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Sample records for density lipoprotein hdl-c

  1. Isolated low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C: implications of global risk reduction. Case report and systematic scientific review

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    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated non HDL-C (as part of the metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an isolated low HDL-C is rapidly emerging. The antiatherosclerotic roles of reverse cholesterol transport and the pleiotropic antioxidant – anti-inflammatory mechanistic effects of HDL-C are undergoing rapid exponential growth. Case presentation In 1997 a 53-year-old Caucasian male presented with a lipoprotein profile of many years duration with an isolated low HDL-C and uric acid levels in the upper quintile of normal. He developed an acute myocardial infarction involving the right coronary artery and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting of this lesion. He also demonstrated a non-critical non-flow limiting lesion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery at the time of this evaluation. Following a program of global risk reduction this patient has done well over the past 7 years and remains free of any clinical signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. His HDL-C and uric acid levels are currently in the normal physiological range. Conclusion Low HDL-C and isolated low HDL-C constitute an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Therapies that lead to a return to normal physiologic range of HDL-C may result in the delay of atherosclerotic progression.

  2. Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in major depression and in depressed men with serious suicidal attempts: relationship with immune-inflammatory markers.

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    Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Vandoolaeghe, E; Van Gastel, A; Neels, H; Demedts, P; Wauters, A; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Recently, there have been some reports that changes in serum lipid composition may be related to suicide, major depression and immune-inflammatory responses. Findings from our laboratory suggest that major depression is accompanied by reduced formation of cholesteryl esters and perhaps by impairment of reverse cholesterol transport. The latter is reportedly accompanied by lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The aim of this study was to examine whether (i) major depression is accompanied by lower serum HDL-C or by abnormal levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) or vitamin E, (ii) suicidal attempts are related to lower serum HDL-C and (iii) there are significant associations between serum HDL-C and immune/inflammatory markers. A total of 36 subjects with major depression, of whom 28 patients showed treatment resistance, as well as 28 normal control subjects, had blood sampled for the assay of the above lipids, serum zinc (Zn), albumin (Alb) and flow cytometric determination of the T-helper/T-suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio. In total, 28 depressed subjects had repeated measures of these variables both before and after treatment with antidepressants. Serum HDL-C and total cholesterol, as well as the HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, were significantly lower in subjects with major depression than in normal controls. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly lower in depressed men who had at some time made serious suicidal attempts than in those without such suicidal behaviour. Treatment with antidepressants for 5 weeks did not significantly alter either serum HDL-C or other lipid variables. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly and negatively correlated with the (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio, and positively correlated with serum Alb and Zn. These results suggest that (i) lower serum HDL-C levels are a marker for major depression and suicidal behaviour in depressed men, (ii) lower serum HDL-C levels are probably

  3. Relationship of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio to the remainder of the lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids-4 (VLDL-4) study.

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    Quispe, Renato; Manalac, Raoul J; Faridi, Kamil F; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Nasir, Khurram; Virani, Salim S; Banach, Maciej; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    High levels of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. We evaluated variability in the remaining lipid profile, especially remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and its components (very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol), with variability in the TG/HDL-C ratio in a very large study cohort representative of the general U.S. We examined data from 1,350,908 US individuals who were clinically referred for lipoprotein cholesterol ultracentrifugation (Atherotech, Birmingham, AL) from 2009 to 2011. Demographic information other than age and sex was not available. Changes to the remaining lipid profile across percentiles of the TG/HDL-C ratio were quantified, as well as by three TG/HDL-C cut-off points previously proposed in the literature: 2.5 (male) and 2 (female), 3.75 (male) and 3 (female), and 3.5 (male and female). The mean age of our study population was 58.7 years, and 48% were men. The median TG/HDL-C ratio was 2.2. Across increasing TG/HDL-C ratios, we found steadily increasing levels of RLP-C, non-HDL-C and LDL density. Among the lipid parameters studied, RLP-C and LDL density had the highest relative increase when comparing individuals with elevated TG/HDL-C levels to those with lower TG/HDL-C levels using established cut-off points. Approximately 47% of TG/HDL-C ratio variance was attributable to RLP-C. In the present analysis, a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increasingly atherogenic lipid phenotype, characterized by higher RLP-C along with higher non-HDL-C and LDL density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High density lipoprotein as a source of cholesterol for adrenal steroidogenesis : A study in individuals with low plasma HDL-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, Andrea E.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hoekstra, Menno; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the delivery of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol to the adrenals for steroid production in humans. While there is evidence against a role for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), it is unresolved whether high density lipoprotein (HDL) contributes to adrenal steroidogenesis. To st

  5. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of β-cell function in African American women.

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    Maturu, Amita; DeWitt, Peter; Kern, Philip A; Rasouli, Neda

    2015-05-01

    The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians. However, there are conflicting data on TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of IR in African Americans. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower TG levels and increased insulin levels despite a greater risk for diabetes. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is predictive of IR and/or β-cell function in African American (AA) women. Non-diabetic AA women (n = 41) with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were measured using minimal model and β-cell function was determined by disposition index (DI = S I*AIRg). IR was defined as the lowest tertile of SI ( 0.70 was defined as significant discrimination. The mean (± SD) age was 38.5 ± 11.3 years, with BMI of 33.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose of 86.5 ± 10.5 mg/dL. The AUC-ROC for the prediction of DI HDL-C ratio was associated with decreased DI. However, the AUC-ROC for prediction of IR or low AIRg (HDL-C ratio is a poor predictor of IR in AA women. However, we did show an inverse association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and β-cell function, suggesting that this simple tool may effectively identify AA women at risk for DM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Waist circumference is better associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL-c than with body mass index (BMI in adults with metabolic syndrome Circunferencia de la cintura es mejor asociado con lipoproteínas de alta densidad (LAD-C que con el índice de masa corporal (IMC en adultos con síndrome metabólico

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    S. T. Arimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement of waist circumference (WC is the most prevalent cause of the metabolic syndrome (MS. Objective: The aim of this study was to correlate WC and BMI with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c levels in patients with MS being consulted by the Family Health Program (PSF, Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September to November 2008 with 42 patients (29 women and 13 men from 35 to 77 years. Dietary intake was reported, and biochemical and body composition measures were taken. Results: The HDL-c levels were higher in women when compared to men (48.4 ± 8.1 mg/dL vs. 36.4 ± 7.8 mg/dL. However, the triglycerides (TG/HDL-c ratio and TG concentrations were lower in women (3.8 ± 1.5 and 178.0 ± 57.8 mg/dL, respectively than in men (9.4 ± 8.5 and 471.5 ± 501.5 mg/dL, respectively. Regarding skinfold profile, the triceps was greater in females (37.0 ± 8.4 cm vs. 20.7 ± 10.5 cm. The dietetic profile showed that women had a lower intake of energy, fiber, phosphorus and sodium. The fruits and vegetables intake was diminished in the participants of this study, as less than 60% of the women and 50% of men met the daily recommendations. Approximately 54% of men and 28% of women had a lower intake of dairy products daily. Moreover, the results shows that the WC was negatively correlated to HDL-c (r = -0.41, p 0.06. Conclusion: Our findings showed that WC is a better predictor of changes in HDL-c than BMI.Antecedentes: La medición de la circunferencia de la cintura (CC es la causa más prevalente del síndrome metabólico (SM. Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio fue correlacionar la CC y el IMC con las concentraciones de lipoproteínas de densidad elevada (HDL-c en pacientes con SM vistos en consulta del Programa de salud familiar (PSF, de Brasil. Métodos: Este estudio trasversal se realizó entre septiembre y noviembre de 2008 en 42 pacientes (29 mujeres y 13 hombres de 35 a 77 años. Se registró la

  7. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

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    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  8. Patient-Level Discordance in Population Percentiles of the TC/HDL-C Ratio Compared with LDL-C and Non-HDL-C: The Very Large Database of Lipids Study (VLDL-2B)

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    Elshazly, Mohamed B.; Quispe, Renato; Michos, Erin D.; Sniderman, Allan D.; Toth, Peter P.; Banach, Maciej; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R.; Coresh, Josef; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Jones, Steven R.; Martin, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, estimated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-HDL-C are routinely available from the standard lipid profile. We aimed to assess the extent of patient-level discordance of TC/HDL-C with LDL-C and non-HDL-C because discordance suggests the possibility of additional information. Methods and Results We compared population percentiles of TC/HDL-C, Friedewald-estimated LDL-C, and non-HDL-C in 1,310,432 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids. Lipid testing was performed by ultracentrifugation (VAP, Atherotech, AL). One in three patients had ≥25 percentile units discordance between TC/HDL-C and LDL-C while one in four had ≥25 percentile units discordance between TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C. The proportion of patients with TC/HDL-C > LDL-C by ≥25 percentile units increased from 3% at triglycerides HDL-C > non-HDL-C discordance by ≥25 percentile units increased from 6% to 21%. In those with HDL-C (HDL-C of 2.6. Age, sex, and directly measured components of the standard lipid profile explained >86% of the variance in percentile discordance between TC/HDL-C vs. LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Conclusions In this contemporary, cross-sectional, big data analysis of U.S. adults who underwent advanced lipid testing, the extent of patient-level discordance suggests that TC/HDL-C may offer potential additional information to LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Future studies are required to determine the clinical implications of this observation. Clinical Trial Registration Information www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01698489. PMID:26137953

  9. Changes in triglyceride, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

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    Koncsos, Péter; Fülöp, Péter; Juhász, Imre; Bíró, Klára; Márk, László; Simonyi, Gábor; Paragh, György

    2016-12-01

    Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels have been linked to residual cardiovascular risk, whereas non-HDL-C levels have been shown to be more predictive of cardiovascular risk than are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We aimed to investigate the impact of HDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C levels on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) risk with on-target LDL-C levels. In all, 424 Caucasian patients aged over 50 years who had LDL-C levels below 3.4 mmol/l with a first or subsequent ACS event were enrolled in a multicenter, retrospective study. Lipid samples were collected within 4 days after the cardiovascular event. The subjects of the age-matched, gender-balanced control group (n = 443) had LDL-C levels below 3.4 mmol/l and were free of cardiovascular diseases. Patients with ACS had significantly higher TG and lower HDL-C levels compared with the control patients; however, we did not find any significant difference regarding non-HDL-C levels between the two groups. In regression analysis, the risk of coronary heart disease increased significantly with 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in TG and 1 SD decrease in HDL-C levels. High TG and low HDL-C levels may contribute to residual cardiovascular risk in patients with well-controlled LDL-C levels; however, non-HDL-C levels at admission did not seem to be predictive for patients with ACS. Detection and treatment of secondary lipid targets such as high TG and low HDL-C levels may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Epidemiological reference ranges for low-density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is recommended for subjects .... with this differential precipitation method for LDL-C in non- fasting subjects did not ..... Henderson LO er al. Phase V Preliminary Repor!

  11. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and Apolipoprotein B and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Manifest Arterial Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M Johanneke; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Borst, Gert Jan; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) only partly represents the atherogenic lipid burden, and a growing body of evidence suggests that non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) are more accurate in estimating lipid-related cardiovascular

  12. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

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    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  13. Should we change our lipid management strategies to focus on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Rana; S.M. Boekholdt

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, patients continue to be at significant risk of cardiovascular events. Assessment of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) provides a measure of cholesterol contained in all atherogenic particles. In the

  14. Obesity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in black and white 9- and 10-year-old girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective agai

  15. Obesity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in black and white 9- and 10-year-old girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective agai

  16. Effects of lifestyle interventions on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

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    Roussell, Michael A; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2007-03-01

    This review summarizes intervention studies that evaluated the effects of lifestyle behaviors on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Current diet and lifestyle recommendations beneficially affect HDL-C. Individual lifestyle interventions that increase HDL-C include: a healthful diet that is low (7-10% of calories) in saturated fat and sufficient in unsaturated fat (15-20% of calories), regular physical activity, attaining a healthy weight, with moderate alcohol consumption, and cessation of cigarette smoking. Combining a healthy diet with weight loss and physical activity can increase HDL-C 10% to 13%. When combined with interventions that beneficially affect other cardiovascular disease risk factors, this increase in HDL-C is expected to contribute to a overall reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.

  17. Risk of coronary heart disease is associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men.

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    Abdel-Maksoud, Madiha F; Eckel, Robert H; Hamman, Richard F; Hokanson, John E

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiologic interrelationships between triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are not fully understood, studies typically are adjusted for one when one is examining the role of the other. If the mechanism of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is mediated through the other, then controlling for the second factor may mask the true effect of the first. We investigated the relationship between the combined effect of increased (↑) TG and decreased (↓) HDL-C compared with isolated ↑TG or isolated ↓HDL-C on CHD risk in men and women and compared these TG/HDL-C categories to non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C). Subjects (936 women and 746 men) from the San Luis Valley Study were grouped on the basis of 4 sex-specific NCEP-ATP III cutpoints (↑TG ≥150 mg/dL, and ↓HDL-C, 50 and >40 mg/dL for women and men, respectively). Non-HDL-C was analyzed as a continuous variable. Among women, all groups had greater risk of CHD compared with the ↓TG/↑HDL-C reference in univariate analysis: ↓TG/↓HDL-C HR = 2.82 [95% confidence interval 1.12-7.1], ↑TG/↑HDL-C HR = 3.82 [1.50-9.74], ↑TG/↓HDL-C HR= 4.32 [1.91-9.80]. The risk remained significant in the ↓TG/↓HDL-C group (HR= 3.27 [1.26-8.50] and marginally significant in other groups in multivariable analysis. Neither ↑TG nor ↓HDL-C was related to CHD risk in men. Non-HDL cholesterol was significantly related to CHD in men but not in women. The CHD risk associated with ↓HDL-C in women was >2- to 4-fold elevated depending on TG levels. Non-HDL cholesterol was a significant predictor of CHD in men. Examining the combined effects of risk factors that share physiologic pathways may reveal important associations that can be otherwise obscured. Further dissection of gender specific pathways that affect HDL-C and TG and non-HDL cholesterol are important in understanding CHD risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Jasmine G.; O’Dea, Kerin; Karen Z Walker

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors...

  19. Triglycerides and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio are strong predictors of incident hypertension in Middle Eastern women.

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    Tohidi, M; Hatami, M; Hadaegh, F; Azizi, F

    2012-09-01

    Dyslipidemia has been reported as a risk factor for incident hypertension in a few prospective studies, however, no study has specifically assessed different lipid measures including the lipid ratios, that is, total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs)/HDL-C as predictors of hypertension among Middle Eastern women with high prevalences of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The study population consisted of 2831 non-hypertensive women, aged ≥ 20 years. We measured lipoproteins, and calculated non-HDL-C and the lipid ratios. The risk-factor-adjusted odds ratios for incident hypertension were calculated for every 1 standard deviation (s.d.) change in TC, log-transformed TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Over a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 397 women developed hypertension. An increase of 1 s.d. in TG, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C increased the risk of incident hypertension by 16, 19 and 18%, respectively, and 1 s.d. increase in HDL-C decreased the risk of hypertension by 14% in the multivariable model (all P ≤ 0.05). In models excluding women with diabetes and central or general obesity, TG, TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C remained as independent predictors of incident hypertension. In conclusion, dyslipidemia, using serum TG and TG/HDL-C, in particular, may be useful in identification of women at risk of hypertension, even in those without diabetes and central or general obesity.

  20. High density lipoprotein cholesterol: an evolving target of therapy in the management of cardiovascular disease

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    Navin K Kapur

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Navin K Kapur, Dominique Ashen, Roger S BlumenthalDivision of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Since the pioneering work of John Gofman in the 1950s, our understanding of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and its relationship to coronary heart disease (CHD has grown substantially. Numerous clinical trials since the Framingham Study in 1977 have demonstrated an inverse relationship between HDL-C and one’s risk of developing CHD. Over the past two decades, preclinical research has gained further insight into the nature of HDL-C metabolism, specifically regarding the ability of HDL-C to promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. Recent attempts to harness HDL’s ability to enhance RCT have revealed the complexity of HDL-C metabolism. This review provides a detailed update on HDL-C as an evolving therapeutic target in the management of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, coronary, atherosclerosis, reverse cholesterol transport

  1. Lipid regulation in lipodystrophy versus the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome: the dissociation of HDL-C and triglycerides.

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    Joseph, Jalaja; Shamburek, Robert D; Cochran, Elaine K; Gorden, Phillip; Brown, Rebecca J

    2014-09-01

    There is an inverse relationship between triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in insulin resistance, such that improvement in insulin resistance decreases triglycerides and increases HDL-C. Patients with lipodystrophy have extreme insulin resistance with high triglycerides and low HDL-C. Leptin replacement in lipodystrophy leads to a marked decrease in triglycerides (∼60%). Our objective was to study the effects of metreleptin on triglycerides and HDL-C in lipodystrophy in contrast to changes in triglycerides and HDL-C in interventions for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. This open-label nonrandomized study at the National Institutes of Health included 82 patients with various forms of lipodystrophy. Metreleptin (0.06-0.24 mg/kg/d) was administered for 24 months in lipodystrophy. Serum triglycerides and HDL-C were measured. At baseline, lipodystrophy patients had low HDL-C (30 ± 1 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (961 ± 220 mg/dL) with an inverse relationship between the two (R = -0.37, P = .0006). There was no change in HDL-C with metreleptin despite major improvement in triglycerides, and individual changes in triglycerides only weakly predicted HDL-C change. On linear regression, in obesity, a decrease of 0.1 mg/dL in log(triglycerides) was associated with a 4.2 mg/dL rise in HDL-C, whereas in lipodystrophy, a decrease of 0.1 mg/dL in log(triglycerides) was associated with only a 0.6 mg/dL rise in HDL-C. The normal reciprocal relationship between triglyceride and HDL-C change seen in response to interventions for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome is quantitatively different from that seen in lipodystrophy in response to metreleptin. Further work is needed to understand HDL-C regulation in this condition.

  2. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

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    Subedi BH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  3. Serum TC/HDL-C,TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in predicting the risk of myocardial infarction in normolipidae-mic patients in South Asia:A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar; Ramiah Sivakanesan

    2008-01-01

    Dyslipidemia the major cause of atherosclerosis are suggested to act synergistically with non-lipid risk factors to increase atherogenesis.Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)is the main therapeutic target in the pre-vention of CVD.Increased triglycerides (TG)and decreased high-density lipoprotein (LDL-C)are considered to be a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistant and metabolic syndrome.Although the TG/HDL-C ratio has been used in recent studies as a clinical indicator for insulin resistance,results were inconsis-tent.The TG/HDL-C ratio is also widely used to assess the lipid atherogenesis.How ever the utility of this rate for predicting coronary heart disease (CHD)risk is not clear.We encountered myocardial infarct patients with normal serum lipid concentration so this study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of these lipid ratios in predicting CHD risk in normolipidemic AMI patients and to compare the results with healthy subjects.The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum TC/HDL-C,TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in myocardial infarct subjects with normal lipid profile.To study this,lipid profile was determined in 165 normolipidemic acute myo-cardial infarction patients and 165 age/sex-matched controls.Total cholesterol,triglycerides,and HDL-cho-lesterol were analyzed enzymatically using kits obtained from Randox Laboratories Limited,Crumlin,UK. Plasma LDL-cholesterol was determined from the values of total cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol using the friedwalds formula.The values were expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD)and data from patients and controls was compared using students't'-test.The results and conclusion of the study were:Total cholester-ol,TC:HDL-C ratio,triglycerides,LDL-cholesterol,LDL:HDL-C ratio were higher in MI patients (p<0. 001).HDL-C concentration was significantly lower in MI patients than controls (p<0.001).Higher ratio of TC/HDL-C,TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C was observed in AMI patients compared

  4. Association between moderately oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclass distribution in hemodialyzed and post-renal transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El(z)bieta KIMAK; Magdalena HA(L)ABI(S); Iwona BARANOWICZ-GA SZCZYK; Janusz SOLSKI; Andrzej KSIA(Z)EK

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle,oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy.HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (apoA-Ⅰ) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C,apoA-Ⅰ/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-Ⅰ, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman's rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=-0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=-0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=-0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre

  5. Association between moderately oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclass distribution in hemodialyzed and post-renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimak, Elżbieta; Hałabiś, Magdalena; Baranowicz-Gąszczyk, Iwona; Solski, Janusz; Książek, Andrzej

    2011-05-01

    Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy. HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C, apoA-I/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman's rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=-0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=-0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=-0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre-β-HDL particles

  6. Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Cardiovascular Events in Diabetics With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hua; Du, Ying; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Dong, Qian; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that an elevated ratio of triglycerides (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is also found to be associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the general population. However, its prognostic value in patients with T2DM along with CAD remains to be determined. A total of 1,447 consecutive patients with T2DM with angiographic-proven stable CAD were enrolled in the present study and followed-up for an average of 20.3 months. The characteristics of all patients including fasting lipid profile were obtained at baseline and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed using log TG/HDL-C as a predictor variable. The relationships between CVEs and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and apolipoprotein B/ apolipoprotein AI (apoB/apoAI) were also explored. Compared with patients without CVEs, the ones who experienced CVEs had a higher TG/HDL-C ratio. Univariable regression revealed a significant association of log TG/HDL-C with CVEs (hazard ratio = 2.5, P = 0.015). After adjusting for multiple traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease, the association was still found (hazard ratio = 2.47, P = 0.047). Moreover, results suggested that the ratios of non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and apoB/apoAI were not predictors for CVEs in T2DM. In our primary study, data suggested that elevated TG/HDL-C value might be a useful predictor for future CVEs in Chinese patients with T2DM with stable CAD. Further study is needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New insights into the mechanism of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dao-Quan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, a significant risk factor for various chronic diseases, is universally related to dyslipidemia mainly represented by decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, which plays an indispensible role in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity and low HDL-C have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have focused on the alteration of HDL catabolism in circulation following elevated triglyceride (TG. But recent findings suggested that liver and fat tissue played pivotal role in obesity related low HDL-C. Some new molecular pathways like microRNA have also been proposed in the regulation of HDL metabolism in obesity. This article will review recent advances in understanding of the potential mechanism of low HDL-C in obesity.

  8. Drugs targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary artery disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Pamela M; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Many patients remain at high risk for future cardiovascular events despite levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at, or below, target while taking statin therapy. Much effort is therefore being focused on strategies to reduce this residual risk. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong, independent, inverse predictor of coronary heart disease risk and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target. Currently available agents that raise HDL-C have only modest effects and there is limited evidence of additional cardiovascular risk reduction on top of background statin therapy associated with their use. It was hoped that the use of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors would provide additional benefit, but the results of clinical outcome studies to date have been disappointing. The results of ongoing trials with other CETP inhibitors that raise HDL-C to a greater degree and also lower LDL-C, as well as with other emerging therapies are awaited.

  9. High-density lipoproteins and coronary artery disease: a single-center cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffer, A.; Verdoia, M.; Barbieri, L.; Aprami, T.M.; Suryapranata, H.; Marino, P.; Luca, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to estimate the role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in predicting the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in 3280 patients undergoing coronary angiography. Predictors of lower HDL levels (<32 mg/dL) were male gender (P < .001), diabetes mellitus

  10. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diet in a healthy elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, P L; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J S; Hooper, E M; Leonard, A G

    1982-01-01

    This study examined how high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) correlated with a 3-day food record of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol consumption in a group of 270 healthy subjects over age 60. HDL-C concentrations correlated with alcohol consumption (expressed as grams/day) (r = + .25, P less than .001), and inversely with total carbohydrate (r = - .18, P less than .01) and refined carbohydrate (r = - .17, P less than .01) ingestion (expressed as a percent of total caloric intake). Subjects consuming diets low in either total carbohydrate or refined carbohydrate had 10 to 20% higher HDL-C levels than did those consuming diets high in these food substances. The relationships between HDL-C levels and alcohol and carbohydrate ingestion were independent of other variables which correlated with HDL-C levels. Dietary fat (total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol) did not correlate with HDL-C. LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with any dietary variable measured.

  11. Non-HDL-C is a Better Predictor for the Severity of Coronary Atherosclerosis Compared with LDL-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Na-Qiong; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Li, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Qian; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Recent guidelines recommended both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are the primary target of lipid modulating therapy. However, which lipid measure is most closely related to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis has not yet been assessed. We studied 1757 consecutive subjects undergoing coronary angiography who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was measured directly, and non-HDL-C was calculated. The severity of coronary stenosis was determined using the Gensini Score (GS) system. In the overall population, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were all dramatically increased according to the quartiles of GS (pHDL-C (r=0.138, pHDL-C (OR=1.326, 95% CI 1.165-1.508, pHDL-C could not provide extra value in predicting high GS (OR=0.759, 95% CI 0.480-1.201). However, among patients with LDL-C greater than or equal to the median, the cardiovascular risk was overestimated for patients with discordant non-HDL-C (OR=0.458, 95% CI 0.285-0.736). Our data support the use of non-HDL-C ahead of LDL-C in predicting the severity of coronary atherosclerosis, especially among patients with LDL-C greater than or equal to the median. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an update on the role of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (triglyceride/HDL-C) ratio in the setting of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and are commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C and presence of small, dense low-dense lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Mounting evidence suggests that the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio is a marker of insulin resistance, although this relationship might vary as a function of ethnicity and sex. The triglyceride/HDL-C ratio has also been shown to correlate with other atherogenic lipid measurements, such as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, remnant cholesterol and small dense LDL particles. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio associates with cardiovascular risk, mainly because of its association with insulin resistance. Finally, triglyceride/HDL-C can also be a marker of glycemic control, especially in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The triglyceride/HDL-C integrates information on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, insulin resistance and glycemic control. Future studies may better define its specific clinical role.

  13. Alcohol intake and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in men with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    The triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been proposed to be a good predictor of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol consumption and TG/HDL-C ratio in patients with hypertension is unknown. Subjects were normotensive and hypertensive men aged 35-60 years who were divided by daily ethanol intake into non-, light (<22g/day), heavy (≥22 but <44g/day), and very heavy (≥44g/day) drinkers. The TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group. Both in the normotensive and hypertensive groups, TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was lowest in light drinkers. In the hypertensive group, odds ratios (ORs) for high TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.75) in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than a reference level of 1.00 (light drinkers: OR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.59; heavy drinkers: OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.52-0.67; very heavy drinkers: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.61-0.80) and were significantly lower than the corresponding ORs in the normotensive group. The ORs for hypertension in subjects with vs. subjects without high TG/HDL-C ratio were significantly higher than the reference level in all the alcohol groups and were significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The results suggest that there is an inverted J-shaped relationship between alcohol and TG/HDL-C ratio in individuals with hypertension and that alcohol weakens the positive association between TG/HDL-C ratio and hypertension.

