurements of high-latitude irregularities in two ways: (1) they have acquired electron density fluctuation measurements up to an altitude of 13,500 km and (2) for the first time a measurement technique was used that made a phase velocity deduction possible from in situ measurements. The spacecraft was equipped with two spatially separated Langmuir probes, each with an ability to measure relative probe current fluctuations with frequencies from dc to about 400 Hz. Under certain assumptions the current fluctuations could be interpreted as relative plasma density fluctuations, δn e /n e . Data from this interferometric instrument has been used to infer the distribution and nature of plasma irregularities along Viking orbits. It is demonstrated that the interferometric technique offers great advantages compared to single point measurements in this kind of study. It is shown that the observed small-scale plasma irregularities are nondispersive and convecting with the background plasma. They exhibit a power law frequency spectrum as observed in the satellite reference frame. The spectral index varies with location. An attempt to map source regions by identifying regions of high power and shallow spectrums is made

  18. Vertical and longitudinal electron density structures of equatorial E- and F-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Brahmanandam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From global soundings of ionospheric electron density made with FORMOSAT 3/COSMIC satellites for September 2006–August 2009, day-night variations in vertical and longitudinal structures of the electron densities in equatorial E- and F-regions for different seasons are investigated for the first time. The results reveal that the wavenumber-3 and wavenumber-4 patterns dominated the nighttime (22:00–04:00 LT F-region longitudinal structures in solstice and in equinox seasons, respectively. In daytime (08:00–18:00 LT F-region, the wavenumber-4 patterns governed the longitudinal structures in the September equinox and December solstice, and wavenumber-3 in March equinox and June solstice respectively. A comparison of the daytime and nighttime longitudinal electron density structures indicates that they are approximately 180° out of phase with each other. It is believed that this out of phase relation is very likely the result of the opposite phase relation between daytime and nighttime nonmigrating diurnal tidal winds that modulate background E-region dynamo electric field at different places, leading to the day-night change in the locations of the equatorial plasma fountains that are responsible for the formation of the F-region longitudinal structures. Further, a good consistency between the locations of the density structures in the same seasons of the different years for both daytime and nighttime epochs has been noticed indicating that the source mechanism for these structures could be the same.

  19. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining

  20. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  1. Residual gas entering high density hydrogen plasma: rarefaction due to rapid heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. den Harder,; D.C. Schram,; W. J. Goedheer,; de Blank, H. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; van Rooij, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of background molecular hydrogen with magnetized (0.4 T) high density (1–5 × 10 20  m −3 ) low temperature (∼3 eV) hydrogen plasma was inferred from the Fulcher band emission in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI. In the plasma center,

  2. Microwave reflectrometry for electron density measurements in the TJ-1 tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabitarte, E.; Bustamante, E.G.; Calderon, M.A.G.; Vegas, A.

    1986-01-01

    A study about microwave reflectometry to measure the outside profile of the electron plasma density on tokamak TJ-1 is presented. It is also presented the condition of applicability of this method after the characteristic parameters of the plasma and its resolution. The simulation of the plasma in laboratory by means of a metallic mirror causes the whole characterization of the reflectometer. (author)

  3. Thermographic determination of the sheath heat transmission coefficient in a high density plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.A.; Bystrov, K.E.; Pasquet, R.; Zielinski, J.J.; De Temmerman, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device, to determine the sheath heat transmission coefficients in a high recycling regime under various conditions of density (1–20 × 1020 m-3) and plasma composition (H2, Ar, N2) relevant for the ITER divertor plasma. The 2D surface

  4. Interaction of modulated REB with plasma, formed at its transit through high-density neutral gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of investigations of the relativistic electron beam interactions with plasma, created during its penetration into neutral gas of large pressure, are presented. It is shown that by using of deeply modulated beam it is possible to avoid the depressive influence of dissipation and longitudinal nonuniform plasma density on the beam-plasma interaction efficiency

  5. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth\\'s ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields. Within this model framework the effect of the

  6. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields

  7. Plasma density control in real-time on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: filip.janky.work@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Varavin, M.; Zacek, F.; Seidl, J.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We fitted length of the chord of the interferometry crossing plasma in the different plasma scenarios. • We add correction to the actual length of the chord of the interferometry according to plasma shape and position in real-time code. • We used this correction to control plasma density in real-time. - Abstract: The electron density on COMPASS is measured using 2 mm microwave interferometer. Interferometer signal is used as an input for the feedback control loop, running under the MARTe real-time framework. Two different threads are used to calculate (fast 50 μs thread) and to control (slow 500 μs thread) the electron density. The interferometer measures a line averaged density along a measurement chord. This paper describes an approach to control the line-averaged electron density in a real-time loop, using a correction to the real plasma shape, the plasma position, and non-linear effects of the electron density measurement at high densities. Newly developed real-time electron density control give COMPASS the chance to control the electron density more accurately which is essential for parametric scans for diagnosticians, for physics experiments and also for achieving plasma scenarios with H-mode.

  8. Assessment of plasma impedance probe for measuring electron density and collision frequency in a plasma with spatial and temporal gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Mark A.; King, Lyon B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations and experimental measurements were combined to determine the ability of a plasma impedance probe (PIP) to measure plasma density and electron collision frequency in a plasma containing spatial gradients as well as time-varying oscillations in the plasma density. A PIP is sensitive to collision frequency through the width of the parallel resonance in the Re[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic, while also being sensitive to electron density through the zero-crossing of the Im[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic at parallel resonance. Simulations of the probe characteristic in a linear plasma gradient indicated that the broadening of Re[Z] due to the spatial gradient obscured the broadening due to electron collision frequency, preventing a quantitative measurement of the absolute collision frequency for gradients considered in this study. Simulation results also showed that the PIP is sensitive to relative changes in electron collision frequency in a spatial density gradient, but a second broadening effect due to time-varying oscillations made collision frequency measurements impossible. The time-varying oscillations had the effect of causing multiple zero-crossings in Im[Z] at parallel resonance. Results of experiments and simulations indicated that the lowest-frequency zero-crossing represented the lowest plasma density in the oscillations and the highest-frequency zero-crossing represented the highest plasma density in the oscillations, thus the PIP probe was found to be an effective tool to measure both the average plasma density as well as the maximum and minimum densities due to temporal oscillations

  9. Spectroscopic measurements of the density and electronic temperature at the plasma edge in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lediankine, A.

    1996-01-01

    The profiles of temperature and electronic density at the plasma edge are important to study the wall-plasma interaction and the radiative layers in the Tokamak plasmas. The laser ablation technique of the lithium allows to measure the profile of electronic density. To measure the profile of temperature, it has been used for the first time, the injection of a fluorine neutral atoms beam. The experiments, the results are described in this work. (N.C.)

  10. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  11. Probing neutral density at the plasma edge of Tore Supra with CX excited impurity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, W.R.; Mattioli, M.; Guirlet, R.

    1993-01-01

    In Tokamak plasma physics renewed interest in visible spectroscopy has grown for two reasons. The use of fiber optics allows observation of local sources of both impurities and of hydrogen by observing radiation of low ionization states. Moreover, charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) with either auxiliary or heating neutral beams is a standard technique to determine the ion temperature and impurity density profiles. After a short description of the experimental setup and the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra (TS), two discharges in which space-resolved observations of the CVI (8-7) line clearly show the presence of CX-related effects. A well isolated spectral line at 5304.6 A is discussed. Tentative identification as CIII (1s 2 2s, 7-5) is suggested. The conclusion shows the usefulness of the reported results for probing neutral density at the plasma edge by detecting CX excited impurity ions and that highly ionized C 6+ ions exist in the MARFE regions. To the best of our knowledge, only very low ionization C and O ions (such as CIII or OIV) have been previously reported in these regions

  12. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  13. The effect of plasma density profile on the backscatter of microwaves from a plasma-covered plane conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Singh, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the mechanism of anomalous absorption of microwaves in a pulsed plasma column, the latter was studied using single and double Langmuir probes. Graphs of plasma potential recorded by floating Langmuir probes as a function of time were obtained for a range of pressure of the background gas and at different distances from the plasma-covered plane-conducting plate. From this data, two main components of the plasma have been identified. The first appears earlier, exhibits greater fluctuations and is shorter in duration than the second component. The presence of these two plasma components is consistent with earlier observations obtained from transverse transmission measurements of microwaves through the plasma. Variations in the envelopes of these two components as experimental conditions are changed will be presented. Microwave backscatter measurements under varying conditions of plasma-density profile and ambient gas pressure will also be presented

  14. Characterization of the low latitude plasma density irregularities observed using C/NOFS and SCINDA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, Geoffrey; Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2018-01-01

    Complex electrodynamic processes over the low latitude region often result in post sunset plasma density irregularities which degrade satellite communication and navigation. In order to forecast the density irregularities, their occurrence time, duration and location need to be quantified. Data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite was used to characterize the low latitude ion density irregularities from 2011 to 2013. This was supported by ground based data from the SCIntillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) receivers at Makerere (Geographic coordinate 32.6°E, 0.3°N, and dip latitude -9.3°N) and Nairobi (Geographic coordinate 36.8°E, -1.3°N, and dip latitude -10.8°N). The results show that irregularities in ion density have a daily pattern with peaks from 20:00 to 24:00 Local Time (LT). Scintillation activity at L band and VHF over East Africa peaked in 2011 and 2012 from 20:00 to 24:00 LT, though in many cases scintillation at VHF persisted longer than that at L band. A longitudinal pattern in ion density irregularity occurrence was observed with peaks over 135-180°E and 270-300°E. The likelihood of ion density irregularity occurrence decreased with increasing altitude. Analysis of C/NOFS zonal ion drift velocities showed that the largest nighttime and daytime drifts were in 270-300°E and 300-330°E longitude regions respectively. Zonal irregularity drift velocities over East Africa were for the first time estimated from L-band scintillation indices. The results show that the velocity of plasma density irregularities in 2011 and 2012 varied daily, and hourly in the range of 50-150 m s-1. The zonal drift velocity estimates from the L-band scintillation indices had good positive correlation with the zonal drift velocities derived from VHF receivers by the spaced receiver technique.

  15. Plasma density measurements on refuelling by solid hydrogen pellets in a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, L.W.; Sillesen, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The refuelling of a plasma by solid hydrogen pellets situated in the plasma is investigated. Nearly half of the pellet material is evaporated and seems to be completely ionized, resulting in an increase of the amount of plasma equivalent to one third of the total amount of plasma without refuelling. The gross behaviour of the plasma is not changed. (author)

  16. Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Senatore, G.; Trieste Univ.; Tosi, M.P.; Oxford Univ.

    1982-08-01

    The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)

  17. Probing a dusty magnetized plasma with self-excited dust-density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadsen, Benjamin; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    A cloud of nanodust particles is created in a reactive argon-acetylene plasma. It is then transformed into a dusty magnetized argon plasma. Plasma parameters are obtained with the dust-density wave diagnostic introduced by Tadsen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 113701 (2015), 10.1063/1.4934927]. A change from an open to a cylindrically enclosed nanodust cloud, which was observed earlier, can now be explained by a stronger electric confinement if a vertical magnetic field is present. Using two-dimensional extinction measurements and the inverse Abel transform to determine the dust density, a redistribution of the dust with increasing magnetic induction is found. The dust-density profile changes from being peaked around the central void to being peaked at an outer torus ring resulting in a hollow profile. As the plasma parameters cannot explain this behavior, we propose a rotation of the nanodust cloud in the magnetized plasma as the origin of the modified profile.

  18. Density Dependence of Particle Transport in ECH Plasmas of the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.A.; Velasco, J.L.; Reynolds, J.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; Tafalla, D.; Castejon, F.; Salas, A.

    2009-05-21

    We present the experimental dependence of particle transport on average density in electron cyclotron heated (ECH) hydrogen plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. The results are based on: (I) electron density and temperature data from Thomson Scattering and reflectometry diagnostics; (II) a transport model that reproduces the particle density profiles in steady state; and (III) Eirene, a code for neutrals transport that calculates the particle source in the plasma from the particle confinement time and the appropriate geometry of the machine/plasma. After estimating an effective particle diffusivity and the particle confinement time, a threshold density separating qualitatively and quantitatively different plasma transport regimes is found. The poor confinement times found below the threshold are coincident with the presence of ECH-induced fast electron losses and a positive radial electric field all over the plasma. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Impurity screening in high density plasmas in tokamaks with a limiter configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Zanino, R.

    1992-01-01

    Impurity screening in high density plasmas in tokamaks with a limiter configuration is investigated by means of a simple semi-analytical model. An iterative scheme is devised, in order to determine self-consistently the values of scrape-off layer thickness, edge electron density and temperature, and main plasma contamination parameter Z eff , as a function of given average electron density and temperature in the main plasma and given input power. The model is applied to the poloidal limiter case of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and results are compared with experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the trends is found, emphasizing the importance of a high edge plasma density for obtaining a clean main plasma in limiter tokamaks. (orig.)

  20. Response of a core coherent density oscillation on electron cyclotron resonance heating in Heliotron J plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2018-01-01

    We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.

  1. Plasma diagnostics using the He I 447.1 nm line at high and low densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Manuel A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Informatica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Ivkovic, Milivoje; Jovicevic, Sonja; Konjevic, Nikola [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11081 Belgrade, PO Box 68 (Serbia); Gigosos, Marco A; Lara, Natividad, E-mail: manuelgd@termo.uva.es, E-mail: gigosos@coyanza.opt.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-05-18

    The broadening of the He I 447.1 nm line and its forbidden components in plasmas is studied using computer simulation techniques and the results are compared with our and other experiments. In these calculations wide ranges of electron densities and temperatures are considered. Experimental measurements are performed with a high electron density pulsed discharge and with a low electron density microwave torch at atmospheric pressure. Both calculations and experimental measurements are extended from previous works towards low electron densities in order to study the accuracy of plasma diagnostics using this line in ranges of interest in different practical applications. The calculation results are compared with experimental profiles registered in plasmas diagnosed using independent techniques. The obtained agreement justifies the use of these line parameters for plasma diagnostics. The influence of self-absorption on line parameters is also analysed. It is shown that the separation between the peaks of the allowed and forbidden components exhibits a clear dependence upon plasma electron density free of self-absorption influence. This allows the peak separation to be used as a good parameter for plasma diagnostics. From the simulation results, a simple fitting formula is applied that permits obtaining the electron number density plasma diagnostics in the range 5 x 10{sup 22}-7 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -3}. At lower densities the fitting of simulated to experimental full profiles is a reliable method for N{sub e} determination.

  2. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  3. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  4. The influence of plasma density decreasement by pre-pulse on the laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gong Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laser wakefield acceleration, the generation of electron beam is very sensitive to the plasma density. Not only the laser-wakefield interaction, but also the electron trapping and acceleration would be effected by the plasma density. However, the plasma density could be changed in the experiment by different reasons, which will result in the mismatch of parameters arranged initially. Forward Raman scattering spectrum demonstrated that the interaction density was decreased obviously in the experiment, which was verified by the pre-pulse conditions and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It was demonstrated that the plasma density was very important on the self-evolutions and energy coupling of laser pulse and wakefield, and eventually the energy spectrum of electron beam.

  5. Measurements of the sheath potential in low density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.W.; Khamis, R.A.; Sanduk, M.I.; Elliott, J.A.; Rusbridge, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the sheath potential around a probe in a range of different plasma conditions in the UMIST, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, quadrupole GOLUX and in a related experiment in which the plasma expands freely to supersonic velocity. In the latter case, the sheath potential agrees well with an appropriately modified form of the usual expression for a field-free plasma, for both hydrogen and argon plasmas. In GOLUX, however, the sheath potential is found to be significantly less than the accepted value, even when the magnetic field is taken into account. For the slow moving plasma in the outer part of the quadrupole confining field, we present both theoretical and experimental results showing that the reduction is due to truncation of the electron velocity distribution as the probe drains electrons from a closed flux tube faster than they can be replaced. In the central hot plasma, however, this explanation cannot apply. Here, the plasma is moving at about sonic speed and magnetic effects are weak. Nevertheless, the results are significantly different from both in the field free experiment. (author)

  6. Aperture method to determine the density and geometry of antiparticle plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, P.; Bowden, N.S.; Parrott, R.; Speck, A.; Storry, C.H.; Tan, J.N.; Wessels, M.; Gabrielse, G.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Schepers, G.; Sefzick, T.; Walz, J.; Pittner, H.; Haensch, T.W.; Hessels, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The density and geometry of p-bar and e + plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required if the rate of antihydrogen formation from them is to be understood. A new measurement technique determines these properties of trapped positron (e + ) and antiproton (p-bar) plasmas, the latter for the first time. The method does not require the common assumption of a spheroidal plasma geometry, which only pertains for a perfect electrostatic quadrupole trapping potential. Plasma densities, diameters, aspect ratios and angular momenta are deduced by comparing the number of particles that survive transmission through an aperture, to that obtained from self-consistent solutions of Poisson's equation. For p-bar the results differ substantially from the spheroid plasmas of an ideal Penning trap. The angular momentum of the plasma emerges as smooth function of the number of particles in the plasma, independent of the depth of the potential well that confines them

  7. High density plasma productions by hydrogen storage electrode in the Tohoku University Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utoh, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Takenaga, M.; Ogawa, M.; Shinde, J.; Iwazaki, K.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Nishimura, K.; Inagaki, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the Tohoku University Heliac (TU-Heliac), the influence of a radial electric field on improved modes has been investigated by an electrode biasing. In both positive and negative biasing experiments by the stainless steel (SUS) electrode (cold-electron or ion collection), the improvement of plasma confinement was clearly observed. Furthermore, by negative biasing with a hot cathode (electron injection), the radial electric fields can be actively controlled as a consequence of the control of the electrode current I E . By using the electrode made of a hydrogen storage metal, for example Titanium (Ti) or Vanadium (V), the following possibility can be expected: (1) ions accelerated from the positive biased electrode allow the simulation for the orbit loss of high-energy particles, (2) the electrons/neutral- particles injected from the negative biased electrode provide the production of the high- density plasma, if hydrogen are successfully stored in the electrode. In this present work, several methods were tried as the treatment for hydrogen storage. In the case of the Ti electrode biased positively after the treatment, the improvement of plasma confinement was observed in He plasma, which were same as the experimental results of the SUS electrode. However, in the electron density profiles inside the electrode position there was difference between the biased plasma by the Ti electrode and that by the SUS electrode. In some of Ar discharges biased negatively with the Ti electrode after the treatment, the electron density and the line intensity of H α increased about 10 times of those before biasing. This phenomenon has not been observed in the Ar plasma biased by the SUS electrode. This result suggested that the Ti electrode injected electrons/neutral-hydrogen into the plasma. This high-density plasma productions were observed only 1 ∼ 3 times in the one treatment for hydrogen storage. By using a Vanadium (V) electrode, productions of the high-density plasma

  8. Plasma potential measurements in the edge region of the ISTTOK plasma, using electron emissive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C.; Balan, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Cabral, J.A.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H. F.C.; Varandas, C.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently started to use electron-emissive probes for direct measurements of the plasma potential and its fluctuations in the edge region of the plasma ring in the tokamak ISTTOK in Lisbon, Portugal. This method is based on the fact that the electron emission current of such a probe is able to compensate electron temperature variations and electron drifts, which can occur in the edge plasma region of magnetized fusion devices, and which are making measurements with cold probes prone to errors. In this contribution we present some of the first results of our investigations in ISTTOK.(author)

  9. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  10. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...

  11. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of 6 ns focussed onto a copper solid sample in air at atmospheric pressure is studied spectroscopically. ... Pulsed laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) of metals and alloys formed at laser pulse ir- radiances near the .... fibre-based collection system.

  12. Evolution of active region loop plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, K.R.; Antiochos, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate numerically the adjustment of coronal active-region loops to changes in their heating rate. The one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved subject to boundary conditions in which heat flux-induced mass exchange between coronal and chromospheric components is allowed. The calculated evolution of physical parameters suggests that (1) mass supplied during chromospheric evaporation is much more effective in moderating coronal temperature excursions than when downward heat flux if dissipated by a static chromosphere, and (2) the method by which rhe chromosphere responds to changing coronal conditions can significantly influence coronal readjustment time scales. Observations are cited which illustrate the range of possible fluctuations in the heating rates

  13. Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005. The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  14. External kink mode stability of tokamaks with finite edge current density in plasma outside separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, L.; Martynov, A.; Medvedev, S.; Troyon, F.; Villard, L.

    1996-01-01

    Large pressure gradients and current density at the plasma edge and accompanying edge-localized MHD instabilities are typical for H-mode discharges. Low-n external kink modes are a possible cause of the instabilities. The paper mostly deals with external kink modes driven by a finite current density at the plasma boundary (so called peeling modes). It was shown earlier that for a single axis plasma embedded into vacuum the peeling modes are stabilized when separatrix is approaching the plasma boundary. For doublet configurations a finite current density at the internal separatrix does not necessarily lead to external kink instability when the current density vanishes at the boundary. However, a finite current density at the plasma boundary outside the separatrix can drive outer peeling modes. The stability properties and structure of these modes depend on the plasma equilibrium outside the separatrix. The influence of plasma shear and pressure gradient at the boundary on the stability of the outer peeling modes in doublets is studied. The stability of kink modes in divertor configurations with plasma outside the separatrix is very sensitive to the boundary conditions set at open field lines. The choice of the boundary conditions and kink mode stability calculations for the divertor configurations are discussed. (author) 4 figs., 5 refs

  15. Ionospheric plasma density structures associated with magnetopause motion: a case study using the Cluster spacecraft and the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available On 5 January 2003, the footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, then orbiting in the dayside magnetosphere near the magnetopause, was in the close vicinity of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR in the dayside afternoon sector. This configuration made possible the study of the magnetopause motion and its direct consequences on the ionospheric plasma at high latitude. Cluster observed multiple magnetopause crossings despite its high latitude, while on the ground the magnetic activity was very low, whereas the ionospheric plasma sounded by the ESR exhibited poleward moving plasma density structures. In this paper, we compare the satellite and radar data, in order to show that the plasma density structures are directly related to the magnetopause motion and its associated pulsed ionospheric flow. We propose that the variations in electric field make the convection velocity vary enough to alter the electron population by accelerating the chemistry in the F-region and act as a source of electron depletion. The magnetopause motion is in this case, a source of plasma density structures in the polar dayside ionosphere.

  16. The implementation of real-time plasma electron density calculations on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.C., E-mail: zzc@ipp.ac.cn; Xiao, B.J.; Wang, F.; Liu, H.Q.; Yuan, Q.P.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Y.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The real-time density calculation system (DCS) has been applied to the EAST 3-wave polarimeter-interferometer (POINT) system. • The new system based on Flex RIO acquires data at high speed and processes them in a short time. • Roll-over module is developed for density calculation. - Abstract: The plasma electron density is one of the most fundamental parameters in tokamak experiment. It is widely used in the plasma control system (PCS) real-time control, as well as plasma physics analysis. The 3-wave polarimeter-interferometer (POINT) system had been used to measure the plasma electron density on the EAST since last campaign. This paper will give the way to realize the real-time measurement of plasma electron density. All intermediate frequency (IF) signals after POINT system, in the 0.5–3 MHz range, stream to the real-time density calculation system (DCS) to extract the phase shift information. All the prototype hardware is based on NI Flex RIO device which contains a high speed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The original signals are sampled at 10 M Samples/s, and the data after roll-over module are transmitted to PCS by reflective memory (RFM). With this method, real-time plasma electron density data with high accuracy and low noise had been obtained in the latest EAST tokamak experiment.

  17. Study of the thermal and suprathermal electron density fluctuations of the plasma in the Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolas, A.

    1981-10-01

    An experiment on Thomson scattering of ruby laser light by the electrons of a plasma produced by an intense discharge between the electrodes of a coaxial gun in a gas at low pressure has been carried out. It is shown that the imploding plasma is made up of layers with different characteristics: a dense plasma layer where the density fluctuations are isotropic and have a thermal level, and a tenuous plasma layer where the fluctuations are anisotropic, and strongly suprathermal. The suprathermal fluctuations are attributed to microscopic instabilities generated by the electric current circulating in the transition zone where the magnetic field penetrates the plasma [fr

  18. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  19. The effect of shear flow and the density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amininasab, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2018-02-01

    Shear stress effect has been often neglected in calculation of the Weibel instability growth rate in laser-plasma interactions. In the present work, the role of the shear stress in the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma with density gradient is explored. By increasing the density gradient, the shear stress threshold is increasing and the range of the propagation angles of growing modes is limited. Therefore, by increasing steps of the density gradient plasma near the relativistic electron beam-emitting region, the Weibel instability occurs at a higher stress flow. Calculations show that the minimum value of the stress rate threshold for linear polarization is greater than that of circular polarization. The Wiebel instability growth rate for linear polarization is 18.3 times circular polarization. One sees that for increasing stress and density gradient effects, there are smaller maximal growth rates for the range of the propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 < θ m i n < π and /3 π 2 < θ m i n < 2 π in circular polarized plasma.