  14. Distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in Lebanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Farah, Vanessa; Chahine, Elise; Balech, Nicole; Ibrahim, Toni; Asmar, Nadia; Barakett-Hamadé, Vanda; Jambart, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidelmia in pediatric Middle-Eastern populations is unknown. Our study aims to investigate the distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides among Lebanese school children. A total of 969 subjects aged 8-18 years were included in the study (505 boys and 464 girls). Recruitment was done from 10 schools located in the Great Beirut and Mount-Lebanon areas. Non-fasting total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. Schools were categorized into 3 socioeconomic statuses (SESs; low, middle, and high). In the overall population, the prevalence of high non-HDL-C (>3.8 mmol/L), very high non-HDL-C (>4.9 mmol/L), and high triglycerides (>1.5 mmol/l) are respectively 9.2%, 1.24%, and 26.6%. There is no significant gender difference for non-HDL-C or triglycerides. Non-HDL-C and triglycerides are inversely correlated with age in girls (P triglycerides are higher in children from lower SES schools. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), testosterone is inversely associated with triglycerides in boys (P triglycerides are independently associated with BMI and schools' SES in both girls and boys. This study confirms, in our population, the association between obesity and both high non-HDL-C and triglycerides, and between high triglycerides and low SES. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Implication of low HDL-c levels in patients with average LDL-c levels: a focus on oxidized LDL, large HDL subpopulation, and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Marado, Daniela; Palavra, Filipe; Pinto, Rui; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) on patients with LDL-c average levels, focusing on oxidative, lipidic, and inflammatory profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) and control subjects (n = 73) were divided into 2 subgroups, one of normal HDL-c and the other of low HDL-c levels. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized LDL, total HDL-c and subpopulations (small, intermediate, and large), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF- α , adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. In the control subgroup with low HDL-c levels, significantly higher values of BP and TGs and lower values of PON1 activity and adiponectin were found, versus control normal HDL-c subgroup. However, differences in patients' subgroups were clearly more pronounced. Indeed, low HDL-c subgroup presented increased HbA1c, TGs, non-HDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, VEGF, and small HDL-c and reduced adiponectin and large HDL. In addition, Ox-LDL, large-HDL-c, and adiponectin presented interesting correlations with classical and nonclassical markers, mainly in the normal HDL-c patients' subgroup. In conclusion, despite LDL-c average levels, low HDL-c concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, which is better evidenced by traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including Ox-LDL, large HDL-c, and adiponectin.

  16. Association between discordance of LDL-C and non-HDL-C and clinical outcomes in patients with stent implantation: from the FU-Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiiba, Michiyo; Zhang, Bo; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Ike, Amane; Nose, Daisuke; Kuwano, Takashi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Sugihara, Makoto; Iwata, Atushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Akira; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-08-16

    It is not yet clear whether the discordance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) predicts the follow-up clinical outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events: MACEs) in patients with coronary stent implantation. Among 2015 patients with coronary stent implantation (Fukuoka University [FU]-Registry), excluding those with acute coronary syndrome or hemodialysis, we selected 801 patients who had undergone successful stent implantation with a follow-up until 18 months, and classified them into 3 groups according to baseline LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels [percentile(P)non-HDL-C more than (P)LDL-C, (P)non-HDL-C equal to (P)LDL-C, and (P)non-HDL-C less than (P) LDL-C]. We found that the discordance of (P)LDL-C and (P)non-HDL-C was not a significant predictor of MACEs. Higher LDL-C level was consistently and independently associated with higher incidences of MACEs after controlling for conventional risk factors and the type of stent used by multivariate Cox regression analyses. In conclusion, LDL-C levels are more important than non-HDL-C levels and the discordance of LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels as predictors of MACEs in patients with stable angina after stent implantation.

  17. NMR-Based Lipid Profiling of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Healthy Subjects with Low, Normal, and Elevated HDL-Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostara, Christina E; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2017-04-07

    Recent studies suggest that the cholesterol content of HDL (high density lipoproteins) may provide limited information on their antiatherogenic properties and that the composition and particles' structure provide more information on their functionality. We used NMR-based (nuclear magnetic resonance-based) lipidomics to study the relationships of serum HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol) levels with the lipid composition of HDL particles in three groups of subjects selected on the basis of their HDL-C levels. Subjects with low and high HDL-C levels exhibited differences in HDL lipidome compared to those with normal HDL-C levels. In pattern recognition analysis, the discrimination power among all groups was of high significance. The low HDL-C group presented enrichment of the core in triglycerides and depletion in cholesterol esters, whereas the high HDL-C group showed a decrease in triglycerides content. Additionally, as HDL-C increases, all lipid classes are esterified with higher percentage of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. In addition to the aforementioned differences, the surface layer is enriched in sphingomyelin and free cholesterol in the high HDL-C level group. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of HDL can be particularly useful since it provides insights into molecular features and helps in the characterization of the atheroprotective function of HDL lipoproteins and in the identification of novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

  18. Association between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yuying; Xu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Huihong; Liu, Liping; Tian, Zhiyan

    2016-08-26

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) could be a good predictor of vascular disease outcomes. To evaluate the association between serum non-HDL-C and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 725 hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They received conventional treatment. Cognitive function was assessed on the 3rd day after admission using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, and Hamilton depression rating scale 21-item (HAMD-21). Lipid profile and biochemical markers were measured, and non-HDL-C was calculated. Compared with patients with normal non-HDL-C, those with high non-HDL-C showed lower MMSE (23.1 ± 4.9 vs. 26.0 ± 4.6, P acute ischemic stroke (P = 0.034, odds ratio = 3.115, 95 % confidence interval: 1.088-8.917). High serum non-HDL-C levels, age, education, homocysteine levels, and HAMD score were independent risk factors of cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The risk of cognitive disorders after acute ischemic stroke increased with increasing non-HDL-C levels. This parameter is easy to assess in the clinical setting.

  19. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre;

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...

  20. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  1. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; Descamps, Olivier S; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ray, Kausik K; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F

    2011-06-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal.

  2. Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein: An Innovative Target for Proteomics and Lipidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Salazar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C is regarded as an important protective factor against cardiovascular disease, with abundant evidence of an inverse relationship between its serum levels and risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as various antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, observations of hereditary syndromes featuring scant HDL-C concentration in absence of premature atherosclerotic disease suggest HDL-C levels may not be the best predictor of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, the beneficial effects of HDL may not depend solely on their concentration, but also on their quality. Distinct subfractions of this lipoprotein appear to be constituted by specific protein-lipid conglomerates necessary for different physiologic and pathophysiologic functions. However, in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment, diverse components of the HDL proteome and lipid core suffer alterations, which propel a shift towards a dysfunctional state, where HDL-C becomes proatherogenic, prooxidant, and proinflammatory. This heterogeneity highlights the need for further specialized molecular studies in this aspect, in order to achieve a better understanding of this dysfunctional state; with an emphasis on the potential role for proteomics and lipidomics as valuable methods in the search of novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular disease.

  3. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  4. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  5. Fasting serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients intended to be treated for dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovefa D Kolovou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genovefa D Kolovou1, Katherine Anagnostopoulou1, Nektarios D Pilatis1, Klelia D Salpea1, Ioannis S Hoursalas1, Ilias Petropoulos1, Helen I Bilianou2, Dennis V Cokkinos11Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece; 2Cardiology Department, Tzanio State Hospital, Piraeus, GreeceObjective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of serum triglycerides (TG on other plasma lipids in patients to be treated for dyslipidemia.Methodology: Lipid profiles of a cohort of 801 patients (487 males and 314 females aged 57 ± 9 years (mean ± SD were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to their plasma lipid levels. They were divided into various groups on the basis of serum TG (≥ 150 or < 150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (≥ 40 or < 40 mg/dL.Results: Patients with TG ≥ 150 mg/dL had a higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C levels compared with those with TG < 150 mg/dL, (p < 0.001. Patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dL had a lower serum total cholesterol and higher TG compared with those with HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively. In all patients as well as in the subgroups, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C was found (r = –0.377, p < 0.001.Conclusions: Although, the metabolic pathway for TG and HDL-C is closely linked, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C levels seems to exist in the entire sampled population. This correlation also appears to persist in fasting patients with low levels of TG.Keywords: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dyslipidemia

  6. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  7. Prevalence of High Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Jilin Province, China: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Zhen, Qing; Li, Yong; Kou, Chang Gui; Tao, Yu Chun; Wang, Chang; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Lu, Yu Ping; Yu, Ming Xi; Zhang, Hui Ping; Yu, Ya Qin; Li, Bo; Liu, Ya Wen

    2016-07-01

    Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in patients with diabetes, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is a better predictor of CVDs than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the distribution of non-HDL-C and the prevalence of high non-HDL-C level in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus and identify the associated risk factors. Non-HDL-C concentration positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C concentrations. Although both non-HDL-C and LDL-C concentration both related positively with TC concentration, the magnitude of correlation was relatively higher for non-HDL-C. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C (⋝4.14 mmol/L) was higher in two age groups (55-64 years: 46.7%; 65-79 years: 47.3%) than other age groups (18-24 years: 4.2%; 25-34 years: 43.6%; 35-44 years: 38.1%; 45-54 years: 41.0%). It was also higher among overweight (45.1%), generally obese (50.9%), or abdominally obese (47.3%) subjects, compared with normal weight subjects (34.5%). The risk of high non-HDL-C increased with advancing age. Both general obesity [odds ratio (OR)=1.488, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.003-2.209] and abdominal obesity (OR=1.561, 95% CI: 1.101-2.214) were significantly associated with high non-HDL-C levels. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  9. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shoujiang; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Jiaping; Han, Qiao; Zhang, Xia; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Yanlin; Shi, Jijun; Huang, Zhichao; Xiao, Guodong; Zhang, Chunyuan; Cao, Yongjun; Liu, Chunfeng

    2016-10-01

    The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio has been recognized as a strong risk predictor of cardiovascular diseases. However, the association between the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and the prognosis of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is unclear. Thus, we prospectively investigated whether a low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could predict all-cause mortality and whether LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is superior to traditional lipid profiles in predicting mortality among Chinese patients with acute ICH. A prospective cohort study of 356 patients with acute ICH was conducted, and the mean follow-up time point was 80.4 days. Participants were divided into four categories based on LDL-C/HDL-C ratio quartiles. Three-month outcomes were evaluated by in-person or telephone interviews with patients or their family members. The end point was three-month mortality from all causes. Forty-seven deaths from all causes were documented. The multivariate analysis found that LDL-C/HDL-C ratio [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, p = 0.008] and LDL-C (HR = 0.27, p = 0.044) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The Kaplan-Meier curves show that patients in the lowest quartiles had the highest cumulative incidence rates (log-rank p = 0.027). After adjusting for covariates, a low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was associated with a 3.55-fold increase in the risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 3.55 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-12.14]; P-trend = 0.011) when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. The C-statistic of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was significantly larger than other traditional lipid profiles (all p HDL-C ratio was independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality at three months in patients with ICH. Moreover, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio appeared to be a best lipid predictor of all-cause mortality than traditional lipid profiles.

  10. Increasing HDL-C levels with medication: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Roelof Aj; Jukema, J Wouter; Trompet, Stella

    2017-08-01

    To date, observational studies have repeatedly demonstrated an inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Although the efficacy of established HDL-modifying treatment strategies have been examined in multiple large-scale phase III trials, findings from these experimental studies conflict with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels are atheroprotective. In this review, we describe the trial evidence to date, and attempt to place these results in the broader context of recent hypotheses for the association between HDL-C levels and clinical outcomes. Both translational and genetic studies are in line with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels do not hold causal importance for cardiovascular risk reduction. In addition to its possible role as a biomarker for other atherogenic lipoproteins, efforts should be made to elucidate HDLs' role in lipoprotein flux, which is increasingly being linked to surrogate outcomes of importance to cardiovascular epidemiology. In the future, it will be of great importance to link this measure of HDL functionality to clinical endpoints. Although trial evidence does not support an atheroprotective role of overall HDL-C plasma levels, HDL function/lipoprotein flux holds great promise for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  11. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2016-10-05

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  12. A Splice Region Variant in LDLR Lowers Non-high Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Protects against Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Helgason, Hannes; Helgadottir, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Through high coverage whole-genome sequencing and imputation of the identified variants into a large fraction of the Icelandic population, we found four independent signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) that associate with levels of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (...... that disrupt the LDL receptor can lower non-HDL-C and protect against CAD....... (non-HDL-C) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Two signals are novel with respect to association with non-HDL-C and are represented by non-coding low frequency variants (between 2-4% frequency), the splice region variant rs72658867-A in intron 14 and rs17248748-T in intron one. These two novel...... associations were replicated in three additional populations. Both variants lower non-HDL-C levels (rs72658867-A, non-HDL-C effect = -0.44 mmol/l, Padj = 1.1 × 10⁻⁸⁰ and rs17248748-T, non-HDL-C effect = -0.13 mmol/l, Padj = 1.3 × 10⁻¹²) and confer protection against CAD (rs72658867-A, OR = 0.76 and Padj = 2...

  13. Common variants in the genes of triglyceride and HDL-C metabolism lack association with coronary artery disease in the Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Saleem Ullah; Shabana, N A; Cooper, Jackie A; Rehman, Abdul; Humphries, Steve E

    2017-01-31

    Serum Triglyceride (TG) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels are modifiable coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Polymorphisms in the genes regulating TG and HDL-C levels contribute to the development of CAD. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of four such single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the genes for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) (rs328, rs1801177), Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) (rs66279) and Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (rs708272) on HDL-C and TG levels and to examine the association of these SNPs with CAD risk. A total of 640 subjects (415 cases, 225 controls) were enrolled in the study. The SNPs were genotyped by KASPar allelic discrimination technique. Serum HDL-C and TG were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The population under study was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium and minor allele of SNP rs1801177 was completely absent in the studied subjects. The SNPs were association with TG and HDL-C levels was checked through regression analysis. For rs328, the effect size of each risk allele on TG and HDL-C (mmol/l) was 0.16(0.08) and -0.11(0.05) respectively. Similarly, the effect size of rs662799 for TG and HDL-C was 0.12(0.06) and -0.13(0.0.3) and that of rs708272 was 0.08(0.04) and 0.1(0.03) respectively. The risk allele frequencies of the SNPs were higher in cases than controls, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05) and SNPs were not associated with CAD risk (p > 0.05). The combined gene score of four SNPs significantly raised TG and lowered HDL-C but did not increase CAD risk. The studied SNPs were associated with TG and HDL-C levels, but not with CAD in Pakistani population under study.

  14. Alpinia zerumbet potentially elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Jing; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Er; Yu, Tung-Hsi; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-06-25

    In folkloric plant medicines, Alpinia zerumbet (AZ) has been popularly recognized as an exellent hepatoprotector. To search for a good high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) elevating herbal preparation, we examined AZ for its antioxidant and hypolipidaemic bioactivities, especially its HDL-C elevating activity. AZ seeds contain 0.51% essential oils (SO), which are comprised of monoterpenoids, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, acid, and esters. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were recoverable in pentane eluent, whilst the oxygenated monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids remained in ether eluent. The high contents of rutin, quercetin, and polyphenolics in ethanolic extract of AZ seeds exhibit moderate antilipoperoxidative but potent DPPH free radical scavenging bioactivities. Conclusively, both seed powder (SP) and SO are effective hypolipidaemics with amazingly potent HDL-C elevating capabilities. On the basis of hepatoprotectivity, SP is a more feasible hypolipidemic agent as well as a promising HDL-C elevating plant medicine.

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease severity is associated with the ratios of total cholesterol and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Ta; Kuo, Po-Lin; Su, Shih-Bin; Chen, Yi-Yu; Yeh, Ming-Lum; Huang, Ching-I; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Chia-I; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Wen-Yi; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Hsien-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Limited data support the notion that lipid ratios are risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between lipid ratios and NAFLD. This was a large population, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Data on NAFLD severity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were obtained from 44,767 examinees at single health checkup center. The enrollees were stratified into four subgroups based on their TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios. We used multivariate analyses to evaluate the odds between lipid ratios and NAFLD. The prevalence rate of fatty liver in this study was 53.76%. In the baseline subgroup with the lowest TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios, the prevalence of NAFLD, hypertension, and diabetes was lower than that of the other three subgroups. Patients with higher lipid ratios had a significantly greater risk for advanced NAFLD. Adults with high TC/HDL-C or TG/HDL-C ratios, or both, have a greater risk for NAFLD, especially advanced NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs;

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL......-C), trigylcerides, or lipid ratios, and how they compare with on-treatment LDL-C....

  17. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol target achievement in patients on lipid-lowering drugs and stratified by triglyceride levels in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohammed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Shehab, Abdullah; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in the Arabian Gulf. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) reduction has been proposed as an additional goal to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Data on non-HDL-C goal attainment in patients with high triglycerides (TGs) on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in the region is scarce. Evaluate non-HDL-C target attainment according to the National Lipid Association in patients on LLDs stratified by TG (200 [2.26] mg/dL [mmol/L]) levels in the Arabian Gulf. Overall, 4383 patients on LLD treatment from 6 Middle Eastern countries participating in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia study were evaluated. Patients were classified according to TG levels and ASCVD risk. The overall non-HDL-C goal attainment was 41% of the subjects. Non-HDL-C goal was less likely attained in patients with high TGs (12% vs 27% vs 55%; P < .001). Very high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs attained less their non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TG levels (8% vs 23% vs 51%; P < .001). Similarly, high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs also failed more in attaining non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TGs (26% vs 42% vs 69%; P < .001). In addition, those with high TG also succeeded less in attaining LDL-C and apolipoprotein B goals (P < .001). A large proportion of very high and high ASCVD patients on LLDs in the Arabian Gulf are not at recommended non-HDL-C targets and hence remain at a substantial residual risk. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low HDL-C level is associated with the development of intracranial artery stenosis: analysis from the Chinese IntraCranial AtheroSclerosis (CICAS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yining Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS is an important cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. The role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in the development of ICAS remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the relationship of HDL-C level and the risk of developing ICAS in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: From October 2007 to June 2009, a total of 1,984 consecutive ischemic stroke patients were evaluated for the presence of symptomatic ICAS by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Patients were classified into two groups: intracranial steno-occlusion (ICAS group, n = 888 and non-intracranial stenosis (NICAS group, n = 1096. Serum lipid profiles were analyzed and compared between the ICAS and NICAS group. RESULTS: Significantly more patients in ICAS group had low HDL-C level (51.6% than in the NICAS group (42.9%, P<0.001. The observed association remained significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors [(adjusted OR 1.36; 95%CI (1.13-1.63]. Such predictive value of low level HDL-C persisted even when LDL-C was at very low level(<1.8 mmol/L. Patients in the lowest serum HDL-C quartile (<0.96 mmol/L had the highest risk of developing ICAS [adjusted OR 1.52; 95%CI (1.17-1.98] compared to patients in the highest serum HDL-C quartile (≥ 1.32 mmol/L after adjustments for the covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Low HDL-C level is strongly associated with the development of ICAS. There was an inverse relationship between the level of HDL-C and the risk of developing ICAS.

  20. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify cardiovascular disease in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; March, Carlos E; Stavile, Rodolfo N; Balbín, Eduardo; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-10-01

    This analysis evaluated the hypothesis that the plasma triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration ratio can help identify patients with essential hypertension who are insulin-resistant, with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile associated with that defect. Data from a community-based study developed between 2003 and 2012 were used to compare CVD risk factors and outcome. Plasma TG/HDL-C cut-points of 2.5 (women) and 3.5 (men) subdivided normotensive (n = 574) and hypertensive (n = 373) subjects into "high" and "low" risk groups. Metabolic syndrome criteria (MetS) were also used to identify "high" and "low" risk groups. The baseline cardio-metabolic profile was significantly more adverse in 2003 in "high" risk subgroups, irrespective of BP classification or definition of risk (TG/HDL-C ratio vs. MetS criteria). Crude incidence of combined CVD events increased across risk groups, ranging from 1.9 in normotensive-low TG/HDL-C subjects to 19.9 in hypertensive-high TG/HDL-C ratio individuals (P for trends <.001). Adjusted hazard ratios for CVD events also increased with both hypertension and TG/HDL-C. Comparable findings were seen when CVD outcome was predicted by MetS criteria. The TG/HDL-C concentration ratio and the MetS criteria identify to a comparable degree hypertensive subjects who are at greatest cardio-metabolic risk and develop significantly more CVD.

  2. Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease: Role of High-density Lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Valentina; Yang, Haichun; Fazio, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Although reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with lipid-lowering agents (statins) decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, a substantial residual risk (up to 70% of baseline) remains after treatment in most patient populations. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a potential contributor to residual risk, and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established risk factor for CVD. However, in contrast to conventional lipid-lowering therapies, recent studies show that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C levels do not bring about clinical benefits. These observations have given rise to the concept of dysfunctional HDL where increases in serum HDL-C may not be beneficial because HDL loss of function is not corrected by or even intensified by the therapy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases CVD risk, and patients whose CKD progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis are at the highest CVD risk of any patient type studied. The ESRD population is also unique in its lack of significant benefit from standard lipid-lowering interventions. Recent studies indicate that HDL-C levels do not predict CVD in the CKD population. Moreover, CKD profoundly alters metabolism and composition of HDL particles and impairs their protective effects on functions such as cellular cholesterol efflux, endothelial protection, and control of inflammation and oxidation. Thus, CKD-induced perturbations in HDL may contribute to the excess CVD in CKD patients. Understanding the mechanisms of vascular protection in renal disease can present new therapeutic targets for intervention in this population. PMID:26009251

  3. Comparison of vegetarian diets and omnivorous diets on plasma level of HDL-c: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Zhang

    Full Text Available Low plasma level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c was an independent risk factor for cardio vascular disorder, and associated with poor outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension. To compare the effects of vegetarian diets and omnivorous diets on HDL-c in plasma, we identified cross-sectional and cohort studies related to HDL-c listed on PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge as well as the corresponding references (until Nov, 2013. Twelve studies with a total of 4177 individuals were selected for meta-analysis. This meta-analysis indicates that vegetarian diets did not alter plasma HDL-c concentrations, as it wasn't initially expected by the authors [Standardized Mean Difference (SMD = 0.02 mmol/l; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.19 to 0.22 mmol/l]. In Asia and Latin America countries, no significant differences in HDL-c levels between vegetarians and omnivores were found (SMD = -0.09 mmol/l; 95% CI: -0.43 to 0.25 mmol/l. In Europe and North America countries, the plasma level of HDL-c was also not different between the two diets (SMD = 0.09 mmol/l; 95% CI: -0.19 to 0.36 mmol/l. In light of this meta-analysis, we conclude that there is no evidence that plasma HDL-c levels differs in vegetarians and omnivores, even after adjusting for cultural circumstances.

  4. Use of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify increased cardio-metabolic risk in young, healthy South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Elena; Molina, César; Mathur, Ashish; Reaven, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated dyslipidaemia [high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations] are increased in South Asian individuals; likely contributing to their increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C has been proposed as a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk. This study was carried out to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles of high-risk South Asian individuals identified by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio versus those with a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, and HDL-C concentrations were determined in apparently healthy men (n=498) and women (n=526). The cardio-metabolic risk profile of "high risk" individuals identified by TG/HDL-C ratios in men (≥ 3.5) and women (≥2.5) was compared to those identified by a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. More concentrations of all cardio-metabolic risk factors were significantly higher in "high risk" groups, identified by either the TG/HDL-C ratio or a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. TG, HDL-C, and insulin concentrations were not significantly different in "high risk" groups identified by either criterion, whereas plasma glucose and blood pressure were higher in those with the metabolic syndrome. Apparently healthy South Asian individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk can be identified using either the TG/HDL-C ratio or the metabolic syndrome criteria. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be used as a simple marker to identify such individuals.

  5. Are post-treatment low-density lipoprotein subclass pattern analyses potentially misleading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Mary E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some patients administered cholesterol-lowering therapies may experience an increase in the proportion of small LDL particles, which may be misinterpreted as a worsening of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk. This study assessed the lipid effects of adding ezetimibe to atorvastatin or doubling the atorvastatin dose on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels (and the cholesterol content of LDL subclasses, LDL particle number (approximated by apolipoprotein B, and LDL particle size. This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study of hypercholesterolemic, high atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk patients. After stabilization of atorvastatin 40 mg, 579 patients with LDL-C >70 mg/dL were randomized to 6 weeks of ezetimibe + atorvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg. Efficacy parameters included changes from baseline in LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C, and lipoprotein subclasses (Vertical Auto Profile II and pattern for the overall population, as well as patient subgroups with baseline triglyceride levels Results Both treatments significantly reduced LDL-C (and the cholesterol content of most LDL subfractions [LDL1-4] apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C levels, but did not reduce the proportion of smaller, more dense LDL particles; in fact, the proportion of Pattern B was numerically increased. Results were generally similar in patients with triglyceride levels Conclusions When assessing the effects of escalating cholesterol-lowering therapy, effects upon Pattern B alone to assess coronary heart disease risk may be misleading when interpreted without considerations of other lipid effects, such as reductions in LDL-C, atherogenic lipoprotein particle concentration, and non-HDL-C levels. Trial Registration (Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: Clinical trial # NCT00276484

  6. LIPC variants in the promoter and intron 1 modify HDL-C levels in a sex-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F; Myers, Richard H; Pankow, James S; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2009-05-01

    We previously reported linkage for plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on 15q21 in Caucasian families from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study (NHLBI FHS). Hepatic lipase gene (LIPC), which has a major role in lipoprotein metabolism, resides within the linkage region and constitutes an obvious candidate gene. While hepatic lipase is a known player in HDL metabolism, the relationship between common LIPC variants and HDL-C levels remains unclear. In the current study, we employed population-based and family-based tests of association with both quantitative HDL-C levels and a dichotomous dyslipidemia trait (affected men: HDLmen. The less common allele was associated with an increase of approximately 14% in HDL-C levels, and a decrease of approximately 30% in risk of low HDL. In addition, strong association in women of an intron 1 SNP (rs12593008) and low HDL and moderate association in men (rs8028759) with both HDL-C levels and low HDL phenotype were found and may represent either functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or more likely, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with functional variants. Because of the association of lipid abnormalities with diabetes, and other lifestyle parameters, we also performed association analyses using different covariate adjustments as well as strategically selected sub-samples. The sex-specific association of rs261342, rs12593008 or rs8028759 remained substantially the same through these analyses. Finally, we found that a common haplotype was overtransmitted to offspring with low HDL-C. The sex-specific associations found in our study could be due to the interactions with the endogenous hormonal environment, lifestyle and/or genetic factors, although the underlying physiologic mechanisms are not understood.

  7. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and Apolipoprotein B and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Manifest Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M Johanneke; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Borst, Gert Jan; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-09-15

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) only partly represents the atherogenic lipid burden, and a growing body of evidence suggests that non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) are more accurate in estimating lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk. Our objective was to compare the relation among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and apoB and the occurrence of future vascular events and mortality in patients with manifest arterial disease. This is a prospective cohort study of 7,216 patients with clinically manifest arterial disease in the Secondary Manifestations of Arterial Disease Study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to quantify the risk of major cardiovascular events (MACE; i.e., stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular mortality) and all-cause mortality. Interaction was tested for type of vascular disease at inclusion. MACE occurred in 1,185 subjects during a median follow-up of 6.5 years (interquartile range 3.4 to 9.9 years). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of MACE per 1 SD higher were for LDL-C (HR 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.22), for non-HDL-C (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.23), for log(triglycerides) (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.19), and for apoB HR (1.12, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.28). The relation among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and cardiovascular events was comparable in patients with cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, or polyvascular disease and absent in those with aneurysm of abdominal aorta or peripheral artery disease. In conclusion, in patients with a history of cerebrovascular, coronary artery, or polyvascular disease, but not aneurysm of abdominal aorta or peripheral artery disease, higher levels of LDL-C and non-HDL-C are related to increased risk of future MACE and of comparable magnitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  9. A Possible Mechanism Linking Hyperglycemia and Reduced High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 严同; 赵艳; 尹凡; 胡翠宁

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of glucose in the biogenesis of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C).Mouse primary peritoneal macrophages were harvested and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium(DMEM) containing glucose of various concentrations.The cells were divided into 3 groups in terms of different glucose concentrations in the cultures:Control group(5.6 mmol/L glucose),high glucose concentration groups(16.7 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L glucose).ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1) mRN...