  20. On the link between column density distribution and density scaling relation in star formation regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltchev, Todor; Donkov, Sava; Stanchev, Orlin

    2017-07-01

    We present a method to derive the density scaling relation ∝ L^{-α} in regions of star formation or in their turbulent vicinities from straightforward binning of the column-density distribution (N-pdf). The outcome of the method is studied for three types of N-pdf: power law (7/5≤α≤5/3), lognormal (0.7≲α≲1.4) and combination of lognormals. In the last case, the method of Stanchev et al. (2015) was also applied for comparison and a very weak (or close to zero) correlation was found. We conclude that the considered `binning approach' reflects rather the local morphology of the N-pdf with no reference to the physical conditions in a considered region. The rough consistency of the derived slopes with the widely adopted Larson's (1981) value α˜1.1 is suggested to support claims that the density-size relation in molecular clouds is indeed an artifact of the observed N-pdf.

  1. Effects of positron density and temperature on large amplitude ion-acoustic waves in an electron-positron-ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejoh, Y.N.

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear wave structures of large amplitude ion-acoustic waves are studied in a plasma with positrons. We have presented the region of existence of the ion-acoustic waves by analysing the structure of the pseudopotential. The region of existence sensitively depends on the positron to electron density ratio, the ion to electron mass ratio and the positron to electron temperature ratio. It is shown that the maximum Mach number increases as the positron temperature increases and the region of existence of the ion-acoustic waves spreads as the positron temperature increases. 12 refs., 6 figs

  2. Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Shigeru; Zushi, Hideki; Kondo, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E are studied. The peaked density profile produced by pellet injection increases the stored energy by 20-30% compared to the gas puffed plasmas which obey the empirical stellarator/heliotron scaling in a moderate density range. In contrast to confinement, the peaked pressure profile tends to destabilize the plasma. By limiter insertion, MHD instability occurs (seems to locate near ι/2π=1) even in case of low β (β 0 ≤1%, where β 0 is the central β value) plasmas. On the other hand, the mode of m/n=3/2 at ι/2π=2/3, seems to be a key parameter to the major MHD instability in case of high β (β 0 ≥2%) plasmas. (author)

  3. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  4. Influence of an axial magnetic field on the density profile of capillary plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, V V; Toma, E S; Bijkerk, F

    2003-01-01

    A narrow capillary plasma channel, with a sizeable depletion of the electron density on the channel axis, has been proposed to guide a laser pulse over a length of several to several tens of centimetres. We discuss the possibility to significantly improve the wave-guiding properties of such a channel by applying an axial magnetic field. Our analytical and numerical studies show that a pulsed axial magnetic field of 10 T in a hydrogen capillary plasma at a pressure of 50 Torr will reduce the on-axis plasma density by a factor of three, and the full width at half maximum of the density profile by a factor of two. The resulting parabolic plasma density profile is expected to be more efficient in guiding laser pulses.

  5. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  7. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  8. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  9. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

  10. A fibre based triature interferometer for measuring rapidly evolving, ablatively driven plasma densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.

  11. On the atomic state densities of plasmas produced by the "torch a injection axiale"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, J.; Vos, H.P.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The atomic state densities of helium and argon plasmas produced by the microwave driven plasma torch called the "torche à injection axiale" are presented. They are obtained by absolute line intensity measurements of the excited states and by applying the ideal gas law to the ground state. It will be

  12. Density and temperature diagnostics of a Ne-like germanium plasma created by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, E.; Bourgade, J.L.; Combis, P.; Jacquemot, S.; Le Breton, J.P.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Naccache, D.; Nail, M.; Peyrusse, O.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of X-ray laser studies, experiments on Ne-like Ge plasma have been performed by laser irradiation at λ = 1.053 μm. Amplification in lasing transitions has been observed by varying the plasma length. Theoretical calculations of excited level population allow us to determine density and temperature from line intensity ratios

  13. Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro Gomez, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthemore, a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, is included in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (author) [es

  14. Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro Gomerz, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthermore, we have included a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Fueling requirements of super-high-density plasmas towards innovative ignition regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-burning scenario with internal diffusion barrier is investigated. • Peaked density profiles allow to sustain self-burning plasma at lower temperature. • Core fueling beyond internal diffusion barrier is essential to sustain peaked density. • Acceptable pellet size becomes small to prevent fusion out perturbation. • Very high velocity pellet injection beyond 10 km/s is inevitable for this scenario. - Abstract: Super-high-density plasma with an internal diffusion barrier which is observed in the Large Helical Device has been extrapolated to a fusion reactor grade plasma to explore an innovative ignition regime and to clarify essential requirements for pellet fueling. The peaked density profiles due to the internal diffusion barrier formation allow reduction in the required minimum temperature to sustain a self-burning plasma down to 10 keV. Direct core fueling beyond the internal diffusion barrier is essential to sustain the peaked density profile. Furthermore, the acceptable pellet size becomes small in terms of fusion output perturbation because the effective volume of the burning plasma becomes small with the peaked density profile. In order to sustain a self-burning plasma with an internal diffusion barrier, therefore, extremely high velocity pellet injection beyond 10 km/s is inevitable unless another solution to the core fueling is found

  16. Effect of radiofrequency on capacitance of low density plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, L.T.; Cunha Rapozo, C. da

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the influence of induced radiofrequency potential (V RF ) modifies the Bohm theory on ion saturation current, measured with Langmuir probes. The effect of radiofrequency potential on diode type plasma sheath resonance is also investigated. (M.C.K.)

  17. The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, R. W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite

  18. Investigation of the density turbulence in ohmic ASDEX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holtzhauer, E.

    1989-01-01

    A 119 μm homodyne laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency of the density fluctuations occuring in the different operational conditions of the machine. The changes of the density turbulence caused by additional heating are of primary interest with regard to a possible correlation to anomalous transport. Therefore, in the current experiment particular emphasis is placed on these investigations. On the other hand it is the ohmic phase which constitutes the least complicated physical situation in a tokamak and is therefore best suited to reveal the basic physical nature of the density turbulence. In the following we present a summary of our findings in the ohmic phase and make an attempt to compare these findings with what would be expected from the simplest model of density-gradient-driven driftwave turbulence saturated at the mixing-length level. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  19. Investigation of the density turbulence in ohmic ASDEX plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodel, G; Holtzhauer, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-01-01

    A 119 {mu}m homodyne laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency of the density fluctuations occuring in the different operational conditions of the machine. The changes of the density turbulence caused by additional heating are of primary interest with regard to a possible correlation to anomalous transport. Therefore, in the current experiment particular emphasis is placed on these investigations. On the other hand it is the ohmic phase which constitutes the least complicated physical situation in a tokamak and is therefore best suited to reveal the basic physical nature of the density turbulence. In the following we present a summary of our findings in the ohmic phase and make an attempt to compare these findings with what would be expected from the simplest model of density-gradient-driven driftwave turbulence saturated at the mixing-length level. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Do plasma proteins distinguish between liposomes of varying charge density?

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Pozzi, Daniela; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà , Aldo

    2012-01-01

    efficient and more biocompatible liposomal formulations, the behavior of three CLs with different membrane charge densities was investigated. The proteins of the three coronas were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

  1. High-density-plasma diagnostics in magnetic-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lectures will begin by defining high density in the context of magnetic confinement fusion research and listing some alternative reactor concepts, ranging from n/sub e/ approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 to several orders of magnitude greater, that offer potential advantages over the main-line, n/sub e/ approx. 1 x 10 14 cm -3 , Tokamak reactor designs. The high density scalings of several major diagnostic techniques, some favorable and some disadvantageous, will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to interferometric methods, both electronic and photographic, for which integral n/sub e/dl measurements and associated techniques are accessible with low wavelength lasers. Reactor relevant experience from higher density, smaller dimension devices exists. High density implies high β, which implies economies of scale. The specialized features of high β diagnostics will be discussed

  2. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Horst, R M; Beckers, J; Nijdam, S; Kroesen, G M W

    2014-01-01

    We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 10 16  m −3 . This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 10 16  m −3 . After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds. (fast track communication)

  3. Determination of self generated magnetic field and the plasma density using Cotton Mouton polarimetry with two color probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi A.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self generated magnetic fields (SGMF in laser produced plasmas are conventionally determined by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of a linearly polarized laser probe beam passing through the plasma along with the interferogram for obtaining plasma density. In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the plasma density and the SGMF distribution from two simultaneous measurements of Cotton Mouton polarimetry of two linearly polarized probe beams of different colors that pass through plasma in a direction normal to the planar target. It is shown that this technique allows us to determine the distribution of SGMF and the plasma density without doing interferometry of laser produced plasmas.

  4. High density plasma gun generates plasmas at 190 kilometers per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    Gun has thin metal foil disc which positions or localizes gas to be ionized during electrical discharge cycle, overcoming major limiting factor in obtaining such plasmas. Expanding plasma front travels at 190 km/sec, compared to plasmas of 50 to 60 km/sec previously achieved.

  5. Plasma rotation and radial electric field with a density ramp in an ohmically heated tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.

    1991-10-01

    Measurements of toroidal and poloidal rotation of the TCA plasma with Alfven Wave Heating and different levels of gas feed are reported. The temporal evolution of the rotation was inferred from intrinsic spectral lines of CV, CIII and, using injected helium gas, from HeII. The light collection optics and line intensity permitted the evolution of the plasma rotation to be measured with a time resolution of 2ms. The rotation velocities were used to deduce the radial electric field. With Alfven heating there was no observable change of this electric field that could have been responsible for the density rise which is characteristic of the RF experiments on TCA. The behaviour of the plasma rotation with different plasma density ramp rates was investigated. The toroidal rotation was observed to decrease with increasing plasma density. The poloidal rotation was observed to follow the value of the plasma density. With hard gas puffing, changes in the deduced radial electric field were found to coincide with changes in the peaking of the plasma density profile. Finally, with frozen pellet injection, the expected increase in the radial electric field due to the increased plasma density was not observed, which may explain the poorer confinement of the injected particles. Even in an ohmically heated tokamak, the measurement of the plasma rotation and the radial electric field are shown to be strongly related to the confinement. A thorough statistical analysis of the systematic errors is presented and a new and significant source of uncertainty in the experimental technique is identified. (author) 18 figs., 18 refs

  6. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  7. Interpretation of fast measurements of plasma potential, temperature and density in SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Adamek, J.; Müller, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on interpretation of fast (1 µs) and local (2–4 mm) measurements of plasma density, potential and electron temperature in the edge plasma of tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. Steady-state radial profiles demonstrate the credibility of the ball-pen probe. We demonstrate that floating...... potential fluctuations measured by a Langmuir probe are dominated by plasma electron temperature rather than potential. Spatial and temporal scales are found consistent with expectations based on interchange-driven turbulence. Conditionally averaged signals found for both potential and density are also...

  8. Instability of the Shukla mode in a dusty plasma containing equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Bharuthram, R.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the dispersive Shukla mode [P.K. Shukla, Phys. Lett. A 316, 238 (2003)] can become unstable in the presence of equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities in a dusty plasma. A new dispersion relation for our nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is derived and analyzed to show the modification of the Shukla mode frequency and its amplification due to combined action of the plasma density and magnetic field gradients. The present instability may account for the origin of low-frequency electromagnetic turbulence in molecular clouds and in cometary plasmas

  9. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  10. Density gradient instabilities in a neutron inhomogeneous guiding-centre plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The guiding-centre equations for a plasma of cold ions and thermal electrons admit neutral and non-neutral inhomogeneous equilibrium solutions, and the linear stability of these solutions has been recently investigated numerically by Shoucri and Knorr (1975). With arbitrary density profiles, numerical techniques appear to be the only practical way to study the linear stability of the inhomogeneous equilibrium solutions for the guiding centre plasma. However, analytical methods can be applied to some simple types of density profiles. The purpose of the present note is to present some analytical results on the linear instabilities of an inhomogeneous neutral guiding centre plasma. (U.K.)

  11. Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lambalgen, A.A.; van den Bos, G.C.; Thijs, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional differences in plasma extravasation during endotoxin shock in rats and a possible relationship with changes in regional blood flow were studied with radioactive isotopes ( 125 I-HSA, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, microspheres) in anesthetized rats (pentobarbital). Shock was induced by intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Eschericia coli; 10 mg X kg-1) for 60 min (starting at t = 0); at t = 120 min, the experiments were terminated. These rats (n = 8) were compared with time-matched control rats (n = 8). A third group (rats killed 7.5 min after injection of 125 I-HSA, i.e., no extravasation; n = 8) served as baseline. The amount of plasma extravasated in 2 hr of endotoxin shock was significantly increased over control values in skin (by 67%), colon (88%), skeletal muscle (105%), stomach (230%), pancreas (300%), and diaphragm (1300%). Losses of 125 I-HSA into intestinal lumen and peritoneal cavity had also increased over control values by 146 and 380%, respectively. Blood flow was compromised in most organs except heart and diaphragm. Extravasation when normalized for total plasma supply was correlated with total blood supply; the more the blood supply decreased, the higher the normalized extravasation. In the diaphragm, however, blood supply and plasma leakage increased together. Decreased blood supply and plasma extravasation may be related but they could also be simultaneously occurring independent phenomena with a common origin

  12. Maximum thermal energy density in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    1977-01-01

    The consequences of the limiting value of β that follows from analyzing the onset of high temperature ballooning modes is examined in high temperature regimes where the ideal MHD approximation is not strictly valid and for finite-β configurations exhibiting the main features of those that are obtained by magnetic flux conservation. These modes are localized over periodically space intervals of a given magnetic field line and are driven by the combined effects of finite plasma pressure and the locally unfavorable magnetic curvature. The effects of finite β, insofar as they shorten the effective connection length, steepen the pressure gradient, and influence the magnetic well dug by the plasma, are studied using a model dispersion relation. 14 references

  13. High density plasma via hole etching in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Lee, K.P.; Leerungnawarat, P.; Chu, S.N.G.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Zetterling, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughwafer vias up to 100 μm deep were formed in 4H-SiC substrates by inductively coupled plasma etching with SF 6 /O 2 at a controlled rate of ∼0.6 μm min-1 and use of Al masks. Selectivities of >50 for SiC over Al were achieved. Electrical (capacitance-voltage: current-voltage) and chemical (Auger electron spectroscopy) analysis techniques showed that the etching produced only minor changes in reverse breakdown voltage, Schottky barrier height, and near surface stoichiometry of the SiC and had high selectivity over common frontside metallization. The SiC etch rate was a strong function of the incident ion energy during plasma exposure. This process is attractive for power SiC transistors intended for high current, high temperature applications and also for SiC micromachining

  14. Density oscillations in laser produced plasma decelerated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during deceleration under the effect of external magnetic field. This has been verified with the help of figure 3, which shows the variation of x-ray intensity emitted from the plasma with laser intensity at 0.01 and 0.6 T magnetic field. Enhancement in the x-ray emission by 2–3 times in the presence of magnetic field has already ...

  15. A review of low density porous materials used in laser plasma experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keiji; Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Nazarov, Wigen

    2018-03-01

    This review describes and categorizes the synthesis and properties of low density porous materials, which are commonly referred to as foams and are utilized for laser plasma experiments. By focusing a high-power laser on a small target composed of these materials, high energy and density states can be produced. In the past decade or so, various new target fabrication techniques have been developed by many laboratories that use high energy lasers and consequently, many publications and reviews followed these developments. However, the emphasis so far has been on targets that did not utilize low density porous materials. This review therefore, attempts to redress this balance and endeavors to review low density materials used in laser plasma experiments in recent years. The emphasis of this review will be on aspects of low density materials that are of relevance to high energy laser plasma experiments. Aspects of low density materials such as densities, elemental compositions, macroscopic structures, nanostructures, and characterization of these materials will be covered. Also, there will be a brief mention of how these aspects affect the results in laser plasma experiments and the constrictions that these requirements put on the fabrication of low density materials relevant to this field. This review is written from the chemists' point of view to aid physicists and the new comers to this field.

  16. Parallel-beam correlation technique for measuring density fluctuations in plasmas with strong magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1981-04-01

    A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed

  17. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  18. Influence of driving frequency on oxygen atom density in O2 radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Takeshi; Noro, Kouichi; Nakano, Toshiki; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the driving frequency on the absolute oxygen atom density in an O 2 radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) was investigated using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with pulse modulation of the main plasma. A low-power operation of a compact inductively coupled plasma light source was enabled to avoid the significant measurement errors caused by self-absorption in the light source. The pulse modulation of the main plasma enabled accurate absorption measurement for high plasma density conditions by eliminating background signals due to light emission from the main plasma. As for the effects of the driving frequency, the effect of VHF (100 MHz) drive on oxygen atom production was small because of the modest increase in plasma density of electronegative O 2 in contrast to the significant increase in electron density previously observed for electropositive Ar. The recombination coefficient of oxygen atoms on the electrode surface was obtained from a decay rate in the afterglow by comparison with a diffusion model, and it showed agreement with previously reported values for several electrode materials

  19. Duodenal L cell density correlates with features of metabolic syndrome and plasma metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annieke C G van Baar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteroendocrine cells are essential for the regulation of glucose metabolism, but it is unknown whether they are associated with clinical features of metabolic syndrome (MetS and fasting plasma metabolites. Objective: We aimed to identify fasting plasma metabolites that associate with duodenal L cell, K cell and delta cell densities in subjects with MetS with ranging levels of insulin resistance. Research design and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated L, K and delta cell density in duodenal biopsies from treatment-naïve males with MetS using machine-learning methodology. Results: We identified specific clinical biomarkers and plasma metabolites associated with L cell and delta cell density. L cell density was associated with increased plasma metabolite levels including symmetrical dimethylarginine, 3-aminoisobutyric acid, kynurenine and glycine. In turn, these L cell-linked fasting plasma metabolites correlated with clinical features of MetS. Conclusions: Our results indicate a link between duodenal L cells, plasma metabolites and clinical characteristics of MetS. We conclude that duodenal L cells associate with plasma metabolites that have been implicated in human glucose metabolism homeostasis. Disentangling the causal relation between L cells and these metabolites might help to improve the (small intestinal-driven pathophysiology behind insulin resistance in human obesity.

  20. Interaction of energetic ions with high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, D.O.; Edie, D.; Grinenko, A.; Vorberger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The talk will review the importance of energetic ions in different inertial confinement fusion scenarios: i) heavy ion beams are very efficient drivers that can deliver the energy for compression in indirect as well as direct drive approaches; ii) the interaction of α-particles, that are created in a burning plasma, with the surrounding cold plasma is essential for creating a burn wave; iii) laser-produced ion beams are also a strong candidate to create the hot spot needed for fast ignition. In all applications the ions interact with dense matter that is characterized by strongly coupled ions and (possibly) partially degenerate electrons. Moreover, the coupling between beam ions and target electrons can be strong as well. Under these conditions, standard approaches for the beam-plasma interactions process are known to fail. The presentation will demonstrate how advanced models for the energy loss of ions in dense plasmas can resolve the issues mentioned above. These models are largely built on quantum kinetic theory that is able to describe degeneracy and strong coupling in a systematic way. In particular, strong interactions require a quantum description for electron-ion collisions in dense plasma environments, which is done by direct solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Degeneracy and collective excitations can be included via the Lenard-Balescu description where strong interactions may be included via a pseudo-potential approach. Finally, results are shown for all three fusion applications described above. The effects related to strong coupling and degeneracy mainly concern the end of the stopping range where the beam ion dose not have enough energy to excite all possible degrees of freedom and, thus, certain processes are frozen out. However, we also find a significant reduction of the range for swift heavy ions in the GeV-range when stopping in dense matter is considered. The stopping range of α-particles in the

  1. Determination of plasma density from data on the ion current to cylindrical and planar probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, D. G., E-mail: dvoloshin@mics.msu.su; Vasil’eva, A. N.; Kovalev, A. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Rakhimova, T. V. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    To improve probe methods of plasma diagnostics, special probe measurements were performed and numerical models describing ion transport to a probe with allowance for collisions were developed. The current–voltage characteristics of cylindrical and planar probes were measured in an RF capacitive discharge in argon at a frequency of 81 MHz and plasma densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, typical of modern RF reactors. 1D and 2D numerical models based on the particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions for simulating ion motion and the Boltzmann equilibrium for electrons are developed to describe current collection by a probe. The models were used to find the plasma density from the ion part of the current–voltage characteristic, study the effect of ion collisions, and verify simplified approaches to determining the plasma density. A 1D hydrodynamic model of the ion current to a cylindrical probe with allowance for ion collisions is proposed. For a planar probe, a method to determine the plasma density from the averaged numerical results is developed. A comparative analysis of different approaches to calculating the plasma density from the ion current to a probe is performed.

  2. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  3. Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; Turner, F.S.; Hoefen, R.; Darrow, C.; Gabl, E.F.; Busch, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Grid image refractometry (GIR) is proposed as a technique for determining the two-dimensional density profiles of long scale-length laser-produced plasmas. Its distinctive feature is that an optical probe beam is broken up into ''rays'' by being passed through a grid before traversing the plasma. The refraction angles of the rays are measured by imaging the plasma at two or more object planes and are integrated to yield the phase front. For cylindrically symmetric plasmas the density profile is then determined using Abel inversion. The feasibility of GIR is illustrated by an experiment in which a thick CH target was irradiated with ∼100 J of 527 nm radiation and diagnosed with a 20 ps, 263 nm probe. The resulting density profile is substantially larger than any that have previously been reported using interferometry and compares quite closely with hydrodynamic simulations

  4. Emission spectra from super-critical rippled plasma density profiles illuminated by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)

  5. Evolution of plasma wakes in density up- and down-ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. J.; Joshi, C.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.

    2018-02-01

    The time evolution of plasma wakes in density up- and down-ramps is examined through theory and particle-in-cell simulations. Motivated by observation of the reversal of a linear plasma wake in a plasma density upramp in a recent experiment (Zhang et al 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 064801) we have examined the behaviour of wakes in plasma ramps that always accompany any plasma source used for plasma-based acceleration. In the up-ramp case it is found that, after the passage of the drive pulse, the wavnumber/wavelength of the wake starts to decrease/increase with time until it eventually tends to zero/infinity, then the wake reverses its propagation direction and the wavenunber/wavelength of the wake begins to increase/shrink. The evolutions of the wavenumber and the phase velocity of the wake as functions of time are shown to be significantly different in the up-ramp and the down-ramp cases. In the latter case the wavenumber of the wake at a particular position in the ramp increases until the wake is eventually damped. It is also shown that the waveform of the wake at a particular time after being excited can be precisely controlled by tuning the initial plasma density profile, which may enable a new type of plasma-based ultrafast optics.

  6. Study on intense relativistic electron beam propagation in a low density collisionless plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigations into the increase in effectivity of transport of an intensive relativistic electron beam (IREB) in a collisionless plasma of low density are presented. The electron beam with the current of 1.5 kA, energy of 300 keV, radius of 1.5 cm is in ected into a plasma channel 180 cm long which is a metallic cylinder covered with a biniplast layer from inside 0.5 cm thickness on which there is a metallic net from the vacuum side. Plasma production is carried out during the supply of voltage pulse to the net. A condition of the optimum IREB distribution is found. It is sohwn that self-focusing IREB transport in plasma of low density can be effective if equilibrium conditions are carried out in plasma with the concentration of electrons less (or equal) to the concentration of electrons in a beam

  7. Density and potential measurements in an intense ion-beam-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, N.E.

    1982-05-01

    Neutral beams are created by intense large area ion beams which are neutralized in a gas cell. The interaction of the beam with the gas cell creates a plasma. Such a plasma is studied here. The basic plasma parameters, electron temperature, density, and plasma potential, are measured as a function of beam current and neutral gas pressure. These measurements are compared to a model based on the solution of Poisson's equation. Because of the cylindrical geometry the equation cannot be solved analytically. Details of the numerical method are presented

  8. Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi

    1987-06-01

    Workshop on ''Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and diagnostics'' was held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University on 3. and 4. December 1986 under a collaborating research Program. The workshop was attended by 43 researchers from 19 labolatories. A total of 22 papers were submitted and are presented in these proceedings. The largest group of papers was that on soft X-ray emission. It seems this topic is a foremost interest for groups which engaged in research of the Z pinch and the plasma focus. A variety of problems in pinched dense plasmas, namely spectroscopy, diagnostics, pinch dynamics, and related engineering aspects were also discussed. (author)

  9. Electron density measurement in an evolving plasma. Experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, Terenzio; Dagai, Michel

    1960-01-01

    The experimental devices described here allow the electron density measurements in the 10 16 e/m 3 to 10 20 e/m 3 interval. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1223-1225, sitting of 15 February 1960 [fr

  10. Determination of plasma temperature and electron density in river sediment plasma using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria, Elmer S. Jr.; Lamorena-Lim, Rheo B.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique is an approach used to quantitatively measure elemental composition of samples without the use of standard reference materials (SRMs). Due to the unavailability of most SRMs for specific samples, the CF-LIBS approach is steadily becoming more prevalent. CF-LIBS also minimizes interferences from the sample matrix by accounting spectral line intensifies of different elements. The first part of the CF-LIBS algorithm is the calculation of plasma temperature and electron density of the sample while the second part deals with the self-absorption correction and quantitative elemental analysis. In this study, the precursor parameters for the algorithm - plasma temperature and electron density - were measured through the neutral atom and ion line emissions of Fe and Cu in the time window of 0.1 to 10 μs. Plasma from river sediment samples were produced by a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at atmospheric pressure. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated from the Boltzmann plot and Saha-Boltzmann equation methods, respectively. These precursor parameters can be used in calculating the time window wherein the plasma is optically thin at local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and for quantitative multi-elemental analysis. (author)

  11. Plasma density evolution in plasma opening switch obtained by a time-resolved sensitive He-Ne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Ren, Jing; Guo, Fan; Zhou, LiangJi; Li, Ye; He, An; Jiang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    To understand the formation process of vacuum gap in coaxial microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch (POS), we have made measurements of the line-integrated plasma density during switch operation using a time-resolved sensitive He-Ne interferometer. The conduction current and conduction time in experiments are about 120 kA and 1 μs, respectively. As a result, more than 85% of conduction current has been transferred to an inductive load with rise time of 130 ns. The radial dependence of the density is measured by changing the radial location of the line-of-sight for shots with the same nominal POS parameters. During the conduction phase, the line-integrated plasma density in POS increases at all radial locations over the gun-only case by further ionization of material injected from the guns. The current conduction is observed to cause a radial redistribution of the switch plasma. A vacuum gap forms rapidly in the plasma at 5.5 mm from the center conductor, which is consistent with the location where magnetic pressure is the largest, allowing current to be transferred from the POS to the load.

  12. Conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and fast magnetosonic waves at a plasma density cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.O.

    2004-01-01

    Analytic expressions are presented for conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and magnetosonic waves by scattering off a small scale density cavity. The governing equations are solved in slab geometry with wave vectors perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the density gradient associated with density cavity using a scale length separation method. The theory predicts strong excitation of localized lower hybrid oscillations for a set of frequencies between the lower hybrid frequency of the ambient plasma and the minimum lower hybrid frequency inside the cavity. The theory is relevant for the lower hybrid solitary structures observed in space plasmas

  13. Plasma volume methodology: Evans blue, hemoglobin-hematocrit, and mass density transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring absolute levels and changes in plasma volume are presented along with derivations of pertinent equations. Reduction in variability of the Evans blue dye dilution technique using chromatographic column purification suggests that the day-to-day variability in the plasma volume in humans is less than + or - 20 m1. Mass density determination using the mechanical-oscillator technique provides a method for measuring vascular fluid shifts continuously for assessing the density of the filtrate, and for quantifying movements of protein across microvascular walls. Equations for the calculation of volume and density of shifted fluid are presented.

  14. Application of soft x-ray laser interferometry to study large-scale-length, high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Barbee, T.W., Jr.; Cauble, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have employed a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne-like Y x- ray laser at 155 Angstrom as the probe source, to study large-scale- length, high-density colliding plasmas and exploding foils. The measured density profile of counter-streaming high-density colliding plasmas falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations with the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. We have also performed simultaneous measured the local gain and electron density of Y x-ray laser amplifier. Measured gains in the amplifier were found to be between 10 and 20 cm -1 , similar to predictions and indicating that refraction is the major cause of signal loss in long line focus lasers. Images showed that high gain was produced in spots with dimensions of ∼ 10 μm, which we believe is caused by intensity variations in the optical drive laser. Measured density variations were smooth on the 10-μm scale so that temperature variations were likely the cause of the localized gain regions. We are now using the interferometry technique as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy-density physics experiments. 11 refs., 6 figs

  15. Study of density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas on JFT-2M by microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kouji

    1997-08-01

    We propose the model which can explain the runaway phase. The model takes account of the scattered wave which is caused by the density fluctuation near the cut-off layer. We should take a new approach instead of the conventional phase measurement in order to derive the information of the density fluctuation from the data with the runaway phase. The complex spectrum and the rotary spectrum analyses are useful tools to analyze such data. The density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas is discussed by using this new approach. We have observed that the reduction of the density fluctuation is localized in the edge region where the sheared electric field is produced. The fluctuations in the range of frequency lower than 100 kHz are mainly reduced. Two interesting features have been observed. One is the detection of the coherent mode around 100 kHz in H-mode. This mode appears about 10 ms after L to H transition. The timing corresponds to the formation of a steep density and temperature gradient in the edge region. The other is the enhancement of the fluctuations with the frequency higher than 300 kHz in H-mode in contrast to the reduction of the fluctuations with the frequency lower than 100 kHz. The Doppler shift is observed in the complex auto-power spectrum of the reflected wave when the plasma is actively moved. We have confirmed that the movement of the plasma is appropriately measured by using the low pass filter. The reflectometer can be used to measure the density profile by using a low pass filter even when the runaway phase phenomenon occurs. (author). 150 refs

  16. Multi-instrument comparisons of D-region plasma measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECOMA (Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric dust grains in the middle Atmosphere series of sounding rocket flights consisted of nine flights with almost identical payload design and flight characteristics. All flights carried a radio wave propagation experiment together with a variety of plasma probes. Three of these measured electron densities, two ion densities. The rockets were all launched from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in four campaigns between 2006 and 2010. Emphasis is on the final three flights from 2010 where the payloads were equipped with four instruments capable of measuring plasma densities in situ, among them a novel probe flown for the first time in conjunction with a wave propagation experiment. Deviation factors of all probe data relative to the wave propagation results were derived and revealed that none of the probe data were close to the wave propagation results at all heights, but – more importantly – the instruments showed very different behaviour at different altitudes. The novel multi-needle Langmuir probe exhibits the best correlation to the wave propagation data, as there is minimal influence of the payload potential, but it is still subject to aerodynamics, especially at its location at the rear of the payload. For all other probe types, the deviation factor comes closer to unity with increasing plasma density. No systematic difference of the empirical deviation factor between day and night can be found. The large negative payload potential in the last three flights may be the cause for discrepancies between electron and ion probe data below 85 km.

  17. Density and energy distribution of epithermal secondary electrons in a plasma with fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The production of intermediate energy secondary electrons in plasmas through collisions with fast charged particles is investigated. The density and the distribution of the secondary electrons are obtained by calculating the generation, slow down and diffusion rates, using basic Rutherford collision cross sections. It is shown that the total density of secondaries is much smaller than the fast particle density and that the energy distribution has roughly a 1/√E dependence. The higher generation secondary populations are also obtained. (orig.)

  18. Calculation of emission from hydrogenic ions in super liquid density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.S.; Valeo, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Previous calculations of line emission were extended to higher density, lower temperature plasmas, typical of those expected in early ablative compression experiments. Emission from Ne-seeded fuel was analyzed in order to diagnose the density and temperature of the compressed core. The Stark/Doppler broadened emission profile is calculated for the H-like Ne resonance line. The observable lineshape is then obtained by time-averaging over expected density and temperature profiles and by including the effects of radiative transfer

  19. Preparation of synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density proteins using a discontinuous sucrose gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Marie Kristel; Milenkovic, Marija; Salahpour, Ali; Ramsey, Amy J

    2014-09-03

    Neuronal subcellular fractionation techniques allow the quantification of proteins that are trafficked to and from the synapse. As originally described in the late 1960's, proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane can be isolated by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Once synaptic membranes are isolated, the macromolecular complex known as the post-synaptic density can be subsequently isolated due to its detergent insolubility. The techniques used to isolate synaptic plasma membranes and post-synaptic density proteins remain essentially the same after 40 years, and are widely used in current neuroscience research. This article details the fractionation of proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane and post-synaptic density using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Resulting protein preparations are suitable for western blotting or 2D DIGE analysis.

  20. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  1. Longitudinal gas-density profilometry for plasma-wakefield acceleration targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, Lucas, E-mail: lschaper01@qub.ac.uk [Universität Hamburg, FB Physik, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Goldberg, Lars; Kleinwächter, Tobias; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-11

    Precise tailoring of plasma-density profiles has been identified as one of the critical points in achieving stable and reproducible conditions in plasma wakefield accelerators. Here, the strict requirements of next generation plasma-wakefield concepts, such as hybrid-accelerators, with densities around 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} pose challenges to target fabrication as well as to their reliable diagnosis. To mitigate these issues we combine target simulation with fabrication and characterization. The resulting density profiles in capillaries with gas jet and multiple in- and outlets are simulated with the fluid code OpenFOAM. Satisfactory simulation results then are followed by fabrication of the desired target shapes with structures down to the 10 µm level. The detection of Raman scattered photons using lenses with large collection solid angle allows to measure the corresponding longitudinal density profiles at different number densities and allows a detection sensitivity down to the low 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} density range at high spatial resolution. This offers the possibility to gain insight into steep density gradients as for example in gas jets and at the plasma-to-vacuum transition.

  2. Longitudinal gas-density profilometry for plasma-wakefield acceleration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Lucas; Goldberg, Lars; Kleinwächter, Tobias; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Precise tailoring of plasma-density profiles has been identified as one of the critical points in achieving stable and reproducible conditions in plasma wakefield accelerators. Here, the strict requirements of next generation plasma-wakefield concepts, such as hybrid-accelerators, with densities around 1017 cm-3 pose challenges to target fabrication as well as to their reliable diagnosis. To mitigate these issues we combine target simulation with fabrication and characterization. The resulting density profiles in capillaries with gas jet and multiple in- and outlets are simulated with the fluid code OpenFOAM. Satisfactory simulation results then are followed by fabrication of the desired target shapes with structures down to the 10 μm level. The detection of Raman scattered photons using lenses with large collection solid angle allows to measure the corresponding longitudinal density profiles at different number densities and allows a detection sensitivity down to the low 1017 cm-3 density range at high spatial resolution. This offers the possibility to gain insight into steep density gradients as for example in gas jets and at the plasma-to-vacuum transition.

  3. Measurement of electron density and electron temperature of a cascaded arc plasma using laser Thomson scattering compared to an optical emission spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, WANG; Cong, LI; Jielin, SHI; Xingwei, WU; Hongbin, DING

    2017-11-01

    As advanced linear plasma sources, cascaded arc plasma devices have been used to generate steady plasma with high electron density, high particle flux and low electron temperature. To measure electron density and electron temperature of the plasma device accurately, a laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system, which is generally recognized as the most precise plasma diagnostic method, has been established in our lab in Dalian University of Technology. The electron density has been measured successfully in the region of 4.5 × 1019 m-3 to 7.1 × 1020 m-3 and electron temperature in the region of 0.18 eV to 0.58 eV. For comparison, an optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system was established as well. The results showed that the electron excitation temperature (configuration temperature) measured by OES is significantly higher than the electron temperature (kinetic electron temperature) measured by LTS by up to 40% in the given discharge conditions. The results indicate that the cascaded arc plasma is recombining plasma and it is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This leads to significant error using OES when characterizing the electron temperature in a non-LTE plasma.

  4. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  5. Accuracy of the calculations of the ionization-state densities in a steady-state plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, D.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative definition is given to the accuracy of the computation of the partial densities of the ionization states in a steady-state plasma when there is an inaccuracy in the rate coefficients used in the rate equation. It is found that the partial density of the most abundant ion species is almost independent of the exact form of the rate coefficients, but large errors may occur for the rare species. The effect of the variation of the total ion density on the partial densities is also calculated. For low-ion densities the partial ionization-state densities grow proportionally to the change of the total density, but at high densities there is an alteration of the charge-state distribution as well

  6. Simulation of ionization effects for high-density positron drivers in future plasma wakefield experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Cary, J.R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has been proposed as a potential energy doubler for present or future electron-positron colliders. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the self-fields of the required electron beam driver can tunnel ionize neutral Li, leading to plasma wake dynamics differing significantly from that of a preionized plasma. It has also been shown, for the case of a preionized plasma, that the plasma wake of a positron driver differs strongly from that of an electron driver. We will present new PIC simulations, using the OOPIC code, showing the effects of tunneling ionization on the plasma wake generated by high-density positron drivers. The results will be compared to previous work on electron drivers with tunneling ionization and positron drivers without ionization. Parameters relevant to the energy doubler and the upcoming E-164x experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will be considered

  7. Measurements of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) and Electron Density/Temperature Profiles in Plasmas Produced by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We will present results of simultaneous measurements of LPI-driven light scattering and density/temperature profiles in CH plasmas produced by the Nike krypton fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm). The primary diagnostics for the LPI measurement are time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration in spectral ranges relevant to the optical detection of stimulated Raman scattering or two plasmon decay. The spectrometers are capable of monitoring signal intensity relative to thermal background radiation from plasma providing a useful way to analyze LPI initiation. For further understanding of LPI processes, the recently implemented grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR)a is used to measure the coronal plasma profiles. In this experiment, Nike-GIR is equipped with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) in attempt to probe into a high density region over the previous peak density with λ = 263 nm probe light ( 4 ×1021 cm-3). The LPI behaviors will be discussed with the measured data sets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  8. Coaxial plasma gun in the high density regime and injection into a helical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaer, S.F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1994-02-01

    A modified coaxial gun in the high density regime of 20-70 mT of He restgas, energized by a 1200 HV sinusoidally damped capacitor discharge with peak currents of 86 kA in a potential range of 10-15 kV, was investigated. The acceleration of the current sheet inside the gun was studied, and an MHD current element model derived, in good agreement with experiment, indicating that thermal diffusion can be neglected during the acceleration phase and furthermore explains the sheet velocity limitation. At the muzzle the plasma is magnetized by inducing a toroidal current through a permanent radial field, generating poloidal field. The injection of the generated current-carrying plasma torus into the driftspace was studied by means of a diamagnetic probe array, for 1) toroidal bias field, and 2) helical bias field. The inner electrode (negative polarity) is continued into the driftspace by a considerably thinner, pyrex insulated central conductor, generating the toroidal bias. Quasi-Tokamak geometry is reached in the helical case. The necessary axial bias field strength was then calculated. Second half-period breakdown was observed, thus a positive electrode was present most of the time. This is a unique way to achieve autopreionisation. Plasma gun operation is very much breakdown dependent, specially in the region of the muzzle. This made it necessary to construct a special compensation coil for the axial field coil. The mean torus speed in the driftspace was 2.2 cm/{mu}sec. The tori were azimuthally homogeneous and exhibited enhanced stability. Transverse expansion at ejection and in the driftspace is prevented by a unique rarefaction wave-pattern resulting from the Mach 50 flow. The toroidal current was observed to decay continuously, not abruptly. No n type or oscillatory instabilities were encountered. These findings are important for future designs of guns where a stable and homogenous torus is needed, such as magnetic confinement injectors. (author) 39 figs., 38 refs.

  9. Coaxial plasma gun in the high density regime and injection into a helical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, S.F.

    1994-02-01

    A modified coaxial gun in the high density regime of 20-70 mT of He restgas, energized by a 1200 HV sinusoidally damped capacitor discharge with peak currents of 86 kA in the potential range of 10-15 kV, was investigated. The acceleration of the current sheet inside the gun was studied, and an MHD current element model derived, in good agreement with experiment, indicating that thermal diffusion can be neglected during the acceleration phase and furthermore explains the sheet velocity limitation. At the muzzle the plasma is magnetized by inducing a toroidal current through a permanent radial field, generating poloidal field. The injection of the generated current-carrying plasma torus into the driftspace was studied by means of a diamagnetic probe array, for 1) toroidal bias field, and 2) helical bias field. The inner electrode (negative polarity) is continued into the driftspace by a considerably thinner, pyrex insulated central conductor, generating the toroidal bias. Quasi-Tokamak geometry is reached in the helical case. The necessary axial bias field strength was then calculated. Second half-period breakdown was observed, thus a positive electrode was present most of the time. This is a unique way to achieve autopreionisation. Plasma gun operation is very much breakdown dependent, specially in the region of the muzzle. This made it necessary to construct a special compensation coil for the axial field coil. The mean torus speed in the driftspace was 2.2 cm/μsec. The tori were azimuthally homogeneous and exhibited enhanced stability. Transverse expansion at ejection and in the driftspace is prevented by a unique rarefaction wave-pattern resulting from the Mach 50 flow. The toroidal current was observed to decay continuously, not abruptly. No n type or oscillatory instabilities were encountered. These findings are important for future designs of guns where a stable and homogenous torus is needed, such as magnetic confinement injectors. (author) 39 figs., 38 refs

  10. Relativistic self-focusing of intense laser beam in thermal collisionless quantum plasma with ramped density profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.

  11. Electron density measurement of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma using dispersion interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Medical applications of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasmas have recently been attracting a great deal of attention, where many types of plasma sources have been developed to meet the purposes. For example, plasma-activated medium (PAM), which is now being studied for cancer treatment, has been produced by irradiating non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density to a culture medium. Meanwhile, in order to measure electron density in magnetic confinement plasmas, a CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been developed and installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. The dispersion interferometer has advantages that the measurement is insensitive to mechanical vibrations and changes in neutral gas density. Taking advantage of these properties, we applied the dispersion interferometer to electron density diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas produced by the NU-Global HUMAP-WSAP-50 device, which is used for producing PAM. This study was supported by the Grant of Joint Research by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS).

  12. Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Scharer, John

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities and temperatures in dry air by focusing 200 mJ, 10 MW high power, 193 nm ultraviolet ArF (argon fluoride) laser radiation to a 30 μm radius spot size. We examine these properties that result from multiphoton and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnostic technique is used to obtain the plasma electron temperature just after the shock front and this is compared with optical emission spectroscopic measurements of nitrogen rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two-color laser interferometry is employed to measure time resolved spatial electron and neutral density decay in initial local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma are analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) supported by SPECAIR, a special OES program for air constituent plasmas. Core plasma rotational and vibrational temperatures are obtained from the emission spectra from the N 2 C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results and the results are compared with the electron temperature just behind the shock wave. The plasma density decay measurements are compared with a simplified electron density decay model that illustrates the dominant three-and two-body recombination terms with good correlation

  13. Atomic and ionic density measurement by laser absorption spectroscopy of magnetized or non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, P.

    1989-11-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy is an appreciated diagnostic in plasma physics to measure atomic and ionic densities. We used it here more specifically on metallic plasmas. Firstly, a uranium plasma was created in a hollow cathode. 17 levels of U.I and U.II (12 for U.I and 5 for U.II) are measured by this method. The results are compared with the calculated levels of two models (collisional-radiative and LTE). Secondly, the theory of absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and checked. Then, low-density magnetized plasma produced on our ERIC experiment (acronym for Experiment of Resonance Ionic Cyclotron), have been diagnosed successfully. The use of this technique on a low density plasma has not yet been published to our knowledge. The transverse temperature and the density of a metastable atomic level of a barium plasma has been derived. The evolution of a metastable ionic level of this element is studied in terms of two source parameters (furnace temperature and injected hyperfrequency power) [fr

  14. Dusty plasma in the region of the lunar terminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, S. I., E-mail: popel@iki.rssi.ru; Zelenyi, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Atamaniuk, B. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Space Research Center (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Dusty plasma in the region of the lunar terminator is considered. It is shown that, in this region, a structure resembling a plasma sheath forms near the lunar surface. This sheath creates a potential barrier, due to which electrons over the illuminated part of the Moon are confined by electrostatic forces. The width of the sheath-like structure is on the order of the ion Debye length. In this structure, significant (about several hundred V/m) electric fields arise, which lift charged micron-size dust grains to heights of several tens of centimeters. The suggested effect may be used to explain the glow observed by the Surveyor spacecraft over the lunar terminator.

  15. On the energy confinement in the TM-G tokamak with high plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovskij, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Energy confinement time τ E , when plasma density changing, has been measured at the TM-G-tokamak device with a graphite discharge chamber. The measurements have been carried out in three different discharge modes with a similar stability margin on the limiter (q L )=3) and with different values of the discharge current of a longitudinal field (I p =20, 40 and 60 kA, V T =0.8; 1.6 and 2.4 T). On the basis of experimental data analysis the conclusion is made that saturation of τ E (n e ) dependence at high plasma density occurs due to current channel compression and violation of a ''self-consistent'' profile of current density. Drift wave excitation at densities similar to the limiting Murakami density can also play an important role

  16. Confinement properties of JET plasmas with different temperature and density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.L.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement properties of plasmas with substantially different temperature and density profiles have been analysed. The effects of fast particles and energy pedestals on the overall confinement of plasma energy in limiter (L-mode) and X-point (L- and H-modes) discharges heated by NBI or ICRF or both are determined. The importance of the bootstrap current when such energy pedestals are formed is noted. Using sets of consistent experimental data, including ion temperature profile measurements, the local transport properties are compared in the L- and H-phases of a single null X-point medium density NBI heated discharge, the ''enhanced'' confinement phase of a limiter high density pellet-fuelled and ICRF heated discharge, the hot-ion phase of a double null X-point low density NBI heated discharge and the hot-ion and H-phases of a double null X-point low density high temperature NBI heated discharge. (author)

  17. Effects of a conducting E layer on classical F region cross-field plasma diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickrey, J.F.; Kelley, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of cross-field plasma diffusion in the F region ionosphere is significantly increased when the magnetic field lines thread a highly conducting E region below. This reduces the lifetime of small-scale F region electron density irregularities in the polar ionosphere where the presence of a highly conducting E region is comonplace. A simple mmodel is developed to describe the effects of a conducting E layer on classical F region plasma diffusion. In the absence of an E region, the difference in ion and electron diffusion rates leads to a charge separation and, hence, to an electrostatic field that retards ion diffusion. When the highly conducting magnetic field lines are tied to a conducting E region, however, electrons can flow along B to reduce the ambipolar diffusion electric field, and ions can proceed perpendicular to B at a rate approaching their own (higher) diffusion velocity. It is shown that the enhanced total diffusion rate that results depends strongly on the height of the F layer and on the ratio of the E to F region Pedersen conductivities

  18. High-Density Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, A.G.; Han, J.; Lester, L.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anisotropic, smooth etching of the group-III nitrides has been reported at relatively high rates in high-density plasma etch systems. However, such etch results are often obtained under high de-bias and/or high plasma flux conditions where plasma induced damage can be significant. Despite the fact that the group-III nitrides have higher bonding energies than more conventional III-V compounds, plasma-induced etch damage is still a concern. Attempts to minimize such damage by reducing the ion energy or increasing the chemical activity in the plasma often result in a loss of etch rate or anisotropy which significantly limits critical dimensions and reduces the utility of the process for device applications requiring vertical etch profiles. It is therefore necessary to develop plasma etch processes which couple anisotropy for critical dimension and sidewall profile control and high etch rates with low-damage for optimum device performance. In this study we report changes in sheet resistance and contact resistance for n- and p-type GaN samples exposed to an Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, plasma-induced damage was more sensitive to ion bombardment energies as compared to plasma flux. In addition, p-GaN was typically more sensitive to plasma-induced damage as compared to n-GaN

  19. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odorici, F., E-mail: fabrizio.odorici@bo.infn.it; Malferrari, L.; Montanari, A. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rizzoli, R. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); CNR–Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to “screen” the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  20. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorici, F; Malferrari, L; Montanari, A; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Neri, L

    2016-02-01

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to "screen" the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  1. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta', N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S

    2010-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10 5 ) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10 1 Hz to 10 6 Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl 2 /Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl 2 /Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl 2 /Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  2. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  3. Impurities, temperature, and density in a miniature electrostatic plasma and current source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Sarff, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    We have spectroscopically investigated the Sterling Scientific miniature electrostatic plasma source-a plasma gun. This gun is a clean source of high density (10 19 - 10 20 m -3 ), low temperature (5 - 15 eV) plasma. A key result of our investigation is that molybdenum from the gun electrodes is largely trapped in the internal gun discharge; only a small amount escapes in the plasma flowing out of the gun. In addition, the gun plasma parameters actually improve (even lower impurity contamination and higher ion temperature) when up to 1 kA of electron current is extracted from the gun via the application of an external bias. This improvement occurs because the internal gun anode no longer acts as the current return for the internal gun discharge. The gun plasma is a virtual plasma electrode capable of sourcing an electron emission current density of 1 kA/cm 2 . The high emission current, small size (3 - 4 cm diameter), and low impurity generation make this gun attractive for a variety of fusion and plasma technology applications

  4. Study of density jump in helicon-wave induced H2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fan; Cheng Xinlu; Xiong Zhenwei; Wu Weidong; Wang Yuying; Gao Yingxue; Dai Yang

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen plasmas electron density and electron energy distribution function EEDF were studied with Langmuir probe. Two jumps were observed in the variation of the electron density with the radio frequency power. The relative intensity ratio of hydrogen plasmas spectrum line H α , H β and H γ validated this phenomenon. Two density jumps illuminated the transition of discharge mode,which labeled as capacitive, inductive and helicon-wave mode. In this work, the density jumps are explained from two sides, one is the interaction between electrons and hydrogen molecules, the other is Nagoya type III (N-type) antenna-plasma coupling. With the increase of radiofrequency power, the interaction between electron and hydrogen molecule has been enhanced which causes the electron density jumps. The antenna couples well to plasmas when transverse field E y is maximum, and the wave vector of k z locates at π/l a or 3π/l a , corresponding to the first and second density jump. (authors)

  5. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  6. F region electron density irregularity spectra near Auroral acceleration and shear regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; MacKenzie, E.; Coley, W.R.; Hanson, W.B.; Lin, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of auroral F region irregularities were studied by the use of high-resolution (approx.35 m) density measurements made by the retarding potential analyzer (RPA) on board the Atmosphere Explorer D (AE-D) satellite during two orbits when the satellite was traversing the high-latitude ionosphere in the evening sector. Coordinated DMSP passes provided synoptic coverage of auroral activity. The auroral energy input was estimated by intergrating the low-energy electron (LEE) data on AE-D. It was found that the one-dimensional in situ spectral index (p 1 ) of the irregularities at scale lengths of 1 values of approx.-3. This is interpreted as resulting from the effects of E region conductivity on the F region irregularity structure. The regions in between the precipitation structures, where presumably the E region conductivity was small, were generally associated with large shears in the horizontal E-W drifts and large velocities, as measured by the ion drift meter on board AE-D. The maximum drifts measured were approx.2 km s -1 , corresponding to an electric field of 100 mV m -1 . The large-velocity regions were also associated with substantial ion heating and electron density depletions. The largest shear magnitudes observed were approx.80 m s -1 km -1 , and the shear gradient scale lengths were approx.10 km, which was approximately the resolution of the ion drift meter data set used. The spectral characteristics of irregularities in the large, variable flow regions were very different, with p 1 being approx.-1

  7. Diagnosing high density, fast-evolving plasmas using x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    As x-ray laser (XRL) research has matured, it has become possible to reliably utilize XRLs for applications in the laboratory. Laser coherence, high brightness and short pulse duration all make the XRL a unique tool for the diagnosis of laboratory plasmas. The high brightness of XRLs makes them well-suited for imaging and for interferometry when used in conjunction with multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters. We have utilized a soft x-ray laser in such an imaging system to examine laser-produced plasmas using radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry. Radiography experiments yield 100-200 ps snapshots of laser driven foils at a resolution of 1-2 μm. Moire deflectometry with an XRL has been used to probe plasmas at higher density than by optical means. Interferograms, which allow direct measurement of electron density in laser plasmas, have been obtained with this system

  8. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Gammino, Santo [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, Gino [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Isernia, Tommaso [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called “frequency sweep” method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  9. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect

  10. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, G. T. Road, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)

    2014-07-15

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.