  10. Relation of Combined Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B With Atherosclerosis in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstad, Petter; Eckel, Robert H; Pyle, Laura; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2015-10-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are cardiovascular disease risk markers, although data in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are limited. We hypothesized that elevated apoB and non-HDL-C would be associated with greater odds of coronary artery calcification progression (CACp), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis, than either category alone in adults with type 1 DM. We grouped subjects with type 1 DM (n = 652) into 4 groups: elevated apoB (≥90 mg/dl) and elevated non-HDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), elevated non-HDL-C alone, elevated apoB alone, and normal apoB and non-HDL-C. We used logistic regression to examine the associations between the groups and CACp for a period of 6 years. We performed sensitivity analyses with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C redefined as at or more than the cohort means (91.4 and 119.0 mg/dl, respectively). Subjects with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C had greater odds of CACp compared with those with normal apoB and non-HDL-C (odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.15) and compared with subjects with elevated apoB alone (odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 5.74) adjusting for age, gender, duration, hemoglobin A1c, and statins. Similar results were obtained with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C defined as at or more than the cohort means. In conclusion, elevated apoB and non-HDL-C carry a greater risk of atherosclerosis than elevated apoB in the absence of elevated non-HDL-C in adults with type 1 DM. These data suggest that apoB and non-HDL-C should be viewed as complementary rather than competitive indexes of cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level on 2-year clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Cho, Sang-A; Hong, Soon Jun; Hur, Seung-Ho; Bae, Jang-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Ahn, Young-Keun; Park, Jong-Seon; Choi, Rak-Kyeong; Choi, Donghoon; Kim, Joon-Hong; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Park, Hun-Sik; Choi, So-Yeon; Yoon, Jung-Han; Kwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Rha, Seung-Woon; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Eun-Seok; Kim, Kee-Sik; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-11-18

    It is still unclear whether low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 984 AMI patients with diabetes mellitus from the DIabetic Acute Myocardial InfarctiON Disease (DIAMOND) Korean multicenter registry were divided into two groups based on HDL-C level on admission: normal HDL-C group (HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL, n = 519) and low HDL-C group (HDL-C risk factors, Cox proportional hazards analysis suggested that low HDL-C was an independent risk predictor for MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 3.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034-9.144, p = 0.043). In patients with diabetes mellitus, low HDL-C remained an independent risk predictor for MACE after adjusting for multiple risk factors during 2-year follow-up of AMI. This study was the sub-analysis of the prospective multi-center registry of DIAMOND (Diabetic acute myocardial infarction Disease) in Korea. This is the observational study supported by Bayer HealthCare, Korea. Study number is 15614. First patient first visit was 02 April 2010 and last patient last visit was 09 December 2013.

  12. Changes in apolipoprotein E-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have little impact on HDL-cholesterol measurements using homogeneous assays in normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Kenta; Hirayama, Satoshi; Kon, Mika; Seino, Utako; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Yuki; Hirayama, Akiko; Isshiki, Miwa; Idei, Mayumi; Yano, Kouji; Miida, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is generally measured using several homogeneous assays. We aimed to clarify whether apolipoprotein E-containing HDL (apoE-HDL) subfractions are altered during storage, and if so, whether such changes affect the HDL-C concentration measured using homogeneous assays. We stored serum from normolipidemic (n=32) and dyslipidemic (n=17) subjects at 4°C for up to 7days. ApoE-HDL subfractions were analyzed using native 2-dimensional gel (native 2D-gel) electrophoresis. HDL-C concentrations were determined using 2 precipitation and 4homogeneous assays. Native 2D-gel electrophoresis revealed variously sized apoE-HDL subfractions. After 4h incubation at 37°C, subfractions of smaller particles were converted into larger particles by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. After 7days storage at 4°C, the smaller subfractions were decreased in the normolipidemic group, accompanying increases in larger subfractions, whereas changes in the respective subfractions varied among individuals in the dyslipidemic group. HDL-C concentrations were significantly lower after storage at 4°C in all assays, except that using Sekisui Medical's reagent. Therefore, changes in HDL-C concentration and apoE-HDL subfractions were independent of each other. ApoE-HDL subfractions change during storage, but these changes are not linked to those in HDL-C concentration measured using homogeneous assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Show Altered Lipoprotein Profiles with Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoproteins that Can Exacerbate Inflammatory and Atherogenic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Jin Kyun; Song, Yeong Wook; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify putative biomarkers in lipoprotein, we compared lipid and lipoprotein properties between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and control with similar age. We analyzed four classes of lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL2, HDL3) from both male (n = 8, 69±4 year-old) and female (n = 25, 53±7 year-old) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients as well as controls with similar age (n = 13). Although RA group showed normal levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and glucose, however, the RA group showed significantly reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C level and ratio of HDL-C/TC. The RA group showed significantly elevated levels of blood triglyceride (TG), uric acid, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity. The RA group also showed elevated levels of advanced glycated end (AGE) products in all lipoproteins and severe aggregation of apoA-I in HDL. As CETP activity and TG contents were 2-fold increased in HDL from RA group, paraoxonase activity was reduced upto 20%. Electron microscopy revealed that RA group showed much less HDL2 particle number than control. LDL from the RA group was severely oxidized and glycated with greater fragmentation of apo-B, especially in female group, it was more atherogenic via phagocytosis. Lipoproteins from the RA patients showed severely altered structure with impaired functionality, which is very similar to that observed in coronary heart patients. These dysfunctional properties in lipoproteins from the RA patients might be associated with high incidence of cardiovascular events in RA patients.

  14. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  15. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Results: Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. Conclusion: None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C. PMID:26590203

  16. Association of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with the risk of chronic kidney disease: analysis in a large Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hisako; Nagata, Masaharu; Kitazono, Takanari; Hirakata, Hideki; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Kurahashi, Issei; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used data from 216,007 Japanese adults who participated in a nationwide health checkup program. Men (n = 88,516) and women (n = 127,491) were grouped into quartiles based on their TG/HDL-C levels (3.18 in men; 2.22 in women). We cross-sectionally assessed the association of TG/HDL-C levels with CKD [defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (low eGFR) and/or proteinuria (defined as urinary protein ≥ 1+ on dipstick testing)], low eGFR, and proteinuria. The prevalence of CKD, low eGFR, and proteinuria increased significantly with elevating quartiles of TG/HDL-C in both genders (all P for trend <0.001). Participants in the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C had a significantly greater risk of CKD than those in the lowest quartile after adjustment for the relevant confounding factors (odds ratio: 1.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.49-1.65 in men; 1.41, 1.34-1.48 in women, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant associations with low eGFR and proteinuria. In stratified analysis, the risk of CKD increased linearly with greater TG/HDL-C levels in participants with and without hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Moreover, higher TG/HDL-C levels were relevant for CKD, especially in participants with hypertension and diabetes (P for interaction <0.001, respectively). An elevated TG/HDL-C is associated with the risk of CKD in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended-Release Niacin Versus Fenofibrate in HIV-Infected Participants With Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: Effects on Endothelial Function, Lipoproteins, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Michael P; Komarow, Lauren; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Cadden, Joseph J; Overton, Edgar T; Hodis, Howard N; Currier, Judith S; Stein, James H

    2015-09-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are common in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, persist during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Virologically controlled participants without CVD on stable ART with low HDL-C (men 150 mg/dL were randomized to receive open-label extended-release niacin 1500 mg/day with aspirin 325 mg/day or fenofibrate 200 mg/day for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the week 24 within-arm change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in participants with complete follow-up scans. Of 99 participants, 74 had complete data (35 niacin, 39 fenofibrate). Median age was 45 years, 77% were male, median CD4(+) count was 561 cells/µL, and brachial FMD was 4.2%. Median HDL-C was 32 mg/dL for men and 38 mg/dL for women, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 103 mg/dL, and triglycerides were 232 mg/dL. In men, HDL-C increased a median of 3 mg/dL with niacin and 6.5 mg/dL with fenofibrate (P < .001 for both). In women, HDL-C increased a median of 16 mg/dL with niacin and 8 mg/dL with fenofibrate (P = .08 for both). After 24 weeks, there was no significant change in FMD in either arm; the median (interquartile range) change was +0.6% (-1.6 to 2.3) with niacin (P = .28) and +0.5% (-1.0 to 3.0) with fenofibrate (P = .19). Neither treatment significantly affected C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, or D-dimer levels. Despite improvements in lipids, niacin or fenofibrate treatment for 24 weeks did not improve endothelial function or inflammatory markers in participants with well-controlled HIV infection and low HDL-C. NCT01426438. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with change in coronary plaque lipid burden assessed by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoshi; Sidharta, Samuel L; Shishikura, Daisuke; Takata, Kohei; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe A; Nguyen, Tracy; Janssan, Alex; Kim, Susan W; Andrews, Jordan; Psaltis, Peter J; Worthley, Matthew I; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2017-08-31

    Little is known about the relation between serum lipid parameters and serial change in plaque composition using in vivo coronary imaging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between serum lipids and change in coronary plaque lipid burden assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We performed serial NIRS-intravascular ultrasound studies in 49 patients who underwent coronary angiography for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable ischemic symptoms. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to evaluate the relationship between serum lipid parameters and change in lipid core burden index at the 4-mm maximal segment (max LCBI4mm). Mean patient age was 61 ± 9 y, 29% were women, 35% had an ACS clinical presentation, 78% received statin therapy at baseline, and median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 101, 43, 174 and 133 mg/dL, respectively. During a median follow-up period of 13 months, max LCBI4mm significantly decreased from 277 to 194 (p = 0.001). On univariable analysis, the percent change in HDL-C negatively associated with the change in max LCBI4mm (β = -3.19, p = 0.004). There were no significant associations between the other lipid parameters and change in max LCBI4mm. On multivariable analysis, percent change in HDL-C remained significantly associated with the change in max LCBI4mm (p = 0.002). Change in HDL-C, but not other lipids parameters, associated with changes in coronary plaque lipid burden assessed by NIRS. These findings highlight the potential therapeutic importance of high-density lipoprotein on serial change in plaque composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Apparent protective effect of high density lipoprotein against coronary heart disease in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健斋; 陈曼丽; 王抒; 董军; 曾平; 侯鲁维

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD)death and to explore the protective effect of HDL against CHD in the elderly Chinese.Methods Started from 1986, 1211 retirees (92% males) were enrolled consecutively and studied prospectively. The average starting age was 70 ±9 years, and that at the end of the study was 80 ±9years. During the follow-up study, all the participants received yearly physical examination and blood chemistry survey from 1986 -2000. The average duration of the follow up study was 11.2 years. The end point of this study was either attacks of AMI or death due to CHD and other causes. CHD risk factors were screened by logistic regression analysis. According to their HDL-C levels, cases were divided into Iow (<1.03 mmol/L), medium (or normal, 1.03 - 1.56 mmol/L) and high(>1.56mmol/L) level groups, the differences in incidence of AMI and CHD death in each group were analyzed.Results The cumulative attacks of acute coronary syndrome (mostly AMI) were 214 cases,including 89 cases of coronary death and 308 death caused by other diseases during the follow up study. AMI occurrence and CHD death in normal HDL-C group were lower than those in the low HDLC group by 40% and 53%; and those in the high HDL-C group were lower than in the normal group by 56% and 50%, respectively. Statistical analysis on normal lipid cases (411 cases, total cholesterol<5. 17mmol/L, triglyceride<1.69 mmol/L) revealed that the cases at low HDL-C level had similar rates of AMI events and CHD mortality as those of the entire group (including hyperlipidemia);however, AMI attacks and CHD deaths decreased significantly at the normal and high HDL-C levels.The results demonstrated that the protective effect of HDL against coronary artery disease is more prominent in people with low lipid level.Conclusion Low HDL is an important

  20. Indications that paraoxonase-1 contributes to plasma high density lipoprotein levels in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Himbergen, Thomas M; Roest, Mark; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Hattori, Hiroaki; Kastelein, John J P; Voorbij, Hieronymus A M; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; van Tits, Lambertus J H

    2005-03-01

    HDL-associated paraoxonase type 1 (PON1) can protect LDL and HDL against oxidative modification in vitro and therefore may protect against cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of PON1 levels, activity, and genetic variation on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, circulating oxidized LDL (OxLDL), subclinical inflammation [high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP)], and carotid atherosclerosis. PON1 genotypes (L55M, Q192R, -107C/T, -162A/G, -824G/A, and -907G/C) were determined in 302 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. PON1 activity was monitored by the hydrolysis rate of paraoxon, diazoxon, and phenyl acetate. PON1 levels, OxLDL, and Hs-CRP were determined using an immunoassay. The genetic variants of PON1 that were associated with high levels and activity of the enzyme were associated with higher HDL-C levels (P values for trend: 0.008, 0.020, 0.042, and 0.037 for L55M, Q192R, -107C/T, and -907G/C, respectively). In addition to the PON1 genotype, there was also a positive correlation between PON1 levels and activity and HDL-C (PON1 levels: r = 0.37, P < 0.001; paraoxonase activity: r = 0.23, P = 0.01; diazoxonase activity: r = 0.29, P < 0.001; arylesterase activity: r = 0.19, P = 0.03). Our observations support the hypothesis that both PON1 levels and activity preserve HDL-C in plasma.

  1. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, their relationship with baseline functional and cognitive status, and their utility in predicting mortality in nonagenarians.

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    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Chivite, David; Pinto, Xavier; Cuerpo, Sandra; Pujol, Ramón

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in oldest-old subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between HDL-C levels and physical and cognitive performance indicators in nonagenarians, and also to determine the influence of HDL-C levels on the 3-year mortality risk. The data analyzed were taken from the NonaSantfeliu Study. Functional status was determined by the Lawton-Brody Index (LI) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the Barthel Index (BI) for basic activities (BADL). Cognition was assessed using the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC). The sample consisted of 49 women (79%) and 13 men, aged 94.3 ± 2.6 years. Mean HDL-C levels were 60 ± 16 mg/dL, and 16 subjects (25.8%) had low HDL-C values. HDL-C levels did correlate with BI (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) and LI (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), but not with MEC (r = 0.18, P = 0.15). Normal HDL-C levels at baseline were significantly associated with higher BI scores (P < 0.006, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.05) and a lower number of prescription drugs used (P < 0.04, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.49-0.99). Baseline HDL-C levels were significantly lower among the group of nonagenarians who died within the 3 years of follow up (P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between HDL-C and mortality lost significance. Higher levels of HDL-C correlate with better functional status and less use of prescribed drugs in nonagenarians. However, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and long-term mortality in this population remains unclear. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Probucol alleviates atherosclerosis and improves high density lipoprotein function

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    Zhong Jian-Kai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probucol is a unique hypolipidemic agent that decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. However, it is not definite that whether probucol hinders the progression of atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. Methods Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into the control, atherosclerosis and probucol groups. Control group were fed a regular diet; the atherosclerosis group received a high fat diet, and the probucol group received the high fat diet plus probucol. Hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages were isolated for [3H] labeled cholesterol efflux rates and expression of ABCA1 and SR-B1 at gene and protein levels; venous blood was collected for serum paraoxonase 1, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid analysis. Aorta were prepared for morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis after 12 weeks. Results Compared to the atherosclerosis group, the paraoxonase 1 activity, cholesterol efflux rates, expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI in hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and the level of ABCA1 and SR-BI in aortic lesions were remarkably improved in the probucol group, But the serum HDL cholesterol concentration, myeloperoxidase activity, the IMT and the percentage plaque area of aorta were significantly decreased. Conclusion Probucol alleviated atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. The mechanisms include accelerating the process of reverse cholesterol transport, improving the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions.

  3. Association of total cholesterol and HDL-C levels and outcome in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

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    Zhao, Qin; Li, Jianfei; Yang, Jin; Li, Rongshan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with heart failure (HF). Patients who were angiographical-diagnosis of CHD and echocardiographical-diagnosis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) Hs-CRP) was observed. TC was positively correlated with BMI and albumin, and HDL-C was inversely correlated with Hs-CRP. The associations of TC level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were attenuated but consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.99). Associations of HDL-C level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were also consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with OR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90–0.98). Strength of association was attenuated prominently in model 3 after adjusted for Hs-CRP, and no change was observed after further adjusted for BMI and albumin. Higher baseline TC and HDL-C levels are associated with better outcome in CHD patients with HF. PMID:28248864

  4. Vitamin C may have similar beneficial effects to Gemfibrozil on serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-T2) is commonly associated with increased triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Fibrates like gemfibrozil are frequently used in diabetic patients to decrease TG and increase HDL-C levels. We compared the efficacy of Vitamin C, an antioxidant vitamin, with gemfibrozil on serum HDL-C in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetic patients, referred to our out-patient clinic were randomly divided into three groups. After 1 month of lifestyle and diet modifications, groups A, B, and C were prescribed 1000 mg Vitamin C, 600 mg gemfibrozil and combination of both, respectively. Before the study initiation and after 6(th) week of drug prescription, the blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (Total-C), HDL-C, TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Sixty-seven patients entered, and 50 patients (18 male, 32 female) finished the study. Overall, serum HDL-C increased significantly from 39.8 to 45.2 mg/dL in the participants (P = 0.001). HDL-C increased 6.3, 4.4 and 5.0 mg/dL in groups A, B and C, respectively (related significances were 0.017, 0.022 and 0.033, respectively). Significant decrease of serum TG and Total-C occurred in gemfibrozil and combination groups, but not in Vitamin C group. Changes in serum HDL-C between three groups were not significant (P = 0.963). We found a significant decrease in TG and Total-C in the groups B and C (P 0.05). The results demonstrated that Vitamin C may have beneficial effects on HDL-C in diabetic patients without significant effects on plasma glucose or other lipid parameters; however, its role for the treatment of low HDL-C patients should be evaluated in larger studies.

  5. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cardiovascular events in patients aged 65-74 years. Non-HDL-C was not significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower HDL-C was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged HDL-C was an important risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Relationship between Serum Lipoprotein Ratios and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Shou-Kui Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association between serum lipoprotein ratios and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Methods. 105 PCOS patients and 109 controls were randomly enrolled in the study. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E2, total testosterone (T, fasting glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C levels were checked, and then TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C, ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Results. All lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in PCOS patients as compared to healthy controls (<0.05. TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (<0.05. The ROC curve demonstrated that TC/HDL-C ratio had higher sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing PCOS with insulin resistance. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that serum lipoprotein ratio significantly correlates with insulin resistance and can be used as the marker of insulin resistance in PCOS patients.

  7. Association of high-density lipoprotein subclasses and incident coronary heart disease: The Jackson Heart and Framingham Offspring Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parag H; Toth, Peter P; Lirette, Seth T; Griswold, Michael E; Massaro, Joseph M; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Khokhar, Arif A; Correa, Adolfo; D’Agustino, Ralph B; Jones, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Aims We aimed to clarify the associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subclasses with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in two large primary prevention cohorts. Methods We measured cholesterol at baseline from the two major HDL subfractions (larger, more buoyant HDL2 and smaller, denser HDL3) separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation in 4114 (mean age 53.8 years; 64% female) African American participants from the Jackson Heart Study and 818 (mean age 57.3 years, 52% female) predominantly Caucasian participants from the Framingham Offspring Cohort Study. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HDL-C and its subclasses were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate associations with incident CHD events including myocardial infarction, CHD death, and revascularization. Analyses were performed for each cohort separately and as a combined population. Results In models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors for the combined population, HDL3-C (HR 0.76 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–0.94; p = 0.01), rather than HDL2-C (HR 0.88 per SD; 95% CI, 0.72–1.09; p = 0.24) drove the inverse association of HDL-C (HR 0.79 per SD; 95% CI, 0.64–0.98; p = 0.03) with CHD. Similar associations were seen in multivariable analyses within each cohort including after adjusting for apolipoprotein A1 in the Jackson Heart Study. Conclusion Smaller, denser HDL3-C levels are primarily responsible for the inverse association between HDL-C and incident CHD in this diverse group of primary prevention subjects. These findings have important implications ranging from considerations of HDL biology to interpretations of clinical trials utilizing HDL-C therapeutics. PMID:25062744

  8. Restoration of high-density lipoprotein levels by cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression in scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) knockout mice does not normalize pathologies associated with SR-BI deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, Reeni B; Lammers, Bart; Meurs, Illiana; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; De Haan, Willeke; Zhao, Ying; Kruijt, J Kar; Praticò, Domenico; Schimmel, Alinda W M; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Hoekstra, Menno; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Van Eck, Miranda

    OBJECTIVE: Disruption of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mice impairs high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) delivery to the liver and induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. In this study, it was investigated whether introduction of cholesteryl ester transfer protein

  9. Apolipoprotein B/A-I and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in the general population independently of nonlipid risk factors, albuminuria and C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Hillege, J. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B/A-I ratios predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The extent to which these associations are modified by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and albuminuria is largely

  10. The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R

    2017-08-10

    (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase responses, postprandial lipemia, and low high-density lipoprotein-2 subspecies levels in older athletes with silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzel, L I; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Rogus, E M; Krauss, R M; Goldberg, A P

    1994-02-01

    Healthy older (64 +/- 1 years, mean +/- SEM) athletic (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max] > 40 mL/kg/min) normocholesterolemic men with no prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) were recruited for cardiovascular and metabolic studies. Thirty-three percent had asymptomatic exercise-induced ST segment depression on their exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), consistent with silent myocardial ischemia (SI). We hypothesized that abnormalities in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and postprandial triglyceride (TG) metabolism may increase their risk for CAD. Compared with 12 nonischemic controls of comparable age, percent body fat, and VO2max, the 13 men with SI had decreased fasting HDL cholesterol ([HDL-C] 41 +/- 2 v 50 +/- 2 mg/dL, P postprandial plasma TG, chylomicron-TG, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG levels and postprandial areas were higher in men with SI (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The Predictive Role of Serum Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio According to Renal Function in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Yang Gyoon; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective A high serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been reported as an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. However, the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with renal dysfunction is unclear. We examined the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method This study was based on the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry database. Of 13,897 patients who were diagnosed with AMI, the study population included the 7,016 patients with available TG/HDL-C ratio data. Patients were stratified into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the TG/HDL-C ratio was categorized into tertiles. We investigated 12-month MACEs, which included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results During the 12-month follow up period, 593 patients experienced MACEs. There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and MACEs (p<0.001) in the entire study cohort. Having a TG/HDL-C ratio value in the highest tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent factor associated with increased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.93; p<0.001). Then we performed subgroup analyses according to renal function. In patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2) and mild renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥ 60 to < 90ml/min/1.73m2), a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with increased risk of MACEs (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04–2.60; p = 0.035; and HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14–2.12; p = 0.005, respectively). However, in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2), TG/HDL-C ratio lost its predictive value on the risk of MACEs (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.82–1.83; p = 0.317). Conclusions In

  13. VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican prepubertal children.

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    Leonor Jacobo-Albavera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6-8 years (107 boys and 117 girls and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612. To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10(-5, decreased HDL-C levels (β = -6.19, P = 0.028 and with higher body mass index (BMI z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024 in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017 and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = -0.225; P = 0.015 only in girls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls.

  14. High interleukin-6 plasma levels are associated with low HDL-C levels in community-dwelling older adults: The InChianti study

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    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Blè, Alessando; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to low HDL-C and CHD is essential for planning treatment strategies. Clinical studies have demonstrated that cytokines might affect both concentration and composition of plasma lipoproteins, including HDLs. Methods We investigated the possible association between low HDL-C levels, defined as ≤10th gender specific percentile, and circulating markers of inflammation (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and CRP) in a population of 1044 community dwelling older Italian subjects from the InChianti study. Results Using logistic regression analysis we demonstrated that IL-6 levels (III versus I tertile, OR: 2.10; 1.10–3.75), TG (III versus I tertile OR: 27.45; 8.47–88.93), fasting insulin (III versus I tertile OR: 2.84; 1.50–5.42), and age (OR: 1.038; 1.002–1.075) were associated with low HDL-C independent of smoking, BMI, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes, physical activity, alcohol intake, oral hypoglycaemics, CRP, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. The adjusted attributable risk of low HDL-C in the exposed group (III tertile of IL-6) was 54%. Conclusions The present study provides the epidemiological evidence that besides triglycerides, fasting insulin, and age, IL-6 is one of the main correlates of low HDL-C levels in older individuals. PMID:16787648

  15. Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

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    Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.

  16. Plasma fasting and nonfasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in atherosclerotic stroke: different profiles according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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    Kim, Suk Jae; Park, Yun Gyoung; Kim, Ji Hyun; Han, Yun Kyung; Cho, Hong Keun; Bang, Oh Young

    2012-08-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the main lipid target for cardiovascular risk reduction, recent studies suggest that other lipid indicies are also associated with vascular events. We hypothesized that the association of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with atherosclerotic stroke (AS) differs depending on LDL-C levels. Data prospectively collected on subjects admitted with acute ischemic stroke to a university medical center were analyzed. We divided the patients into AS and non-atherosclerotic stroke (NAS) groups and independent association of lipid parameters and genetic influences of apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) polymorphisms with AS were evaluated. Of 268 patients, 160 (59.7%) were classified with AS and 108 (40.3%) were classified with NAS. Vascular risk factors were more prevalent in AS patients than in those with NAS; additionally, AS patients' anthropometric indexes and laboratory findings showed that they were prone to atherosclerosis. AS was independently associated with fasting TG (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.64; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 12.85; 95% CI, 3.31-49.85), HDL-C (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88; OR for lowest vs. highest tertile, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.16-15.86), and nonfasting TG (OR per 10 10 mg/dL increase, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 8.20; 95% CI, 1.98-33.88) only among patients with LDL <100 mg/dL. No interaction was observed between fasting and nonfasting TG and ApoA5 polymorphisms. In conclusion, fasting and nonfasting TG and HDL-C were associated with AS only when patients had low levels of LDL-C. Non-LDL-C may have an additional role in addition to the LDL-C levels in AS development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discordance of Low-Density Lipoprotein and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Particle Versus Cholesterol Concentration for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, David M; Zhao, Yanglu; Blaha, Michael J; Mora, Samia; Mackey, Rachel H; Michos, Erin D; Budoff, Matthew J; Cromwell, William; Otvos, James D; Rosenblit, Paul D; Wong, Nathan D

    2016-06-15

    A stronger association for low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) and high-density lipoprotein particle (HDL-P) versus cholesterol concentrations (LDL-C and HDL-C) in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD) has been noted. We evaluate the role of these factors and extent of particle-cholesterol discordance in those with diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) for event prediction. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined discordance of LDL and HDL (defined as a subject's difference between baseline particle and cholesterol percentiles), LDL-C, LDL-P, HDL-C, and HDL-P in relation to incident CHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in subjects with DM, MetS (without DM), or neither condition using Cox regression. Of the 6,417 subjects with 10-year follow-up, those with MetS (n = 1,596) and DM (n = 838) had significantly greater LDL and HDL discordance compared with those without these conditions. In discordance models, only LDL discordance (per SD) within the MetS group was positively associated with CHD events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.48, p lipoprotein particles and discordances in those with MetS and DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation of cholesterol and lipoprotein parameters with carotid artery plaque characteristics: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Salim S; Catellier, Diane J; Pompeii, Lisa A; Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Wasserman, Bruce A; Coresh, Josef; Mosley, Thomas H; Otvos, James D; Sharrett, A Richey; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2011-12-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding relations of apolipoproteins (apolipoprotein B [ApoB] and apolipoprotein A-1 [Apo A-1]), lipoprotein particle measures (low-density lipoprotein particle concentration [LDLp] and high-density lipoprotein particle concentration [HDLp]), and lipoprotein cholesterol measures (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) with atherosclerotic plaque burden, plaque eccentricity, and lipid-rich core presence as a marker of high-risk plaques. Carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 1670 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants. Vessel wall and lipid cores were measured; normalized wall index (NWI), standard deviation (SD) of wall thickness (measure of plaque eccentricity) were calculated; and lipid cores were detected in vessels with ≥ 1.5mm thickness. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol, ApoB and Apo A-1, and LDLp and HDLp were measured. Measures of plaque burden (carotid wall volume, wall thickness, and NWI) were positively associated with atherogenic cholesterol and lipoproteins (p < 0.05 for total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, ApoB, and LDLp), but not with HDL-C, Apo A-1, or HDLp. SD of wall thickness was associated with total cholesterol (p 0.01) and non-HDL-C (p 0.02). Although measures of atherogenic or anti-atherogenic cholesterol or lipoprotein were not individually associated with detection of a lipid-rich core, their ratios (total cholesterol/HDL-C, non-HDL-C/HDL-C, and LDLp/HDLp) were associated with lipid-rich core presence (p ≤ 0.05). Extent of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with atherogenic cholesterol and lipoproteins. Atherogenic/anti-atherogenic cholesterol or particle ratios were associated with presence of a detectable lipid-rich core. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis. ... Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  20. Low-density lipoprotein analysis in microchip capillary electrophoresis systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceriotti, Laura; Shibata, Takayuki; Folmer, Britta; Weiller, Bruce H.; Roberts, Matthew A.; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Due to the mounting evidence for altered lipoprotein and cholesterol-lipoprotein content in several disease states, there has been an increasing interest in analytical methods for lipoprotein profiling for diagnosis. The separation of low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively)

  1. TriGlycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance indexes in screening for metabolic syndrome in the chinese obese children: a cross section study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfeng; Fu, Junfen; Jiang, Youyun; Dong, Guanping; Wang, Xiumin; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-28

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is prevalant in China, especially according to the pediatric obesity group. Based on the MS-CHN2012 definition for Chinese children and adolescents the need to explore and establish a convienent MS screening become imminent. This study aims to investigate the optimal cut-off values, compare the accuracy for the (TriGlycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C)) (TG/HDL-C) ratio and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) indexs to identify Metabolic Syndrome in obese pediatric population in China. A total sample of 976 children (female 286 male 690, BMI > = 95 percentile) aged from 6-16 years underwent a medical assessment including a physical examination and investigations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test to identify the components of Metabolic Syndrome. The validity and accuracy between TG/HDL-C ratio and HOMA-IR were compared by Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC). TG/HDL-C ratio achieved a larger ROC Area under Curve (AUC = 0.843) than HOMA-IR indexes (0.640, 0.625 for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR respectively) to screen for Metabolic Syndrome. The cut-off values for MS were: TG/HDL-C ratio > 1.25 (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 75%), HOMA1-IR > 4.59 (sensitivity: 58.7%; specificity: 65.5%) and HOMA2-IR > 2.76 (sensitivity: 53.2%; specificity: 69.5%). The results kept robust after stratified by gender, age group and pubertal stage. TG/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator than the HOMA-IR to screen for a positive diagnosis for MS. Furthermore, the TG/HDL-C ratio was superior to the HOMA-IR indexes even after the control of possible confusions from the gender, age group and puberty stage. TG/HDL-C ratio proved a better index than HOMA-IR in screening for MS in obese children and adolescents. TG/HDL-C ratio has a discriminatory power in detecting potential MS in the Chinese obese pediatric

  2. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio...

  3. A high LDL-C to HDL-C ratio predicts poor prognosis for initially metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevations in LDL-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fangxin; He, Wenzhuo; Jiang, Chang; Yin, Chenxi; Guo, Guifang; Chen, Xuxian; Qiu, Huijuan; Rong, Yuming; Zhang, Bei; Xu, Dazhi; Xia, Liangping

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid disequilibrium has been documented for several types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), it remains unknown whether lipid parameters are associated with the outcome of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Here, we retrospectively examined the lipid profiles of 453 mCRC patients and investigated whether any of the lipid parameters correlated with the outcome of mCRC patients. Pretreatment serum lipids, including triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were collected in 453 initially mCRC patients. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio (LHR) was calculated and divided into the first, second, and third tertiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of lipids on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Nearly two-fifths of the patients (41.3%) exhibited elevations in LDL-C while most patients (88.3%) showed normal HDL-C levels. Decreased HDL-C (P=0.542) and increased LDL-C (P=0.023) were prognostic factors for poor OS, while triglyceride (P=0.542) and cholesterol (P=0.215) were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that LDL-C (P=0.031) was an independent prognostic factor. Triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C did not correlate with PFS. Among patients with elevations in LDL-C levels, patients in the third tertile of the LHR had a markedly shorter median OS compared to those in the first or second tertile (P=0.012). Thus, increased LDL-C level is an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in mCRC patients, and a high LHR predicts poor prognosis for initially mCRC patients with elevations in LDL-C.

  4. Higher serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in female patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Xiong, L; Xu, Q; Wu, J; Huang, R; Guo, Q; Mao, H; Yu, X; Yang, X

    2015-08-01

    High serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been found to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. We aimed to evaluate whether a high TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In this single-center retrospective cohort study, 1170 incident patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 were recruited and followed up until 31 December 31 2013. The mean age was 47.4 ± 15.2 years, and 24.7% were diabetic. During a median of the 34.5-month follow-up period, 213 (18.2%) deaths occurred, 121 of which (56.8%) were caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The serum median TG/HDL-C ratio at baseline was 2.57 (range: 0.06-39.39). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the highest quartile of the TG/HDL-C ratio (≥4.19) was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.36; P = 0.011) and CVD mortality (HR 2.28, 95% CI, 1.16-4.47; P = 0.017). For female patients, each one-unit higher baseline TG/HDL-C was associated with 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22; P = 0.001) increased risk of CVD mortality, whereas such an association was not observed for male patients, (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.08; P = 0.977). A higher serum TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in PD patients. Moreover, the increased risk of CVD mortality was significantly higher in female than male PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Do Genetic Modifiers of HDL-C and Triglyceride Levels also Modify Their Response to a Lifestyle Intervention in the Setting of Obesity and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus? The Look AHEAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Gordon S.; Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Belalcazar, L. Maria; Brautbar, Ariel; Ballantyne, Christie; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Knowler, William C.; Pownall, Henry J.; Wing, Rena R.; Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides are cardiovascular risk factors susceptible to lifestyle behavior modification and genetics. We hypothesized that genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) as associated with HDL-C or triglyceride levels will modify 1-year treatment response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), relative to a usual care of diabetes support and education (DSE). Methods and Results We evaluated 82 SNPs, representing 31 loci demonstrated by GWAS to be associated with HDL-C and/or triglycerides, in 3,561 participants who consented for genetic studies and met eligibility criteria. Variants associated with higher baseline HDL-C levels, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) rs3764261 and hepatic lipase (LIPC) rs8034802, were found to be associated with HDL-C increases with ILI (p=0.0038 and 0.013, respectively) and had nominally significant treatment interactions (p=0.047 and 0.046, respectively). The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS-2) rs1535 variant, associated with low baseline HDL-C (p=0.017), was associated with HDL-C increases with ILI (0.0037) and had a nominal treatment interaction (p= 0.035). ApoB (rs693) and LIPC (rs8034802) SNPs showed nominally significant associations with HDL-C and triglyceride changes with ILI and a treatment interaction (ptriglyceride treatment interaction in the full cohort (p=0.0009). Conclusions This is the first study to identify genetic variants modifying lipid responses to a randomized lifestyle behavior intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. The effect of genetic factors on lipid changes may differ from the effects on baseline lipids and are modifiable by behavioral intervention. PMID:23861364

  6. Asymptomatic individuals with high HDL-C levels overexpress ABCA1 and ABCG1 and present miR-33a dysregulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D Z; Zago, V H S; Parra, E S; Avansini, S; Panzoldo, N B; Alexandre, F; Baracat, J; Nakandakare, E R; Quintão, E C R; de Faria, E C

    2015-10-01

    Considering the growing knowledge and perspectives on microRNAs (miRNAs) that control high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and metabolism, this study aimed at evaluating whether hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-128a are differentially expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asymptomatic individuals with low and high HDL-C, as well as at investigating the potential relationships with ATP binding cassete transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, cholesterol efflux capacity and other parameters related with reverse cholesterol transport. In addition, the associations with cardiovascular risk were investigated by carotid-intima media thickness (cIMT). Asymptomatic volunteers of both genders (n=51) were classified according to HDL-C (mg/dL) in hypoalphalipoproteinemics (hypo, HDL-C ≤3 9), hyperalphalipoproteinemics (hyper, HDL-C ≥ 68) and controls (CTL, HDL-C ≥ 40HDL size and volume, C reactive protein and insulin were determined, as well as the activities of several proteins and enzymes related to HDL metabolism. In a subgroup of 19 volunteers the cellular cholesterol efflux and HDL composition were determined. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for relative quantification experiments. Hypo volunteers presented significantly higher levels of triglycerides, VLDL-C and insulin; in addition, HDL size and volume decreased when compared with CTL and hyper. Regarding gene expression analysis, the hyper group presented a decrease of 72% in hsa-miR-33a and higher mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 when compared with CTL. No significant differences in hsa-miR-128a expression, cholesterol efflux, cIMT or plaques were found. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the complex miRNA network, regulating cellular cholesterol homeostasis in humans and its clinical repercussions.

  7. The role of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to predict cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Alper; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Saglam, Mutlu; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Gok, Mahmut; Cetinkaya, Hakki; Karaman, Murat; Haymana, Cem; Eyileten, Tayfun; Oguz, Yusuf; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P

    2015-04-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is substantially increased in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is an indirect measure of insulin resistance and an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. No study to date has been performed to evaluate whether the TG/HDL-C ratio predicts CVD risk in patients with CKD. A total of 197 patients (age 53±12 years) with CKD Stages 1 to 5, were enrolled in this longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. TG/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR indexes, serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin levels were measured. Flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed by using high-resolution ultrasonography. A total of 11 cardiovascular (CV) deaths and 43 nonfatal CV events were registered in a mean follow-up period of 30 (range 9 to 35) months. Subjects with TG/HDL-C ratios above the median values (>3.29) had significantly higher plasma ADMA, PTH, and phosphorous levels (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.01 respectively) and lower eGFR and FMD values (p=0.03, pcardiovascular outcomes [HR: 1.36 (1.11-1.67) (p=0.003)] along with plasma ADMA levels [HR: 1.31 (1.13-1.52) (p<0.001)] and a history of diabetes mellitus [HR: 4.82 (2.80-8.37) (p<0.001)]. This study demonstrates that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio predicts poor CVD outcome in subjects with CKD. Being a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible marker of CVD risk, the TG/HDL-C ratio may emerge as a novel and reliable indicator among the many well-established markers of CVD risk in CKD. Clinical trial registration number and date: NCT02113462 / 10-04-2014.

  8. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ratio in ... cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. ... Article Metrics.

  9. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, V. (Lawrence Livermore Lab., CA); Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  10. High levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C further increase platelet activation in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L W; Luo, X P; Ni, H C; Shi, H M; Liu, L; Wen, Z C; Gu, X Y; Qiao, J; Li, J

    2015-02-01

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) enhance platelet activation, whereas high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exert a cardioprotective effect. However, the effects on platelet activation of high levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C (HLC) have not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the platelet activation marker of HLC patients and investigate the antiplatelet effect of atorvastatin on this population. Forty-eight patients with high levels of LDL-C were enrolled. Among these, 23 had HLC and the other 25 had high levels of LDL-C combined with normal levels of HDL-C (HNC). A total of 35 normocholesterolemic (NOMC) volunteers were included as controls. Whole blood flow cytometry and platelet aggregation measurements were performed on all participants to detect the following platelet activation markers: CD62p (P-selectin), PAC-1 (GPIIb/IIIa), and maximal platelet aggregation (MPAG). A daily dose of 20 mg atorvastatin was administered to patients with high levels of LDL-C, and the above assessments were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 2 months of treatment. The expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was increased in HNC patients compared to NOMC volunteers (PHDL-C further increased platelet activation in patients with high levels of LDL-C. Platelet activation remained higher among HLC patients regardless of atorvastatin treatment.

  11. Metabolism of high density lipoproteins in liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Ting Jiang; Ning Xu; Chang-Ping Wu

    2007-01-01

    Liver plays a vital role in the production and catabolism of plasma lipoproteins. It depends on the integrity of cellular function of liver, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs these processes are impaired and high-density lipoproteins are changed.

  12. Correlation between Ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C with the Severity of Coronary Heart Disease%TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C、TG/HDL-C与冠心病不同程度相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore predictive values of ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C of pa-tients with coronary heart disease ( CHD) for condition severity. Methods A total of 175 CHD patients undergoing coronary artery stent placement were recruited as CHD group, and 146 heatlhy persons taking physical examination without cardiovascu-lar disease were chosen as control group. Seven parts of blood lipids indexes [ total cholesterol ( TC) , triglyceride ( TG) , low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) , high density lipoprotein cholesferol ( HDL-C) , ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C] were detected in the two groups. The differences of the indexes in the two groups and value changes of blood lipids in different lesions (3 lesions, 2 lesions and 1 lesion) were analyzed, and the correlations between the indexes and changes in different lesions were also analyzed. Results The seven indexes in CHD group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P<0.01 ); ratios of TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C in patients with 3 lesions were significantly higher than those in patients with 2 lesions or 1 lesion (P<0.05);ratios of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in patients with 3 or 2 lesions were significantly higher than those in patients with 1 lesion ( P<0.05 ); HDL-C ratio in patients with 3 lesions was significantly lower than that in patients with 1 lesion (P<0.05). Conclusion The blood lipids ratios are closely related to lesion numbers in patients with coronary heart disease. So it can be used as routine index in prediction of CHD conditions.%目的探讨冠心病患者血清总胆固醇( TC )/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇( HDL-C )、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C)/HDL-C、甘油三酯( TG)/HDL-C比值对病情严重程度的预测价值。方法选择明确诊断为冠心病并放置冠状动脉(冠脉)支架的175例作为冠心病组,选择同期无心血管疾病的健康体检者146例作为对照组。冠心病组及对照组均测定血脂7项,即TC

  13. Alcohol consumption, TaqIB polymorphism of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Parallel nested case-control studies...... among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced...... effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend

  14. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Ghaffarzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR, occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu, insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC. Results: Waist circumference (WC, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19 as a marker of IR in infert ile PCOS women. Conclusion: Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR in infertile PCOS patients.

  15. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  16. Knowledge-driven analysis identifies a gene-gene interaction affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in multi-ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene-gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein-protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P(c) = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene-gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P(c) = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P(c) = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P(c) = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P(c) = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene-gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations.

  17. Impact of the Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio on the Incidence and Progression of CKD: A Longitudinal Study in a Large Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hisako; Nagata, Masaharu; Kitazono, Takanari; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Iseki, Chiho; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Konta, Tsuneo; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kondo, Masahide; Asahi, Koichi; Kurahashi, Issei; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The impact of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:HDL-C) ratio on chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. Longitudinal cohort study. 124,700 participants aged 39 to 74 years in the Japanese Specific Health Check and Guidance System, including 50,392 men, 74,308 women, 102,900 without CKD, and 21,800 with CKD. Quartiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary protein excretion during the 2-year study period. Incident CKD in participants without CKD, and progression of CKD in participants with CKD. In the entire study population, higher quartile of TG:HDL-C ratio at baseline was significantly associated with greater decline in eGFR and increase in urinary protein excretion during the 2-year study period, even after adjustment for confounding factors. A higher ratio was associated with higher risk of incident CKD in participants without CKD and higher risk of rapid decline in eGFR and increase in urinary protein excretion in participants with CKD. Higher TG:HDL-C ratio was more strongly associated with decline in eGFR (P for interaction = 0.002) and with incident CKD (P for interaction = 0.05) in participants with diabetes than without diabetes. Short observation period and single measurement of all variables. A higher TG:HDL-C ratio affects the decline in eGFR and incidence and progression of CKD in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine mapping and association studies of a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol linkage region on chromosome 16 in French-Canadian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastani, Zari; Pajukanta, Päivi; Marcil, Michel; Rudzicz, Nicholas; Ruel, Isabelle; Bailey, Swneke D; Lee, Jenny C; Lemire, Mathieu; Faith, Janet; Platko, Jill; Rioux, John; Hudson, Thomas J; Gaudet, Daniel; Engert, James C; Genest, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To identify novel genetic variants that contribute to HDL-C, we performed genome-wide scans and quantitative association studies in two study samples: a Quebec-wide study consisting of 11 multigenerational families and a study of 61 families from the Saguenay-Lac St-Jean (SLSJ) region of Quebec. The heritability of HDL-C in these study samples was 0.73 and 0.49, respectively. Variance components linkage methods identified a LOD score of 2.61 at 98 cM near the marker D16S515 in Quebec-wide families and an LOD score of 2.96 at 86 cM near the marker D16S2624 in SLSJ families. In the Quebec-wide sample, four families showed segregation over a 25.5-cM (18 Mb) region, which was further reduced to 6.6 Mb with additional markers. The coding regions of all genes within this region were sequenced. A missense variant in CHST6 segregated in four families and, with additional families, we observed a P value of 0.015 for this variant. However, an association study of this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in unrelated Quebec-wide samples was not significant. We also identified an SNP (rs11646677) in the same region, which was significantly associated with a low HDL-C (P=0.016) in the SLSJ study sample. In addition, RT-PCR results from cultured cells showed a significant difference in the expression of CHST6 and KIAA1576, another gene in the region. Our data constitute additional evidence for a locus on chromosome 16q23-24 that affects HDL-C levels in two independent French-Canadian studies.

  19. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Triglycerides/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Were the Optimal Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Uighur Men and Women in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Dang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Yi-Tong; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Liu, Fen; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Ying-Ying

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the best single predictor of metabolic syndrome by comparing the predictive ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters among a Uighur population in Xinjiang, northwest China. A total of 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS), which was carried out from October, 2007, to March, 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting glucose were documented. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components were confirmed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome was compared. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), distance in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoffs of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated. In all, 23.7% of men had the metabolic syndrome, whereas 40.1% of women had the metabolic syndrome in a Uighur population in Xinjiang; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than that in men (P<0.001). In men, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.838); it was followed by TGs/HDL-C (AUC=0.826), body mass index (BMI) (AUC=0.812), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC=0.781), and body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC=0.709). In women, the TGs/HDL-C had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.815); it was followed by WHtR (AUC=0.780), WHR (AUC=0.730), BMI (AUC=0.719), and BAI (AUC=0.699). Similarly, among all five anthropometric and atherogenic parameters, the WHtR had the shortest ROC distance of 0.32 (Sen=85.40%, Spe=71.6%), and the optimal cutoff for WHtR was 0.55 in men. In women, TGs/HDL-C had the shortest ROC distance of 0.35 (Sen=75.29%, Spe=75.18%), and the optimal cutoff

  20. Variants for HDL-C, LDL-C and Triglycerides Identified from Admixture Mapping and Fine-Mapping Analysis in African-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Priya B.; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, D.C.; Cooper, R.S.; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. Methods and Results The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1,905 unrelated African-American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Family Blood Pressure Program. Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3,556 African-American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age2, sex, body-mass-index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding due to population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (LDL-C), 8 (HDL-C), 14 (triglycerides) and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52,939 SNPs were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with HDL-C (2 SNPs), LDL-C (4 SNPs) and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data was used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14 and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. PMID:25552592

  1. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol level inversely correlated with coronary flow velocity reserve in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yu; Jiang-Li Han; Li-Yun He; Xin-Heng Feng; Wei-Hong Li; Jie-Ming Mao; Wei Gao; Guang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association of coronary artery endothelial function and plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Methods We investigated 90 participants from our institution between October 2007 to March 2010: non-DM (n = 60) and DM (n = 30). As an indicator of coronary endothelial dysfunction, we used non-invasive Doppler echocardiography to quantify coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the distal part of the left descending artery after rest and after intravenous adenosine administration. Results Plasma level of LDL-C was significantly higher in patients with DM than in non-DM (3.21 0.64 vs. 2.86 0.72 mmo/L, P < 0.05), but HDL-C level did not differ between the groups (1.01 0.17 vs. 1.05 0.19 mmo/L). Furthermore, the CFVR value was lower in DM patients than non-diabetics (2.45±0.62 vs. 2.98±0.68, P < 0.001). Plasma levels of LDL-C were negatively correlated with CFVR in all subjects (r = 0.35, P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52 -C0.15) and in the non-DM (r = 0.29, P < 0.05; 95% CI: 0.51–0.05), with an even stronger negative correlation in the DM group (r = 0.42, P < 0.05; 95% CI: 0.68 –0.06). Age (β = 0.019, s = 0.007, sβ = 0.435, 95% CI: 0.033 –0.005, P = 0.008), LDL-C (β = 0.217, s = 0.105, sβ = 0.282, 95% CI: 0.428 –0.005, P = 0.045) remained independently correlated with CFVR in the DM group. However, we found no correlation between HDL-C level and CFVR in any group. Conclusions Diabetes may contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD) by inducing dysfunction of the coronary artery endothelium. Increased LDL-C level may adversely impair coronary endothelial function in DM. HDL-C may lose its endothelial-protective effects, in part as a result of pathological conditions, especially under abnormal glucose metabolism.

  2. VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10−5), decreased HDL-C levels (β = −6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = −0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446

  3. Associations of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein TaqIB Polymorphism with the Composite Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease Risk and HDL-C Concentrations: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu-xia; Yao, Ming-hong; Ding, Yu-song; Zhang, Jing-yu; Yan, Yi-zhong; Liu, Jia-ming; Zhang, Mei; Rui, Dong-sheng; Niu, Qiang; He, Jia; Guo, Heng; Ma, Ru-lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have evaluated the associations between the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB polymorphism (rs708272), the risk of developing composite ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between these factors. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of available studies to clarify the associations of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism with HDL-C concentration and the composite ischemic CVD risk in both Asians and Caucasians. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 12.0. Results: Through utilization of the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, China Science and Technology Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Google Scholar, and Baidu Library, a total of 45 studies from 44 papers with 20,866 cases and 21,298 controls were combined showing a significant association between the CETP TaqIB variant and composite ischemic CVD risk. Carriers of allele TaqIB-B1 were found to have a higher risk of composite ischemic CVD than non-carriers: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09–1.21, p < 0.001. Meanwhile, 28 studies with 23,959 subjects were included in the association between the CETP TaqIB polymorphism and the concentration of HDL-C. Results suggested that carriers of the B1B1 genotype had lower concentrations of HDL-C than those of the B2B2 genotype: SMD = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36–0.65, p < 0.001. Conclusions: The synthesis of available evidence demonstrates that the CETP TaqIB polymorphism protects against composite ischemic CVD risk and is associated with a higher HDL-C concentration in both Asians and Caucasians. PMID:27608031

  4. Associations of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein TaqIB Polymorphism with the Composite Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease Risk and HDL-C Concentrations: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-xia Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have evaluated the associations between the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP TaqIB polymorphism (rs708272, the risk of developing composite ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, but results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between these factors. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of available studies to clarify the associations of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism with HDL-C concentration and the composite ischemic CVD risk in both Asians and Caucasians. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 12.0. Results: Through utilization of the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, China Science and Technology Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Google Scholar, and Baidu Library, a total of 45 studies from 44 papers with 20,866 cases and 21,298 controls were combined showing a significant association between the CETP TaqIB variant and composite ischemic CVD risk. Carriers of allele TaqIB-B1 were found to have a higher risk of composite ischemic CVD than non-carriers: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09–1.21, p < 0.001. Meanwhile, 28 studies with 23,959 subjects were included in the association between the CETP TaqIB polymorphism and the concentration of HDL-C. Results suggested that carriers of the B1B1 genotype had lower concentrations of HDL-C than those of the B2B2 genotype: SMD = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36–0.65, p < 0.001. Conclusions: The synthesis of available evidence demonstrates that the CETP TaqIB polymorphism protects against composite ischemic CVD risk and is associated with a higher HDL-C concentration in both Asians and Caucasians.

  5. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) are essentia...... of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of similar to 5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is...

  6. Coexistence of High Fibrinogen and Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Predicts Recurrent Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ma; Xun-Ming Ji; Paul Fu; Yu-Chuan Ding; Qiang Xue; Yue Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may lead to serious neurological disorders;however,little is known about the risk factors for recurrent CVT.Our aim was to determine the association between elevated fibrinogen and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with recurrent CVT.Methods:This retrospective cohort study included participants if they had a first episode of objectively defined CVT and were admitted to Xuan Wu Hospital,Capital Medical University from August 2005 to September 2009.Demographic and clinical variables were collected,as well as laboratory parameters,including plasma fibrinogen and HDL-C.Patients with CVT were followed for recurrent symptomatic CVT.Follow-up was through the end of September 2010.Potential predictors of recurrence were analyzed using Cox survival analysis.Results:At the end of the follow-up,95 patients were eligible for the study.Twelve of 95 patients (12.6%) had recurred CVT.The median time of recurrence was 7 months (range:1-39 months).Eight of these 12 (66.7%) experienced recurrence within the first 12 months after their initial CVT.The recurrence rate of CVT was 2.76 per 100 patient-years.Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the coexistence of high fibrinogen (>4.00 g/L) and low HDL-C (<1.08 mmol/L) levels at baseline was the only independent predictor for recurrent CVT (hazard ratio:4.69;95% confidence interval:1.10-20.11;P < 0.05).Of the twelve patients with recurrent CVT in our study,7 (58.3%) had high fibrinogen plus low HDL-C levels.All 7 of these patients took warfarin for 3-12 months,and 6 of 7 had recurrent CVT after the discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment.Conclusions:Concomitant high fibrinogen and low HDL-C levels may be associated with recurrence of CVT.The effect of potential risk factors related to atherothrombosis on recurrent CVT should be closely monitored.

  7. Comparison between European and Iranian cutoff points of triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in predicting cardiovascular disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Dianatkhah, Minoo; Nezafati, Pouya; Talaie, Mohammad; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Golshahi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are important cardiovascular risk factors. The exact prognostic value of the TG/HDL-C ratio, a marker for cardiovascular events, is currently unknown among Iranians so this study sought to determine the optimal cutoff point for the TG/HDL-C ratio in predicting cardiovascular disease events in the Iranian population. The Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) is an ongoing, longitudinal, population-based study that was originally conducted on adults aged ≥ 35 years, living in urban and rural areas of three districts in central Iran. After 10 years of follow-up, 5431 participants were re-evaluated using a standard protocol similar to the one used for baseline. At both measurements, participants underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, and fasting blood measurements. "High-risk" subjects were defined by the discrimination power of indices, which were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the optimal cutoff point value for each index was then derived. The mean age of the participants was 50.7 ± 11.6 years. The TG/HDL-C ratio, at a threshold of 3.68, was used to screen for cardiovascular events among the study population. Subjects were divided into two groups ("low" and "high" risk) according to the TG/HDL-C concentration ratio at baseline. A slightly higher number of high-risk individuals were identified using the European cutoff points of 63.7% in comparison with the ICS cutoff points of 49.5%. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) was greatest in high-risk individuals identified by the ICS cutoff points (HR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.33-1.79]) vs European cutoff points (HR = 1.38, 95% [1.17-1.63]). There were no remarkable changes after adjusting for differences in sex and age (HR = 1.58, 95% CI [1.36-1.84] vs HR = 1.44, 95% CI [1.22-1.71]) for the ICS and European cutoff points, respectively. The threshold of TG/HDL ≥ 3.68 is the optimal cutoff point for predicting

  8. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  9. Identifying cardiovascular disease risk and outcome: use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio versus metabolic syndrome criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, M R; Carbajal, H A; Espeche, W G; Aizpurúa, M; Leiva Sisnieguez, C E; March, C E; Balbín, E; Stavile, R N; Reaven, G M

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to predict both risk and CVD events. We have identified sex-specific values for the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio associated with an unfavourable cardio-metabolic risk profile, but it is not known whether it also predicts CVD outcome. To quantify risk for CVD outcomes associated with a high TG/HDL-C ratio and to compare this risk with that predicted using MetS, a population longitudinal prospective observational study was performed in Rauch City, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 2003 surveys were performed on a population random sample of 926 inhabitants. In 2012, 527 women and 269 men were surveyed again in search of new CVD events. The first CVD event was the primary endpoint. Relative risks for CVD events between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C cut-points, and with or without MetS, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard. The first CVD event was the primary endpoint. Relative risks for CVD events between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C cut-points, and with or without MetS, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard. The number of subjects deemed at 'high' CVD risk on the basis of an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio (30%) or having the MetS (35%) was relatively comparable. The unadjusted hazard risk was significantly increased when comparing 'high' versus 'low' risk groups no matter which criteria was used, although it was somewhat higher in those with the MetS (HR = 3.17, 95% CI:1.79-5.60 vs. 2.16, 95% CI:1.24-3.75). However, this difference essentially disappeared when adjusted for sex and age (HR = 2.09, 95% CI:1.18-3.72 vs. 2.01, 95% CI:1.14-3.50 for MetS and TG/HDL-C respectively). An elevated TG/HDL-C ratio appears to be just as effective as the MetS diagnosis in predicting the development of CVD. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Association of lipase lipoprotein polymorphisms with high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in elderly men

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo,Lara Miguel Quirino; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra [UNIFESP; Gigek, Carolina de Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Maria de Arruda Cardoso [UNIFESP

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase is essential for triglyceride hydrolysis. the polymorphisms S447X in exon 9 and HindIII in intron 8 have been associated with lower triglyceride levels and lower cardiovascular risk in adult men. We examined the association of these lipoprotein lipase polymorphisms with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels in elderly men. Blood samples were obtained from 87 elderly men, 48 of whom had cardiovascular disease and 39 (controls) had no history of cardiovascula...