  11. Evidence for a Rayleigh-Taylor type instability and upwelling of depleted density regions during equatorial spread F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Haerendel, G.; Kappler, H.; Valenzuela, A.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.; Ecklund, W. L.; Carlson, C. W.; Haeusler, B.; Torbert, R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent rocket probe, barium cloud and radar measurements conducted during equatorial spread F conditions are interpreted in terms of a Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability operating on the bottomside of the F peak. The persistent theoretical problems associated with strong radar echoes typically observed in patch-like structures at high altitudes are explained in terms of regions of depleted plasma density which buoyantly rise against the gravitational field.

  12. Evidence for a Rayleigh-Taylor type instability and upwelling of depleted density regions during equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Haerendel, G.; Kappler, H.; Valenzuela, A.; Balsley, B.B.; Carter, D.A.; Ecklund, W.L.; Carlson, C.W.; Hausler, B.; Torbert, R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent rocket probe, barium cloud and radar measurements conducted during equatorial spread F conditions are interpreted in terms of a Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability operating on the bottomside of the F peak. The persistent theoretical problems associated with strong radar echoes typically observed in patch-like structures at high altitudes are explained in terms of regions of depleted plasma density which bouyantly rise against the gravitational field

  13. The Stark-crossing method for the simultaneous determination of the electron temperature and density in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J; Carabano, O; Fernandez, M; Rubio, S; Alvarez, R; Rodero, A; Lao, C; Quintero, M C; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2006-01-01

    The use of the Stark broadening of Balmer lines spontaneously emitted by atmospheric-pressure plasmas as a method to determine both the electron density and temperature in high-pressure plasmas is discussed in this paper. This method is applied to argon and helium plasmas produced in microwave discharges. Especially for Ar plasmas, valuable and reliable results are obtained

  14. High density high performance plasma with internal diffusion barrier in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Miyazawa, J.

    2008-10-01

    A attractive high density plasma operational regime, namely an internal diffusion barrier (IDB), has been discovered in the intrinsic helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The IDB which enables core plasma to access a high density/high pressure regime has been developed. It is revealed that the IDB is reproducibly formed by pellet fueling in the magnetic configurations shifted outward in major radius. Attainable central plasma density exceeds 1x10 21 m -3 . Central pressure reaches 1.5 times atmospheric pressure and the central β value becomes fairly high even at high magnetic field, i.e. β(0)=5.5% at B t =2.57 T. (author)

  15. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  16. Impact of gas puffing location on density control and plasma parameters in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Estrada, T.; Tafalla, D.; Hidalgo, A.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pastor, I.; Herranz, J.; Ascasibar, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under pure Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) conditions in TJ-II plasmas (P<300 kW, 53.2 GHz, 2nd harmonic X-mode, power density < 25 W/m''3), plasma start-up and good density control are obtained only by the proper combination of wall conditions and gas puffing characteristics. Such a control is particularly critical for the optimisation of the NBI power transfer to the target plasmas. The relatively low cut-off limit is easily reached due not only to the unfavourable wall/puffing-fuelling ratio but also due to the steep density profiles developed during the Enhanced Particle Confinement (EPC) modes. These modes are triggered by the gas puffing waveform, and they cannot be achieved for high iota magnetic configurations in TJ-II. Comparative experiments under metallic and boronised wall conditions have shown that the sensitivity of the EPC modes to the puffing rate is at least partially related to the energy balance at the plasma periphery under central heating scenarios. In this work, the impact of gas-fuelling location on the plasma parameters and density control is described. For that purpose, three different fuelling locations have been investigated; broad distribution from a side ports, localized injection from long tubes at different poloidal positions and highly localized injection through a movable limiter. Edge density and temperature profiles from a broad set of diagnostics (atomic beams, reflectometry, Thompson Scattering ECE, etc...) are analysed and compared. It has been found that preventing from transition to the EPC mode is achieved by using slow puffing rates, while neutral penetration into the plasma core can be enhanced for highly localized gas sources. Wall inventory, however, has been found to pl ay a dominant role in the fuelling of the plasma under most conditions. (author)

  17. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs

  18. Measurements of continuum lowering in solid-density plasmas created from elements and compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S.M.; Barbrel, B.; Rackstraw, D.S.; Preston, T.R.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Cho, B.I.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G.L.; Engelhorn, K.; Hájková, Věra; Heimann, P.; Holmes, M.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J.J.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, May (2016), 1-7, č. článku 11713. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : solid-density plasmas * X-ray * Linac Coherent Light Source * ionization potential depression (IPD) * equation of state (EOS) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  19. Density peaking in the JFT-2M tokamak plasma with counter neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Itoh, S.; Itoh, K.

    1991-05-01

    A significant particle pinch and reduction of the effective thermal diffusivity are observed after switching the neutral beam direction from co- to counter- injection in the JFT-2M tokamak. A time delay in the occurrence of density peaking to that of plasma rotation is found. This shows that the particle pinch is related to the profile of the electric field as determined by the plasma rotation profile. The measured particle flux shows qualitative agreement with the theoretically-predicted inward pinch. (author)

  20. Convective cell excitation by inertial Alfven waves in a low density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, O.A.; Onishchenko, O.G.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Srenflo, L.; Balikhin, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The parametric interaction of inertial Alfven waves with large-scale convective cells in a low-density plasma is investigated. It is shown that, in plasmas where the Alfven velocity is comparable to or exceeds the speed of light, the parametric interaction is substantially suppressed. A compact expression for the optimal scale and instability growth rate of the fastest growing mode is obtained [ru

  1. Simulation of the Plasma Density Evolution during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating at the T-10 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Vershkov, V. A.; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Zenin, V. N.; Lysenko, S. E.; Melnikov, A. V.; Shelukhin, D. A.; Subbotin, G. F.; Cherkasov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    In ohmically heated (OH) plasma with low recycling, an improved particle confinement (IPC) mode is established during gas puffing. However, after gas puffing is switched off, this mode is retained only for about 100 ms, after which an abrupt phase transition into the low particle confinement (LPC) mode occurs in the entire plasma cross section. During such a transition, energy transport due to heat conduction does not change. The phase transition in OH plasma is similar to the effect of density pump-out from the plasma core, which occurs after electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is switched on. Analysis of the measured plasma pressure profiles in the T-10 tokamak shows that, after gas puffing in the OH mode is switched off, the plasma pressure profile in the IPC stage becomes more peaked and, after the peakedness exceeds a certain critical value, the IPC-LPC transition occurs. Similar processes are also observed during ECH. If the pressure profile is insufficiently peaked during ECH, then the density pump-out effect comes into play only after the critical peakedness of the pressure profile is reached. In the plasma core, the density and pressure profiles are close to the corresponding canonical profiles. This allows one to derive an expression for the particle flux within the canonical profile model and formulate a criterion for the IPC-LPC transition. The time evolution of the plasma density profile during phase transitions was simulated for a number of T-10 shots with ECH and high recycling. The particle transport coefficients in the IPC and LPC phases, as well as the dependences of these coefficients on the ECH power, are determined.

  2. CH spectroscopy for carbon chemical erosion analysis in high density low temperature hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The CH A-X molecular band is measured upon seeding the hydrogen plasma in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI [electron temperature T-e=0.1-2.5 eV and electron density n(e)=(0.5-5) X 10(20) m(-3)] with methane. Calculated inverse photon efficiencies for these conditions range from 3 up to

  3. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yongfeng [American Physical Society, San Diego, CA (United States); Xiao, Weike, E-mail: yongfeng.wu@maine.edu [Department of Astronautics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 345, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China)

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5σ) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  4. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Sanna; Eklund, Martin; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Fredolini, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Schwenk, Jochen M; Gabrielson, Marike

    2018-02-14

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  5. Deposition of thin films and surface modification by pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Pengxun; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    The use of pulsed high energy density plasma is a new low temperature plasma technology for material surface treatment and thin film deposition. The authors present detailed theoretical and experimental studies of the production mechanism and physical properties of the pulsed plasma. The basic physics of the pulsed plasma-material interaction has been investigated. Diagnostic measurements show that the pulsed plasma has a high electron temperature of 10-100 eV, density of 10 14 -10 16 cm -3 , translation velocity of ∼10 -7 cm/s and power density of ∼10 4 W/cm 2 . Its use in material surface treatment combines the effects of laser surface treatment, electron beam treatment, shock wave bombardment, ion implantation, sputtering deposition and chemical vapor deposition. The metastable phase and other kinds of compounds can be produced on low temperature substrates. For thin film deposition, a high deposition ratio and strong film to substrate adhesion can be achieved. The thin film deposition and material surface modification by the pulsed plasma and related physical mechanism have been investigated. Thin film c-BN, Ti(CN), TiN, DLC and AlN materials have been produced successfully on various substrates at room temperature. A wide interface layer exists between film and substrate, resulting in strong adhesion. Metal surface properties can be improved greatly by using this kind of treatment

  6. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  7. Dynamics of the spatial electron density distribution of EUV-induced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; Banine, V. Y.

    2015-11-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of the electron density distribution in a low pressure pulsed plasma induced by high energy extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS). In principle, MCRS only provides space averaged information about the electron density. However, we demonstrate here the possibility to obtain spatial information by combining multiple resonant modes. It is shown that EUV-induced plasmas, albeit being a rather exotic plasma, can be explained by known plasma physical laws and processes. Two stages of plasma behaviour are observed: first the electron density distribution contracts, after which it expands. It is shown that the contraction is due to cooling of the electrons. The moment when the density distribution starts to expand is related to the inertia of the ions. After tens of microseconds, the electrons reached the wall of the cavity. The speed of this expansion is dependent on the gas pressure and can be divided into two regimes. It is shown that the acoustic dominated regime the expansion speed is independent of the gas pressure and that in the diffusion dominated regime the expansion depends reciprocal on the gas pressure.

  8. Dynamics of the spatial electron density distribution of EUV-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Horst, R M; Beckers, J; Banine, V Y; Osorio, E A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of the electron density distribution in a low pressure pulsed plasma induced by high energy extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS). In principle, MCRS only provides space averaged information about the electron density. However, we demonstrate here the possibility to obtain spatial information by combining multiple resonant modes. It is shown that EUV-induced plasmas, albeit being a rather exotic plasma, can be explained by known plasma physical laws and processes. Two stages of plasma behaviour are observed: first the electron density distribution contracts, after which it expands. It is shown that the contraction is due to cooling of the electrons. The moment when the density distribution starts to expand is related to the inertia of the ions. After tens of microseconds, the electrons reached the wall of the cavity. The speed of this expansion is dependent on the gas pressure and can be divided into two regimes. It is shown that the acoustic dominated regime the expansion speed is independent of the gas pressure and that in the diffusion dominated regime the expansion depends reciprocal on the gas pressure. (fast track communication)

  9. Cylindrical implosion to measure the radiative properties of high density and temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan; Rose, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cylindrical implosion is of great interest because of its excellent diagnostic access. The authors present one-dimensional numerical simulations to explore the plasma conditions that may be achieved. Combined with the numerical data, the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in those targets are estimated. The authors found that it is possible to achieve a high density and temperature plasma with a relatively low temperature and density gradient using a cylindrical implosion directly-driven by a high-power laser

  10. Variation of the Plasma Density in a Glow Discharge Upon the Application of A High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, S.

    2004-01-01

    It is emphasized and demonstrated that, during the formation of an ion-matrix sheath in a glow discharge upon the application of a high voltage pulse, the existing neutral plasma density should change as well. An explicit and practical expression for the neutral plasma density in terms of the gas pressure, secondary electron emission coefficient and the applied voltage is derived, so that the consequent sheath behavior can be formulated correctly. The theoretical result is compared with the data of an experiment, particularly designed and performed to test its validity, and found to be in good agreement with the latter

  11. Temporal evolutions of electron temperature and density of turbulently-heated tokamak plasmas in TRIAM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-04-01

    The temporal evolution of the electron temperature and density are measured in a turbulent heating experiment in TRIAM-1. Skin-like profiles of the electron temperature and density are clearly observed. The anomality in the electrical resistivity of the plasma in this skin-layer is estimated, and the plasma heating in this skin-layer is regarded as being due to anomalous joule heating arising from this anomalous resistivity. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal velocity in the layer is also calculated, and it is shown that the conditions needed to make the current-driven ion-acoustic instability triggerable are satisfied.

  12. Critical density for Landau damping in a two-electron-component plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Constantin F.; López, Rodrigo A.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-10-15

    The asymptotic evolution of an initial perturbation in a collisionless two-electron-component plasma with different temperatures is studied numerically. The transition between linear and nonlinear damping regimes is determined by slowly varying the density of the secondary electron-component using high-resolution Vlasov-Poisson simulations. It is shown that, for fixed amplitude perturbations, this transition behaves as a critical phenomenon with time scales and field amplitudes exhibiting power-law dependencies on the threshold density, similar to the critical amplitude behavior in a single-component plasma.

  13. Electromagnetic energy density and stress tensor in a warm plasma with finite flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong R.; Lee, Nam C.

    2004-01-01

    The expressions of the average of energy density and the average stress tensor of the electromagnetic field in a warm collisionless plasma moving with a finite velocity are obtained by using a microscopic method that uses the fluid description of plasma. The result contains terms involved with derivatives of the dielectric tensor with respect to the velocity, which explicitly represent the effects of the finite velocity of the medium. In the zero-velocity limit, the results reduce to the well-known expressions for a plasma at rest with temporal and spatial dispersion

  14. Reflection and absorption of ion-acoustic waves in a plasma density gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, O.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma is characterized by electrical quasineutrality and the collective behavior. There exists a longitudinal low-frequency wave called an ion-acoustic wave in a plasma. One problem in the experimental study of ion-acoustic waves has been that sometimes they are observed to be reflected from discharge tube walls, and sometimes to be absorbed. Theoretical computation reveals that a velocity gradient produced by a density gradient plays a significant role in the reflection. The velocity gradient produces the subsonic-supersonic transition and long wavelength waves are reflected before reaching the transition while short wavelength waves penetrate over the transition and are absorbed in the supersonic flow plasma

  15. Relaxation of potential, flows, and density in the edge plasma of Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Dufkova, E.; Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hidalgo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Decay times of plasma flows and plasma profiles have been measured after a sudden biasing switch-off in experiments on the Castor tokamak. A biased electrode has been used to polarize the edge plasma. The edge plasma potential and flows have been characterized by means of Langmuir and Mach probes, the radiation was measured using an array of bolometers. Potential profiles and poloidal flows can be well fitted by an exponential decay time in the range of 10 - 30 μs when the electrode biasing is turned off in the Castor tokamak. The radiation shows a slower time scale (about 1 ms), which is linked to the evolution in the plasma density and particle confinement. (authors)

  16. Confinement properties of high energy density plasmas in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twichell, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    The confinement of particles and energy is critically dependent on the plasma-wall interaction. Results of a study detailing this interaction are presented. High power ICRF heated and gun afterglow plasmas were studied to detail the mechanisms determining particle and energy confinement. An extensive zero-D simulation code is used to assist in interpreting the experimental data. Physically reasonable models for plasma surface interactions, time dependent coronal treatment of impurities and multiple region treatment of neutrals are used in modeling the plasma. Extensive diagnostic data are used to verify the model. Non-heated plasmas decay from 28 to 3 eV allowing clear identification of wall impact energy thresholds for desorption and particle reflection. The charge state distribution of impurities verifies the reflux to plasma diffusion rate ratio. Close agreement between the simulation and experimental data is found

  17. Density-dependent lines of one- and two-electron ions in diagnostics of laboratory plasma. I. The rates of collision relaxation of excited levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelko, V P; Skobelev, I Yu; Vinogradov, A V [Lebedev Physical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-01-01

    Plasma devices with inertial plasma confinement such as laser produced plasmas, exploding wires, plasma focus, etc., which have been rapidly developed during recent years., appear to be very intensive sources of spectral line radiation in far UV and X-ray regions. Analysis of this radiation provides a good tool for plasma diagnostics with very high electron densities up to 10/sup 22/cm/sup -3/. In this work, consisting of two parts, the authors consider the mechanism of the formation of spectral lines in hot and dense plasma. The key point for density diagnostics is the fact that for some ion levels the rate of collisional relaxation has the same order of magnitude as the radiative decay. Thus the intensities of spectral lines arising from these levels show a strong dependence on electron density which makes diagnostics possible. In this paper, emphasis is laid on the calculation of rates of transition between close ion levels induced by electron or ion impact, which usually gives the main contribution to the collisional relaxation constants. The influence of plasma polarization effects on the collision frequency in a dense plasma is also considered.

  18. Detonability of turbulent white dwarf plasma: Hydrodynamical models at low densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel

    The origins of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain an unsolved problem of contemporary astrophysics. Decades of research indicate that these supernovae arise from thermonuclear runaway in the degenerate material of white dwarf stars; however, the mechanism of these explosions is unknown. Also, it is unclear what are the progenitors of these objects. These missing elements are vital components of the initial conditions of supernova explosions, and are essential to understanding these events. A requirement of any successful SN Ia model is that a sufficient portion of the white dwarf plasma must be brought under conditions conducive to explosive burning. Our aim is to identify the conditions required to trigger detonations in turbulent, carbon-rich degenerate plasma at low densities. We study this problem by modeling the hydrodynamic evolution of a turbulent region filled with a carbon/oxygen mixture at a density, temperature, and Mach number characteristic of conditions found in the 0.8+1.2 solar mass (CO0812) model discussed by Fenn et al. (2016). We probe the ignition conditions for different degrees of compressibility in turbulent driving. We assess the probability of successful detonations based on characteristics of the identified ignition kernels, using Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics of turbulent flow. We found that material with very short ignition times is abundant in the case that turbulence is driven compressively. This material forms contiguous structures that persist over many ignition time scales, and that we identify as prospective detonation kernels. Detailed analysis of the kernels revealed that their central regions are densely filled with material characterized by short ignition times and contain the minimum mass required for self-sustained detonations to form. It is conceivable that ignition kernels will be formed for lower compressibility in the turbulent driving. However, we found no detonation kernels in models driven 87.5 percent

  19. Particle-in-cell modeling of laser Thomson scattering in low-density plasmas at elevated laser intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Andrew T.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering is a non-intrusive technique commonly used for measuring local plasma density. Within low-density, low-temperature plasmas and for sufficient laser intensity, the laser may perturb the local electron density via the ponderomotive force, causing the diagnostic to become intrusive and leading to erroneous results. A theoretical model for this effect is validated numerically via kinetic simulations of a quasi-neutral plasma using the particle-in-cell technique.

  20. Scattered light evidence for short density scale heights near critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Rupert, V.C.; Haas, R.A.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented of a steepened electron density profile near critical density obtained from studying the time-integrated scattered light from targets illuminated by linearly polarized, 1.06 μ light. Both 10 μ thick disks and DT-filled glass microshells were irradiated by light focused by f/1 or f/2.5 lenses in one and two-beam experiments, respectively. From the dependence of the asymmetry of the scattered light about the beam axis upon the scattering angle, we infer scale lengths on the order of one micron. Scale lengths have also been deduced from measurements on the polarization state of the reflected light. Both analytic and numerical results are presented to show how the polarization state varies with the incidence angle and the scale length

  1. Scattered light evidence for short density heights near critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Rupert, V.C.; Haas, R.A.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented of a steepened electron density profile near critical density obtained from studying the time-integrated scattered light from targets illuminated by linearly polarized, 1.06 μ light. Both 10 μ thick disks and DT-filled glass microshells were irradiated by light focused by f/1 or f/2.5 lenses in one and two-beam experiments, respectively. From the dependence of the asymmetry of the scattered light about the beam axis upon the scattering angle, scale lengths on the order of one micron are inferred. Scale lengths have also been deduced from measurements on the polarization state of the reflected light. Both analytic and numerical results are presented to show how the polarization state varies with the incidence angle and the scale length

  2. Frontiers in pulse-power-based high energy density plasma physics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this volume of report were presented at the Symposium on Frontiers in Pulse-power-based High Energy Density Physics' held by National Institute for Fusion Science. The topics include the present status of high energy density plasma researches, extreme ultraviolet sources, intense radiation sources, high power ion beams, and R and D of related pulse power technologies. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005. The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  4. One- and two-dimensional density and temperature measurements of an argon-neon Z-pinch plasma at stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Springer, P.T.; Hammer, J.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Bruns, H.C.; Emig, J.A.; Deeney, C.

    1996-10-01

    In order to benchmark and improve current 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of Z-pinch plasmas, we have performed experiments which characterize the plasma -conditions at stagnation. In the experiments the SATURN pulsed power facility at Sandia National Laboratory was used to create an imploding -Ar-Ne plasma. An absolutely calibrated, high resolution space- and time- resolving Johann crystal spectrometer was used to infer the electron temperature Te from the slope of the hydrogenlike Ne free-bound continuum, and the ion density ni from the Stark broadening of the Ar heliunlike Rydberg series. 2D electron temperature profiles of the plasma are obtained from a set of imaging crystals also focused on the Ne free-bound continuum. We shot two types of gas nozzles in the experiment, annular and uniform fill which varies the amount of mass in the plasma. 2D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE MM models predict a radiating region denser and cooler than measured

  5. One- and two-dimensional density and temperature measurements of an argon-neon Z-pinch plasma at stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Springer, P.T.; Hammer, J.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Bruns, H.C.; Emig, J.A.; Deeney, C.

    1997-01-01

    In order to benchmark and improve current 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of Z-pinch plasmas, we have performed experiments which characterize the plasma conditions at stagnation. In the experiments the SATURN pulsed power facility at Sandia National Laboratory was used to create an imploding Ar-Ne plasma. An absolutely calibrated, high resolution space- and time-resolving Johann crystal spectrometer was used to infer the electron temperature T e from the slope of the hydrogenlike Ne free-bound continuum, and the ion density n i from the Stark broadening of the Ar heliumlike Rydberg series. 2D electron temperature profiles of the plasma are obtained from a set of imaging crystals also focused on the Ne free-bound continuum. We shot two types of gas nozzles in the experiment, annular and uniform fill, which varies the amount of mass in the plasma. 2D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE MHD models predict a radiating region denser and cooler than measured. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Comparative study of the electron density profiles in the compact torus plasma merging experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashiya, Hitoshi; Asaka, Takeo; Katsurai, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Following two previous papers on the comparative studies of the electron density distributions for a single compact torus (CT) and a spherical tokamak (ST), and for the a single ST and a merged ST, a comparative study on the dynamics of the electron density profile and after the CT and ST plasma merging process was performed. The sharpness of the peak in the electron density profile around the mid-plane just after the merging of CT with a low safety factor (q value) such as RFP or spheromak is found to be related to the speed of the magnetic axis during the plasma merging process. It is also found that the electron density gradient near the plasma edge in a high q ST is larger than that of a low q CT. High q ST is found to be provided with the magnetic structure which is able to sustain a large thermal pressure by a strong j x B force. Despite these differences in the electron density profile between CT and ST during merging, the confinement characteristics evaluated from the number of electrons confined within the magnetic separatrix after the completion of the merging is almost similar between in the merging CT and in the merging ST. For all configurations, the electron density profiles after the completion of the merging are analogous to those of the corresponding single configuration produced without the merging process. (author)

  7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  8. Plasma density measurements on COMPASS-C tokamak from electron cyclotron emission cutoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenna Reddy, D.; Edlington, T.

    1996-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is a standard diagnostic in present day tokamak devices for temperature measurement. When the plasma density is high enough the emission at some frequencies is cut off. Of these cutoff frequencies, the first frequency to cut off depends on the shape of the density profile. If the density profile can be described by a few parameters, in some circumstances, this first cutoff frequency can be used to obtain two of these parameters. If more than two parameters are needed to describe the density profile, then additional independent measurements are required to find all the parameters. We describe a technique by which it is possible to obtain an analytical relation between the radius at which the first cutoff occurs and the profile parameters. Assuming that the shape of the profile does not change as the average density rises after the first cutoff, one can use the cutoffs at other frequencies to obtain the average density at the time of these cutoffs. The plasma densities obtained with this technique using the data from a 14 channel ECE diagnostic on COMPASS-C tokamak are in good agreement with those measured by a standard 2 mm interferometer. The density measurement using the ECE cutoffs is an independent measurement and requires only a frequency calibration of the ECE diagnostic. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D. R., E-mail: dmikkelsen@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Podpaly, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); AAAS S and T Fellow placed in the Directorate for Engineering, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Ma, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.