  11. Time to ditch HDL-C as a measure of HDL function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsein, Graziella E; Heinecke, Jay W

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies link low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, genetic polymorphisms linked to HDL-C do not associate consistently with CVD risk, and randomized clinical studies of drugs that elevate HDL-C via different mechanisms failed to reduce CVD risk in statin-treated patients with established CVD. New metrics that capture HDL's proposed cardioprotective effects are therefore urgently needed. Recent studies demonstrate cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of serum HDL (serum depleted of cholesterol-rich atherogenic lipoproteins) is an independent and better predictor of incident and prevalent CVD risk than HDL-C. However, it remains unclear whether therapies that increase CEC are cardioprotective. Other key issues are the impact of HDL-targeted therapies on HDL particle size and concentration and the relationship of those changes to CEC and cardioprotection. It is time to end the clinical focus on HDL-C and to understand how HDL's function, protein composition and size contribute to CVD risk. It will also be important to link variations in function and size to HDL-targeted therapies. Developing new metrics for quantifying HDL function, based on better understanding HDL metabolism and macrophage CEC, is critical for achieving these goals.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system....5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein in...

  13. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between a

  14. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  15. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  16. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Hans H; Andersen, Rolf V; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  17. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Hans H; Andersen, Rolf V; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  18. Nanobiotechnology applications of reconstituted high density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert O

    2010-12-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a fundamental role in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. Prior to maturation, nascent HDL exist as disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose perimeter is stabilized by amphipathic apolipoproteins. Methods have been developed to generate reconstituted (rHDL) in vitro and these particles have been used in a variety of novel ways. To differentiate between physiological HDL particles and non-natural rHDL that have been engineered to possess additional components/functions, the term nanodisk (ND) is used. In this review, various applications of ND technology are described, such as their use as miniature membranes for solubilization and characterization of integral membrane proteins in a native like conformation. In other work, ND harboring hydrophobic biomolecules/drugs have been generated and used as transport/delivery vehicles. In vitro and in vivo studies show that drug loaded ND are stable and possess potent biological activity. A third application of ND is their use as a platform for incorporation of amphiphilic chelators of contrast agents, such as gadolinium, used in magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, it is demonstrated that the basic building block of plasma HDL can be repurposed for alternate functions.

  19. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi Rizzo; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Isenovic, Esma R.; Dragana Nikolic; Niki Katsiki; Giuseppe Montalto

    2013-01-01

    Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...

  20. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  1. Altered activation of endothelial anti- and proapoptotic pathways by high-density lipoprotein from patients with coronary artery disease: role of high-density lipoprotein-proteome remodeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riwanto, Meliana; Rohrer, Lucia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Besler, Christian; Mocharla, Pavani; Mueller, Maja; Perisa, Damir; Heinrich, Kathrin; Altwegg, Lukas; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ...). High-density lipoprotein from healthy subjects (HDL(Healthy)) has been proposed to exert endothelial antiapoptotic effects that may represent an important antiatherogenic property of the lipoprotein...

  2. Mendelian Disorders of High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldoni, Federico; Sinke, Richard J.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a highly heterogeneous and dynamic group of the smallest and densest lipoproteins present in the circulation. This review provides the current molecular insight into HDL metabolism led by articles describing mutations in genes that have a large affect on HDL chol

  3. 高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇及其比值检测在中老年冠心病患者诊断和临床治疗中的意义%Significance of serum HDL-C, LDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C ratio levels in middle- and elderly-aged patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纵静; 唐其柱; 周恒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To appraise the significance of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol( HDL-C) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio(LDL-C/HDL-C) in middle- and elderly-aged patients with coronary heart disease(CHD). Methods Association between HDL-C, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and coronary artery lesions were analyzed in 290 patients who underwent coronary arteriongraphy,including coronary atherosclerosis diagnosed in 83 patients,given drug treatment, CHD confirmed in 163 patients who took PCI and negative in 44 cases as control group. And the differences among the three groups of males and females in blood lipid levels were analyzed. Results The levels of total cholesterol (TC) , LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio among the three groups were statistically different ( P <0. 05 or <0. 01). Stent group had higher TC, LDL-C,TC to HDL-C ratio(TC/HDL-C) than drug treatment group and controls (P < 0. 05 or < 0. 01). Stent group had significantly lower HDL-C than drug treatment group and controls( P <0. 05). HDL-C level of females in drug treatment group was significantly higher than that of males (P <0. 01) ,but TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/ HDL-C ratios of females in controls were lower than those of males (P < 0. 05). TC and HDL-C levels of females in stent group were higher than those males( P <0. 05). TC and HDL-C levels of females in controls were higher than those of males( P <0. 05) ,but TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C of females decreased more than those of males( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Serum HDL-C, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio associated with coronary artery lesions,and they were useful predicting indexes of clinical diagnosis and treatment for middle-and elderly-aged CHD patients.%目的 探讨血清高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、LDL-C/HDL-C检测在中老年冠心病(CHD)患者中的意义.方法 分析经冠状动脉造影确诊为冠状动

  4. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and its association with periodontal disease in Korean adults: findings based on the 2012-2014 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Jeong-Won; Lim, Hyoung-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-06-06

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,249 individuals (4,941 men and 7,308 women) who took part in the 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized the TG/HDL-C ratio into three groups. Periodontal disease was defined as a community pocket index score ≥3 with at least one affected site. Multiple logistic analyses were used to analyze the association between TG/HDL-C ratio and periodontal disease. In the study population, prevalence of periodontal disease was 31.6% in men and 21% in women. Compared to the lowest tertile group, OR (95% CI) of the highest tertile group for periodontal disease was 1.474 (1.220-1.780) in men and 1.259 (1.041-1.522) in women after adjusting for age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, current smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, household income, oral health behavior, and use of anti-dyslipidemia medication. Our study suggests that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. TG/HDL-C ratio is a simple and useful marker to reflect insulin resistance. And periodontal disease is also known to be related with insulin resistance. This study indicates that TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults.

  5. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  6. A Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet decreases atherogenic lipoproteins and reduces lipoprotein (a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Comperatore, Michael; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana C; Andersen, Catherine; McIntosh, Mark; Najm, Wadie; Lerman, Robert H; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet (control group, n = 41) and the same diet plus a medical food (MF) containing phytosterols, soy protein, and extracts from hops and Acacia (MF group, n = 42) on lipoprotein atherogenicity in women with metabolic syndrome. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), lipoprotein subfractions and particle size, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and lipoprotein (a) were measured at baseline, week 8, and week 12 of the intervention. Three-day dietary records were collected at the same time points to assess compliance. Compared with baseline, women decreased energy intake from carbohydrate (P lipoproteins, large very low-density lipoprotein (P lipoprotein to smaller high-density lipoprotein particles was increased (P lipoprotein (a) (P lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, and apo B. Inclusion of an MF may have an additional effect in reducing apo B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of endurance training on the relationships between sex hormone binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein A1 and physical fitness in pre-menopausal women with mild obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, S; Shono, N; Kondo, Y; Nishizumi, M

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with changes in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), physical fitness and spontaneous dietary intake before and after endurance training. Ten pre-menopausal obese women (32 to 49 years) who had never smoked or regularly drunk alcohol participated in this study. Physical training at an intensity of lactate threshold was performed for six months at a frequency of three times per week for 60 minutes using a cycle ergometer. Together with a reduction in body weight (-4.1 kg; P < 0.05) and with increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max = +3.4 ml/kg/min or +0.09 l/min; P < 0.05), the training induced some changes in both plasma lipid and lipoprotein. Although the total cholesterol (total-C), triglyceride, HDL2-C and apoprotein A1 (Apo A1) levels did not change, significant increases in HDL-C and HDL3-C, and significant reductions in Apo B, total-C/HDL-C ratio and fasting insulin concentrations were found after training. SHBG levels tended to increase after endurance training, but the changes were not significant. No alteration was observed in spontaneous dietary intake after training. A significant correlation (r = 0.648) was observed between the change in VO2 max(l/min) and the change in SHBG. In addition, changes in both VO2 max(l/min) and SHBG were significantly associated with changes in HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1. The changes in dietary intake did not correlate with the changes in SHBG, VO2max, HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Conrad B.; Levy, Robert I.; Eisenberg, Shlomo; Hall, Marshall; Goebel, Robert H.; Berman, Mones

    1977-01-01

    The turnover of 125I-high density lipoprotein (HDL) was examined in a total of 14 studies in eight normal volunteers in an attempt to determine the metabolic relationship between apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and A-II (apoA-II) of HDL and to define further some of the determinants of HDL metabolism. All subjects were first studied under conditions of an isocaloric balanced diet (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate). Four were then studied with an 80% carbohydrate diet, and two were studied while receiving nicotinic acid (1 g three times daily) and ingesting the same isocaloric balanced diet. The decay of autologous 125I-HDL and the appearance of urinary radioactivity were followed for at least 2 wk in each study. ApoA-I and apoA-II were isolated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography from serial plasma samples in each study. The specific activities of these peptides were then measured directly. It was found that the decay of specific activity of apoA-I and apoA-II were parallel to one another in all studies. The mean half-life of the terminal portion of decay was 5.8 days during the studies with a balanced diet. Mathematical modeling of the decay of plasma radioactivity and appearance of urinary radioactivity was most consistent with a two-compartment model. One compartment is within the plasma and exchanges with a nonplasma component. Catabolism occurs from both of these compartments. With a balanced isocaloric diet, the mean synthetic rate for HDL protein was 8.51 mg/kg per day. HDL synthesis was not altered by the high carbohydrate diet and was only slightly decreased by nicotinic acid treatment. These perturbations had effects on HDL catabolic pathways that were reciprocal in many respects. With an 80% carbohydrate diet, the rate of catabolism from the plasma compartment rose by a mean of 39.1%; with nicotinic acid treatment, it fell by 42.2%. Changes in the rate of catabolism from the second compartment were generally opposite those in the rate of catabolism from the plasma

  9. Development of an integrated model for analysis of the kinetics of apolipoprotein B in plasma very low density lipoproteins, intermediate density lipoproteins, and low density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, W F; Kesäniemi, Y A; Howard, B V; Grundy, S M

    1985-01-01

    To quantify more precisely the metabolism of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in human beings, an integrated model was developed for the analysis of the isotope kinetics of apo B in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and low density lipoproteins (LDL). The experimental basis for model development was a series of 30 triple-isotope studies in which patients received autologous 131I-VLDL, 125I-IDL, and [3H]glycerol as a precursor of VLDL triglycerides. The currently proposed model contains the following components: (a) a VLDL delipidation cascade that has a variable number of subcompartments, (b) a slowly catabolized pool of VLDL, (c) an IDL compartment consisting of two closely connected subcompartments, one of which is outside the immediate circulation, and (d) a two-compartment subsystem for LDL. Because mass data indicate that not all VLDL were converted to LDL, the model allows for irreversible removal of apo B from VLDL (or IDL) subsystems. It accounts for apparent "direct" input of LDL by postulating an early, rapidly metabolized compartment of VLDL that is converted directly to IDL. The model appears to be consistent with specific activity curves from the current triple-isotope studies and with present concepts of lipoprotein physiology; it also can be used to quantify pathways of lipoprotein apo B transport in normal and abnormal states. PMID:4031063

  10. Mediation analysis reveals a sex-dependent association between ABO gene variants and TG/HDL-C ratio that is suppressed by sE-selectin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Hsu, Lung-An; Wu, Semon; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Chang, Chi-Jen; Sun, Yu-Zen; Juan, Shu-Hui; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2013-06-01

    Previous investigations have revealed an association between the ABO locus/blood group and total cholesterol and inflammatory biomarker levels. We aimed to test the statistical association of ABO locus variants with lipid profiles and levels of thirteen inflammatory markers in a Taiwanese population. A sample population of 617 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled. Five ABO gene region polymorphisms were selected and genotyped. After adjusting for clinical covariates and inflammatory marker levels, the genetic-inferred ABO blood group genotypes were associated with sE-selectin level (P = 3.5 × 10(-36)). Significantly higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were noted in individuals with blood group A (P = 7.2 × 10(-4) and P = 7.3 × 10(-4), respectively). Interestingly, after adjusting for sE-selectin level, significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level as well as higher triglyceride (TG) level and ratio of triglyceride to HDL-C (TG/HDL-C ratio) were noted in individuals with blood group A comparing to non-A individuals (P = 0.009, P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively); these associations were also observed in the group A male subjects (P = 0.027, P = 0.001, and P = 0.002, respectively). Mediation analysis further revealed a suppression effect of sE-selectin level on the association between genetic-inferred ABO blood group genotypes and TG/HDL-C ratio in total participants (P = 1.18 × 10(-6)) and in males (P = 5.99 × 10(-5)). Genetic variants at the ABO locus independently affect sE-selectin level in Taiwanese subjects, while the association of ABO locus variants with TG/HDL-C ratio is suppressed by sE-selectin level in Taiwanese males. These results provided further evidence for the mechanism in the association of ABO blood groups with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels evaluating high-density lipoprotein function as influenced by novel therapeutic approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    deGoma, Emil M; deGoma, Rolando L; Rader, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression...

  12. Apolipoprotein C-III and High-Density Lipoprotein Subspecies Defined by Apolipoprotein C-III in Relation to Diabetes Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroner, Sarah A; Yang, Ming; Li, Junlong; Furtado, Jeremy D; Sacks, Frank M; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Cai, Tianxi; Jensen, Majken K

    2017-09-15

    Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a potentially novel biomarker that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, particularly when present on the surface of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In a case-cohort study carried out among 434 incident diabetes cases occurring before 2007 and 3,101 noncases in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study, we examined associations of baseline (1993-1997) plasma concentrations of apoC-III and subspecies of HDL defined by the presence or absence of apoC-III with risk of diabetes using Cox regression. ApoC-III was strongly associated with risk of diabetes (for top quintile vs. bottom quintile, hazard ratio (HR) = 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75, 6.70; P-trend C)) without apoC-III was inversely associated with risk of diabetes (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.85; P-trend = 0.002), more so than total HDL-C (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.35, 1.03; P-trend = 0.04), whereas HDL-C with apoC-III was not associated (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.50, 2.21; P-trend = 0.44) (for HDL-C with apoC-III vs. HDL-C without apoC-III, P-heterogeneity = 0.002). ApoC-III itself is a strong risk marker for diabetes, and its presence on HDL may impair the antidiabetogenic properties of HDL. ApoC-III has potential to be a therapeutic target for the prevention of diabetes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Possible association of ABCB1:c.3435T>C polymorphism with high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol response to statin treatment - a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The gene product ABCB1 (formerly MDR1 or P-glycoprotein is hypothesized to be involved in cholesterol cellular trafficking, redistribution and intestinal re-absorption. Carriers of the ABCB1:3435T allele have previously been associated with decreases in ABCB1 mRNA and protein concentrations and have been correlated with changes in serum lipid concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between the ABCB1:3435T>C polymorphism and changes in lipids in patients following statin treatment. Outpatients (n=130 were examined: 43 men (33%, 87 women (67%: treated with atorvastatin or simvastatin (all patients with equivalent dose of 20 or 40 mg/d simvastatin. Blood was taken for ABCB1:3435T>C genotyping, and before and after statin treatment for lipid concentration determination (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides. Change (Δ in lipid parameters, calculated as differences between measurements before and after treatment, were analyzed with multiple regression adjustments: gender, diabetes, age, body mass index, equivalent statin dose, length of treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant differences in ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.029; multivariate p=0.036 and %ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.021; multivariate p=0.023 between patients with TT (-0.05 ± 0.13 g/l; -6.8% ± 20%; respectively and CC+CT genotypes (0.004 ± 0.15 g/l; 4.1 ± 26%; respectively. Reduction of HDL-C in homozygous ABCB1:3435TT patients suggests this genotype could be associated with a reduction in the benefits of statin treatment.

  14. Lipoprotein predictors of cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Cater, Nilo B; Faergeman, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    the relationships between on-treatment levels of lipoprotein components to subsequent major coronary events (MCE). FINDINGS: Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried more predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but LDL-C was less...... predictive than both non-HDL-C and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to MCE. However, for estimating differences in relative risk reduction between the treatment groups, apoB and non-HDL-C were the strongest predictors. INTERPRETATION: The on-treatment level of apoB/apoA-1...

  15. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.

  16. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  17. Chromatofocusing of human high density lipoproteins and isolation of lipoproteins A and A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestruck, A C; Niedmann, P D; Wieland, H; Seidel, D

    1983-08-29

    Using chromatofocusing, a column chromatography method with an internally generated pH gradient and focusing effects, human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) were fractionated into six subclasses within an interval of less than 1 pH unit (pH 5.1-4.2). All fractions floated in the ultracentrifuge at density = 1.21 g X ml-1, retained a typical HDL electron micrographic morphology and as a single band, alpha-migration on agarose electrophoresis. Compositional analysis of the subclasses revealed an inverse relationship between cholesterol ester and cholesterol on a molar basis. Distinct differences in the distribution of the apolipoproteins between the fractions were found. Two of the subclasses contained only apolipoprotein A-I and were therefore considered to be two forms of the lipid-combined form of apolipoprotein A-I, i.e., lipoprotein A-I. One subclass contained only apolipoproteins A-I + A-II and was, therefore, lipoprotein A. One subclass contained apolipoproteins A-I + A-II + D, and the two remaining contained additionally apolipoproteins C and E. Lipoprotein A-I was also demonstrated after immunoabsorption of apolipoprotein A-II-containing lipoproteins from whole serum. It is suggested that this method, which allows the fractionation of HDL into subclasses with distinct differences in apolipoprotein composition, offers new avenues for the study of the structural and metabolic heterogeneity of HDL.

  18. Effect of apolipoprotein E variants on lipolysis of very low density lipoproteins by heparan sulphate proteoglycan-bound lipoprotein lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, F.H.A.F. de; Beer, F. de; Laarse, A. van der; Smelt, A.H.M.; Leuven, J.A.G.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is bound to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG) at the luminal surface of endothelium. It is the key enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Prior to lipolysis by LPL, the lipoproteins are considered to interact with vessel wall HSPG. Apo

  19. Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant, E-mail: prashant_pharmacy04@rediffmail.com; Jain, Narendra K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in [Dr. H. S. Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-09-15

    Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.

  20. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty Rahmatabady, Monireh; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Levels, Johannes; de Vries, Marcel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; Rezaee, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis fr

  1. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  2. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Cameron

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC. Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.

  3. Interaction of low density lipoproteins with rat liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Harkes (Leendert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe most marked conclusion is the establishment of the important role of non-parenchymal cells in the catabolism of the low density lipoproteins by the rat liver. Because the liver is responsible for 70-80% of the removal of LDL from blood this conclusion can be extended to total LDL tur

  4. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K; Albrechtsen, Anders; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben; Schmitz, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2008-06-01

    Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention.

  5. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  6. Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins and Antibodies against Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins as Potential Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was evaluation of the diagnostic utility of serum oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), antibodies against oxLDLs (o-LAB), and CEA as risk markers of colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods. The serum levels of study factors were measured in 73 patients with CRC and in 35 healthy controls who were gender- and BMI-matched to the study group. Concentrations of oxLDL, o-LAB, and CEA were detected in ELISA tests. Serum lipids, lipoproteins, and gl...

  7. Relationship between Serum Lipoprotein Ratios and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Kui Xiang; Fei Hua; Ying Tang; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Qi Zhuang; Feng-Juan Qian

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between serum lipoprotein ratios and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 105 PCOS patients and 109 controls were randomly enrolled in the study. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T), fasting glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and low-density lip...

  8. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target.

  9. DMPD: Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9261091 Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. Ste...in oxidation and its pathobiological significance. PubmedID 9261091 Title Low density lipoprotein oxidation ...and its pathobiological significance. Authors Steinberg D. Publication J Biol Che

  10. Hypo-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterolemia Caused by Evacuation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroaki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagai, Masato; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Sakai, Akira; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster forced the evacuation of residents and led to many changes in the lifestyle of the evacuees. A comprehensive health check was implemented to support the prevention of lifestyle-related disease, and we analyzed changes in lipid metabolism before and after these disasters. Methods Subjects included Japanese men and women living near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. Annual health checkups, focusing on metabolic syndromes, were conducted for persons ≥40 years of age by the Heath Care Insures. Results A total of 27,486 subjects underwent a follow-up examination after the disaster, with a mean follow-up of 1.6 years. Following the disaster, the prevalence of hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia increased significantly from 6.0% to 7.2%. In the hypo-HDL cholesterolemia group, the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and LDL-C level increased significantly in men after the disaster. On the other hand, in the normal HDL-C level group, the BMI, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and liver function were adversely affected. The decrease in HDL-C was significantly greater in evacuees than non-evacuees in the normal HDL-C level group. Furthermore, a multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the evacuation was significantly associated with the incidence of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate how the evacuation affected the incidence of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and led to an increase in cardiovascular disease. This information may be important in the follow-up and lifestyle change recommendations for evacuees.

  11. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes;

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum oxLDL in postmenopausal women and to identify possible associations of clinical and laboratory features with oxLDL in these patients. METHOD: After clinical examination and completing a clinical questionnaire, an ultrasound examination of both carotid.......10-0.43). Although intima-media thickness did not differ, postmenopausal women with serous oxLDL had more often atherosclerotic plaques compared to women without oxLDL (6/66 vs. 0/467; P high-density lipoprotein, impaired glucose intolerance, and DBP were independently associated...... with the occurrence of oxLDL. If oxLDL was present, higher high-density lipoprotein and glucose intolerance were associated with higher concentrations of oxLDL. In contrast, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL. CONCLUSION: This study presents the prevalence...

  12. Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White Women in Genome-Wide Analysis With Replication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chasman, Daniel I; Pare, Guillaume; Zee, Robert Y.L; Parker, Alex N; Cook, Nancy R; Buring, Julie E; Kwiatkowski, David J; Rose, Lynda M; Smith, Joshua D; Williams, Paul T; Rieder, Mark J; Rotter, Jerome I; Nickerson, Deborah A; Krauss, Ronald M; Miletich, Joseph P; Ridker, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White...

  13. Comparison of low-density lipoprotein obtained from the Friedewald formula and new formulae in a heterogeneous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guevara-Cuéllar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C should ideally be determined by beta quantification or enzymatic methods, there are limitations in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare LDL-C obtained through three formulae (LDL-Cnf with LDL-C obtained through the Friedewald formula (LDL-Cf using LDL-C through enzymatic methods as the most-accepted reference method in clinical practice (LDL-Cr.Methods: A concordance study was carried out in a reference laboratory in Cali, Colombia. The three formulae were (mg/dl: Men with triglycerides under 400 mg/dl: LDL-C = Total Cholesterol (TC - triglycerides (TG /6.5 - 45; men with triglycerides equal to or greater than 400 mg/dl: LDL-C = (TC - (TG / 7 -50 and women: LDL-C = (TC-(TG /6.5 - 70.Results: Three-hundred fifteen values were obtained of which 53% were for women. The mean age and LDL-Cr were 54 years (±15.8 and 112.1 mg/dl (±32.5, respectively. The median (interquartile range, mg/dl of TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and TG were 204 mg/dl (171-229, 51 mg/dl (41-61, and 156 mg/dl (99-237, respectively. There were no differences between mean values of LDL-Cr and LDL-Cnf (113.48 vs. 112.67 mg/dl; p=0.45. The intraclass correlation coefficient among LDL-Cr and LDL-Cf and LDL-Cnf were high (R=0.93 and 0.92, respectively. The correlation between LDL-Cf and LDL-Cnf was 0.95. There is no difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with the level of LDL-Cr at 160 mg/dl for LDL-Cnf and LDL-Cf. (0.94 vs. 0.93; p=0.27.Conclusion: There is high concordance between LDL-Cf and LDL-Cnf. These formulae could be an alternative when there are limitations to determine LDL-C because of the lack of enzymatic methods or through Friedewald formula due to the absence of HDL-C.

  14. Comparison of low-density lipoprotein obtained from the Friedewald formula and new formulae in a heterogeneous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guevara-Amador

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C should ideally be determined by beta quantification or enzymatic methods, there are limitations in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare LDL-C obtained through three formulae (LDL-Cnf with LDL-C obtained through the Friedewald formula (LDL-Cf using LDL-C through enzymatic methods as the most-accepted reference method in clinical practice (LDL-Cr. Methods: A concordance study was carried out in a reference laboratory in Cali, Colombia. The three formulae were (mg/dl: Men with triglycerides under 400 mg/dl: LDL-C = Total Cholesterol (TC - triglycerides (TG /6.5 - 45; men with triglycerides equal to or greater than 400 mg/dl: LDL-C = (TC - (TG / 7 -50 and women: LDL-C = (TC-(TG /6.5 - 70. Results: Three-hundred fifteen values were obtained of which 53% were for women. The mean age and LDL-Cr were 54 years (±15.8 and 112.1 mg/dl (±32.5, respectively. The median (interquartile range, mg/dl of TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and TG were 204 mg/dl (171-229, 51 mg/dl (41-61, and 156 mg/dl (99-237, respectively. There were no differences between mean values of LDL-Cr and LDL-Cnf (113.48 vs. 112.67 mg/dl; p=0.45. The intraclass correlation coefficient among LDL-Cr and LDL-Cf and LDL-Cnf were high (R=0.93 and 0.92, respectively. The correlation between LDL-Cf and LDL-Cnf was 0.95. There is no difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with the level of LDL-Cr at 160 mg/dl for LDL-Cnf and LDL-Cf. (0.94 vs. 0.93; p=0.27. Conclusion: There is high concordance between LDL-Cf and LDL-Cnf. These formulae could be an alternative when there are limitations to determine LDL-C because of the lack of enzymatic methods or through Friedewald formula due to the absence of HDL-C.