  10. Direct Laser Writing of Low-Density Interdigitated Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping [Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Nanostitched Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakdale, James S.; Smith, Raymond F.; Forien, Jean-Baptiste; Smith, William L.; Ali, Suzanne J.

    2017-01-01

    Monolithic porous bulk materials have many promising applications ranging from energy storage and catalysis to high energy density physics. High resolution additive manufacturing techniques, such as direct laser writing via two photon polymerization (DLW-TPP), now enable the fabrication of highly porous microlattices with deterministic morphology control. In this work, DLW-TPP is used to print millimeter-sized foam reservoirs (down to 0.06 g cm –3 ) with tailored density-gradient profiles, where density is varied by over an order of magnitude (for instance from 0.6 to 0.06 g cm –3 ) along a length of <100 µm. Taking full advantage of this technology, however, is a multiscale materials design problem that requires detailed understanding of how the different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscopic dimensions, affect each other. The design of these 3D-printed foams is based on the brickwork arrangement of 100 × 100 × 16 µm 3 log-pile blocks constructed from sub-micrometer scale features. A block-to-block interdigitated stitching strategy is introduced for obtaining high density uniformity at all length scales. Lastly, these materials are used to shape plasma-piston drives during ramp-compression of targets under high energy density conditions created at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

  11. Detection of an electron beam in a high density plasma via an electrostatic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Stephen; Yoo, Jongsoo; Zweben, Stewart; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao

    2017-10-01

    The perturbation in floating potential by an electron beam is detected by a 1D floating potential probe array to evaluate the use of an electron beam for magnetic field line mapping in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) plasma. The MRX plasma is relatively high density (1013 cm-3) and low temperature (5 eV). Beam electrons are emitted from a tungsten filament and are accelerated by a 200 V potential across the sheath. They stream along the magnetic field lines towards the probe array. The spatial electron beam density profile is assumed to be a Gaussian along the radial axis of MRX and the effective beam width is determined from the radial profile of the floating potential. The magnitude of the perturbation is in agreement with theoretical predictions and the location of the perturbation is also in agreement with field line mapping. In addition, no significant broadening of the electron beam is observed after propagation for tens of centimeters through the high density plasma. These results demonstrate that this method of field line mapping is, in principle, feasible in high density plasmas. This work is supported by the DOE Contract No. DE-AC0209CH11466.

  12. Turbulence at the transition to the high density H-mode in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Baumel, S.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new improved confinement regime was found in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator (Renner H. et al 1989 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31 1579). The discovery of this high density high confinement mode (HDH-mode) was facilitated by the installation of divertor modules. In this paper,...

  13. Compression of a mixed antiproton and electron non-neutral plasma to high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, Stefano; Amsler, Claude; Bonomi, Germano; Brusa, Roberto S.; Caccia, Massimo; Caravita, Ruggero; Castelli, Fabrizio; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Comparat, Daniel; Consolati, Giovanni; Demetrio, Andrea; Di Noto, Lea; Doser, Michael; Evans, Craig; Fanì, Mattia; Ferragut, Rafael; Fesel, Julian; Fontana, Andrea; Gerber, Sebastian; Giammarchi, Marco; Gligorova, Angela; Guatieri, Francesco; Haider, Stefan; Hinterberger, Alexander; Holmestad, Helga; Kellerbauer, Alban; Khalidova, Olga; Krasnický, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Vittorio; Lansonneur, Pierre; Lebrun, Patrice; Malbrunot, Chloé; Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Marton, Johann; Matveev, Victor; Mazzotta, Zeudi; Müller, Simon R.; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Nedelec, Patrick; Oberthaler, Markus; Pacifico, Nicola; Pagano, Davide; Penasa, Luca; Petracek, Vojtech; Prelz, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Rienaecker, Benjamin; Robert, Jacques; Røhne, Ole M.; Rotondi, Alberto; Sandaker, Heidi; Santoro, Romualdo; Smestad, Lillian; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Testera, Gemma; Tietje, Ingmari C.; Widmann, Eberhard; Yzombard, Pauline; Zimmer, Christian; Zmeskal, Johann; Zurlo, Nicola; Antonello, Massimiliano

    2018-04-01

    We describe a multi-step "rotating wall" compression of a mixed cold antiproton-electron non-neutral plasma in a 4.46 T Penning-Malmberg trap developed in the context of the AEḡIS experiment at CERN. Such traps are routinely used for the preparation of cold antiprotons suitable for antihydrogen production. A tenfold antiproton radius compression has been achieved, with a minimum antiproton radius of only 0.17 mm. We describe the experimental conditions necessary to perform such a compression: minimizing the tails of the electron density distribution is paramount to ensure that the antiproton density distribution follows that of the electrons. Such electron density tails are remnants of rotating wall compression and in many cases can remain unnoticed. We observe that the compression dynamics for a pure electron plasma behaves the same way as that of a mixed antiproton and electron plasma. Thanks to this optimized compression method and the high single shot antiproton catching efficiency, we observe for the first time cold and dense non-neutral antiproton plasmas with particle densities n ≥ 1013 m-3, which pave the way for an efficient pulsed antihydrogen production in AEḡIS.

  14. Chemical modeling of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma reactor containing silane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Boogaard, A.; Brunets, I.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    We carried out the modeling of chemical reactions in a silane-containing remote Inductively Coupled Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ICPECVD) system, intended for deposition of silicon, silicon oxide, and silicon nitride layers. The required electron densities and Electron Energy

  15. The scattering of E. M. waves from density fluctuations in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagfors, T.

    1977-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves by a single electron is developed from first principles. The result is used to derive the relationship of the scattered power spectrum to the spacetime Fourier transform of the electron density fluctuations in a plasma. (Auth.)

  16. Effects of density asymmetries on heavy-impurity transport in a rotating tokamak-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, M.; Ottaviani, M.

    1997-12-01

    The transport equations of heavy trace-impurities in a Tokamak plasma with strong toroidal rotation have been studied analytically in the collisional regime. It is found that the poloidal asymmetry of the impurity-density, which occurs because of the rotation, brings about a large enhancement of the diffusivity and indeed of the pinch velocity above the conventional Pfirsh-Schlueter values. (author)

  17. Guidelines for etching silicon MEMS structures using fluorine high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gilde, M.J.; Roelofs, Gerard; Sasserath, Jay N.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    This paper presents guidelines for the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon MEMS structures, employing SF6/O2-based high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures. Procedures of how to tune the equipment for optimal results with respect to etch rate and profile control are described. Profile

  18. Pinch density measurements in compact plasma foci of 400J and 50J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser (600 mJ, 532 nm, 8 ns) was implemented to measure the electron density and the dimensions of the pinch column in two sub-kJ compact plasma focus devices operating at hundred joules (PF-400J) and tens of joules (PF-50J).

  19. Ozone synthesis improves by increasing number density of plasma channels and lower voltage in a nonthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Hughes, David

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in ozone synthesis from air and oxygen by increasing the number density of plasma channels and lower voltage for the same specific input energy (SIE) were explored in a nonthermal plasma based on a sliding discharge. The number of plasma channels and energy per pulse increased in direct proportion to the increase in the effective length of the anode (the high voltage electrode). Decreasing the discharge gap increased the energy per pulse for the same length and allowed the installation of more electrode pairs in the same space. It allowed the increase of the number of plasma channels in the same space to achieve the same SIE at a lower peak voltage with less energy per plasma channel. The ozone concentration gradually increased to ~1500 ppmv (140 to 50 g kWh-1) from air and to ~6000 ppmv (400 to 200 g kWh-1) from oxygen with a gradual increase in the SIE to ~200 J L-1, irrespective of the variations in electrode geometry, applied voltage or flow rate of the feed gas. A gradual increase in SIE beyond 200 J L-1 gradually increased the ozone concentration to a certain maximum value followed by a decline, but the rate of increase and the maximum value was higher for the greater number of plasma channels and lower peak voltage combination. The maximum ozone concentration was ~5000 ppmv (~30 g kWh-1) from air and ~22 000 ppmv (~80 g kWh-1) from oxygen. The results are explained on the basis of characteristics of the plasma and ozone synthesis mechanism.

  20. A study on current density distribution reproduction by bounded-eigenfunction expansion for a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1997-11-01

    Plasma current density distribution is one of the most important controlled variables to determine plasma performance of energy confinement and stability in a tokamak. However, its reproduction by using magnetic measurements solely is recognized to yield an ill-posed problem. A method to presume the formulas giving profiles of plasma pressure and current has been adopted to regularize the ill-posedness, and hence it has been reported the current density distribution can be reproduced as a solution of Grad-Shafranov equation within a certain accuracy. In order to investigate its strict reproducibility from magnetic measurements in this inverse problem, a new method of 'bounded-eigenfunction expansion' is introduced, and it was found that the reproducibility directly corresponds to the independence of a series of the special function. The results from various investigations in an aspect of applied mathematics concerning this inverse problem are presented in detail. (author)

  1. Collective laser light scattering from electron density fluctuations in fusion research plasmas (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, E.; Dodel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetically confined plasmas density fluctuations of apparently turbulent nature with broad spectra in wave number and frequency space are observed which are thought to be the cause for anomalous energy and particle transport across the confining magnetic field. Collective laser light scattering has been used to study the nature of these fluctuations. Specific problems of scattering from fusion plasmas are addressed and illustrated with experimental results from the 119 μm far infrared laser scattering experiment operated on the ASDEX tokamak. Using the system in the heterodyne mode the direction of propagation with respect to the laboratory frame can be determined. Spatial resolution has bean improved by making use of the change in pitch of the total magnetic field across the minor plasma radius. Special emphasis is placed on the ohmic phase where a number of parameter variations including electron density, electron temperature, toroidal magnetic field, and filling gas were performed

  2. Equilibrium and dynamics of uniform density ellipsoidal non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubin, D.H.E.

    1993-01-01

    When a single-species plasma is confined in a harmonic Penning trap at cryogenic temperature, the thermal equilibrium is approximately a uniform density spheroid (ellipsoid of revolution). Normal modes corresponding to quadrupole excitations of this plasma have recently been measured. In this paper, nonlinear equations of motion are derived for these quadrupole oscillations. For large amplitudes, the oscillations deform a spheroidal plasma into a triaxial ellipsoid with time-dependent shape and orientation. The integrals of the motion are found and the cylindrically symmetric finite-amplitude oscillations of a spheroid are studied. An analysis of all possible ellipsoidal equilibria is also carried out. New equilibria are discovered which correspond to finite-amplitude versions of the noncylindrically symmetric linear quadrupole oscillations. The equilibria are shown to fall into two classes in which the ellipsoids are either tilted or aligned with respect to the magnetic field. Some of these equilibria have densities well above the Brillouin limit

  3. Measurements of plasma density fluctuations and electric wave fields using spherical electrostatic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A.I.; Bostroem, R.

    1995-04-01

    Spherical electrostatic probes are in wide use for the measurements of electric fields and plasma density. This report concentrates on the measurements of fluctuations of these quantities rather than background values. Potential problems with the technique include the influence of density fluctuations on electric field measurements and vice versa, effects of varying satellite potential, and non-linear rectification in the probe and satellite sheaths. To study the actual importance of these and other possible effects, we simulate the response of the probe-satellite system to various wave phenomena in the plasma by applying approximate analytical as well as numerical methods. We use a set of non-linear probe equations, based on probe characteristics experimentally obtained in space, and therefore essentially independent of any specific probe theory. This approach is very useful since the probe theory for magnetized plasmas is incomplete. 47 refs

  4. Plasma electron density measurement with multichannel microwave interferometer on the HL-1 tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Deming; Zhang Hongyin; Liu Zetian; Ding Xuantong; Li Qirui; Wen Yangxi

    1989-11-01

    A multichannel microwave interferometer which is composed of different microwave interferometers (one 2 mm band, one 4 mm band and two 8 mm band) has been used to measure the plasma electron density on HL-1 tokamak device. The electron density approaching to 5 x 10 13 cm -3 is measured by a 2 mm band microwave interferometer. In the determinable range, the electron density profile in the cross-section on HL-1 device has been measured by this interferometer. A microcomputer data processing system is also developed

  5. Plasma density determination by microwave interferometry. The 2 mm interferometer of the TJ-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero, F.; Martin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a description is given of the microwave interferometer used for measuring the plasma electronic density in the TJ-1 Tokamak of Fusion Division of JEN. The principles of the electronic density measurement are discussed in detail, as well as those concerning the determination of density profiles from experimental data. A description of the interferometer used in the TJ-1 Tokamak is given, together with a detailed analysis of the circuits which constitute the measuring chain. The working principles of the klystron reflex and hybrid rings are also presented. (author)

  6. Investigation of Physical Processes Limiting Plasma Density in DIII--D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.

    1996-11-01

    Understanding the physical processes which limit operating density is crucial in achieving peak performance in confined plasmas. Studies from many of the world's tokamaks have indicated the existence(M. Greenwald, et al., Nucl. Fusion 28) (1988) 2199 of an operational density limit (Greenwald limit, n^GW_max) which is proportional to the plasma current and independent of heating power. Several theories have reproduced the current dependence, but the lack of a heating power dependence in the data has presented an enigma. This limit impacts the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) because the nominal operating density for ITER is 1.5 × n^GW_max. In DIII-D, experiments are being conducted to understand the physical processes which limit operating density in H-mode discharges; these processes include X-point MARFE formation, high core recycling and neutral pressure, resistive MHD stability, and core radiative collapse. These processes affect plasma properties, i.e. edge/scrape-off layer conduction and radiation, edge pressure gradient and plasma current density profile, and core radiation, which in turn restrict the accessible density regime. With divertor pumping and D2 pellet fueling, core neutral pressure is reduced and X-point MARFE formation is effectively eliminated. Injection of the largest-sized pellets does cause transient formation of divertor MARFEs which occasionally migrate to the X-point, but these are rapidly extinguished in pumped discharges in the time between pellets. In contrast to Greenwald et al., it is found that the density relaxation time after pellets is largely independent of the density relative to the Greenwald limit. Fourier analysis of Mirnov oscillations indicates the de-stabilization and growth of rotating, tearing-type modes (m/n= 2/1) when the injected pellets cause large density perturbations, and these modes often reduce energy confinement back to L-mode levels. We are examining the mechanisms for de

  7. Plasma density determination by microwave interferometry .- The 2 mm interferometer of the TJ-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Manero, F.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a description is given of the microwave interferometer used for measuring the plasma electronic density in the TJ-1 Tokamak of Fusion Division of JEN. The principles of the electronic density measurement are discussed in detail, as well as those concerning the determination of density pro files from experimental data. A description of the interferometer used in the TJ-1 Tokamak is given, together with a detailed analysis of the circuits which constitute the measuring chain. The working principles of the klystron reflex and hybrid rings are also presented. (Author) 23 refs

  8. Simulation of a coupled dynamic system of temperature and density in a fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, M.N.; Weiland, J.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation studies of a coupled system of equations for the evolution of temperature and density have been performed. The results are presented in graphs displaying the evolution in time of the temperature and density profiles, as well as in phase-plane plots, relating the central values of temperature and density. Particular emphasis is devoted to the particle and heat pinch effects, which tend to counter-balance the ordinary diffusion, and to co-operate with the alpha particle heating in sustaining plasma equilibrium. Oscillatory approaches to equilibria are recorded. 28 refs., 20 figs

  9. Experimental observations of the plasma properties of a high-density, low-temperature accelerated arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of an absorbing layer, or buffer zone, of weakly ionized gas between the rear of the projectile and the front of the plasma arc armature in a plasma accelerator was demonstrated. A technique was developed to accurately determine the position of the projectile as it accelerates along the bore of the device. The projectile position is compared to that of the plasma arc as measured by magnetic field probes. These measurements provide the basis for a description of the in-bore motion of the projectile with respect to the plasma arc. Observations of this motion in plasma accelerators of 0.6 and 2.4 m lengths show the buffer zone can be as large as 50 times the bore diameter. In-bore measurements of the broadband light emission and pressure of both the buffer region and the plasma arc armature are correlated with the known projectile position to determine the characteristics of both the buffer zone and the plasma arc. Time-integrated spectral measurements of the emission taken through both the side insulators and the electrodes indicate the existence of a nonuniform plasma temperature and of turbulence in the plasma. The presence of molecular species is attributed with the ablation of the side insulator material

  10. Dynamics of low density coronal plasma in low current x-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D; Bott, S C; Vikhrev, V; Eshaq, Y; Ueda, U; Zhang, T; Baranova, E; Krasheninnikov, S I; Beg, F N

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed on an x-pinch using a pulsed power current generator capable of producing an 80 kA current with a rise time of 50 ns. Molybdenum wires with and without gold coating were employed to study the effect of high z coating on the low-density ( 18 cm -3 ) coronal plasma dynamics. A comparison of images from XUV frames and optical probing shows that the low density coronal plasma from the wires initially converges at the mid-plane immediately above and below the cross-point. A central jet is formed which moves with a velocity of 6 x 10 4 ms -1 towards both electrodes forming a z-pinch column before the current maximum. A marked change in the low density coronal plasma dynamics was observed when molybdenum wires coated with ∼ 0.09 μm of gold were used. The processes forming the jet structure were delayed relative to bare Mo x-pinches, and the time-resolved x-ray emission also showed differences. An m = 0 instability was observed in the coronal plasma along the x-pinch legs, which were consistent with x-ray PIN diode signals in which x-ray pulses were observed before x-ray spot formation. These early time x-ray pulses were not observed with pure molybdenum x-pinches. These observations indicate that a thin layer of gold coating significantly changes the coronal plasma behaviour. Two dimensional MHD simulations were performed and qualitatively agree with experimental observations of low density coronal plasma

  11. A fully kinetic, self-consistent particle simulation model of the collisionless plasma--sheath region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K.; Morse, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    A fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) model is used to self-consistently determine the steady-state potential profile in a collisionless plasma that contacts a floating, absorbing boundary. To balance the flow of particles to the wall, a distributed source region is used to inject particles into the one-dimensional system. The effect of the particle source distribution function on the source region and collector sheath potential drops, and particle velocity distributions is investigated. The ion source functions proposed by Emmert et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 803 (1980)] and Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] (and various combinations of these) are used for the injection of both ions and electrons. The values of the potential drops obtained from the PIC simulations are compared to those from the theories of Emmert et al., Bissell and Johnson, and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)], all of which assume that the electron density is related to the plasma potential via the Boltzmann relation. The values of the source region and total potential drop are found to depend on the choice of the electron source function, as well as the ion source function. The question of an infinite electric field at the plasma--sheath interface, which arises in the analyses of Bissell and Johnson and Scheuer and Emmert, is also addressed

  12. Feedback control of plasma density and heating power for steady state operation in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Shuji, E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Seki, Tetsuo; Saito, Kenji; Seki, Ryosuke; Nomura, Goro; Mutoh, Takashi

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We upgraded a control system for steady state operation in LHD. • This system contains gas fueling system and ICRF power control system. • Automatic power boost system is also attached for stable operation. • As a result, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. - Abstract: For steady state operation, the feedback control of plasma density and heating power system was developed in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to achieve a record of the long pulse discharge, stable plasma density and heating power are needed. This system contains the radio frequency (RF) heating power control, interlocks, gas fueling, automatic RF phase control, ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna position control, and graphical user interface (GUI). Using the density control system, the electron density was controlled to the target density and using the RF heating power control system, the RF power injection could be stable. As a result of using this system, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Further, the ICRF hardware experienced no critical accidents during the 17th LHD experiment campaign in 2013.

  13. Study on the intense relativistic electron beam propagation in a collisionless plasma of small density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the experimental studies of the intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) propagation with ν/γ approximately 0.1, and γ approximately 1.6 (γ is an electron beam relativistic factor) in a collisionless plasma of small density over the 180 cm length are presented. Plasma is generated with the incomplete discharge over dielectric surface at the residual gas pressure of P approximately 10 -5 Torr. It is shown that the transportation efficiency may be essentially high, if the electron concentration in plasma satisfies the equilibrium conditions and if it is less or equal to the electron concentration in a beam. At concentration less than optimum one, the transportation efficiency decreases due to violations of equilibrium conditions. At high concentration the transportation efficiency also decreased due to the scattering and breaking on excited small-scale and plasma oscillations. The IREB propagation occurs without essential time delay under optimum conditions

  14. 1 μs broadband frequency sweeping reflectometry for plasma density and fluctuation profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Medvedeva, A.; Molina, D.; Conway, G. D.; Silva, A.; Stroth, U.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Tore Supra Team; Eurofusion Mst1 Team

    2017-11-01

    Frequency swept reflectometry has reached the symbolic value of 1 μs sweeping time; this performance has been made possible, thanks to an improved control of the ramp voltage driving the frequency source. In parallel, the memory depth of the acquisition system has been upgraded and can provide up to 200 000 signals during a plasma discharge. Additional improvements regarding the trigger delay determination of the acquisition and the voltage ramp linearity required by this ultra-fast technique have been set. While this diagnostic is traditionally dedicated to the plasma electron density profile measurement, such a fast sweeping rate can provide the study of fast plasma events and turbulence with unprecedented time and radial resolution from the edge to the core. Experimental results obtained on ASDEX Upgrade plasmas are presented to demonstrate the performances of the diagnostic.

  15. Characterization of the CH4/H2/Ar high density plasma etching process for ZnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, C. R.; Leonhardt, D.; Shamamian, V. A.; Butler, J. E.

    2001-05-01

    High density plasma etching of zinc selenide using CH4/H2/Ar plasma chemistries is investigated. Mass spectrometry, using through-the-platen sampling, is used to identify and monitor etch products evolving from the surface during etching. The identifiable primary etch products are Zn, Se, ZnH2, SeH2, Zn(CH3)2, and Se(CH3)2. Their concentrations are monitored as ion and neutral fluxes (both in intensity and composition), ion energy, and substrate temperature are varied. General insights about the surface chemistry mechanisms of the etch process are given from these observations. Regions of process parameter space best suited for moderate rate, anisotropic, and low damage etching of ZnSe are proposed.

  16. Lower hybrid current drive at ITER-relevant high plasma densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.; Calabro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments indicated that a further non-inductive current, besides bootstrap, should be necessary for developing advanced scenario for ITER. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) should provide such tool, but its effectiveness was still not proved in operations with ITER-relevant density of the plasma column periphery. Progress of the LH deposition modelling is presented, performed considering the wave physics of the edge, and different ITER-relevant edge parameters. Operations with relatively high edge electron temperatures are expected to reduce the LH || spectral broadening and, consequently, enabling the LH power to propagate also in high density plasmas ( || is the wavenumber component aligned to the confinement magnetic field). New results of FTU experiments are presented, performed by following the aforementioned modeling: they indicate that, for the first time, the LHCD conditions are established by operating at ITER-relevant high edge densities.

  17. Controlled density of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in a triode plasma chemical vapor deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Park, Kyu Chang; Moon, Jong Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Pribat, Didier; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Jang, Jin

    2006-01-01

    We report on the growth mechanism and density control of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using a triode plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The deposition reactor was designed in order to allow the intermediate mesh electrode to be biased independently from the ground and power electrodes. The CNTs grown with a mesh bias of + 300 V show a density of ∼ 1.5 μm -2 and a height of ∼ 5 μm. However, CNTs do not grow when the mesh electrode is biased to - 300 V. The growth of CNTs can be controlled by the mesh electrode bias which in turn controls the plasma density and ion flux on the sample

  18. A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution

  19. Atomic Emission Spectra Diagnosis and Electron Density Measurement of Semiconductor Bridge (SCB) Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hongyan; Zhu Shunguan; Zhang Lin; Wan Xiaoxia; Li Yan; Shen Ruiqi

    2010-01-01

    Emission spectra of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma in a visible range was studied in air. The electron density was measured in a conventional way from the broadening of the A1 I 394.4 nm Stark width. Based on the Saha equation, a system for recording the intensity of Si I 390.5 nm and Si II 413.1 nm was designed. With this technique, the SCB plasma electron density was measured well and accurately. Moreover, the electron density distribution Vs time was acquired from one SCB discharge. The individual result from the broadening of the Al I 394.4 nm Stark width and Saha equation was all in the range of 10 15 cm -3 to 10 16 cm -3 . Finally the presumption of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition was validated.

  20. Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Irregularities and Plasma Instabilities in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Gathered by the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Robert F.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400 km as solar activity has increased. In particular, during the equinox periods of 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set: The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second result is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is near or below the F-peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field

  1. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Chaofeng; Sun Jizhong; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  2. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen

    2010-02-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  3. Electrostatic fluxes and plasma rotation in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bergsaaker, H.; Brunsell, P.; Drake, J.R.; Spolaore, M.; Saetherblom, H.E.; Vianello, N.