  15. 低密度脂蛋白胆固醇与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇的比值与脑梗死的关系研究%The relationship of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipopro-tein-cholesterol ratio to cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 张之福; 陈炜; 高亚丽; 杨伏肖; 宋西方

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)的比值(LDL-C/HDL-C)与脑梗死发生的关系。方法将本院2013年2月~2014年3月接收的136例确诊为脑梗死的患者作为试验组,对照组为110例同期检查的健康体检者,测定并比较两组LDL-C、HDL-C、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)的含量,计算LDL-C/HDL-C。结果试验组的LDL-C、TC及LDL-C/HDL-C显著高于对照组,HDL-C明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。脑梗死与LDL-C、TC及LDL-C/HDL-C呈正相关(r=0.148、0.106、0.162,P0.05)。结论 LDL-C/HDL-C明显增高与脑梗死发生具有重要的相关性,其可以作为一项生化指标对脑梗死的发生进行预测判断,相对于单一的LDL-C或HDL-C指标具有更高的敏感性和独立性,该比值具有较高的临床价值。%Objective To observe the relationship of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)/high density lipopro-tein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C) to acute cerebral infarction. Methods 136 patients diagnosed as cere-bral infarction in our hospital from February 2013 to March 2014 were selected as test group,and 110 healthy people examined at the same time were selected as the control group,LDL-C,HDL-C,TC,TG and LDL-C/HDL-C were detected and compared. Results The level of LDL-C,TC and LDL-C/HDL-C in test group were higher than those of control group,while the level of HDL-C was lower than that of control group,the differences were significant (P0.05).Cerebral infarction was positively correlated to LDL-C, TC and LDL-C/HDL-C (r=0.148,0.106,0.162,P0.05). Conclusion The increasing of LDL-C/HDL is closely related to cerebral infarction, can be used as a biochemical indicator to predict the occurrence of cerebral infarction,compared with LDL-C or HDL-C,the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C is more sensitive and independent,so it’s of great clinical value.

  16. Diagnostic Value of Serum TG/HDL-C Ratio in Diabetic Nephropathy%甘油三酯与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇比值在糖尿病肾病中的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨甘油三酯与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇比值(TG/HDL-C)在糖尿病肾病中的价值.方法 随机选取2型糖尿病患者150例,将其分为糖尿病无肾病组(45例)、早期糖尿病肾病组(35例)、临床糖尿病肾病组(42例)和晚期糖尿病肾病组(28例)4组,检测4组患者空腹血糖(FPG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)、甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、脂蛋白-A(Apro-A),脂蛋白-B(Apro-B),并计算TG/HDL-C比值.结果 与糖尿病无肾病组患者比较,各组患者糖尿病肾病HDL-C明显降低,且随着肾脏损害的加重,血清TG、TC、LDL-C、Apro-B、TG/HDL-C逐渐升高,而HDL-C、Apro-A逐渐降低,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).相关分析结果显示,UAER与HDL-C呈负相关(r=-0.558,P=0.027),而与TG/HDL-C比值呈正相关(r=0.638,P=0.015).结论 HDL-C是糖尿病肾病发生、发展中的重要保护因子,而TG/HDL-C是与其密切相关的危险因素.%Objective To study the diagnostic value of the serum TG/HDL-C ratio in diabetic nephropathy. Methods 150 patients with diabetes mellitus in our hospital were randomly selected and divided into four groups: non-nephropathy group (n=45), early nephropathy group (n=35), clinical nephropathy group (n=42) and later nephropathy group (n=42). Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-choleste (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-choleste (HDL-C), Apro-A, Apro-B, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) were measured and the ratio of TG and HDL-C was then calculated. Results The level of HDL-C in the nephropathy group was significantly lower than the non-nephropathy group. And with the increase of kidney damage, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, Apro-B, and TG/HDL-C were gradually increased, whereas -the levels of HDL-C and Apro-A were gradually reduced (P<0.01). Results form the correlation analysis showed

  17. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids high fat diet intervention on the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obesity-insulin resistance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan

    2016-04-22

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mRNA (P hepatic apoA-1mRNA expression (P hepatic ABCA1mRNA expression (P obesity-insulin resistance rats.

  18. Interaction Between Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ and Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 Polymorphisms Influences HDL-C Levels in the Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Tingjing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Han, Yi; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; van Dam, Rob M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Liu, Jianjun; Teo, Yik Ying; Goh, Daniel Y T; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors involved in the regulation of key metabolic pathways. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have established their important roles in lipid metabolism. A few SNPs in PPAR genes have been reported to be associated with lipid levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactive effects between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three PPAR isoforms α/δ/γ and other genetic variants across the genome on plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Study subjects (N = 2003) were genotyped using Illumina HumanOmniZhongHua-8 Beadchip. Fifty-three tag SNPs ± 100 kb of PPAR α, δ, and γ (r(2) PPARδ SNP rs2267668 and epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) downstream SNP rs7191411 (N = 1993, β = 0.74, adjusted P = 0.022). This interaction was successfully replicated in the meta-analysis of two additional Chinese cohorts (N = 3948, P = 0.01). The present study showed a novel SNP × SNP interaction between rs2267668 in PPARδ and rs7191411 in EMP2 that has significant impact on circulating HDL-C levels in the Singaporean Chinese population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  19. SCARB1 Gene Variants Are Associated With the Phenotype of Combined High High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and High Lipoprotein (a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Sethi, Amar A; Yanek, Lisa R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1), encoded by the gene SCARB1, is a lipoprotein receptor that binds both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein. We reported that SR-B1 is also a receptor for lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), mediating cellular uptake of Lp(a) in vitro...

  20. Accuracy of Non-Fasting Lipid Profile for the Assessment of Lipoprotein Coronary Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Safia; Ijaz, Aamir; Sharif, Tariq Bin; Khan, Dilshad Ahmad; Siddique, Amer

    2016-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile in the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, taking fasting lipid profile as gold standard, in adult population. Cross-sectional validation study. Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2014. One hundred seventy-five adult patients coming for fasting lipid profile were included; their non-fasting samples were taken on the next day. Patients on anti-cholesterol treatment and indoor patients were excluded. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were measured by direct enzymatic colorimetric method by Modular p-800®. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated by Friedewald's formula, but when triglyceride was greater than 4.5 mmol/l, then LDL-C was measured directly by homogenous enzymatic colorimetric method. Non-HDL-C was calculated by simple equation, i.e. TC-HDL-C. Non-fasting lipid profile had 93% specificity , 51% sensitivity, 94% positive predictive value and 49% negative predictive value; and 65% accuracy with 7.28 positive likelihood ratio and 0.52 negative likelihood ratio. Non-fasting TC and non-HDL-C were significantly higher than fasting TC and non-HDL-C by mean difference of 0.2 mmol/l each with p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively. Fasting and non fasting HDL-C are comparable to each other with mean difference of 0.01 mmol/l (p=0.745). Receiver operating curve (ROC) of non-fasting non-HDL-C showed 0.804 (95%CI (0.738-0.870), (p=0.000) area under the curve (AUC) indicating that it was a significant test for ruling out hyperlipidemia. Bland-Altmann plot showed a significant difference between non-fasting, non-HDL-C and fasting LDL-C and non-fasting, non-HDL-C -0.087540 with bias -0.00109; therefore, these cannot be alternative to each other. Diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile was found significantly higher than fasting lipid profile (p=0

  1. Serum lipoprotein ratios as markers of insulin resistance: A study among non-diabetic acute coronary syndrome patients with impaired fasting glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Recent data suggest that insulin resistance can predict cardiovascular disease independently of the other risk factors, such as hypertension, visceral obesity or dyslipidaemia. However, the majority of available methods to evaluate insulin resistance are complicated to operate, expensive, and time consuming. This study was undertaken to assess whether serum lipoprotein ratios could predict insulin resistance in non-diabetic acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients. Methods: Ninety non-diabetic patients with impaired fasting glucose admitted with a diagnosis of ACS were included in the study. At the time of admission fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. The homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was used for insulin resistance. The fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels were checked, and then TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios were calculated. The areas under the curves (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to compare the power of these serum lipoprotein ratios as markers. Results: Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in patients with HOMA-IR index > 2.5 as compared to patients with index <2.5 (P < 0.05. Both TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (P<0.05. The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio for predicting insulin resistance was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.93, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.91, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate that serum lipoprotein ratios can provide a simple means of identifying insulin resistance and can be used as markers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risk in adult non-diabetic patients.

  2. High Density Lipoprotein Phospholipids as a Marker of Coronary Heart Disease of Shen-Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping-qing (郭平清); LIN Qiu-cheng (林求诚); GUO Yin-geng (郭银庚); SHEN Zong-guo (沈宗国)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To seek a new biochemical index for diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD)of shen-Yang deficiency syndrom (CHD-SYD). Methods: Sixty-one patients with CHD were divided into 3 groups according to their TCM Syndrome type, 10 patients in the group without Xin-Qi deficiency (Group A), 25 in the group with Xin-Qi deficiency but without Shen-Yang deficiency (Group B) and 26 in the group both with Xin-Qi deficiency and Shen-Yang deficiency (Group C). Levels of 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid in urine (urinary 17-OHCS) per 24 hrs, and serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high density lipoprotein phospholipid (HDL-PL) in them were determined in synchrostep and compared with those in the control group of 23 healthy aged persons. urinary 17-OHCS per 24 hrs was taken as the diagnostic standard to screen a new index for diagnosis of Shen-Yang deficiency Syndrome, and preliminary appraisal to the index was made. Results: Serum HDL-PL in the CHD-SYD patients( Group C) was 616±157 mg/L, which was obviously lower than that in the patients of Group A and B. With low HDL-PL (<650 mg/L) used as the index to diagnose CHD-SYD, the sensitivity was 73%, the specificity 86% and the accuracy 80%. Conclusion: HDL-PL <650 mg/L could be adopted as an index for CHD-SYD diagnosis, which is simple and practical.

  3. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  4. [Analysis of lipoprotein metabolism in alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuki; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Usui, Shinichi; Hosaki, Seijin; Maruyama, Katsuya; Hosokawa, Yu

    2008-04-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is increased by exercise and drinking and is well known as a negative risk factor of coronary heart disease. We analyzed serum lipids of alcoholics from the view points of biochemical examination, remnant like particle (RLP) and particle size of lipoprotein for the purpose of estimated effect of serum lipids, especially HDL quality in alcoholics. Serum levels of total cholesterol, free glycerol, RLP-C and RLP-TG were significantly decreased after hospitalization. The condition of RLP-C/RLP-TG on admission revealed cholesterol-rich composition. In case of HDL-C, the longer period from last drinking to hospitalization affected its decrease. From analytical study of particle size of lipoprotein, quantities of HDL-C in very large size and large size were significantly decreased after hospitalization which means that HDL composition at hospitalization is cholesterol-rich. So, it is speculated that increased serum level of HDL in alcoholics may be caused by expanded cholesterol ester and its quality may be different from that of healthy people. In this meaning, the study of arteriosclerosis in alcoholics will be necessary in relation to high level of serum HDL-C.

  5. Association of monocyte/HDL-C ratio with SYNTAX scores in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, H; Kiziltunc, E; Cetin, M; Cicekcioglu, H; Cetin, Z G; Cicek, G; Ornek, E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between monocyte count/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (MHR) and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis, as assessed by the SYNTAX score (SXscore), in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography. A total of 428 patients were included in the study between March 2012 and February 2015. The SXscore was determined with baseline coronary angiography. An SXscore ≥ 23 was regarded as severe CAD by definition, and the patients were divided into two groups: those with low SXscores (MHR and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher in patients with high SXscores (p MHR and high SXscores. The cutoff value of MHR that predicted a high SXscore was 24, with a sensitivity of 66 % and a specificity of 65.1 %. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature showing that MHR is significantly associated with SXscores. Our results suggest that MHR can be used as a prognostic marker in patients with stable CAD, since it is an easily available and inexpensive test.

  6. HDL-C / apoA-I ] : a multi-vessel cardiometabolic risk marker in women with T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michel P; Valensi, Paul; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2017-09-15

    Although women have higher HDL-C than men, their HDL particles are also prone to become small, dense and dysfunctional in case of T2DM. To assess the vascular risk related to HDLs of different sizes/densities without direct measurement, we adjusted HDL-C to its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I), as [HDL-C/apoA-I]. This ratio estimates HDLs size and provides indices as to their number, cholesterol load, and density. We stratified 280 Caucasian T2DM women according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q), to determine how it segregates cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycemic control, and vascular complications. Five parameters were derived from combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I : HDL size; HDL number; cholesterol load per particle (pP); apoA-IpP; and HDL density. An adverse cardiometabolic profile characterized Q-I and Q-II patients, whose HDLs were denser and apoA-I-depleted, whereas Q-III patients had HDLs with characteristics closer to controls. Q-IV patients had HDLs of supernormal size/composition and a more favorable phenotype in terms of fat distribution; insulin sensitivity (64% vs 41%), metabolic syndrome, β-cell function (32% vs 23%); exogenous insulin (44 vs 89 U/day), and glycemic control (HbA1c: 56 vs 61 mmol/mol), associated with lower prevalence of micro-/macrovascular complications: all-cause microangiopathy 47% vs 61%; retinopathy 22% vs 34%; all-cause macroangiopathy 19% vs 31%; and CAD: 6% vs 24% (pHDL-C/apoA-I] can stratify T2DM women according to metabolic phenotype, macrovascular and coronary damage, β-cell function, microangiopathic risk, and retinopathy. This ratio is a versatile and readily available marker of cardiometabolic status and vascular complications in T2DM women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipoprotein heterogeneity in persons with Spinal Cord Injury: a model of prolonged sitting and restricted physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Emmons, Racine R; Kirshblum, Steven C; Galea, Marinella; Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A

    2015-07-28

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) often have low levels of physical activity, which predispose to increased adiposity and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and, generally, normal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. In spite of the mixed lipoprotein profile, the SCI population has been reported to have an elevated risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may permit a more precise quantification of lipoprotein particle (P) species, enabling a more accurate inference of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the SCI population. Fasting blood samples were obtained on 83 persons with chronic SCI and 62 able-bodied (AB) subjects. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI), triglycerides (TG), and P number and size of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein), LDL, and HDL subclasses were determined. AB and SCI subjects were stratified based on HDL-C (i.e., Low physical activity in individuals with SCI had the most profound effect on the HDL-C and its lipoprotein P subclasses, but not on LDL-C, however its P subclasses were also unfavorably affected but not to the same degree. The quantification of lipoprotein P characteristics may be a potent tool for the determination of risk for CVD in persons with SCI.

  8. Low density lipoproteins as circulating fast temperature sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Prassl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential physiological significance of the nanophase transition of neutral lipids in the core of low density lipoprotein (LDL particles is dependent on whether the rate is fast enough to integrate small (+/-2 degrees C temperature changes in the blood circulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using sub-second, time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering technology with synchrotron radiation, we have monitored the dynamics of structural changes within LDL, which were triggered by temperature-jumps and -drops, respectively. Our findings reveal that the melting transition is complete within less than 10 milliseconds. The freezing transition proceeds slowly with a half-time of approximately two seconds. Thus, the time period over which LDL particles reside in cooler regions of the body readily facilitates structural reorientation of the apolar core lipids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low density lipoproteins, the biological nanoparticles responsible for the transport of cholesterol in blood, are shown to act as intrinsic nano-thermometers, which can follow the periodic temperature changes during blood circulation. Our results demonstrate that the lipid core in LDL changes from a liquid crystalline to an oily state within fractions of seconds. This may, through the coupling to the protein structure of LDL, have important repercussions on current theories of the role of LDL in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  9. Identification and quantification of regioisomeric cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxides in oxidized human low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenar, J A; Havrilla, C M; Porter, N A; Guyton, J R; Brown, S A; Klemp, K F; Selinger, E

    1996-06-01

    Oxidation of human LDL is implicated as an initiator of atherosclerosis. Isolated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL2) were exposed to aqueous radicals generated from the thermolabile azo compound 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. The primary nonpolar lipid products formed from the autoxidation of LDL and HDL were the regioisomeric cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxides. In LDL oxidations, 9- and 13-hydroperoxides with trans,cis conjugated diene were formed as the major oxidation products if endogenous alpha-tocopheral was present in the LDL. After extended oxidation of LDL, at the time when endogenous alpha-tocopherol was consumed, the two trans,cis conjugated diene hydroperoxides began to disappear and the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides with trans,trans conjugated diene appeared. At very long oxidation times, none of the primary products, the conjugated diene hydroperoxides, were present. In HDL2, which has only very low levels of antioxidants, both the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides with trans,cis conjugated diene and the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides with trans,trans conjugated diene were formed at early stages of oxidation. The corresponding alcohols were also formed in the HDL2 oxidations. A mechanistic hypothesis consistent with these observations is presented.

  10. Effect of apolipoprotein M on high density lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Moser, Markus

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of apoM in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and atherogenesis, we generated human apoM transgenic (apoM-Tg) and apoM-deficient (apoM(-/-)) mice. Plasma apoM was predominantly associated with 10-12-nm alpha-migrating HDL particles. Human apoM overexpression (11-fold...... of alpha- to pre-alpha-migrating HDL was delayed in apoM-Tg mice. Moreover, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-independent generation of pre-beta-migrating apoA-I-containing particles in plasma was increased in apoM-Tg mice (4.2 +/- 1.1%, p = 0.06) and decreased in apoM(-/-) mice (0.5 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.......03) versus controls (1.8 +/- 0.05%). In the setting of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency, apoM-Tg mice with approximately 2-fold increased plasma apoM concentrations developed smaller atherosclerotic lesions than controls. The effect of apoM on atherosclerosis may be facilitated by enzymatic...

  11. SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of High-Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaee Farhad

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL, one of the main plasma lipoproteins, serves as a docking station for proteins involved in inflammation, coagulation, and lipid metabolism. Methods To elucidate the protein composition of HDL, we employed SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a potential high-throughput proteomic candidate for protein profiling of HDL. HDL derived from normolipemic individuals was captured on PS20 protein-chips using covalently bound antibodies against apo A-I or A-II. Results After optimisation, on-chip capture of HDL particles directly from plasma or from pre-purified HDL resulted in comparable fingerprints confirming specific capture of HDL. Depending on the capture antibody some differences in the fingerprint were observed. The most detailed fingerprint was observed up to 50 kDa; approximately 95 peaks were detected in the 3–50 kDa molecular mass range. Between 50 and 160 kDa, 27 more peaks were detected. Conclusion Based on these results, SELDI-TOF MS may be a suitable high-throughput candidate for HDL protein profiling and marker search. This approach may be used to i investigate the underlying mechanisms that lead to increased atherothrombotic risk and ii to investigate the atherothrombotic state of an individual.

  12. High-density cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI as modifiers of plasma fibrin clot properties in apparently healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Hońdo, Łukasz; Krzek, Marzena; Undas, Anetta

    2013-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases cardiovascular risk, whereas its high levels protect against atherosclerosis via multiple beneficial effects. Dense and poorly lysable fibrin clot formation is observed in cardiovascular disease. We sought to investigate whether HDL-C and its major component apolipoprotein A (Apo A)-I affect fibrin clot properties. In 136 apparently healthy individuals (99 men, 37 women, aged 49-69 years) we determined plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks coefficient) and lysis time (t50%) together with Apo A-I and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels. The median HDL-C level was 1.33  mmol/l (range from 0.77 to 2.19  mmol/l). HDL-C was positively associated with Apo A-I (r = 0.62, P Ks (r = 0.52, P Ks and t50% were associated with Lp(a) (r = -0.42, P Ks (P = 0.00016) and 17% shorter t50% (P = 0.0012) than the remainder. After adjustment for age, fibrinogen, and Lp(a), HDL-C was the independent predictor of Ks (β = 0.7, P < 0.00001) and t50% (β = -0.62, P < 0.00001). This study shows that elevated HDL-C levels are associated with improved fibrin clot permeability and lysis, indicating a novel antithrombotic mechanism underlying the postulated beneficial effects of therapy targeted at HDL-C.

  13. Moderate Exercise Increases Affinity of Large Very Low-Density Lipoproteins for Hydrolysis by Lipoprotein Lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Khloud; Cooney, Josephine; Bedford, Dorothy K; Wilson, John; Caslake, Muriel J; Gill, Jason M R

    2015-06-01

    Postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentration is independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise reduces postprandial TG concentrations, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. The objective was to determine the effects of exercise on affinity of chylomicrons, large very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL1), and smaller VLDL (VLDL2) for lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated TG hydrolysis. This was designed as a within-participant crossover study. The setting was a university metabolic investigation unit. Participants were 10 overweight/obese men. Participants undertook two oral fat tolerance tests, separated by 7-14 days, in which they had blood taken while fasting and for 4 hours after a high-fat mixed meal. On the afternoon before one test, they performed a 90-minute treadmill walk at 50% maximal oxygen uptake (exercise trial [EX]); no exercise was performed before the control trial (CON). We measured circulating TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations and affinity of chylomicrons, VLDL1, and VLDL2 for LPL-mediated TG hydrolysis. Exercise significantly reduced fasting VLDL1-TG concentration (CON, 0.49 [0.33-0.72] mmol.L(-1); EX, 0.36 [0.22-0.59] mmol.L(-1); geometric means [95% confidence interval]; P = .04). Time-averaged postprandial chylomicron-TG (CON, 0.55 ± 0.10 mmol.L(-1); EX, 0.39 ± 0.08 mmol.L(-1); mean ± SEM; P = .03) and VLDL1-TG (CON, 0.85 ± 0.13 mmol.L(-1); EX, 0.66 ± 0.10 mmol.L(-1); P = .01) concentrations were both lower in EX than CON. Affinity of VLDL1 for LPL-mediated TG hydrolysis increased by 2.2 (1.3-3.7)-fold [geometric mean (95% confidence interval)] (P = .02) in the fasted state and 2.6 (1.8-2.6)-fold (P = .001) postprandially. Affinity of chylomicrons and VLDL2 was not significantly different between trials. Exercise increases affinity of VLDL1 for LPL-mediated TG hydrolysis both fasting and postprandially. This mechanism is likely to contribute to the TG-lowering effect of exercise.

  14. [Cholesterol in serum high density lipoprotein fraction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, C; Jeanblanc, B; Offner, M

    1980-11-22

    The risk of atheroma can be assessed and valid epidemiological surveys can be carried out by measuring cholesterol in serum high density lipoprotein fraction (HDL) and calculating the HDL cholesterol: VLDL + LDL ratio. This was done in 39 patients free from surgically confirmed atheromatous lesions and in 51 patients presenting with such lesions. Of the four different techniques used for separation in these patients (ultracentrifugation, precipitation with heparin-Mn2+, precipitation with phosphotungstate-Mg2+ and electrophoresis), precipitation with phosphotungstate-Mg/2+ seems to be the most suitable, since there is no degradation of the HDL fraction as during electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and less floculation of the supernatant after separation. Contrary to ultracentrifugation, which requires sophisticated equipment and good technical skill, the technique is easily carried out.

  15. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  16. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  17. Improving lipoprotein profiles by liver-directed gene transfer of low density lipoprotein receptor gene in hypercholesterolaemia mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HAILONG OU; QINGHAI ZHANG; JIA ZENG

    2016-06-01

    The defect of low density lipoprotein receptor disturbs cholesterol metabolism and causes familial hypercholesterolaemia(FH). In this study, we directly delivered exogenousLdlrgene into the liver of FH model mice (Ldlr − / −) by lentiviral genetransfer system. The results showed that theLdlrgene controlled by hepatocyte-specific human thyroxine-binding globulin(TBG) promoter successfully and exclusively expressed in livers. We found that, although, the content of high density lipopro-tein in serum was not significantly affected by theLdlrgene expression, the serum low density lipoprotein level was reducedby 46%, associated with a 30% and 28% decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol, respectively, compared to uninjectedLdlr − / −mice. Moreover, the TBG directed expression ofLdlrsignificantly decreased the lipid accumulation in liver andreduced plaque burden in aorta (32%). Our results indicated that the hepatocyte-specific expression ofLdlrgene strikinglylowered serum lipid levels and resulted in amelioration of hypercholesterolaemia.

  18. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Dependent and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Cyclosporin A-Induced Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockx, Maaike; Glaros, Elias; Leung, Betty; Ng, Theodore W; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Deswaerte, Virginie; Nawara, Diana; Quinn, Carmel; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Jessup, Wendy; Rensen, Patrick C N; Meikle, Peter J; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-07-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant commonly used to prevent organ rejection but is associated with hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although studies suggest that CsA-induced hyperlipidemia is mediated by inhibition of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-mediated lipoprotein clearance, the data supporting this are inconclusive. We therefore sought to investigate the role of the LDLr in CsA-induced hyperlipidemia by using Ldlr-knockout mice (Ldlr(-/-)). Ldlr(-/-) and wild-type (wt) C57Bl/6 mice were treated with 20 mg/kg per d CsA for 4 weeks. On a chow diet, CsA caused marked dyslipidemia in Ldlr(-/-) but not in wt mice. Hyperlipidemia was characterized by a prominent increase in plasma very low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein/LDL with unchanged plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, thus mimicking the dyslipidemic profile observed in humans. Analysis of specific lipid species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry suggested a predominant effect of CsA on increased very low-density lipoprotein-IDL/LDL lipoprotein number rather than composition. Mechanistic studies indicated that CsA did not alter hepatic lipoprotein production but did inhibit plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of [(14)C]cholesteryl oleate and glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-double-labeled very low-density lipoprotein-like particles. Further studies showed that CsA inhibited plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. We demonstrate that CsA does not cause hyperlipidemia via direct effects on the LDLr. Rather, LDLr deficiency plays an important permissive role for CsA-induced hyperlipidemia, which is associated with abnormal lipoprotein clearance, decreased lipoprotein lipase activity, and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Enhancing LDLr and lipoprotein lipase activity and decreasing

  19. Concentration of Smaller High-Density Lipoprotein Particle (HDL-P) Is Inversely Correlated With Carotid Intima Media Thickening After Confounder Adjustment: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Li, Yatong K; Bell, Griffith A; Burt, Amber A; Vaisar, Tomas; Hutchins, Patrick M; Furlong, Clement E; Otvos, James D; Polak, Joseph F; Arnan, Martinson Kweku; Kaufman, Joel D; McClelland, Robyn L; Longstreth, W T; Jarvik, Gail P

    2016-05-20

    Recent studies have failed to establish a causal relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), shifting focus to other HDL measures. We previously reported that smaller/denser HDL levels are protective against cerebrovascular disease. This study sought to determine which of small+medium HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) or large HDL-P was more strongly associated with carotid intima-media thickening (cIMT) in an ethnically diverse cohort. In cross-sectional analyses of participants from the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated the associations of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured small+medium versus large HDL-P with cIMT measured in the common and internal carotid arteries, through linear regression. After adjustment for CVD confounders, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and small+medium HDL-P remained significantly and inversely associated with common (coefficient=-1.46 μm; P=0.00037; n=6512) and internal cIMT (coefficient=-3.82 μm; P=0.0051; n=6418) after Bonferroni correction for 4 independent tests (threshold for significance=0.0125; α=0.05/4). Large HDL-P was significantly and inversely associated with both cIMT outcomes before HDL-C adjustment; however, after adjustment for HDL-C, the association of large HDL-P with both common (coefficient=1.55 μm; P=0.30; n=6512) and internal cIMT (coefficient=4.84 μm; P=0.33; n=6418) was attenuated. In a separate sample of 126 men, small/medium HDL-P was more strongly correlated with paraoxonase 1 activity (rp=0.32; P=0.00023) as compared to both total HDL-P (rp=0.27; P=0.0024) and large HDL-P (rp=0.02; P=0.41) measures. Small+medium HDL-P is significantly and inversely correlated with cIMT measurements. Correlation of small+medium HDL-P with cardioprotective paraoxonase 1 activity may reflect a functional aspect of HDL responsible for this finding. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the

  20. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Susan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Methods Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ≥25 g/day in women and ≥35 grams per day in men, (3 intervention ≥4 weeks, (4 humans ≥18 years of age, (5 published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6 studies published in any language, (7 studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8 assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Results Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7, TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2, LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8 and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0 but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1. Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively

  1. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL.

  2. Increased transvascular low density lipoprotein transport in insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with diabetes cannot be explained by conventional cardiovascular risk factors alone. We hypothesized that transvascular lipoprotein transport may be increased in patients with diabetes, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein ...... be increased in patients with type 1 diabetes. This suggests that lipoprotein flux into the arterial wall is increased in people with type 1 diabetes, possibly explaining accelerated development of atherosclerosis....

  3. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Ping, Ling-Yan; Duong, Duc M; Gao, Xiao-Yan; He, Chun-Yan; Wei, Lei; Wu, Jun-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell‑mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native‑LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL‑stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label‑free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native‑LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native‑LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation.

  4. The compensatory enrichment of sphingosine -1- phosphate harbored on glycated high-density lipoprotein restores endothelial protective function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases its ability to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin I-2 (PGI-2) release in endothelial cells. Whether lipid content of HDL, especially sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), plays any specific role in restoring the protective function of HDL in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still unknown. Methods and results Immunochemical techniques demonstrated that glycated HDL loses its protective function of regulating COX-2 expression compared with diabetic HDL. We proved that the lipid content, especially phospholipid content differed between diabetic HDL and glycated HDL. Levels of HDL-c-bound S1P were increased in T2DM compared with control subjects as detected by UPLC-MS/MS (HDL-c-bound S1P in control subjects vs. T2DM: 309.1 ± 13.71 pmol/mg vs. 382.1 ± 24.45 pmol/mg, P HDL containing the protein components and phospholipids) and diabetic apoHDL&PL (diabetic HDL containing the protein components and phospholipids). With different doses of S1P reconstituted on glycated HDL, its function in inducing the COX-2 expression was restored to the same level as diabetic HDL. The mechanism of S1P reconstituted HDL (rHDL) in the process of regulating COX-2 expression involved the phosphorylation of ERK/MAPK-CREB signal pathway. Conclusion/Significance S1P harbored on HDL is the main factor which restores its protective function in endothelial cells in T2DM. S1P and its receptors are potential therapeutic targets in ameliorating the vascular dysfunction in T2DM. PMID:24751283

  5. Stability of serum high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs for preanalytical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hiroya; Taromaru, Nao; Kondo, Kanako; Nagura, Ayuri; Yamazaki, Mirai; Ando, Yoshitaka; Munetsuna, Eiji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji; Teradaira, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, several studies have shown that microRNAs are present in high-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein-microRNA may be a promising disease biomarker. We investigated the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs in different storage conditions as this is an important issue for its application to the field of clinical research. Methods microRNAs were extracted from the high-density lipoprotein fraction that was purified from the serum. miR-135 a and miR-223, which are known to be present in high-density lipoprotein, were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. The influence of preanalytical parameters on the analysis of high-density lipoprotein-miRNAs was examined by the effect of RNase, storage conditions, and freezing and thawing. Results The concentrations of microRNA in high-density lipoprotein were not altered by RNase A treatment (0-100 U/mL). No significant change in these microRNAs was observed after storing serum at room temperature or 4℃ for 0-24 h, and there was a similar result in the cryopreservation for up to two weeks. Also, high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs were stable for, at least, up to five freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions These results demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs are relatively resistant to various storage conditions. This study provides new and important information on the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs.

  6. Hydrolysis of guinea pig nascent very low density lipoproteins catalyzed by lipoprotein lipase: activation by hjman apolipoprotein C-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, T J; Quinn, D M; Goh, E H; Johnson, J D; Kashyap, M L; Srivastava, L S; Jackson, R L; Harmony, J A

    1981-08-01

    Very low density lipoproteins isolated from guinea pig liver perfusate (VLDLp) lack the equivalent of human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), the activator of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). These lipoproteins are therefore ideal substrates with which to investigate the mechanism by which apoC-II activates the enzyme. VLDLp binds apoC-II, and apoC-II associated with VLDLp markedly increases the rate of lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of VLDLp-triglycerides. The activator potency of apoC-II is independent of the method of enrichment of VLDLp with apoC-II: delipidated human apoC-II and apoC-II transferred from human high density lipoproteins activate lipoprotein lipase to equal extents. ApoC-II causes pH-dependent changes in both apparent Km and VmaX of LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of VLDLp-triglycerides. At pH l7.4--7.5, the major effects of apoC-II is to decrease the apparent Km by 3.3--4.0 fold. The apparent Vmax is increased 1.3-fold. At pH 6.5 and 8.5, the decrease of apparent Km is less marked, 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. At pH 6.5, apoC-II increases the apparent Vmax ty 1.3-fold, while at pH 8.5 the primary effect of apoC-II is a 1.6-fold increase of apparent Vmax. Based on a simple kinetic model, the data suggest that apoC-II favors direct interaction between enzyme and triglyceride within the lipoprotein particle, as well as subsequent catalytic turnover.

  7. High-density lipoprotein associated factors apoA-I and serum amyloid A in Chinese non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-liang; LIU Li-wei; XIE Shuang; LIU Hong; LIU Yu-qing; LI Yi-shi

    2010-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)levels are a strong,independent inverse predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD).In this cross-sectional study we investigated the interrelationships between HDL-C and HDL relaled factors apolipoprotein A-I(apoA-I)and serum amyloid A(SAA)and the presence and extent of CHD in a population of Chinese patients with CHD. Methods Two hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients took part in this study.Demographic data were obtained from hospital records.Serum chemical concentrations were measured by standard laboratory methods.Reaults The concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein(hsCRP)(median:1.85 mg/L)and SAP,(median:9.40 mg/L)were significantly higher in the CHD group(P<0.05),while concentrations of HDL-C(0.03±0.25)mmol/L)and apoA-I((604.59±1 05.79)mmol/L)were significantly lower than those in the non-CHD group(P<0.05).The concentrations of apoA-l decreased with the increase in vascular damage.but the difference did not reach statistical significance.However, the concentrations of hsCRP and SAA increased with the increase in vascular damage.The unadjusted odd ratios(ORs)(CI) for apoA-I and SAA of the presence of CHD were 0.093(0.990-0.997)(P=0.00)and 2.571(1.029-6.424)(P<0.05),respectively.The association between elevated SAA and the presence of CHD was lost after adjusting for lipid status parameter concentrations.The associations between apoA-I.SAA and the extent of CHD remained strong,regardless of confounding variables.Conclusions Increased concentrations of SAA represent the inflammatory marker of the extent of coronary stenosis in patients with CHD.In contrast to SAA, the level of apoA-I was also associated with the presence of CHD, indicating that apoA-I was not only a marker of CHD presence but also a quantitative indicator of CHD extent.In short.determining the change apolipoprotein content within HDL particle is a more accurate and effective method to evaluate the impact of HDL on CHD.

  8. The characteristics of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the relationship between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the severity of coronary artery lesions in young men with acute myocardial infarction%青年男性心肌梗死的高密度脂蛋白胆固醇特点及其与冠状动脉病变的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昭; 陶英; 黄觊; 王茜; 张冬花; 吴翔宇

    2013-01-01

    .784)、高血压(OR =7.782)、早发冠心病家族史(OR =4.613)、LDL-C(OR=2.496)、吸烟(OR=2.241)、Hb(OR=1.042)及UA(OR=1.005)是心梗的独立危险因素(均P<0.05),HDL-C(OR=0.147,P<0.05)是心梗的保护性因素;在青年男性心梗人群中,LDL-C(OR=2.095)及高血压(OR=1.042)(均P<0.05)是冠脉多支病变的独立危险因素,HDL-C(OR=0.071,P<0.05)是冠脉多支病变的保护性因素.结论 高密度脂蛋白胆固醇是青年男性急性心梗和冠脉多支病变的保护性因素.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the relationship between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the severity of coronary artery lesions in young men with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods We retrospectively studied 278 young men with acute myocardial infarction and compared with 208 non-CHD young men,137 old men with AMI.All patients were admitted to hospital from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011 and undergone coronary angiography,and the clinic and coronary angiographic features were assessed.According to the result of coronary angiography,the patients were divided into three groups:the single,double and triple vessel lesions.The relation between systolic body mass index (BMI),hemoglobin (Hb),serum uric acid (UA),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC),smoking history,essential hypertension,type 2 diabetes mellitus,familial history of early coronary artery disease with acute myocardial infarction and severity of coronary artery disease are observed.And observe the characteristics of HDL-C in the obesity group and the smoking group in young men based on body mass index and smoking history.Results (1) In young men with AMI group,the HDL-C levels was significantly lower than those in non-CHD young men group ((1.00 ± 0.28) mmol/L vs (1.05 ± 0.23)mmol/L,P < 0.05).In young men with AMI group,the HDL-C levels was

  9. Amphotericin B toxicity as related to the formation of oxidatively modified low-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwicz, J; Dumont, I; Ouellet, C; Gruda, I

    1998-01-01

    The effect of amphotericin B on the oxidation and degradation of low- and high-density lipoproteins was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy, electrophoresis, and size-exclusion chromatography. Two formulations of the drug were used: the commercial Fungizone and a new, less toxic, liposomal formulation, AmBisome. It was shown that Fungizone strongly enhanced the oxidative deformation of low-density lipoprotein structure while AmBisome did not bind to this lipoprotein fraction and did not affect its oxidation. It was shown that amphotericin B contained in Fungizone extracted cholesterol from low-density lipoproteins which sensitized them to oxidation. Both formulations of amphotericin B studied here did not bind to high-density lipoprotein and did not affect the process of its oxidation.

  10. Stability of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Mohsen; Fried, Eliot

    Motivated by experimental and numerical studies revealing that discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles may adopt flat elliptical and nonplanar saddle-like configurations, it is hypothesized that these might represent stabilized configurations of initially unstable flat circular particles. A variational description is developed to explore the stability of a flat circular discoidal HDL particle. While the lipid bilayer is modeled as two-dimensional fluid film endowed with surface tension and bending elasticity, the apoA-I belt is modeled as one-dimensional inextensible twist-free chain endowed with bending elasticity. Stability is investigated using the second variation of the underlying energy functional. Various planar and nonplanar instability modes are predicted and corresponding nondimensional critical values of salient dimensionless parameters are obtained. The results predict that the first planar and nonplanar unstable modes occur due to in-plane elliptical and transverse saddle-like perturbations. Based on available data, detailed stability diagrams indicate the range of input parameters for which a flat circular discoidal HDL particle is linearly stable or unstable.

  11. Tiliroside and gnaphaliin inhibit human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinella, Guillermo R; Tournier, Horacio A; Máñez, Salvador; de Buschiazzo, Perla M; Del Carmen Recio, María; Ríos, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Two flavonoids, gnaphaliin and tiliroside, isolated from Helichrysum italicum, were studied in vitro for their capacity to inhibit Cu(2+)-induced human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and diluted plasma oxidation. LDL oxidation was monitored by conjugated diene, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation and electrophoretic mobility on agarose gel. Gnaphaliin and tiliroside increased the lag-phase for diene conjugate production in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of TBARS production confirmed the antioxidant activity of gnaphaliin and tiliroside with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 8.0+/-3.9 microM and 7.0+/-2.6 microM respectively. Furthermore, the flavonoids negated the Cu(2+)-induced increase in electrophoretic mobility of LDL. Antioxidant activity of gnaphaliin and tiliroside was significantly different when diluted plasma was oxidised by adding 1 mM CuSO(4). Although both flavonoids again reduced the TBARS production, tiliroside showed higher activity than gnaphaliin (IC(50)=10.6+/-2.5 microM vs. IC(50)>50 microM). In conclusion, tiliroside and gnaphaliin are antioxidants against in vitro Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation in the same order of magnitude compared to that of the reference drug, probucol.

  12. Fast protein chromatofocusing of human very-low-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisweiler, P; Friedl, C; Schwandt, P

    1986-01-03

    Using fast protein chromatofocusing, a high-efficiency column chromatography method with a self-generated pH gradient and focusing effects, soluble human very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoproteins were fractionated between pH 6.3 and 4.0. In the presence of 6 mol/l urea and with a flow rate of 1 ml/min, one run (up to 10 mg of protein) took 30 min. VLDL apolipoproteins were separated in seven peaks. As revealed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and double-immunodiffusion against mono-specific antisera, fractions corresponded to the following proteins: apolipoprotein C-I, albumin, apolipoproteins A-I, E, C-II plus C-III0, C-III1 and C-III2, respectively. Apolipoproteins were eluted in sharp, well-resolved peaks. The recovery of proteins was 78% of the starting material. With fast protein chromatofocusing, an efficient isolation of single apolipoproteins is possible from small amounts of VLDL apolipoprotein preparations. This technique is superior to the commonly used, time-consuming methods for apolipoprotein isolation.

  13. Nonpharmacological approaches for reducing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    To reinforce the key role of diet and lifestyle modification as the first-line treatment for the reduction of raised serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Also, to counter recent claims that the current dietary guidelines for the treatment of cardiovascular disease have misplaced emphasis on the importance of removing dietary saturated fat instead of sugar. This review provides new insight into the effects of diet and lifestyle factors with established efficacy in lowering serum LDL-C. This includes energy-restricted weight loss and new findings on the effects of alternative day fasting; novel metabolic and molecular effects of replacing palmitic acid with oleic acid; evidence for a dose-response relationship between the intake of dietary stanols and LDL-C; and identification of a unique metabolic pathway for the excretion of cholesterol. The review reports new evidence for the efficacy of alternate day fasting, reassurance that the current dietary guidelines are not misguided by recommending removal of saturated fat, that a high intake of dietary stanols can achieve a reduction in LDL-C of up to 18%, and describes a pathway of cholesterol excretion that may help to explain variation in the response of serum LDL-C to dietary fat and cholesterol.

  14. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  15. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  16. High-density lipoprotein endocytosis in endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanie; Fruhwürth; Margit; Pavelka; Robert; Bittman; Werner; J; Kovacs; Katharina; M; Walter; Clemens; Rhrl; Herbert; Stangl

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the way stations of high-density lipoprotein(HDL) uptake and its lipid exchange in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: A combination of fluorescence microscopy using novel fluorescent cholesterol surrogates and electron microscopy was used to analyze HDL endocytosis in great detail in primary human endothelial cells. Further, HDL uptake was quantified using radio-labeled HDL particles. To validate the in vitro findings mice were injected with fluorescently labeled HDL and particle uptake in the liver was analyzed using fluorescencemicroscopy. RESULTS: HDL uptake occurred via clathrin-coated pits, tubular endosomes and multivesicular bodies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. During uptake and resecretion, HDL-derived cholesterol was exchanged at a faster rate than cholesteryl oleate, resembling the HDL particle pathway seen in hepatic cells. In addition, lysosomes were not involved in this process and thus HDL degradation was not detectable. In vivo, we found HDL mainly localized in mouse hepatic endothelial cells. HDL was not detected in parenchymal liver cells, indicating that lipid transfer from HDL to hepatocytes occurs primarily via scavenger receptor, class B, type Ⅰ mediated selective uptake without concomitant HDL endocytosis. CONCLUSION: HDL endocytosis occurs via clathrincoated pits, tubular endosomes and multivesicular bodies in human endothelial cells. Mouse endothelial cells showed a similar HDL uptake pattern in vivo indicating that the endothelium is one major site of HDL endocytosis and transcytosis.

  17. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  18. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Nicholaos I; Blair, Harry C; Kypreos, Kyriakos E; Papachristou, Dionysios J

    2017-05-01

    It is well appreciated that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and bone physiology and pathology are tightly linked. Studies, primarily in mouse models, have shown that dysfunctional and/or disturbed HDL can affect bone mass through many different ways. Specifically, reduced HDL levels have been associated with the development of an inflammatory microenvironment that affects the differentiation and function of osteoblasts. In addition, perturbation in metabolic pathways of HDL favors adipoblastic differentiation and restrains osteoblastic differentiation through, among others, the modification of specific bone-related chemokines and signaling cascades. Increased bone marrow adiposity also deteriorates bone osteoblastic function and thus bone synthesis, leading to reduced bone mass. In this review, we present the current knowledge and the future directions with regard to the HDL-bone mass connection. Unraveling the molecular phenomena that underline this connection will promote the deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of bone-related pathologies, such as osteoporosis or bone metastasis, and pave the way toward the development of novel and more effective therapies against these conditions. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Iatrogenic severe depression of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mymin, D; Dembinski, T; Friesen, M H

    2009-07-01

    The authors present 5 cases of paradoxical depression of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol induced by fibrate drugs. In a 24-month review of all cases seen in one physician's practice at the Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre Lipid Clinic, 492 patients made a total of 1187 visits. Sixty-eight of them were given a fibrate drug (14%). Ten patients had HDL cholesterol levels that were less than 0.5 mmol/L (2%), and of these, 5 cases were due to exposure to fenofibrate (1%). These 5 cases comprised 7.4% of the 68 patients who were given any fibrate drug during that period. Mean levels were as follows: HDL cholesterol on fenofibrate 0.27, off fenofibrate 1.0 mmol/L and apo A1 on fenofibrate 0.41, off fenofibrate 1.17 g/L. A literature review revealed documented cases in 37 patients involving fibrates alone or in combination with other drugs known to cause decreased HDL cholesterol levels. In 13 patients, exposure was to fibrate therapy alone; in those exposed to combinations, the effect was clearly attributable to fibrates in 9; in 14, the nonfibrates (mostly rosiglitazone) were the attributable drugs; and in 1, it was impossible to tell. Thus, fibrate therapy should always be suspected as a cause of profoundly depressed HDL cholesterol.

  20. Triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins have a differential effect on mild/moderate and severe lesion progression as assessed by quantitative coronary angiography in a controlled trial of lovastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, H N; Mack, W J; Azen, S P; Alaupovic, P; Pogoda, J M; LaBree, L; Hemphill, L C; Kramsch, D M; Blankenhorn, D H

    1994-07-01

    The Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-year trial of lovastatin monotherapy, found that coronary lesions or = 50% S at baseline had different responses to therapy. We now report on clinical, lipid, and nonlipid risk factors of treatment response in these lesion subsets. Two hundred seventy subjects, 37 to 67 years old, with plasma total cholesterol (TC) 190 to 295 mg/dL (4.91 to 7.63 mmol/L) and total triglyceride or = 50% S) lesions in 220 angiogram pairs analyzed by computer quantitative coronary angiography. In the placebo group, risk factors (P < .05) for the progression of mild/moderate lesions were triglycerides and TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Risk factors for the progression of severe lesions were HDL-C (negative), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. TC/HDL-C was the predominant risk factor for both mild/moderate and severe lesions in the multivariate analysis. In the lovastatin group, with aggressive lowering of LDL-C and TC below 85 mg/dL and 156 mg/dL, respectively, risk factors for mild/moderate lesions included triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein-LDL-associated apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III-heparin precipitate), a marker of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Apo C-III-heparin precipitate was the predominant risk factor in the multivariate analysis. Risk factors for severe lesions were LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and apo B; LDL-C/HDL-C was the predominant risk factor. These results indicate that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins have a differential effect on mild/moderate and severe lesion progression, respectively. These results add to the growing evidence of the importance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a risk factor for coronary artery disease and the need for treatment in the progression of atherosclerosis.

  1. HDL-C Response Variability to Niacin ER in US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Niacin is the most effective treatment currently available for raising HDL-C levels. Objective. To evaluate if gender and baseline lipid levels have an effect on the HDL-C response of niacin ER and to identify factors that predict response to niacin ER at the 500 mg dose. Material and Methods. The change in HDL-C effect between baseline and follow-up levels was quantified in absolute change as well as dichotomized into high versus low response (high response was defined as an HDL-C effect of >15% increase and low response was HDL-C <5% in a sample of 834 individuals. Results. Both males and females with low HDL-C levels at baseline exhibited a response to treatment in the multivariate model (males, HDL-C <40 mg/dL: OR=5.18, 95% CI: 2.36–11.39; females, HDL-C <50 mg/dL: OR=5.40, 95% CI: 1.84–15.79. There was also a significant difference in the mean HDL-C effect between baseline and follow-up HDL-C levels in the 500 mg niacin ER dose group for both males (mean HDL-C effect = 0.08, P<0.001 and females (mean HDL-C effect = 0.10, P=0.019. Conclusion. Baseline HDL-C levels are the biggest predictor of response to niacin ER treatment for both males and females among the factors evaluated.

  2. Green tea catechins prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation via their accumulation in low-density lipoprotein particles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Taguchi, Chie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Suzuki, Emiko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenols, including catechins which have antioxidant activities and are considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of green tea catechins on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro and in human studies to test the hypothesis that catechins are incorporated into LDL particles and exert antioxidant properties. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 healthy men ingested green tea extract (GTE) in the form of capsules at a dose of 1 g total catechin, of which most (>99%) was the gallated type. At 1 hour after ingestion, marked increases of the plasma concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate were observed. Accordingly, the plasma total antioxidant capacity was increased, and the LDL oxidizability was significantly reduced by the ingestion of GTE. We found that gallated catechins were incorporated into LDL particles in nonconjugated forms after the incubation of GTE with plasma in vitro. Moreover, the catechin-incorporated LDL was highly resistant to radical-induced oxidation in vitro. An additional human study with 5 healthy women confirmed that GTE intake sufficiently increased the concentration of gallated catechins, mainly in nonconjugated forms in LDL particles, and reduced the oxidizability of LDL. In conclusion, green tea catechins are rapidly incorporated into LDL particles and play a role in reducing LDL oxidation in humans, which suggests that taking green tea catechins is effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress.

  3. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • Is the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein lipids different than the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein lipids?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thomas, M J; Chen, Q; Zabalawi, M; Anderson, R; Wilson, M; Weinberg, R; Sorci-Thomas, M G; Rudel, L L

      2001-02-13

      This article gives detailed insight into the kinetics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) oxidation catalyzed by azobis(2-amidinopropane).dihydrochloride (ABAP) or by copper. ABAP initialized oxidation of human HDL 3-4 times faster than non-human primate HDL with a similar composition. The oxidizability of non-human primate HDL was 1000 times lower than the oxidizability calculated from rate constants derived from liposome oxidation, suggesting that there is a slow step in HDL oxidation not present in liposomes. Saturable binding of copper to HDL was a significant feature of copper-catalyzed oxidation. Binding constants (K(m)) for non-human primate HDL were 2-3-fold lower than those for human HDL. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of non-human primate HDL was slower than that of human HDL, but human HDL(2) and HDL(3) oxidized at about the same rate. Overall, the kinetics describing the oxidation of HDL were mechanistically similar to those reported for LDL, suggesting that HDL lipids were as easily oxidized as LDL lipids and that HDL will be easily oxidized in vivo when exposed to agents that oxidize LDL.

    • Relationship between low-density lipoprotein levels on admission and 1-year outcome in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yu-Jiao Sun

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels on admission and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI. Patients with ASTEMI who had a lipid profile tested within 24 hours of symptom onset were enrolled. They were stratified into high and low LDL-C groups according to whether their LDL-C was above (n = 501 or below (n = 575 the median level, respectively. The incidence of MACE, cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, revascularization, and stroke was compared between the groups at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis were performed. In-hospital use of beta blockers was better in the high than in the low LDL-C group (76.6% vs. 69.7%, p = 0.01. Statin use was significantly higher in the high than in the low LDL-C group during follow-up (86.8% vs. 80.0%, p = 0.003 at1 month; 71.6% vs. 62.4%, p = 0.002 at 6 months; 67.8% vs. 61.2%, p = 0.03 at 1 year. The incidence of MACE on follow-up at 1 month was higher in the low than in the high LDL-C group (12.0% vs. 8.1%, p = 0.04. At 1 year, survival was not significantly different between the groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that the incidence of MACE was significantly associated with hypertension, current smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, in-hospital use of beta blockers, and statin use on follow-up (p < 0.01. LDL-C levels on admission in patients with ASTEMI had no significant effect on the 6-month and 1-year incidence of MACE, but the incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the low LDL-C group at 1 month. It would be relevant to further investigate the HDL-C level on admission, in-hospital use of beta blockers, and statin use during follow-up in relation to MACE.

    • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol on a roller coaster: where will the ride end?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kronenberg, Florian

      2016-04-01

      Bowe et al. report an association between low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and various incident chronic kidney disease end points in a cohort of almost 2 million US veterans followed for 9 years. These impressive data should be a starting point for further investigations including genetic epidemiologic investigations as well as post hoc analyses of interventional trials that target high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and, finally, studies that focus on the functionality of high-density lipoprotein particles.

    • High-density lipoprotein proteome dynamics in human endotoxemia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Stroes Erik SG

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background A large variety of proteins involved in inflammation, coagulation, lipid-oxidation and lipid metabolism have been associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL and it is anticipated that changes in the HDL proteome have implications for the multiple functions of HDL. Here, SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS was used to study the dynamic changes of HDL protein composition in a human experimental low-dose endotoxemia model. Ten healthy men with low HDL cholesterol (0.7+/-0.1 mmol/L and 10 men with high HDL cholesterol levels (1.9+/-0.4 mmol/L were challenged with endotoxin (LPS intravenously (1 ng/kg bodyweight. We previously showed that subjects with low HDL cholesterol are more susceptible to an inflammatory challenge. The current study tested the hypothesis that this discrepancy may be related to differences in the HDL proteome. Results Plasma drawn at 7 time-points over a 24 hour time period after LPS challenge was used for direct capture of HDL using antibodies against apolipoprotein A-I followed by subsequent SELDI-TOF MS profiling. Upon LPS administration, profound changes in 21 markers (adjusted p-value Conclusions This study shows that the semi-quantitative differences in the HDL proteome as assessed by SELDI-TOF MS cannot explain why subjects with low HDL cholesterol are more susceptible to a challenge with LPS than those with high HDL cholesterol. Instead the results indicate that hierarchical clustering could be useful to predict HDL functionality in acute phase responses towards LPS.

    • Aggregation and fusion of modified low density lipoprotein.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pentikäinen, M O; Lehtonen, E M; Kovanen, P T

      1996-12-01

      In atherogenesis, low density lipoprotein (LDL, diameter 22 nm) accumulates in the extracellular space of the arterial intima in the form of aggregates of lipid droplets (droplet diameter up to 400 nm). Here we studied the effects of various established in vitro LDL modifications on LDL aggregation and fusion. LDL was subjected to vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin, lipolysis by sphingomyelinase, and nonenzymatic glycosylation, and was induced to form adducts with malondialdehyde or complexes with anti-apoB-100 antibodies. To assess the amount of enlarged LDL-derived structures formed (due to aggregation or fusion), we measured the turbidity of solutions containing modified LDL, and quantified the proportion of modified LDL that 1) sedimented at low-speed centrifugation (14,000 g), 2) floated at an increased rate at high-speed centrifugation (rate zonal flotation at 285,000 gmax), 3) were excluded in size-exclusion column chromatography (exclusion limit 40 MDa), or 4) failed to enter into 0.5%. Fast Lane agarose gel during electrophoresis. To detect whether particle fusion had contributed to the formation of the enlarged LDL-derived structures, particle morphology was examined using negative staining and thin-section transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1) aggregation was induced by the formation of LDL-antibody complexes, malondialdehyde treatment, and glycosylation of LDL; 2) fusion of LDL was induced by proteolysis of LDL by alpha-chymotrypsin; and 3) aggregation and fusion of LDL were induced by vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, and lipolysis by sphingomyclinase of LDL. The various modifications of LDL differed in their ability to induce aggregation and fusion.