    2001-01-01

    The EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch has undergone a significant reconstruction into the new T2R device. This paper reports the first measurements performed with Langmuir probes in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R. The radial profiles of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature, plasma potential, electrical fields and electrostatic turbulence-driven particle flux are presented. These profiles are interpreted in a momentum balance model where finite Larmor radius losses occur over a distance of about two Larmor radii from the limiter position. The double shear layer of the ExB drift velocity is discussed in terms of the Biglari-Diamond-Terry theory of turbulence decorrelation. (author)

  4. Electrostatic Fluxes and Plasma Rotation in the Edge Region of EXTRAP-T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bergsåker, H.; Brunsell, P.; Drake, J. R.; Spolaore, M.; Sätherblom, H. E.; Vianello, N.

    2001-10-01

    The EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch has undergone a significant reconstruction into the new T2R device. This paper reports the first measurements performed with Langmuir probes in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R. The radial profiles of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature, plasma potential, electrical fields and electrostatic turbulence-driven particle flux are presented. These profiles are interpreted in a momentum balance model where finite Larmor radius losses occur over a distance of about two Larmor radii from the limiter position. The double shear layer of the E×B drift velocity is discussed in terms of the Biglari-Diamond-Terry theory of turbulence decorrelation.

  5. Anomalous plasma heating induced by modulation of the current-density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    The usual plasma heating in a tokamak needs additional heating to reach ignition temperature (approx. 10 8 K). The method used in the TORTUR III experiment is to induce anomalous plasma resistivity by applying a short (10 microseconds) high-voltage pulse. A sharp rise of the plasma temperature is found almost simultaneously, but this effect, though considerable, is too short-lived to be of interest for a thermonuclear chain reaction. A second pulse gives a second rise of temperature, but this time a slow one, extending over several milliseconds. The mechanism of this delayed heating and the reservoir within the plasma supplying the energy are subjects of investigation in the TORTUR III experiments. Some conclusions concerning the plasma heating mechanism are presented. The conclusion is reached that the application of the high-voltage pulse results in a modulation of the current-density profile: the (normally already peaked) profile sharpens, the current concentrates in the centre of the plasma column. This is a non-equilibrium situation. It relaxes to the noraml current distribution within approximately 2 milliseconds. As long as this relaxation process is not finished, the dissipation is on an enhanced level and anomalous plasma heating is observed. Many plasma parameters are surveyed and evaluated: temperature (both of the ions and the electrons), density, emission spectrum (from microwaves to hard X-rays) and the fluctuation spectrum. Main subject of this report is the measurement and interpretation of the X-rays of the emission spectrum. Experimental results are presented and discussed

  6. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    establish an the radiation increases in this region. To account for these effects, an empirical non-coronal model was developed which takes the impurity residence time at the pedestal into account. The validity of this assumption was verified by modelling the evolution of the impurities and radiation for ASDEX Upgrade H-modes with nitrogen seeding by coupling the ASTRA transport code with STRAHL. The time-dependent simulations include impurity radiation due to nitrogen and tungsten and the transport effects induced at the edge by the ELMs. The modelling results have been validated against the experimental data. The modelled radiation profiles show a very good agreement with the measured ones over both radius and time. In particular, the strong enhancement of the nitrogen radiation caused by non-coronal effects through the ELM-induced transport is well reproduced. The radiation properties of tungsten are very weakly influenced by non-coronal effects due to the faster equilibration. W radiation, which is highly dependent on the f{sub ELM}, strongly increases when f{sub ELM} is decreased, due to the lack of sufficiently strong flush out of this impurity. This is in agreement with the experimental observations and indicates that maintaining high ELM frequency is essential for the stability and performance of the discharges. Analyses of the high density scenario with pellets indicate that several processes take place when pellets are injected into the plasma. In particular, due to their cooling effect, the temperature drops as soon as pellets are injected. This is compensated by an increase in density. These processes occur mainly at the edge and are propagated to the core via stiffness. This explains why the confinement stays approximately constant during the whole discharge. Both experiments and transport calculations reveal that the energy confinement time is independent of the density indicating that the currently used scaling is not valid in this regime. The results of this

  7. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime

  8. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156±6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  9. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierno, S. P., E-mail: sp.tierno@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L. [Department of Applied Physics, E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  10. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  11. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E.; Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E.; Daniell, R.E.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Livingston, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs

  12. Characteristics of laser produced plasmas of hafnium and tantalum in the 1-7 nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowen; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Sokell, Emma; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Hara, Hiroyuki; Arai, Goki; Tamura, Toshiki; Ono, Yuichi; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    Soft X-ray (SXR) spectra from hafnium and tantalum laser produced plasmas were recorded in the 1-7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 170 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a range of power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 2. 3 × 1014 W cm-2 for 170 ps pulses and 1. 8 × 1012 W cm-2 for 10 ns pulses, respectively. Two intense quasicontinuous intensity bands resulting from n = 4 - n = 4 and n = 4 - n = 5 unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) dominate both sets of experimental spectra. Comparison with calculations performed with the Cowan suite of atomic structure codes as well as consideration of previous experimental and theoretical results aided identification of the most prominent features in the spectra. For the 10 ns spectrum, the highest ion stage that could be identified from the n = 4 - n = 5 arrays were lower than silver-like Hf25+ and Ta26+ (which has a 4 d 104 f ground configuration) indicating that the plasma temperature attained was too low to produce ions with an outermost 4 d subshell, while for the 170 ps plasmas the presence of significantly higher stages was deduced and lines due to 4 d-5 p transitions were clearly evident. Furthermore, we show an enhancement of emission from tantalum using dual laser irradiation, and the effect of pre-pulse durations and delay times between two pulses are demonstrated.

  13. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  14. Hyperfine Induced Transitions as Diagnostics of Isotopic Composition and Densities of Low-Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, Tomas; Judge, Philip G.; Aboussaïd, Abdellatif; Godefroid, Michel R.; Jönsson, Per; Ynnerman, Anders; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Leckrone, David S.

    1998-06-01

    The J = 0 --> J' = 0 radiative transitions, usually viewed as allowed through two-photon decay, may also be induced by the hyperfine (HPF) interaction in atoms or ions having a nonzero nuclear spin. We compute new and review existing decay rates for the nsnp 3PoJ --> ns2 1SJ'=0 transitions in ions of the Be (n = 2) and Mg (n = 3) isoelectronic sequences. The HPF induced decay rates for the J = 0 --> J' = 0 transitions are many orders of magnitude larger than those for the competing two-photon processes, and when present are typically 1 or 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the decay rates of the magnetic quadrupole (J = 2 --> J' = 0) transitions for these ions. Several HPF induced transitions are potentially of astrophysical interest in ions of C, N, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cr, Fe, and Ni. We highlight those cases that may be of particular diagnostic value for determining isotopic abundance ratios and/or electron densities from UV or EUV emission-line data. We present our atomic data in the form of scaling laws so that, given the isotopic nuclear spin and magnetic moment, a simple expression yields estimates for HPF induced decay rates. We examine some UV and EUV solar and nebular data in light of these new results and suggest possible applications for future study. We could not find evidence for the existence of HPF induced lines in the spectra we examined, but we demonstrate that existing data have come close to providing interesting upper limits. For the planetary nebula SMC N2, we derive an upper limit of 0.1 for 13C/12C from Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data obtained by Clegg. It is likely that more stringent limits could be obtained using newer data with higher sensitivities in a variety of objects.

  15. Influence of the density of the microwave plasma in the nitridation of the AISI 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirino O, S.; Camps C, E.; Escobar A, L.; Mejia H, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A source of microwaves plasma type ECR was used to modify those mechanical properties of the surface of steel pieces AISI 4140. The experiments were carried out in a range of pressure among 4 X 10 -4 and 7 X 10 -4 Torr using one mixture of gases 60/40 hydrogen / nitrogen and an incident power of the microwaves of 400 W. Previous to the treatment of the samples, the plasma was studied using one Langmuir probe to determine the temperature of the electrons and the density of the plasma, the species excited in the plasma were determined by means of Optical emission spectroscopy. All the samples were treated during 50 min in a regime of low temperature (- 250 C), and the surface hardness it was increased up of 100% of their initial value, with a depth of penetration of the nitrogen of 4.5 μ m. The biggest hardness and depth of penetration of the nitrogen were obtained when the biggest density in the plasma was used to carry out the experiments. (Author)

  16. RF plasma cleaning of silicon substrates with high-density polyethylene contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagomoc, Charisse Marie D.; De Leon, Mark Jeffry D.; Ebuen, Anna Sophia M.; Gilos, Marlo Nicole R.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Upon contact with a polymeric material, microparticles from the polymer may adhere to a silicon (Si) substrate during device processing. The adhesion contaminates the surface and, in turn, leads to defects in the fabricated Si-based microelectronic devices. In this study, Si substrates with artificially induced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) contamination was exposed to 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma utilizing argon and oxygen gas admixtures at a power density of 5.6 W/cm2 and a working pressure of 110 Pa for up to 6 min of treatment. Optical microscopy studies revealed the removal of up to 74% of the polymer contamination upon plasma exposure. Surface free energy (SFE) increased owing to the removal of contaminants as well as the formation of polar groups on the Si surface after plasma treatment. Atomic force microscopy scans showed a decrease in surface roughness from 12.25 nm for contaminated samples to 0.77 nm after plasma cleaning. The smoothening effect can be attributed to the removal of HDPE particles from the surface. In addition, scanning electron microscope images showed that there was a decrease in the amount of HDPE contaminants adhering onto the surface after plasma exposure.

  17. DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.

  18. Gap formation processes in a high-density plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Weber, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    A gap opening process in plasma opening switches (POS) is examined with the aid of numerical simulations. In these simulations, a high density (n e =10 14 --5x10 15 cm -3 ) uniform plasma initially bridges a small section of the coaxial transmission line of an inductive energy storage generator. A short section of vacuum transmission line connects the POS to a short circuit load. The results presented here extend previous simulations in the n e =10 12 --10 13 cm -3 density regime. The simulations show that a two-dimensional (2-D) sheath forms in the plasma near a cathode. This sheath is positively charged, and electrostatic sheath potentials that are large compared to the anode--cathode voltage develop. Initially, the 2-D sheath is located at the generator edge of the plasma. As ions are accelerated out of the sheath, it retains its original 2-D structure, but migrates axially toward the load creating a magnetically insulated gap in its wake. When the sheath reaches the load edge of the POS, the POS stops conducting current and the load current increases rapidly. At the end of the conduction phase a gap exists in the POS whose size is determined by the radial dimensions of the 2-D sheath. Simulations at various plasma densities and current levels show that the radial size of the gap scales roughly as B/n e , where B is the magnetic field. The results of this work are discussed in the context of long-conduction-time POS physics, but exhibit the same physical gap formation mechanisms as earlier lower density simulations more relevant to short-conduction-time POS. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Time-of-flight measurements of the plasma density in the T-11M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V. G.; Petrov, A. A.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; Markov, V. K.; Babarykin, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The average plasma density in the T-11M tokamak is determined by means of an O-mode time-of-flight refractometer measuring the propagation time τ of microwave pulses through the plasma. Since the front duration τ fr of these pulses is shorter than 2 ns, filtering the measured signal cannot reduce the signal-to-noise ratio below a certain level. This circumstance impedes the use of this diagnostics in larger devices, where the signals may be substantially attenuated because of the larger chamber size and larger waveguide losses. There are several ways to overcome these difficulties: to raise the microwave power, to increase the sensitivity of the receivers, etc. In this paper, a technique is described that is based on the differential method for determining the propagation time of a microwave signal through the plasma. In this method, the plasma is probed by two continuous microwaves with close frequencies and the phase difference between them Δφ 12 is measured. As long as the condition Δφ 12 < 2π is satisfied, the measurements are unambiguous, because there are no phase jumps by a value multiple of 2π, as is usually the case in conventional interferometers at an increased level of MHD activity, in regimes with a rapid density growth, etc. This method allows the signal to be filtered, thereby ensuring an appreciable improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio in comparison with the pulsed methods. The first measurements of the average density along the +3-cm chord were performed with the help of this new differential time-of-flight refractometer in the T-11M tokamak. The refractometry data agree well with the interferometric data and are used to recover the plasma-density profile

  20. Effects of the instability enhanced friction on relative ion densities in a two-ion species low-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mirko

    2011-10-01

    The instability enhanced friction theory of Baalrud & Hegna (Phys. Plasmas 18, 023505 (2011)) predicts that for comparable ion densities the ions nearly reach a common velocity near the sheath edge in a low temperature plasma. The theory was experimentally confirmed by Yip, Hershkowitz, & Severn (Phys. Rev. Letters 104, 225003 (2010)). We will explore the effects of the theory on relative ion densities in a numerical simulation of an Ar/Xe plasma. Results for a 0D plasma model (Lieberman, Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2005) will be presented.

  1. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2π when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has been

  2. Generation of high-power-density atmospheric pressure plasma with liquid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; Mao Zhiguo; Yin Zengqian; Ran Junxia

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for generating atmospheric pressure plasma using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor with two liquid electrodes. Four distinct kinds of discharge, including stochastic filaments, regular square pattern, glow-like discharge, and Turing stripe pattern, are observed in argon with a flow rate of 9 slm. The electrical and optical characteristics of the device are investigated. Results show that high-power-density atmospheric pressure plasma with high duty ratio in space and time can be obtained. The influence of wall charges on discharge power and duty ratio has been discussed

  3. A simple microwave technique for plasma density measurement using frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.; Jayakumar, R.; Vijayashankar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of determining the phase variation unambiguously during microwave interferometric measurement is described. The frequency of the Klystron source is modulated with the help of staircase voltage pulse. The height of each stair is adjusted such that the corresponding phase shift in the test branch with an additional path length is 90 0 . Signals, proportional to cosine and sine of the phase shift due to plasma, can be generated in the same channel and plasma density information can be inferred. The microwave hardware remains the same as in conventional interferometry and the cost of such a scheme is low. (author)

  4. Enzymatic Modification of Plasma Low Density Lipoproteins in Rabbits: A Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert

    1993-04-01

    Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.

  5. Spatially resolvable optical emission spectrometer for analyzing density uniformity of semiconductor process plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Changhoon; Ryoo, Hoonchul; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hahn, Jae W.; Kim, Se-Yeon; Yi, Hun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    We proposed a spatially resolved optical emission spectrometer (SROES) for analyzing the uniformity of plasma density for semiconductor processes. To enhance the spatial resolution of the SROES, we constructed a SROES system using a series of lenses, apertures, and pinholes. We calculated the spatial resolution of the SROES for the variation of pinhole size, and our calculated results were in good agreement with the measured spatial variation of the constructed SROES. The performance of the SROES was also verified by detecting the correlation between the distribution of a fluorine radical in inductively coupled plasma etch process and the etch rate of a SiO 2 film on a silicon wafer.

  6. A conceptual fusion reactor based on the high-plasma-density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Carlson, G.; Hoffman, M.; Werner, R.

    1977-01-01

    Conceptual DT and DD fusion reactors are discussed based on magnetic confinement with the high-plasma-density Z-pinch. The reactor concepts have no ''first wall'', the fusion neutrons and plasma energy being absorbed directly into a surrounding lithium vortex blanket. Efficient systems with low re-circulated power are projected, based on a flow-through pinch cycle for which overall Q values can approach 10. The conceptual reactors are characterized by simplicity, small minimum size (100MW(e)) and by the potential for minimal radioactivity hazards. (author)

  7. Dielectronic recombination of carbon, oxygen and iron in low-density and high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Kasai, Satoshi; Tazima, Teruhiko

    1977-03-01

    The coefficient of dielectronic recombination, which is one of the important atomic processes in tokamak plasmas, is evaluated by a semiclassical method neglecting the effects of the density and the radiation fields. Those of carbon, oxygen and iron, which play important roles in such as plasma resistivity and energy losses, are calculated numerically in the range of the electron temperature of 10 eV - 10 keV. Compared with the results obtained from Burgess equation, which is most useful for the ions with effective nuclear charge z 25 such as molybdenum. (auth.)

  8. The Plasma Parameters and Geometry of Cool and Warm Active Region Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Haixia; Li, Bo; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Fu, Hui; Mou, Chaozhou [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China); Madjarska, Maria S.; Wiegelmann, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    How the solar corona is heated to high temperatures remains an unsolved mystery in solar physics. In the present study we analyze observations of 50 whole active region loops taken with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode satellite. Eleven loops were classified as cool loops (<1 MK) and 39 as warm loops (1–2 MK). We study their plasma parameters, such as densities, temperatures, filling factors, nonthermal velocities, and Doppler velocities. We combine spectroscopic analysis with linear force-free magnetic field extrapolation to derive the 3D structure and positioning of the loops, their lengths and heights, and the magnetic field strength along the loops. We use density-sensitive line pairs from Fe xii, Fe xiii, Si x, and Mg vii ions to obtain electron densities by taking special care of intensity background subtraction. The emission measure loci method is used to obtain the loop temperatures. We find that the loops are nearly isothermal along the line of sight. Their filling factors are between 8% and 89%. We also compare the observed parameters with the theoretical Rosner–Tucker–Vaiana (RTV) scaling law. We find that most of the loops are in an overpressure state relative to the RTV predictions. In a follow-up study, we will report a heating model of a parallel-cascade-based mechanism and will compare the model parameters with the loop plasma and structural parameters derived here.

  9. A new quasi-stationary, very high density plasma regime on the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenicke, R; Baeumel, S; Baldzuhn, J; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Ehmler, H; Endler, M; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Gadelmeier, F; Geiger, J; Giannone, L; Grigull, P; Hartfuss, H J; Hartmann, D; Hildebrandt, D; Hirsch, M; Holzhauer, E; Kick, M; Kisslinger, J; Klinger, T; Klose, S; Knauer, J; Koenig, R; Kuehner, G; Laqua, H; Maassberg, H; McCormick, K; Narayanan, R; Niedermeyer, H; Pasch, E; Ruhs, N; Rust, N; Saffert, J; Sardei, F; Schneider, F; Schubert, M; Speth, E; Wagner, F; Weller, A; Wenzel, U; Werner, A; Wuersching, E

    2002-01-01

    Stellarators have the intrinsic property of steady state operation. However, on present-day stellarators the pulse length is usually not only limited due to technical reasons, but also by physical problems. Lack of density control and a subsequent radiation collapse terminate the discharges quite often at high densities. To improve the control of the plasma-wall interaction, the island divertor concept was developed for optimized stellarators. To test this divertor concept on W7-AS, all limiters were removed and replaced by ten divertor modules. In subsequent divertor experiments a promising new plasma operational regime has been discovered which is termed 'high density H-mode' (HDH-mode). During the transition into that regime a clear reduction of ELM-like events and turbulent fluctuations is observed. The HDH-mode combines good energy confinement with very low impurity confinement resulting in low core radiation, but high edge-localized radiation. Consequently, stationary discharges at densities of typically 2x10 20 m -3 can be performed within the accessible pulse length of about 1 s. At densities above 3x10 20 m -3 a controlled transition from attached to partially detached plasmas is observed. The still edge-localized radiation reaches 90% of the heating power so that the power load onto the divertor target plates is further reduced. At a lower toroidal field of 0.9 T average β-values could be raised from earlier 2% to more than 3% in magnetic field configurations with rather smooth flux surfaces at the plasma boundary. The recently obtained results render excellent prospects for W7-X, the larger superconducting successor experiment of W7-AS

  10. Plasma interface of the EC waves to the LHD peripheral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, S.; Igami, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Shimozuma, T.; Takahashi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Makino, R.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-12-01

    In order to realize an efficient ECRH and also to reduce stray radiation due to non-absorbed power during ECRH, it is necessary to excite a wave that is absorbed well near the electron cyclotron resonance. In the normal fusion magnetic field confinement machine and in the electron cyclotron frequency range, WKB approximation is valid almost all the way from antenna to the absorption region due to the large scale-length of the plasma density λn and the magnetic shear τs as compared with the local wavelength λ0. In these situation, it is well known that the O/X mode propagates as O/X mode if τs ≫ λ0. Even in these situation, if τs and λn are comparable and |1/λO-1/λX|τs ≪ 1, there still remains the question from where "X" - or "O" - mode become "X" - or "O" mode at the peripheral region. In order to simulate this situation, one dimensional full wave calculation code which solve electromagnetic wave equation under arbitrary magnetic field configuration and arbitrary density profile for a given polarization state are developed and incorporated in the upgraded ray tracing code LHDGauss. It is tried to find the density and shear scale lengths region where the mode mixing effect is not negligible.

  11. Plasma interface of the EC waves to the LHD peripheral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, S., E-mail: kubo@lhd.nifs.ac.jp; Igami, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Shimozuma, T.; Takahashi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Makino, R.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, 509-5292 (Japan); Nishiura, M. [Grad. School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    In order to realize an efficient ECRH and also to reduce stray radiation due to non-absorbed power during ECRH, it is necessary to excite a wave that is absorbed well near the electron cyclotron resonance. In the normal fusion magnetic field confinement machine and in the electron cyclotron frequency range, WKB approximation is valid almost all the way from antenna to the absorption region due to the large scale-length of the plasma density λ{sub n} and the magnetic shear τ{sub s} as compared with the local wavelength λ{sub 0}. In these situation, it is well known that the O/X mode propagates as O/X mode if τ{sub s} ≫ λ{sub 0}. Even in these situation, if τ{sub s} and λ{sub n} are comparable and |1/λ{sub O}−1/λ{sub X}|τ{sub s} ≪ 1, there still remains the question from where ”X” - or ”O” - mode become ”X” - or ”O” mode at the peripheral region. In order to simulate this situation, one dimensional full wave calculation code which solve electromagnetic wave equation under arbitrary magnetic field configuration and arbitrary density profile for a given polarization state are developed and incorporated in the upgraded ray tracing code LHDGauss. It is tried to find the density and shear scale lengths region where the mode mixing effect is not negligible.

  12. Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Anthony R Valenzuela Approved for public release; distribution is...AND SUBTITLE Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer is a novel method to diagnose ultrashort pulse laser–produced plasmas

  13. Scaling of energy confinement with minor radius, current and density in Doublet III Ohmically heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, S.; Petrie, T.W.; Riviere, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of plasma energy confinement on minor radius, density and plasma current is described for Ohmically heated near-circular plasmas in Doublet III. A wide range of parameters is used for the study of scaling laws; the plasma minor radius defined by the flux surface in contact with limiter is varied by a factor of 2 (a = 44, 32, and 23 cm), the line average plasma density, nsub(e)-bar, is varied by a factor of 20 from 0.5 to 10 x 10 13 cm -3 (nsub(e)-bar R 0 /Bsub(T) = 0.3 to 6 x 10 14 cm -2 .kG -1 ) and the plasma current, I, is varied by a factor of 6 from 120 to 718 kA. The range of the limiter safety factor, qsub(L), is from 2 to 12. - For plasmas with a = 23 and 32 cm, the scaling law at low nsub(e)-bar for the gross electron energy confinement time can be written as (s, cm) tausub(Ee)sup(G) approx.= 3.6 x 10 -19 nsub(e)-bar a 2 qsub(c)sup(3/4), where qsub(c) = 2πa 2 Bsub(T)/μ 0 IR 0 . For the 44-cm plasmas, tausub(Ee)sup(G) is about 1.8 times less than predicted by this scaling, possibly owing to the change in limiter configuration and small plasma-wall separation and/or the aspect ratio change. At high nsub(e)-bar, tausub(Ee)sup(G) saturates and in many cases decreases with nsub(e)-bar but increases with I in a classical-like manner. The dependence of tausub(Ee)sup(G) on a is considerably weakened. The confinement behaviour can be explained by taking an ion thermal conductivity 2 to 7 times that given by Hinton-Hazeltine's neoclassical theory with a lumped-Zsub(eff) impurity model. Within this range the enhancement factor increases with a or a/R 0 . The electron thermal conductivity evaluated at half-temperature radius where most of the thermal insulation occurs sharply increases with average current density within that radius, but does not depend on a within the uncertainties of the measurements. (author)

  14. High Densities of Tumor-Associated Plasma Cells Predict Improved Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Yeong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, but the heterogeneity of the condition is a significant obstacle to effective treatment. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs do not express HER2 or the receptors for estrogen or progesterone, and so often have a poor prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating T cells have been well-characterized in TNBC, and increased numbers are associated with better outcomes; however, the potential roles of B cells and plasma cells have been large. Here, we conducted a retrospective correlative study on the expression of B cell/plasma cell-related genes, and the abundance and localization of B cells and plasma cells within TNBCs, and clinical outcome. We analyzed 269 TNBC samples and used immunohistochemistry to quantify tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells, coupled with NanoString measurement of expression of immunoglobulin metagenes. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients bearing TNBCs with above-median densities of CD38+ plasma cells had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS (HR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.26–0.77; p = 0.004 but not overall survival (OS, after adjusting for the effects of known prognostic factors. In contrast, TNBCs with higher immunoglobulin gene expression exhibited improved prognosis (OS p = 0.029 and DFS p = 0.005. The presence of B cells and plasma cells was positively correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.558, while immunoglobulin gene IGKC, IGHM, and IGHG1 mRNA expression correlated specifically with the density of CD38+ plasma cells (IGKC p < 0.0001, R = 0.647; IGHM p < 0.0001, R = 0.580; IGHG1 p < 0.0001, R = 0.655. Interestingly, after adjusting the multivariate analysis for the effect of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density, the expression levels of all three genes lost significant prognostic value, suggesting a biologically important role of plasma cells. Last but not least, the addition of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the new regional consortium R and D project - Immediately effective type new regional consortium R and D. Study of the developmental technology for high-density recording materials using inverter plasma; 2000 nendo chiiki shinsei konsosiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - Sokkogata chiiki shinsei konsosiamu. Inbata purazuma wo mochiita komitsudo kiroku zairyo kaihatsu gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the price and size of large-capacity hard disk drive (HDD), using inverter plasma technology, developmental study was conducted of production technology of substrate for HDD using blue sheet glass as a main material and film formation technology in the media for HDD, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the development of low-cost glass substrate, formation technology of the barrier layer to block the elution of alkali component was developed for blue sheet glass substrate. As to the development of formation technology of low-cost recording layer, developmental study was made of technology of formation of the layer as undercoat of magnetic recording layer onto the barrier layer. As a result of the experiment, the following were confirmed: metal chromium is well fit for the barrier layer and can be a proposed material of undercoat; it is possible to construct the magnetic media layer on the glass substrate. Concerning the development of the inverter plasma film formation unit, a unit was developed where it is possible to form the film of blue sheet glass substrate with a size of 3.5 inches. (NEDO)

  16. Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below ∼500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure

  17. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.

  18. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  19. Theory of a spherical emissive probe in a low-density isotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, A.

    2010-01-01

    Emissive probes are widely being used by plasma experimentalists to determine plasma parameters. Here, a fairly general spherical-emissive-probe scenario based on trajectory integration of the Vlasov equation is formulated and specialized to the particular non-emissive situation considered by Bernstein and Rabinowitz (1959), which is monoenergetic isotropic ions and Boltzmann-distributed electrons originating from the plasma. Then, this formalism together with our newly developed analytic-numerical matching procedure is used for finding the potential profile in the entire plasma-probe transition (PPT) region, consisting of the 'inward' and 'outward' sheath solutions, and the quasineutral (plasma) solution. The analytically expanded outward sheath and plasma solutions, the quasineutral solution and the related matching procedure represent genuinely new results in the context of this particular non-emissive probe scenario, however with the underlying methodology also applicable to other probe scenarios in the future. For the emissive case we consider, in addition to the plasma ions and electrons of the Bernstein and Rabinowitz scenario, electrons emitted from the probe surface with zero tangential velocity and a 'waterbag' distribution with respect to the radial velocity. Using our newly developed numerical matching procedure, we calculate the entire potential profile also for this emissive case. Comparison of the potential profiles for the emissive and non-emissive cases shows visible differences, thus demonstrating the effect of electron emission from the probe. To our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt at systematically developing a kinetic approach for spherical emissive probes. (author)

  20. Global view of F-region electron density and temperature at solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brace, L.H.; Theis, R.F.; Hoegy, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer-2 is permitting the first measurements of the global structure of the F-regions at very high levels of solar activity (S>200). Selected full orbits of Langmuir probe measurements of electron temperature, T/sub e/, and density, N/sub e/, are shown to illustrate this global structure and some of the ionospheric features that are the topic of other papers in this issue. The ionospheric thermal structure is of particular interest because T/sub e/ is a sensitive indicator of the coupling of magnetospheric energy into the upper atmosphere. A comparison of these heating effects with those observed at solar minimum shows that the magnetospheric sources are more important at solar maximum, as might have been expected. Heating at the cusp, the auroral oval and the plasma-pause is generally both greater and more variable. Electron cooling rate calculations employing low latitude measurements indicate that solar extreme ultraviolet heating of the F region at solar maximum is enhanced by a factor that is greater than the increase in solar flux. Some of this enhanced electron heating arises from the increase in electron heating efficiency at the higher N/sub e/ of solar maximum, but this appears insufficient to completely resolve the discrepancy

  1. Electrical method for the measurements of volume averaged electron density and effective coupled power to the plasma bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, M.; Wattieaux, G.; Lecas, T.; Renouard, J. P.; Boufendi, L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles growing or injected in a low pressure cold plasma generated by a radiofrequency capacitively coupled capacitive discharge induce strong modifications in the electrical parameters of both plasma and discharge. In this paper, a non-intrusive method, based on the measurement of the plasma impedance, is used to determine the volume averaged electron density and effective coupled power to the plasma bulk. Good agreements are found when the results are compared to those given by other well-known and established methods.

  2. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  3. Properties of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarong; Jhang, Hogun; Hahm, T. S.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    We perform a numerical study of linear stability of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM) in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles. A local gyrokinetic integral equation is applied for this study. From comprehensive parametric scans, we obtain stability diagrams for ITG modes and TEMs in terms of density and temperature gradient scale lengths. The results show that, for the inverted density profile, there exists a normalized threshold temperature gradient above which the ITG mode and the TEM are either separately or simultaneously unstable. The instability threshold of the TEM for the inverted density profile is substantially different from that for normal and flat density profiles. In addition, deviations are found on the ITG threshold from an early analytic theory in sheared slab geometry with the adiabatic electron response [T. S. Hahm and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1185 (1989)]. A possible implication of this work on particle transport in pellet fueled tokamak plasmas is discussed.

  4. ANTHEM simulation of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implicit plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment. 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. Evaluation of plasma-wave spectral density from cross-power spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, D.B.; Harker, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    The plasma-wave spectral density is evaluated by performing a spatial Fourier transform on experimental cross-power spectra of ion acoustic waves. The cross-power spectra are recorded on analog magnetic tape, converted to digital form, transferred to digital magnetic tape, and Fourier transformed on a digital computer. The important effects of sampling, finite data strings, and data smoothing on the end results are discussed and illustrated. The results indicate the usefulness of the spectral density method for the study of nonlinear wave phenomena. (auth)

  6. Kinetic theory of neutrals in a bounded plasma slab with inhomogeneous temperature and density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.B.; Agren, O.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of neutral hydrogen atoms in a hydrogen plasma slab is considered. The influence of the inhomogeneous ion temperature profile on the neutral density and distribution is discussed as well as the influence of the neutral edge energy, charge exchange, and ionization rates. The analytical solutions for the neutral density and distribution function are obtained and compared with the numerical results. The effects due to the inhomogeneous temperature profile are discussed. The recommen-dations from the viewpoint of the effects mentioned previously for the purposes of the cold-gas mantle system have been given

  7. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma temperatures and electron number density in a uranium hollow cathode discharge lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.L.; Suri, B.M.; Gupta, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The HCD (Hollow Cathode Discharge) lamps have been used as a source of free atoms of any metal, controllable by direct current in the lamp. The plasma parameters including neutral species temperature, atomic excitation temperature and electron number density in a see-through type, homemade uranium hollow cathode discharge lamp with neon as a buffer gas have been investigated using optical emission spectroscopic techniques. The neutral species temperature has been measured using the Doppler broadening of a neon atomic spectral line. The atomic excitation temperature has been measured using the Boltzmann plot method utilizing uranium atomic spectral lines. The electron number density has been determined from the Saha-Boltzmann equation utilizing uranium atomic and ionic spectral lines. To the best of our knowledge, all these three plasma parameters are simultaneously measured for the first time in a uranium hollow cathode discharge lamp

  8. Screening in weakly ionized dusty plasmas; effect of dust density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.

    2013-01-01

    The screening of the charge of a non-emitting dust grain immersed in a weakly ionized dusty plasma is studied on the basis of a self-consistent hydrodynamic description. The dust number density is considered large enough so that the test grain is not isolated from other grains and dust collective effects are important. Not only dust charge perturbations but also dust density perturbations are taken into account, the latter are shown to have a strong effect on both the short and long range part of the potential. The realization of collective attraction via the newly obtained potential is discussed, a mechanism that could be central to the understanding of phase-transitions and self-organization processes in dusty plasmas.

  9. Reduction of electron density in a plasma by injection of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, M. S.; Evans, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the physics of various processes relevant to the reduction of electron density in a plasma by addition of water droplets; two processes have in particular been analyzed in some detail, viz, the electron attachment to charged dielectric droplets and the emission of negative ions by vaporization from these droplets. The results of these analyses have been applied to a study of the kinetics of reduction of electron density and charging of droplets in an initially overionized plasma, after addition of water droplets. A number of simplifying assumptions including uniform size and charge on droplets and negligible change in the radius of the droplet due to evaporation have been made.

  10. User's manual of self learning gas puffing system for plasma density control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahashi, S.

    1989-04-01

    Pre-programmed gas puffing is often used to get adequet plasma density wave forms in the pulse operating devices for fusion experiments. This method has a defect that preset values have to be adjusted manually in accordance with changes of out gassing rate in successive shots. In order to remove this defect, a self learning system has been developed so as to keep the plasma density close to a given reference waveform. After a few succesive shots, it accomplishes self learning and is ready to keep up with a gradual change of the wall condition. This manual gives the usage of the system and the program list written in BASIC and ASSEMBLER languages. (author)

  11. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe in low density helicon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumen, E-mail: soumen@ipr.res.in; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bora, Dhiraj

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Appropriate density and temperature measurement with Langmuir probe in RF Eenvironment. • Necessity of large auxiliary electrode for RF compensation at low densities (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}). • Measured two temperature electrons in low pressure helicon antenna produced RF plasma. • Tail electrons are localized only at off-axis in our cylindrical plasma system. - Abstract: Interpretations of Single Langmuir probe measurements in electrode-less radio frequency (RF) plasmas are noteworthy tricky and require adequate compensation of RF. Conventional RF compensation technique is limited only at high density (>10{sup 17} m{sup −3}) RF plasmas. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe at low density RF plasmas (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}) is presented in this paper. In RF driven plasmas, where the RF voltage is high (∼50 V) and density is in the range (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}), the primary RF compensation condition (Z{sub ck} > >Z{sub sh}) is very difficult to fulfill, because of high sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) at 13.56 MHz and the construction limitation of a self-resonant tiny chock (Z{sub ck}) with very high impedance. Introducing a large auxiliary electrode (A{sub x}), (A{sub x} >>> A{sub p}), close to the small Langmuir probe (A{sub p}) tip, connected in parallel with probe via a coupling capacitor (C{sub cp}), significantly reduces the effective sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) and allows probe bias to follow the RF oscillation. Dimensional requirements of the auxiliary electrode and the role of suitable coupling capacitor are discussed in this paper. Observations show proper compensation leads to estimation of more positive floating potentials and lower electron temperatures compared to uncompensated probe. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) is also obtained by double differentiating the collected current with respect to the applied bias voltage using an active analog circuit.

  12. Line profiles of hydrogenic ions from high-temperature and high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qing; Li Jianming

    1991-01-01

    Applying the Hooper's first-order theory, the authors calculate the static micro-electric field distributions in plasmas containing various multiply-charged ions. The influences of the impurity concentrations on the micro electric field distributions and on the Lyman profiles (n→1) from hydrogenic ions are analysed. Based on the optical-thin line profiles, the radiation transfer equation in sphere plasmas with various optical depths is solved. The results confirm that the opacity-broadening of the line profiles has almost no effect on the separation of Lyman β splitted peaks. Such separation is determined by electric field at which the static micro-electric field distribution has a maximum. The separation can be utilized for spatially resolved and temporally resolved density diagnostic of fusion plasmas

  13. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  14. Behavior of a plasma in a high-density gas-embedded Z-pinch configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlachter, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of a high density Z-pinch (HDZP) begins with an examination of the steady state energy balance between ohmic heating and bremsstrahlung radiation losses for a plasma column in pressure equilibrium. The model is then expanded to include the time-varying internal energy and results in a quasi-equilibrium prescription for the load current through a constant radius plasma channel. This set of current waveforms is useful in the design of experimental systems. The behavior of a plasma for physically realizable conditions is first examined by allowing adiabatic changes in the column radius. A more complete model is then developed by incorporating inertial effects into the momentum equation, and the resultant global MHD computational model is compared with more sophisticated, and costly, one- and two-dimensional computer simulations. These comparisons demonstrate the advantages of the global MHD description over previously developed zero-dimensional models

  15. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma; Evaporacion de carbono usando los electrones de un plasma de alta densidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index). (Author)

  16. Electron temperature and density relaxations during internal disruptions in TFR Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriques, L.; Sand, F.

    1977-01-01

    Several diagnostics (soft X-ray, Thompson scattering, high frequency waves, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy) have been used on TFR Tokamak plasmas in order to show that the soft X-ray relaxations are mainly due to electron temperature relaxations, with only small variations of the electron density. Values of ΔTsub(eo)/Tsub(eo) up to 17% and of Δnsub(eo)/nsub(eo) of a few % or less have been measured. (author)

  17. Electron temperature and density relaxations during internal disruptions in TFR Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Several diagnostics (soft X-ray, Thomson scattering, high frequency waves, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy) have been used on TFR Tokamak plasmas in order to show that the soft X-ray relaxations are mainly due to electron temperature relaxations, with only small variations of the electron density. Values of ΔTsub(e0)/Tsub(e0) up to 17% and of Δnsub(e0)/nsub(e0) of a few % or less have been measured

  18. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A. III.

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions

  19. Measurement of electron density of the plasma in the Tokamak TCABR, through Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, Leonardo Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years is remarkable, so increasingly evident the need for a new source of energy for mankind. One promising option is through nuclear fusion, where the plasma produced in the reactor can be converted into electrical energy. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of this plasma is very important to control it and understand it so desirable. One of the diagnostic options is called Thomson scattering . This is considered the most reliable method for the determination of important plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density, and may also help in the study and explanation of various internal mechanisms. The great advantage lies in the tact that they consist of a direct measurement and nonperturbative. But it is a diagnosis whose installation and execution is admittedly complex, limiting it only a few laboratories in the fíeld of fusion for the world. Among the main difficulties, wc can highlight the fact that the scattered signal is very small, thus requiring a large increase of the incident power. Moreover, the external physical conditions can cause mechanical vibrations that eliminate or minimize them as much as possible, is a great challenge, considering the optical micrometrically very sensitive and needs involved in the system. This work describes the entire process of installation and operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic in tokamak TCABR and through this diagnosis, we work on results of electron temperature, to finally be able to calculate the electron density of the plasma. (author)

  20. Si-compatible cleaning process for graphene using low-density inductively coupled plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeong-Dae; Lee, Dae-Yeong; Shen, Tian-Zi; Ra, Chang-Ho; Choi, Jae-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2012-05-22

    We report a novel cleaning technique for few-layer graphene (FLG) by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) of Ar with an extremely low plasma density of 3.5 × 10(8) cm(-3). It is known that conventional capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) treatments destroy the planar symmetry of FLG, giving rise to the generation of defects. However, ICP treatment with extremely low plasma density is able to remove polymer resist residues from FLG within 3 min at a room temperature of 300 K while retaining the carbon sp(2)-bonding of FLG. It is found that the carrier mobility and charge neutrality point of FLG are restored to their pristine defect-free state after the ICP treatment. Considering the application of graphene to silicon-based electronic devices, such a cleaning method can replace thermal vacuum annealing, electrical current annealing, and wet-chemical treatment due to its advantages of being a low-temperature, large-area, high-throughput, and Si-compatible process.

  1. Effects of density gradients and fluctuations at the plasma edge on ECEI measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanovac, B.; Wolfrum, E.; Denk, S. S.; Mink, F.; Laggner, F. M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; Viezzer, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Freethy, S. J.; Dunne, M. G.; Lessig, A.; Luhmann, N. C.; ASDEX Upgrade team,; EUROfusion MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) provides measurements of electron temperature (T-e) and its fluctuations (delta T-e). However, when measuring at the plasma edge, in the steep gradient region, radiation transport effects must be taken into account. It is shown that due to these effects,

  2. In vitro production of beta-very low density lipoproteins and small, dense low density lipoproteins in mildly hypertriglyceridemic plasma: role of activities of lecithin:cholester acyltransferase, cholesterylester transfer proteins and lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, B H; Segrest, J P; Franklin, F

    1998-12-01

    As a model for the formation of beta-very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense LDL by the intraplasma metabolic activities in vivo, lipoproteins in fresh plasma were interacted in vitro with endogenous lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterylester transfer proteins (CETP) and subsequently with purified lipoprotein lipase (LpL). The LCAT and CETP reactions in a mildly hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) plasma at 37 degrees C for 18 h resulted in (1) esterification of about 45% plasma unesterified cholesterol (UC), (2) a marked increase in cholesterylester (CE) (+129%) and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) (-45%) in VLDL, and (3) a marked increase of TG (+ 341%) with a small net decrease of CE (-3.6%) in LDL, causing a significant alteration in the TG/CE of VLDL (from 8.0 to 1.9) and of LDL (from 0.20 to 0.93). The LDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma is larger and more buoyant than that in control plasma. In vitro lipolysis of control and LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma by LpL, which hydrolyzed >90% of VLDL-TG and about 50-60% of LDL-TG, converted most of VLDL in control plasma (>85%) but less than half (40%) of VLDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into the IDL-LDL density fraction and transformed the large, buoyant LDL in the LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into particles smaller and denser than those in the control plasma. The remnants that accumulated in the VLDL density region of the postlipolysis LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma contained apo B-100 and E but little or no detectable apo Cs and consisted of particles having pre-beta and beta-electrophoretic mobilities. The inhibition of LCAT during incubation of plasma, which lessened the extent of alteration in VLDL and LDL core lipids, increased the extent of lipolytic removal of VLDL from the VLDL density region but lowered the extent of alteration in the size and density of LDL. The LCAT, CETP and/or LpL-mediated alterations in the density of LDL in normolipidemic fasting plasma were less pronounced

  3. Numerical study of overpopulation density for laser oscillation in recombining hydrogen plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, T.; Furukane, U.

    1983-06-01

    The dependence of overpopulation density (OD) on ground-level population density (n1) and electron temperature (Te) in a recombining hydrogen plasma is evaluated for line pairs with the principal quantum numbers (2,3), (3,4), and (4,5). The approach is based on the simultaneouss solution of the quasi-steady-state rate equation (including interatomic-collision terms) and the optical-escape-factor equation for the Lyman series with Doppler profile. Calculations are performed for optically thin and thick plasmas at a fixed atomic temperature of 0.15 eV, over a Te range from 0.1 to 1 eV and an electron-density (ne) range from 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 17th per cu cm. It is shown that peak OD occurs at an ne slightly below that at which population inversion is destroyed, that peak OD is inversely sensitive to Te, and that peak OD(2,3) is the highest of the three peak OD. Laser oscillation is determined to be possible for (2,3) at Te higher than for (3,4) and (4,5), if self-absorption is negligible. The OD remains constant as n1 increases, up to the point at which significant self-absorption occurs. No laser oscillation is expected at level (4,5), nor in optically thick plasma at any level, for the realistic cavity parameters and temperatures used in the calculations. 21 references.

  4. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  5. On the origin, properties, and implications of asymmetries in the tungsten impurity density in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odstrcil, Tomas

    2017-07-03

    In this thesis, the transport of tungsten ions is studied in the plasma of ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma facing components of the fusion reactors are expected to be built from high-Z materials such as W, Mo or Fe. These materials provide advantages like a high melting point, small erosion rates, and low tritium retention. However, due to the interaction of the plasma with the wall, ions of this material will be inevitably present also in the main plasma. These ions are not entirely stripped even at fusion plasma temperatures, and therefore emit strong line radiation, which can significantly degrade the performance of the fusion plasma. Thus the understanding and control of impurity transport are of critical importance to the success of fusion. The high mass and charge of the heavy impurities make them susceptible to some of the forces acting upon the plasma, resulting in a poloidal variation of their density. The most prominent are the centrifugal force arising from the plasma rotation and the electric force caused by magnetically trapped non-thermal ions. Furthermore, the poloidal asymmetries should have a significant impact on the radial transport of heavy ions, which was widely ignored up to date. In the present work, the poloidal asymmetries in the heavy impurity density were inferred from the soft X-ray radiation using a newly developed tomographic method. The high accuracy of the tomography and of the model for the centrifugal force allowed to identify for the first time in an experiment the effect of the fast ion distribution produced by neutral beam injection on the poloidal asymmetry of the tungsten density. The measured asymmetry was compared to several fast ion models, and the best match was found with the Monte Carlo code in the TRANSP code suite that includes finite orbits effects of the fast ions. Similarly, fast ions accelerated by ion cyclotron heating and localized mainly in the outboard side of the plasma due to a magnetic trapping and produce

  6. Quasilinear dynamics of a cloud of hot electrons propagating through a plasma with decreasing density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroutan, G.; Khalilpour, H.; Moslehi-Fard, M.; Li, B.; Robinson, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of plasma inhomogeneities on the propagation of a cloud of hot electrons through a cold background plasma and generation of Langmuir waves are investigated using numerical simulations of the quasilinear equations. It is found that in a plasma with decreasing density the quasilinear relaxation of the electron distribution in velocity space is accelerated and the levels of the generated Langmuir waves are enhanced. The magnitude of the induced emission rate is increased and its maximum value moves to lower velocities. Due to density gradient the height of plateau shows an increase at small distances and a corresponding decrease at large distances. It is also found that in a plasma with decreasing temperature, the relaxation of the beam is retarded, the spectral density of Langmuir waves is broadened, and the height of the plateau decreases below its value in a uniform plasma. In the presence of both density and temperature gradients, at given position, the height and upper boundary of the plateau and the level of Langmuir waves are all increased at small velocities. The spatial expansion of the beam is increased by the plasma inhomogeneities, but its average velocity of propagation decreases. Initially, at a given position, the velocity at the upper boundary of the plateau is smaller in the presence of the density gradient than in the uniform plasma but the reverse is true at longer times. Due to temperature gradient, at large times and small distances, the upper boundary of the plateau is increased above its value in the uniform plasma. Because of fast relaxation, the value of the lower boundary of the plateau in the plasma with decreasing density is always less than its value in the uniform plasma. It is found that the local velocity of the beam decreases when the density gradient is present. The local velocity spread of the beam remains unchanged during the propagation of the beam in the uniform plasma, but increases in the presence of inhomogeneities.

  7. Density and velocity measurements of a sheath plasma from MPD thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J.J.; Cho, T.S.; Choi, M.C.; Choi, E.H.; Cho, G.S.; Uhm, H.S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnetoplasma is the plasma that the electron and ion orbits are strongly confined by intense magnetic field. Recently, magnetoplasma dynamics (MPD) has been investigated in connection with applications to the rocket thruster in USA, Germany, etc. It can be widely applicable, including modification of satellite position and propulsion of the interplanetary space shuttle. A travel for a long distance journey is possible because a little amount of neutral gases is needed for the plasma source. Besides, this will provide a pollution free engine for future generations. MPD thruster is not a chemical engine. The authors have built a Mather type MPD thruster, which has 1 kV max charging, 10 kA max current flows, and has about 1 ms characteristic operation time. The Paschen curve of this thruster is measured and its minimum breakdown voltage occurs in the pressure range of 0.1 to 1 Torr. Langmuir and double probes are fabricated to diagnose the sheath plasma from the thruster. The temperature and density are calculated to be 2.5 eV and 10{sup 15} cm {sup {minus}3}, respectively, from the probe data. Making use of photo diode, an optical probe is fabricated to measure propagation velocity of the sheath plasma. The sheath plasma from the MPD thruster in the experiment propagates with velocity of 1 cm/{micro}s.

  8. High density low-q discharges with D-shaped plasmas in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Masayuki; Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Shinya, Kichiro; Yokomizo, Hideaki; Shimada, Michiya; Ioki, Kimihiro; Izumi, Shigeru; Kitsunezaki, Masao; Jahns, G.

    1981-07-01

    The maximum plasma current in Doublet III is found to be limited by disruptions when the limiter safety factor is approximately 2. However, due to the strong toroidal and shaping field effect on rotational transform at the outer plasma edge associated with a D-shape formation having a vertical elongation of 1.5, the safety factor q sub(a) * estimated from simple geometric considerations for D-shaped plasmas corresponds to values as low as 1.5. These discharges operate stably with considerably higher plasma current than most reactor design studies assume. These low-q discharges show excellent plasma performance: very flat spatial electron temperature progiles, high density operation with anti n sub(e)R/B sub(T) up to 7.8, and good energy confinement producing a volume average β of up to 1% with ohmic heating only. This operational regime appears to be applicable to future high β tokamaks with D-shaped cross section. (author)

  9. Structural and metabolic heterogeneity of plasma low density lipoproteins in nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzetta, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a variety of precursor particles secreted by the liver could result in heterogeneity of LDL products in plasma, the metabolic fate of selected radiolabeled hepatic lipoproteins evaluated was determined in vivo. The hepatic lipoproteins evaluated were isolated from liver perfusate and were triglyceride-rich VLDL (d < 1.006 or d < 1.017) and phospholipid-rich LDL (1.017 < d < 1.049 or 1.030 < d < 1.063). Radiolabeled autologous plasma LDL were injected into recipient animals together with the radiolabeled hepatic lipoproteins. Density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel filtration were used to characterize the distribution of radiolabeled lipoproteins in the plasma at selected times after injection. A variety of hepatic lipoproteins were precursors to lipoproteins that resembled plasma LDL. Between 22 to 80% of the injected dose of radiolabeled hepatic lipoprotein apo B-100 was converted to plasma LDL-like particles, regardless of the type of hepatic lipoprotein injected. A kinetic model was generated to describe the metabolic behavior of hepatic VLDL-derived and plasma LDL-derived apo B-100 radioactivity. Both models required multiple metabolic pools to fit the data. Hepatic VLDL-derived apo B-100 radioactivity was metabolized rapidly into various kinds of LDL subfractions. This rapid conversion of hepatic VLDL apo B-100 to LDL apo B-100 may be analogous to the portion of plasma VLDL that gets converted to LDL without passing through the delipidation cascade that has been described in humans and has been termed direct LDL production

  10. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  11. Comparison between gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in plasma density feedback experiments in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiahong; Ding, Rui; Cao, Bin; Wu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To achieve desirable plasma density control, a supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) feedback control system has been developed recently for the EAST tokamak. The performance of the SMBI and gas puffing (GP) feedback systems were used and compared. The performance of pulse width mode is better than that of pulse amplitude mode when GP was used for density feedback control. During one-day experiments, the variation of gas input and wall retention can be clarified into two stages. In the first stage the retention ratio is as high as 80–90%, and the gas input is about an order of 10 22 D 2 . However, in the second stage, the retention ratio is at a range of 50–70%. The gas input of a single discharge is small and the net wall retention grows slowly. The results of the SMBI feedback control experiment was analyzed. The shorter delay time of SMBI makes it faster at feeding back control the plasma density. The result showed that, compared with GP, the gas input of SMBI was decreased ∼30% and the wall retention was reduced ∼40%. This shows SMBI's advantage for the long pulse high density discharges in EAST. (paper)

  12. Transport analysis of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casali L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Future fusion reactors, foreseen in the “European road map” such as DEMO, will operate under more demanding conditions compared to present devices. They will require high divertor and core radiation by impurity seeding to reduce heat loads on divertor target plates. In addition, DEMO will have to work at high core densities to reach adequate fusion performance. The performance of fusion reactors depends on three essential parameters: temperature, density and energy confinement time. The latter characterizes the loss rate due to both radiation and transport processes. The DEMO foreseen scenarios described above were not investigated so far, but are now addressed at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. In this work we present the transport analysis of such scenarios. Plasma with high radiation by impurity seeding: transport analysis taking into account the radiation distribution shows no change in transport during impurity seeding. The observed confinement improvement is an effect of higher pedestal temperatures which extend to the core via stiffness. A non coronal radiation model was developed and compared to the bolometric measurements in order to provide a reliable radiation profile for transport calculations. High density plasmas with pellets: the analysis of kinetic profiles reveals a transient phase at the start of the pellet fuelling due to a slower density build up compared to the temperature decrease. The low particle diffusion can explain the confinement behaviour.

  13. Hydrogen retention properties of co-deposition under high-density plasmas in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokitani, M.; Miyamoto, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, N.; Sakamoto, M.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; TRIAM Group,; Nagata, S.; Tsuchiya, B.

    2007-01-01

    Retention of hydrogen in co-deposits formed under high-density plasma discharge in TRIAM-1M was studied. In order to quantify the retained hydrogen, material probe experiments were performed under the high-density (n at e ∼10 19 m -3 ) discharges. After the exposure to the plasma, the quantitative analysis of deposition, hydrogen retention, and microscopic modification of specimens were performed by means of ion beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The co-deposits mainly consisted of Mo. The deposition rate of Mo was about ten times higher than that of the low-density discharge case. The hydrogen concentrations (H/Mo) retained in the co-deposits were 0.06-0.17, which was much higher than that in bulk-Mo and almost equal to the low-density case. These results indicate that as long as the co-deposition layers are continuously formed, strong wall pumping in TRIAM-1M is maintained during the discharges

  14. Measurement of deuterium density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, S R; Grierson, B A; Burrell, K H; Chrystal, C; Groebner, R J; Kaplan, D H; Pablant, N A; Stagner, L

    2016-11-01

    Recent completion of a thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. In a H-mode DIII-D discharge, these new measurement capabilities are used to provide the deuterium density profile, demonstrate the importance of profile alignment between Thomson scattering and CER diagnostics, and aid in determining the electron temperature at the separatrix. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the plasma edge, providing high resolution measurements across the pedestal and steep gradient region in H-mode plasmas. Extracting useful physical quantities such as deuterium density is challenging due to multiple photoemission processes. These challenges are overcome using a detailed fitting model and by forward modeling the photoemission using the FIDASIM code, which implements a comprehensive collisional radiative model.

  15. Size scaling effects on the particle density fluctuations in confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Federico; Markus, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, memory and nonlocal effects on fluctuating mass diffusion are addressed in the context of fusion plasmas. Nonlocal effects are included by considering a diffusivity coefficient depending on the size of the container in the transverse direction to the applied magnetic field. It is obtained by resorting to the general formulation of the extended version of irreversible thermodynamics in terms of the higher order dissipative fluxes. The developed model describes two different types of the particle density time correlation function. Both have been observed in tokamak and nontokamak devices. These two kinds of time correlation function characterize the wave and the diffusive transport mechanisms of particle density perturbations. A transition between them is found, which is controlled by the size of the container. A phase diagram in the (L,2π/k) space describes the relation between the dynamics of particle density fluctuations and the size L of the system together with the oscillating mode k of the correlation function.

  16. Effect of low density H-mode operation on edge and divertor plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    We present a study of the impact of H-mode operation at low density on divertor plasma parameters on the DIII-D tokamak. The line-average density in H-mode was scanned by variation of the particle exhaust rate, using the recently installed divertor cryo-condensation pump. The maximum decrease (50%) in line-average electron density was accompanied by a factor of 2 increase in the edge electron temperature, and 10% and 20% reductions in the measured core and divertor radiated power, respectively. The measured total power to the inboard divertor target increased by a factor of 3, with the major contribution coming from a factor of 5 increase in the peak heat flux very close to the inner strike point. The measured increase in power at the inboard divertor target was approximately equal to the measured decrease in core and divertor radiation

  17. 2.5-dimensional numerical modeling of the formation of a plasma channel due to ion redistribution during the propagation of a finite sequence of relativistic electron bunches through high-density and low-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V.I.; Karas, I.V.; Levchenko, V.D.; Sigov, Yu.S.; Fainberg, Ya.B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of numerical simulations of the excitation of wake fields in high- and low-density plasmas are presented. The propagation of relativistic electron bunches in a plasma is described by a closed set of relativistic Vlasov equations for two spatial coordinates and three velocity coordinates for each plasma component and the nonlinear Maxwell equations for self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Numerical modeling shows that, under ordinary experimental conditions (when the length and radius of the bunch are much less than the skin depth), the radius of the bunches propagating in a plasma varies over a wide range. In this case, the dynamics of both the plasma and the bunches is nonlinear. The radial redistribution of the plasma ions in self-consistent fields leads to the formation of a plasma channel. Incorporating this phenomenon is important for studying the propagation of relativistic electron bunches in a plasma

  18. Measurements of Ion Stopping around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades, ion stopping in weakly- to strongly-coupled High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas has been subject to extensive analytical and numerical studies, but only a limited set of experimental data exists to check the validity of these theories. Most of these experiments also did not probe the detailed characteristics of the Bragg peak (peak ion stopping) where the ion velocity is similar to the average thermal electron velocity. To the best of our knowledge, only one exploratory attempt to do this was conducted by Hicks et al., who were able to describe qualitatively the behavior of the Bragg peak for one plasma condition. The work described in this presentation makes significant advances over previous experimental efforts by quantitatively assessing the characteristics of the ion stopping, ranging from low-velocity stopping, through the Bragg peak, to high-velocity stopping for different HED plasma conditions. This was achieved by measuring the energy loss of DD-tritons, D3He-alphas, DD-protons and D3He-protons, with distinctly different velocities, and the results indicate that the stopping power varies strongly with Te and ne. This effort represents the first experimental test of state-of-art plasma-stopping-power theories around the Bragg peak, which is an important first step in our efforts of getting a fundamental understanding of DT-alpha stopping in HED plasmas, a prerequisite for understanding ignition margins in various implosion designs with varying hot spot areal density at the National Ignition Facility. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  19. A comparative study on the direct deposition of μc-Si:H and plasma-induced recrystallization of a-Si:H: Insight into Si crystallization in a high-density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. P.; Xu, M.; Xu, S.; Feng, Y. Y.; Xu, L. X.; Wei, D. Y.; Xiao, S. Q.

    2018-03-01

    Deep insight into the crystallization mechanism of amorphous silicon is of theoretical and technological significance for the preparation of high-quality microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon. In this work, we intensively compare the present two plasma-involved routes, i.e., the direct deposition and recrystallization of precursor amorphous silicon (a-Si) films, to fabricate microcrystalline silicon. Both the directly deposited and recrystallized samples show multi-layered structures as revealed by electronic microscopy. High-density hydrogen plasma involved recrystallization process, which is mediated by the hydrogen diffusion into the deep region of the precursor a-Si film, displays significantly different nucleation configuration, interface properties, and crystallite shape. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed in combination with the interplay of high-density plasma and growing or treated surface.

  20. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commaux, N.

    2007-09-01

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the ∇B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the ∇B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the

  1. Analytic expressions for mode conversion in a plasma with a parabolic density profile: Generalized results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, D.E.; Fried, B.D.; Morales, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides an analytic solution to the general problem of mode conversion in an unmagnetized plasma. Specifically, an electromagnetic wave of frequency ω propagating through a plasma with a parabolic density profile of scale length L p is examined. The mode conversion points are located a distance Δ 0 from the peak of the profile, where the electron plasma frequency ω p (z) matches the wave frequency ω. The corresponding reflection, transmission, and mode conversion coefficients are expressed analytically in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for all values of Δ 0 . The method of solution is based on a source approximation technique that is valid when the electromagnetic and electrostatic scale lengths are well separated. For large Δ 0 , i.e., (cL p /ω) 1/2 much-lt Δ 0 p , the appropriately scaled result [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 559 (1992)] for a linear density profile is recovered as the parabolic cylinder functions asymptotically become Airy functions. When Δ 0 →0, the special case of conversion at the peak of the profile [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 1772 (1992)] is obtained

  2. Dynamic high energy density plasma environments at the National Ignition Facility for nuclear science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerjan, Ch J.; Bernstein, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cassata, W. S.; Brune, C. R.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G.; Hagmann, Chr; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Henry, E. A.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khater, H. Y.; Kim, Y.; Kritcher, A.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Merrill, F.; Moody, K.; Neumayer, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, Ch; Velsko, C.; Wiescher, M.; Couder, M.; Zylstra, A.; Schneider, D.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of dynamic high energy density plasmas in the pico- to nano-second time domain at high-energy laser facilities affords unprecedented nuclear science research possibilities. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the primary goal of inertial confinement fusion research has led to the synergistic development of a unique high brightness neutron source, sophisticated nuclear diagnostic instrumentation, and versatile experimental platforms. These novel experimental capabilities provide a new path to investigate nuclear processes and structural effects in the time, mass and energy density domains relevant to astrophysical phenomena in a unique terrestrial environment. Some immediate applications include neutron capture cross-section evaluation, fission fragment production, and ion energy loss measurement in electron-degenerate plasmas. More generally, the NIF conditions provide a singular environment to investigate the interplay of atomic and nuclear processes such as plasma screening effects upon thermonuclear reactivity. Achieving enhanced understanding of many of these effects will also significantly advance fusion energy research and challenge existing theoretical models.

  3. Nonlinear error-field penetration in low density ohmically heated tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R

    2012-01-01

    A theory is developed to predict the error-field penetration threshold in low density, ohmically heated, tokamak plasmas. The novel feature of the theory is that the response of the plasma in the vicinity of the resonant surface to the applied error-field is calculated from nonlinear drift-MHD (magnetohydrodynamical) magnetic island theory, rather than linear layer theory. Error-field penetration, and subsequent locked mode formation, is triggered once the destabilizing effect of the resonant harmonic of the error-field overcomes the stabilizing effect of the ion polarization current (caused by the propagation of the error-field-induced island chain in the local ion fluid frame). The predicted scaling of the error-field penetration threshold with engineering parameters is (b r /B T ) crit ∼n e B T -1.8 R 0 -0.25 , where b r is the resonant harmonic of the vacuum radial error-field at the resonant surface, B T the toroidal magnetic field-strength, n e the electron number density at the resonant surface and R 0 the major radius of the plasma. This scaling—in particular, the linear dependence of the threshold with density—is consistent with experimental observations. When the scaling is used to extrapolate from JET to ITER, the predicted ITER error-field penetration threshold is (b r /B T ) crit ∼ 5 × 10 −5 , which just lies within the expected capabilities of the ITER error-field correction system. (paper)

  4. Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.F.; Turski, P.A.; LaMasters, D.; Newton, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of low-density regions in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland and the possible causes of these regions were investigated by a retrospective review of computed tomographic (CT) scans of the head in 50 patients and autopsy specimens of the pituitary in 100 other patients. It was found that focal areas of low density within the contrast enhanced pituitary gland can be caused by various normal and pathologic conditions such as pituitary microadenomas, pars intermedia cysts, foci of metastasis, infarcts, epidermoid cysts, and abscesses. Although most focal low-density regions probably represent pituitary microadenomas, careful clinical correlation is needed to establish a diagnosis

  5. Intensity-dependent resonant transmission of x-rays in solid-density aluminum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Chung, H.-K.; Cho, B. I.

    2018-05-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide unique opportunities to generate and investigate dense plasmas. The absorption and transmission properties of x-ray photons in dense plasmas are important in characterizing the state of the plasmas. Experimental evidence shows that the transmission of x-ray photons through dense plasmas depends greatly on the incident XFEL intensity. Here, we present a detailed analysis of intensity-dependent x-ray transmission in solid-density aluminum using collisional-radiative population kinetics calculations. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA), i.e., an increase in x-ray absorption with intensity has been observed for photon energies below the K-absorption edge and in the intensity range of 1016-1017 W/cm2 for XFEL photons with 1487 eV. At higher intensities, a transition from RSA to saturable absorption (SA) is predicted; thus, the x-ray absorption decreases with intensity above a threshold value. For XFEL photon energies of 1501 eV and 1515 eV, the transition from RSA to SA occurs at XFEL intensities between 1017-1018 W/cm2. Electron temperatures are predicted to be in the range of 30-50 eV for the given experimental conditions. Detailed population kinetics of the charge states explains the intensity-dependent absorption of x-ray photons and the fast modulation of XFEL pulses for both RSA and SA.

  6. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-01-01

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth (Δk/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals

  7. Theory of a spheroidal probe in low-density continuum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuma, M.; Teii, S.

    1982-01-01

    A spheroidal probe theory for a low-density continuum plasma, i.e., one where the electron density is N/sub e/ 8 cm -3 and the gas pressure is P> or approx. =1 Torr has been developed using a spheroidal coordinate system in order to properly take into account the effect of the finite length of the probe. The numerical results of both the electron- and the ion-current characteristics are obtained for various values of R/sub p//lambda/sub D/ ranging from 0 to 1, epsilon = T/sub i//T/sub e/ from 0.1 to 1, and C/sub p/ = L/sub p//2R/sub p/ from 1 to 100, where lambda/sub D/ is the Debye length, R/sub p/ and L/sub p/ are the probe radius and the probe length, T/sub i/ and T/sub e/ are the ion and the electron temperature, respectively. Using these results, new methods to determine the electron temperature and the plasma space potential (consequently, the electron density) by practical measurements are also proposed and discussed

  8. Estimation of Neutral Density in Edge Plasma with Double Null Configuration in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Xu Guosheng; Ding Siye; Gao Wei; Wu Zhenwei; Chen Yingjie; Huang Juan; Liu Xiaoju; Zang Qing; Chang Jiafeng; Zhang Wei; Li Yingying; Qian Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this work, population coefficients of hydrogen's n = 3 excited state from the hydrogen collisional-radiative (CR) model, from the data file of DEGAS 2, are used to calculate the photon emissivity coefficients (PECs) of hydrogen Balmer-α (n = 3 → n = 2) (H α ). The results are compared with the PECs from Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) database, and a good agreement is found. A magnetic surface-averaged neutral density profile of typical double-null (DN) plasma in EAST is obtained by using FRANTIC, the 1.5-D fluid transport code. It is found that the sum of integral D α and H α emission intensity calculated via the neutral density agrees with the measured results obtained by using the absolutely calibrated multi-channel poloidal photodiode array systems viewing the lower divertor at the last closed flux surface (LCFS). It is revealed that the typical magnetic surface-averaged neutral density at LCFS is about 3.5 x 10 16 m -3 . (magnetically confined plasma)

  9. Effect of exponential density transition on self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkunde, Amol T.; Vhanmore, Bandopant D.; Urunkar, Trupti U.; Gavade, Kusum M.; Patil, Sandip D.; Takale, Mansing V.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, nonlinear aspects of a high intensity q-Gaussian laser beam propagating in collisionless plasma having upward density ramp of exponential profiles is studied. We have employed the nonlinearity in dielectric function of plasma by considering ponderomotive nonlinearity. The differential equation governing the dimensionless beam width parameter is achieved by using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximations and solved it numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method. Effect of exponential density ramp profile on self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam for various values of q is systematically carried out and compared with results Gaussian laser beam propagating in collisionless plasma having uniform density. It is found that exponential plasma density ramp causes the laser beam to become more focused and gives reasonably interesting results.

  10. Plasma and BIAS Modeling: Self-Consistent Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell with Low-Density Argon Plasma for TiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Geiser

    2011-01-01

    processes. In this paper we present a new model taken into account a self-consistent electrostatic-particle in cell model with low density Argon plasma. The collision model are based of Monte Carlo simulations is discussed for DC sputtering in lower pressure regimes. In order to simulate transport phenomena within sputtering processes realistically, a spatial and temporal knowledge of the plasma density and electrostatic field configuration is needed. Due to relatively low plasma densities, continuum fluid equations are not applicable. We propose instead a Particle-in-cell (PIC method, which allows the study of plasma behavior by computing the trajectories of finite-size particles under the action of an external and self-consistent electric field defined in a grid of points.

  11. ELECTRIC PROBE INVESTIGATION OF ARC ANODE REGION IN PLASMA TORCH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Hrabovský, Milan; Kavka, Tetyana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2006), s. 515-524 ISSN 1093-3611. [High technology plasma processes. Saint-Petersburg, 27.5.2006-4.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma torch * arc * anode attachment * restrike * electric probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2006

  12. Real-time control of electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keville, Bernard; Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M.; Zhang Yang; Daniels, Stephen; Holohan, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive ion etching (RIE) is sensitive to changes in chamber conditions, such as wall seasoning, which have a deleterious effect on process reproducibility. The application of real time, closed loop control to RIE may reduce this sensitivity and facilitate production with tighter tolerances. The real-time, closed loop control of plasma density with RF power in a capacitively coupled argon plasma using a hairpin resonance probe as a sensor is described. Elementary control analysis shows that an integral controller provides stable and effective set point tracking and disturbance attenuation. The trade off between performance and robustness may be quantified in terms of one parameter, namely the position of the closed loop pole. Experimental results are presented, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  13. A study of microwave interferometers for electron density measurements in REB-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.C.; Paithankar, A.S.; Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    In order to select a suitable microwave interferometer for electron density measurements in Relativistic Electron Beam (REB)-Plasma Experiments, a study has been carried out of four types of interferometers, viz. simple interferometer, standing-wave interferometer, frequency and phase modulated interferometers. Various direct reading interferometers which give a voltage proportional to the phase shift, are also discussed. Systems have been analysed in terms of time resolution, phase sensitivity, system stability, ease of measurement etc. Theoretical and experimental limitations of various systems have been indicated. Summary of the various systems is presented in a table to aid the experimentalist to select the most appropriate system for the prevailina experimental conditions. Finally, an attempt has been made to find out the interferometer system best suited for REB-Plasma Experiments. (author)

  14. Kinetic Alfven wave with density variation and loss-cone distribution function of multi-ions in PSBL region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrakar, Radha; Varma, P.; Tiwari, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    Kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) generation due to variation of loss-cone index J and density of multi-ions (H+, He+ and O+) in the plasma sheet boundary layer region (PSBL) is investigated. Kinetic approach is used to derive dispersion relation of wave using Vlasov equation. Variation of frequency with respect to wide range of k⊥ρi (where k⊥ is wave vector across the magnetic field, ρi is gyroradius of ions and i denotes H+, He+ and O+ ions) is analyzed. It is found that each ion gyroradius and number density shows different effect on wave generation with varying width of loss-cone. KAW is generated with multi-ions (H+, He+ and O+) over wide regime for J=1 and shows dissimilar effect for J=2. Frequency is reduced with increasing density of gyrating He+ and O+ ions. Wave frequency is obtained within the reported range which strongly supports generation of kinetic Alfven waves. A sudden drop of frequency is also observed for H+ and He+ ion which may be due to heavy penetration of these ions through the loss-cone. The parameters of PSBL region are used for numerical calculation. The application of these results are in understanding the effect of gyrating multi-ions in transfer of energy and Poynting flux losses from PSBL region towards ionosphere and also describing the generation of aurora.

  15. Mechanism of electron density reduction in the region of stable subauroral red arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    For geomagnetic storm on 18.12.71 are fulfilled calculations of electron density N e and temperature Te and intensity of the atmosphere luminescence at 630 nm in the region of the subauroral red are and outside its

  16. Ethnic density of regions and psychiatric disorders among ethnic minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott Daniel; Minh, Anita; Guhn, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Ethnic minorities form an increasingly large proportion of Canada's population. Living in areas of greater ethnic density may help protect mental health among ethnic minorities through psychosocial pathways such as accessibility to culturally appropriate provision of mental health care, less discrimination and a greater sense of belonging. Mood and anxiety disorders are common psychiatric disorders. This study examined whether ethnic density of regions was related to mood and anxiety disorders among ethnic minorities in Canada. Responses by ethnic minority individuals to the 2011-2014 administrations of the Canadian Community Health Survey ( n =  33,201) were linked to health region ethnic density data. Multilevel logistic regression was employed to model the odds of having mood and/or anxiety disorders associated with increasing region-level ethnic density and to examine whether sense of community belonging helped explain variance in such associations. Analyses were adjusted for individual-level demographic factors as well as region-level socio-economic factors. Higher ethnic density related to lower odds of mood and/or anxiety disorders for Canadian-born (but not foreign-born) ethnic minorities. Sense of community belonging did not help explain such associations, but independently related to lower odds of mood and/or anxiety disorders. These findings remained after adjusting for regional population density and after excluding (rural/remote) regions of very low ethnic density. Ethnic density of regions in Canada may be an important protective factor against mental illness among Canadian-born ethnic minorities. It is important to better understand how, and for which specific ethno-cultural groups, ethnic density may influence mental health.

  17. Ion cyclotron modes in a low density plasma cavity. Part I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawley, M.L.

    1990-12-01

    Ion cyclotron modes excited in a low density, cylindrical plasma cavity using an external inductive antenna are investigated theoretically. These modes, which have a long parallel wavelength, exhibit a strong electrostatic character and are only weakly coupled to the antenna fields. It is shown that, despite the low frequency considered, electron dynamics play a dominant role via the effects of both Landau damping and electron inertia. The characteristics of the wavefields associated with these modes, relevant to an experimental investigation, are described. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  18. Electron density in the emission-line region of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshni, Y.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Inglis-Teller relation, generalized for a hydrogen-like or alkali-like ion with an arbitrary core charge, is used to estimate the electron density in the emission-like region of Wolf-Rayet stars. It is found that the electron density in the region which gives rise to He II emission lines is approximately = 4 x 10 14 cm -3 . (Auth.)

  19. A novel scanning interferometer for two-dimensional plasma density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.

    1989-01-01

    A novel multichannel scanning interferometer designed for tomographically inferring contours of electron density in magnetically confined plasmas is described. The scanning element is a multi-sectored blazed rotating grating. The diffracted beam emerges at a different angle from each sector giving rise to a fan array of discrete beams for each rotation of the grating. Signals from the probing chords are multiplexed in time enabling the use of a single detecting element for the extraction of many channels of line integrated density information. An air turbine driven grating wheel assembly has been fabricated and initial tests performed. The proposed interferometer is to be installed on the H-1 helical axis stellarator currently under construction at the Australian National University. 16 refs., 12 figs

  20. Impact of rotating resonant magnetic perturbation fields on plasma edge electron density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoschus, H.; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Reiser, D.; Unterberg, B.; Lehnen, M.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Jakubowski, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Rotating resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields impose a characteristic modulation to the edge electron density n e (r, t) and temperature T e (r, t) fields, which depends on the relative rotation f rel between external RMP field and plasma fluid. The n e (r, t) and T e (r, t) fields measured in the edge (r/a = 0.9–1.05) of TEXTOR L-mode plasmas are in close correlation with the local magnetic vacuum topology for low relative rotation f rel = −0.2 kHz. In comparison with the 3D neutral and plasma transport code EMC3-Eirene, this provides substantial experimental evidence that for low relative rotation level and high resonant field amplitudes (normalized radial field strength B r 4/1 /B t =2×10 -3 ), a stochastic edge with a remnant island chain dominated by diffusive transport exists. Radially outside a helical scrape-off layer, the so-called laminar zone embedded into a stochastic domain is found to exist. In contrast for high relative rotation of f rel = 1.8 kHz, the measured modulation of n e is shifted by π/2 toroidally with respect to the modelled vacuum topology. A pronounced flattening in T e (r) and a reduction in n e (r) is measured at the resonant flux surface and represents a clear signature for a magnetic island, which is phase shifted with respect to the vacuum island position. A correlated shift of the laminar zone radially outwards at the very plasma edge is observed suggesting that the actual near-field structure at the perturbation source is determined by the plasma response as well. (paper)