    • High-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis: Roles of lipid transporters

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Yoshinari; Uehara; Keijiro; Saku

      2014-01-01

      Various previous studies have found a negative cor-relation between the risk of cardiovascular events and serum high-density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol levels. The reverse cholesterol transport, a pathway of choles-terol from peripheral tissue to liver which has several potent antiatherogenic properties. For instance, the particles of HDL mediate to transport cholesterol from cells in arterial tissues, particularly from atherosclerotic plaques, to the liver. Both ATP-binding cassette trans-porters(ABC) A1 and ABCG1 are membrane cholesterol transporters and have been implicated in mediating cholesterol effluxes from cells in the presence of HDL and apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein constituent of HDL. Previous studies demonstrated that ABCA1 and ABCG1 or the interaction between ABCA1 and ABCG1 exerted antiatherosclerotic effects. As a therapeutic approach for increasing HDL cholesterol levels, much focus has been placed on increasing HDL cholesterol levels as well as enhancing HDL biochemical functions. HDL therapies that use injections of reconstituted HDL, apoA-I mimetics, or full-length apoA-I have shown dramatic effectiveness. In particular, a novel apoA-I mi-metic peptide, Fukuoka University ApoA-I Mimetic Pep-tide, effectively removes cholesterol via specific ABCA1 and other transporters, such as ABCG1, and has an an-tiatherosclerotic effect by enhancing the biological func-tions of HDL without changing circulating HDL choles-terol levels. Thus, HDL-targeting therapy has significant atheroprotective potential, as it uses lipid transporter-targeting agents, and may prove to be a therapeutic tool for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    • Giardia lamblia low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is involved in selective lipoprotein endocytosis and parasite replication.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rivero, Maria R; Miras, Silvana L; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Rópolo, Andrea S; Touz, Maria C

      2011-03-01

      As Giardia lamblia is unable to synthesize cholesterol de novo, this steroid might be obtained from the host's intestinal milieu by endocytosis of lipoproteins. In this work, we identified a putative Giardia lamblia low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (GlLRP), a type I membrane protein, which shares the substrate N-terminal binding domain and a FXNPXY-type endocytic motif with human LRPs. Expression of tagged GlLRP showed that it was localized predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomal-like peripheral vacuoles and plasma membrane. However, the FXNPXY-deleted GlLRP was retained at the plasma membrane suggesting that it is abnormally transported and processed. The low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons interacted with GlLRP, with this interaction being necessary for lipoprotein internalization and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that GlLRP binds directly to the medium subunit of Giardia adaptor protein 2, indicating that receptor-mediated internalization occurs through an adaptin mechanism.

    • Effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on low-density lipoprotein subfraction profile, low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, and antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein in relation to carotid intima media thickness in familial hypercholesterolemia.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Tits, L.J.H. van; Smilde, T.J.; Wissen, S. van; Graaf, J. de; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

      2004-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of statins on the quality of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in relation to atherosclerosis progression. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized trial of 325 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), we assessed the effects of high-dose

    • Functional and proteomic alterations of plasma high density lipoproteins in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Manjunatha, Shankarappa; Distelmaier, Klaus; Dasari, Surendra; Carter, Rickey E; Kudva, Yogish C; Nair, K Sreekumaran

      2016-09-01

      Higher HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is linked to lower cardiovascular risk but individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with normal or high HDL-C have higher cardiovascular events compared to age matched non-diabetic controls (ND). We determined whether altered HDL functions despite having normal HDL-C concentration may explain increased cardiovascular risk in T1DM individuals. We also determined whether irreversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of HDL bound proteins occur in T1DM individuals with altered HDL functions. T1DM with poor glycemic control (T1D-PC, HbA1c≥8.5%, n=15) and T1DM with good glycemic control (T1D-GC, HbA1c≤6.6%, n=15) were compared with equal numbers of NDs, ND-PC and ND-GC respectively, matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). We measured cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL in the serum using J774 macrophages, antioxidant function of HDL as the ability to reverse the oxidative damage of LDL and PON1 activity using commercially available kit. For proteomic analysis, HDL was isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and was analyzed by mass spectrometry and shotgun proteomics method. Plasma HDL-C concentrations in both T1DM groups were similar to their ND. However, CEC (%) of T1D-PC (16.9±0.8) and T1D-GC (17.1±1) were lower than their respective ND (17.9±1, p=0.01 and 18.2±1.4, p=0.02). HDL antioxidative function also was lower (p<0.05). The abundance of oxidative PTMs of apolipoproteins involved in CEC and antioxidative functions of HDL were higher in T1D-PC (ApoA4, p=0.041) and T1D-GC (ApoA4, p=0.025 and ApoE, p=0.041) in comparison with ND. Both T1D-PC and T1D-GC groups had higher abundance of amadori modification of ApoD (p=0.002 and p=0.041 respectively) and deamidation modification of ApoA4 was higher in T1D-PC (p=0.025). Compromised functions of HDL particles in T1DM individuals, irrespective of glycemic control, could be explained by higher abundance of irreversible PTMs of HDL proteins. These

    • The Association Between Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein,Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 Ratio and coronary Artery Stenosis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abbas Zavarehee

      2009-05-01

      Full Text Available Background:Recently,small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL has been highlighted as a new risk factor for the coronary artery disease(CAD.Small dense LDLs are believed to be atherogenic since these particles are taken up more easily by arterial wall.They are readily oxidized and have reduced affinity for low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor and increased affinity for arterial proteoglicans.LDL cholesterol is only a measure of the cholesterol level in the LDL whereas apolipoprotein B(apo B is a measure of the cholesterol levels of all the atherogenic particles,including very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density, and low density lipoproteins. Therefore,it might be a better marker than other traditional lipids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum small dense LDL, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1 and apoB/apoA1 ratio and the coronary stenosis.Methods: 86 patients with coronary stenosis, 35 patients without coronary stenosis   identified by angiography who were referred to Rajaii Heart Center , and 30 healthy individuals were studied.SdLDL was measured by a direct homogenous LDL-C assay in the supernatant of serum which remained after heparin-magnesium precipitation.Serum apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B were measured by using immunoturbidimetric method.Results: The results showed that the sdLDL levels were higher in patients with coronary stenosis than patients without coronary stenosis and healthy individuals   (21.54±7.1, 16.88±4.4 and 15.45±5mg/dl, p=0.001, respectively. In addition the level   of apoB (with stenosis: 113.71±21.8, without stenosis:100.88±18.7 and healthy:102.30±9.6, p=0.003 and apoB/apoA1 ratio (with stenosis:1.100±0.24, without stenosis :0.589±0.26 and healthy:0.751±0.16, p=0.001 were significantly higher in patients with coronary stenosis. SdLDL levels were positively correlated with the level of apoB(r=0.589, apoB/apoA1 ratio(r=0.416, triglyceride

    • The Combined Effect of Common Genetic Risk Variants on Circulating Lipoproteins Is Evident in Childhood: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      Buscot, Marie-jeanne; Magnussen, Costan G.; Juonala, Markus; Pitkänen, Niina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Schork, Nicholas J.

      2016-01-01

      Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Several genetic loci for predisposition to abnormal LDL-C, HDL-C and TG have been identified. However, it remains unclear whether these loci are consistently associated with serum lipid levels at each age or with unique developmental trajectories. Therefore, we assessed the association between genome wide association studies (GWAS) derived polygenic genetic risk scores and LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride trajectories from childhood to adulthood using data available from the 27-year European ‘Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns’ Study. For 2,442 participants, three weighted genetic risk scores (wGRSs) for HDL-C (38 SNPs), LDL-C (14 SNPs) and triglycerides (24 SNPs) were computed and tested for association with serum lipoprotein levels measured up to 8 times between 1980 and 2011. The categorical analyses revealed no clear divergence of blood lipid trajectories over time between wGRSs categories, with participants in the lower wGRS quartiles tending to have average lipoprotein concentrations 30 to 45% lower than those in the upper-quartile wGRS beginning at age 3 years and continuing through to age 49 years (where the upper-quartile wGRS have 4–7 more risk alleles than the lower wGRS group). Continuous analyses, however, revealed a significant but moderate time-dependent genetic interaction for HDL-C levels, with the association between HDL-C and the continuous HDL-C risk score weakening slightly with age. Conversely, in males, the association between the continuous TG genetic risk score and triglycerides levels tended to be lower in childhood and become more pronounced after the age of 25 years. Although the influence of genetic factors on age-specific lipoprotein values and developmental trajectories is complex, our data show that wGRSs are highly predictive of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglyceride

    • Assessing the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins : an emerging concept in cardiovascular research

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Triolo, Michela; Annema, Wijtske; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

      2013-01-01

      Although plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, results from recent epidemiological, genetic and pharmacological intervention studies resulted in a shift of concept. Rather than HDL cholest

    • High Density Lipoproteins and Arteriosclerosis: Role of Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd

      2001-01-01

      Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...

    • Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

      1998-01-01

      Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

    • Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in men: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

      2006-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise is recommended for improving lipoprotein and lipid levels which at less than their optimal levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Evidence seems lacking for the effectiveness of exercise in reducing these levels, possibly due to small sizes in studies. We concluded a meta-analysis of the studies to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins in adult men. METHODS: Studies were retrieved via computerized literature searches, cross-referencing from retrieved articles, hand-searching, and expert review of our reference list. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, aerobic exercise ≥8 weeks, adult men ≥18 years of age, studies published in journal, dissertation, or master's thesis format, studies published in the English-language between January 1, 1955 and January 1, 2003, and assessment of one or more of the following lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and triglycerides (TG). All coding was conducted by both authors, independent of each other. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Forty-nine randomized controlled trials representing up to 67 outcomes from 2,990 men (1,741 exercise, 1,249 control) were pooled for analysis. Using random-effects modeling, statistically significant improvements were observed for TC, HDL-C and TG, and a trend for decreases was observed for LDL-C. Changes were equivalent to improvements of 2% for TC and HDL-C, 3% of LDL-C, and 9% for TG. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise reduces TC and TG and increases HDL-C in men 18 years of age and older.

    • Razão triglicérides/HDL-C e proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade na avaliação do risco cardiovascular Triglycerides/HDL-C ratio and high sensible C-reactive protein to the evaluation of cardiovascular risk

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eder Andrade Vieira

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Índices calculados a partir de medidas laboratoriais e a determinação de marcadores plasmáticos são frequentemente utilizados para a avaliação do risco cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Utilizar a razão triglicérides/colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estimativa de tamanho de partículas de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e os níveis da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as para a avaliação clínica e laboratorial do risco cardiovascular de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 60 pacientes por conveniência, 36 do sexo feminino (F (65 ± 9 anos e 24 do sexo masculino (M (55 ± 10 anos com diagnóstico de cardiopatia isquêmica estável, atendidos no Hospital Ana Neri, em Salvador, Bahia. A investigação foi realizada no Laboratório de Bioquímica Clínica da Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas após 12 horas de jejum para determinação da PCR-as, do perfil lipídico e do cálculo de indicadores de risco. As determinações foram realizadas no equipamento Syncron LX®20 Beckman Coulter, USA. Foram considerados significativos os resultados da análise inferencial para p INTRODUCTION: Calculated indexes from laboratory measurements and the determination of plasma markers are commonly used in cardiovascular risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To use triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, estimate of low-density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels to the clinical and laboratorial assessment of coronary risk among patients with coronary disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients were chosen accordingly, 36 female (F (65 ± 9 years of age and 24 male (M (55 ± 10 years of age diagnosed with stable ischemic cardiopathy at Ana Neri Hospital, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The investigation was carried out at the Clinical

    • Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Howard, Timothy D; Reboussin, David M; Horvath, Katalin V; Schaefer, Ernst J; Herrington, David M

      2010-02-01

      A high degree of inter-individual variability in plasma lipid level response to hormone therapy (HT) has been reported. Variations in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) and in genes involved in lipid metabolism may explain some of the variability in response to HT. Subjects Postmenopausal Caucasian women (n = 208) participating in a placebo-controlled randomized trial of 3.2 years of hormone therapy (HT). Plasma triglyceride (TG), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and HDL subpopulations were assessed at baseline and at follow up. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 and in the ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (LIPC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SRB1) genes were assessed for their association with baseline plasma levels and HT-related changes in levels of RLP-C and HDL subpopulations. Carriers of the ESR1 PvuII or IVS1-1505 variants had lower plasma TG concentrations and higher plasma HDL-C and alpha-1 and prealpha-1 HDL particle levels at baseline and showed greater increases in HDL-C, apo A-I and alpha-1 particle levels after HT than wild-type carriers. Carriers of the N291S and D9N variants in the LPL gene had significantly higher remnant lipoproteins and lower alpha-2 HDL particle levels at baseline. The CETP TaqIB SNP was a significant determinant of baseline plasma HDL-C and HDL subpopulation profile. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1, CETP and LPL had significant effects on baseline plasma levels of TG-rich and HDL subpopulations. With the exception of ESR1 SNPs, variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism has a very modest effect on lipoprotein response to HT.

  1. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...

  2. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 and the intravascular processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyo, O; Goulbourne, C N; Bensadoun, A; Beigneux, A P; Fong, L G; Young, S G

    2012-12-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by parenchymal cells, mainly adipocytes and myocytes, but is involved in hydrolysing triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins at the capillary lumen. For decades, the mechanism by which LPL reaches its site of action in capillaries was unclear, but this mystery was recently solved. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, 'picks up' LPL from the interstitial spaces and shuttles it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. When GPIHBP1 is absent, LPL is mislocalized to the interstitial spaces, leading to severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Some cases of hypertriglyceridaemia in humans are caused by GPIHBP1 mutations that interfere with the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind to LPL, and some are caused by LPL mutations that impair the ability of LPL to bind to GPIHBP1. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the role of GPIHBP1 in health and disease and discuss some of the remaining unresolved issues regarding the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Reliability of Calculated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Snozek, Christine L; Baumann, Nikola A; Jaffe, Allan S; Saenger, Amy K

    2015-08-15

    Aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering strategies are recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk populations. Guidelines recommend a 30% to 50% reduction in at-risk patients even when LDL-C concentrations are between 70 and 130 mg/dl (1.8 to 3.4 mmol/L). However, calculation of LDL-C by the Friedewald equation is the primary laboratory method for routine LDL-C measurement. We compared the accuracy and reproducibility of calculated LDL-C <130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/L) to LDL-C measured by β quantification (considered the gold standard method) in 15,917 patients with fasting triglyceride concentrations <400 mg/dl (4.5 mmol/L). Both variation and bias of calculated LDL-C increased at lower values of measured LDL-C. The 95% confidence intervals for a calculated LDL-C of 70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/L) and 30 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/L) were 60 to 86 mg/dl (1.6 to 2.2 mmol/L) and 24 to 60 mg/dl (0.6 to 1.6 mmol/L), respectively. Previous recommendations have emphasized the requirement for a fasting sample with triglycerides <400 mg/dl (4.5 mmol/L) to calculate LDL-C by the Friedewald equation. However, no recommendations have addressed the appropriate lower reportable limit for calculated LDL-C. In conclusion, calculated LDL-C <30 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/L) should not be reported because of significant deviation from the gold standard measured LDL-C results, and caution is advised when using calculated LDL-CF values <70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/L) to make treatment decisions.

  4. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisen, Kaemisa; Röhrl, Clemens; Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia; Ranftler, Carmen; Ellinger, Adolf; Pavelka, Margit; Neumüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL), and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate), cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal intraellular

  5. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  6. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C-terminal ......Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C...

  7. Common Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor p.G116S Variant Has a Large Effect on Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dube, J. B.; Wang, J.; Cao, H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p...

  8. Anti-Aging and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Policosanol Along with Lipid-Lowering Effect in Hyperlipidemic Zebrafish via Enhancement of High-Density Lipoprotein Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lim, So-Mang; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the tissue regeneration and lipid-lowering effects of policosanol (PCO) by employing a hyperlipidemic zebrafish model. A reconstituted high-density lipoprotein containing policosanol (PCO-rHDL) facilitated greater cell growth and replication with less apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 microglial cell lines. From in vivo study, injection of rHDL containing apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) caused 76 ± 4% (p = 0.01) greater tissue regeneration activity than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control, whereas PCO-rHDL caused 94 ± 7% (p = 0.002) increased regeneration. PCO in ethanol (EtOH) showed lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory ability than did anacetrapib, whereas PCO-rHDL showed higher inhibitory ability than anacetrapib, suggesting a synergistic effect between PCO and rHDL. Following 9 weeks of PCO consumption, the PCO group (0.003% PCO in Tetrabit) showed the highest survivability (80%), whereas normal diet (ND) and high-cholesterol diet (HCD) control groups showed 67% and 70% survival rates, respectively. Supplementation with a HCD resulted in two-fold elevation of CETP activity along with 3- and 2.5-fold increases in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TGs) levels, respectively. Consumption of PCO for 9 weeks resulted in 40 ± 5% (p = 0.01 vs. HCD) and 33 ± 4% (p = 0.02 vs. HCD) reduction of TC and TGs levels, respectively. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level increased up to 37 ± 2 mg/dL (p = 0.004), whereas the percentage of HDL-C/TC increased up to 20 ± 2% from 5 ± 1% compared to the HCD control. The serum glucose level was reduced to 47 ± 2% (p = 0.002) compared to the HCD control. Fatty liver change and hepatic inflammation levels were remarkably increased upon HCD consumption and were two-fold higher than that under ND. However, the PCO group showed 58 ± 5% (p = 0.001) and 50 ± 3

  9. Study on the Relationship between Blood Lipid LDL/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA1 and Carotid Atherosclerosis%颈动脉粥样硬化与血脂LDL/HDL-C及ApoB/ApoA1的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid LDL/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA1 and carotid atherosclerosis. Method: 76 patients were investigated by ultrasonic apparatus to detect carotid atherosclerosis, to detect the value of LDL,HDL-C,ApoB ,ApoA1 ,LDL/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA1 by automatic biochemistry analyzer of Hitachi 7600. Result: There were no significant difference in LDL and HDL -C between the carotid atherosclerosis group and the control group ( P〉0. 05 ). The ratios of LDL/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoAl were significant different between the two groups ( P 〈0. 05 ). The value of blood sugar and hemaleucin were significant different between the two groups ( P 〈0. 05 ), and the ratios of LDL/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoAl were associated with carotid atherosclerosis ( P〈0. 05 ). Conclusion: The formation of carotid plaque is related to increase the total blood cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B.%目的:研究颈动脉粥样硬化与血脂LDL/HDL-C及ApoB/ApoA1的关系.方法:对76例患者进行颈动脉超声检查,采用日立7600全自动生化测定仪测量LDL、HDL-C、ApoB、ApoA1、LDL/HDL-C及ApoB/ApoA1值的变化.结果:观察组和对照组患者的LDL和HDL-C之间差异不明显(P>0.05),LDL/HDL-C和AapoB/ApoA1的比值差异非常显著(P<0.05),血糖与纤维蛋白原的值也非常显著(P<0.05),且颈动脉粥样硬化程度与LDL/HDL-C、ApoB/ApoA1的比值存在显著相关性(P<0.05).结论:颈动脉粥样斑块的形成与血总胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白、载脂蛋白B的指标增高有关.

  10. [Removal of low density lipoproteins on dextrans sulfate in 2 patients with familial monogenic hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, I; Bombail, D; Erlich, D; Goy-Loeper, J; Chanu, B; Bussel, A; Rouffy, J

    1988-01-01

    Two patients-a 32 year old man with severe heterozygote familial hyperlipoproteinemia (FH) and a 9 years old girl with homozygote FH-were treated over eight months by LDL apheresis using dextran sulfate cellulose column (Liposorber, Kaneka, Japon). Plasma was separated from blood cells by filtration (TPE Cobe) or centrifugation (2,997 Cobe) through peripheral veins. An IV bolus of 10 IU/kg heparin was given together with local anti-coagulation with 55 g/l sodium citrate, 20 g/l citric acid at a ratio 1:25. Albumin supply was unnecessary. Plasma was removed every 2 weeks through liposorber LA 40 in the adult, and every week through liposorber LA 40 then 2 LA 15 in the child, mean plasma volume exchanged being 1.2 litres in the adult and 1.5 litres par session in the child. the DSC column removed on the average 60 p. 100 of total cholesterol (TC) and 65 p. 100 of LDL.C. Apoproteins B levels were reduced by 58 p. 100. After each procedure there was a rapid increase in lipid levels to about the 80 to 90 p. 100 of pretreatment value. In the adult, we obtained levels of TC of less than 300 mg/dl with exchanges every 2 weeks combined with an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (40 mg/day); in the child, with exchanges every week the same inhibitor did not permit a prolongation of the interval between 2 aphereses. this was confirmed by elution of DSC column bound lipoproteins by 0.1 mol/l NaCl solution. However, the average removal of HDL.C and apoprotein A1 was respectively 31 p. 100 and 32 p. 100. Triglycerides levels were also reduced (48 p. 100). this was good in both cases. Using the filtration technic, hypotension was reported; this side effect did not appear with centrifugation. In the child, we observed immediate type reactions: nasal obstruction, headache and abdominal pain. The change in plasma protein concentration was caused by dilution and/or non specific absorption. LDL apheresis alone or combined with an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor is a safe technic, simple to

  11. Metabolism of a Lipid Nanoemulsion Resembling Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Grade III Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Simone Alves; Ficker, Elisabeth Salvatori; Vinagre, Carmen G. C.; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Mady, Charles

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [3H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m2] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040), and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h−1) was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971) in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower. PMID:20126342

  12. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and other cardiovascular disease risk markers in subjects with elevated waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Rubin, Martyn R; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Jensen, Christopher D; Lawless, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present trial was to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in subjects with high waist circumference. Subjects were randomly assigned a daily multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplement or a MVM supplement plus vitamin D 1,200 IU/day (MVM+D) for 8 weeks. There was a significant difference in mean change for 25(OH)D between the MVM and MVM+D treatment groups ( - 1.2 ± 2.5 nmol/l vs. 11.7 ± 3.0 nmol/l, respectively; P = 0.003). Vitamin D 1,200 IU/day did not increase 25(OH)D to a desirable level ( ≥ 75 nmol/l) in 61% of participants. There were no significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Thus, vitamin D supplementation with 1,200 IU/day was insufficient to achieve desirable serum 25(OH)D in most participants and did not affect cardiovascular disease risk markers.

  13. Softness of atherogenic lipoproteins: a comparison of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikl, Christian; Peters, Judith; Trapp, Marcus; Kornmueller, Karin; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Prassl, Ruth

    2011-08-31

    Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100)-containing plasma lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) supply tissues and cells with cholesterol and fat. During lipolytic conversion from VLDL to LDL the size and chemical composition of the particles change, but the apoB100 molecule remains bound to the lipids and regulates the receptor mediated uptake. The molecular physical parameters which control lipoprotein remodeling and enable particle stabilization by apoB100 are largely unknown. Here, we have compared the molecular dynamics and elasticities of VLDL and LDL derived by elastic neutron scattering temperature scans. We have determined thermal motions, dynamical transitions, and molecular fluctuations, which reflect the temperature-dependent motional coupling between lipid and protein. Our results revealed that lipoprotein particles are extremely soft and flexible. We found substantial differences in the molecular resiliences of lipoproteins, especially at higher temperatures. These discrepancies not only can be explained in terms of lipid composition and mobility but also suggest that apoB100 displays different dynamics dependent on the lipoprotein it is bound to. Hence, we suppose that the inherent conformational flexibility of apoB100 permits particle stabilization upon lipid exchange, whereas the dynamic coupling between protein and lipids might be a key determinant for lipoprotein conversion and atherogenicity.

  14. Effect of Administrative HDL-C Level on Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Discharge in Elder Patients With ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction%老年ST段抬高型心肌梗死患者入院时高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平对出院后不良心血管事件的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 葛华; 房玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of administrative HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) level on adverse cardiovascular events after discharge in elder patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: A total of 325 STEMI patients treated in our hospital from 2010-04 to 2012-07 were retrospectively studied. According to administrative HDL-C level, the patients were divided into 2 groups as High HDL-C group, n=139 and Low HDL-C group, n=186. The basic and clinical conditions, in-hospital treatment, death and the medication, adverse cardiovascular events during 6 and 12 months follow-up period were compared between 2 groups. Results: The patients with in-hospital reperfusion therapy was higher in Low HDL-C group, and Low HDL-C group had the higher ratio of emergent PCI treatment, all P Conclusion: The lower administrative HDL-C level in elder patients with STEMI had the higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events after discharge.%目的:探讨分析老年ST段抬高型心肌梗死(STEMI)患者入院时高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平对出院后心血管不良事件发生情况的影响。  方法:选取我院于2010-04至2012-07收治的325例老年STEMI患者,根据患者的HDL-C水平将其分为HDL-C高组(139例)与HDL-C低组(186例)。对比分析两组患者基线资料、临床资料、在院期间所接受的治疗、死亡情况、随访期间药物使用情况及不良心血管事件发生情况。  结果:HDL-C低组入院后接受再灌注治疗的比例高于HDL-C高组(P  结论:入院时HDL-C水平低的STEMI患者出院后发生不良心血管事件的风险更高。

  15. Thermal transitions in the low-density lipoprotein and lipids of the egg yolk of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Back, J F

    1975-05-22

    1. Differential sanning calorimetry and light-scattering have been used to investigate temperature-dependent transitions in low-density lipoprotein and in lipids from hens' egg yolk. Yolks of different fatty acid composition were obtained by varying the dietary lipid and by adding methyl sterculate to the hen's diet. 2. Lipoprotein solutions in 50 percent glycerol/water gave characteristic melting curves between -25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, and on cooling showed increases in light-scattering between 10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. The temperatures at which major changes occurred depended on the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 3. The thermal transitions in the intact lipoprotein in glycerol solution were reversible, but with marked hysteresis. Lipid extracted from the lipoprotein did not show temperature hystersis but the transition heats and melting curves similar to those of the intact lipoprotein. The results support the hypothesis of a "lipid-core" structure for low-density lipoproteins. 4. Scanning calorimetry of egg-yolk lecithins indicated a strong dependence of transition temperature on water content in the rane 3 percent-20 percent water. A rise in the mid-temperature of the liquid-crystalline to gel transition as the water content is lowered on freezing may be the primary event in the irreversible gelation of egg yolk and aggregation of lipoprotein.

  16. The Measurement of High-Density Lipoprotein Mediated Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophage Cells by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown a negative association between macrophage cholesterol efflux and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, the current methods for measuring cholesterol efflux require a radioactive tracer and involve a variety of cell treatments, making the measurement of macrophage cholesterol efflux impractical for use in clinical laboratories. In this study, we developed a non-radioactive and precise LC/MS/MS method for the measurement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL mediated cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages. Methods: J774 cells were seeded on 12-well plates at a density of 1.5×105 cells/ml in H-DMEM medium, and when the cells were approximately 80% confluent, they were incubated with H-DMEM medium containing 2% FBS, 0.5 μg/ml ACAT inhibitor Sandoz 58-035, and 20 μg/ml [3,4-13C]cholesterol for 6 h. After washing and equilibrating the cells, HDL samples were added at a final concentration of 7% and incubated for 8 h. The cells were lysed, and [3,4-13C]cholesterol and cholesterol were measured by LC/MS/MS. Cholesterol efflux was expressed as the percent decrease of cell [3,4-13C]cholesterol mass during the incubation. Results: When incubated with [3,4-13C]cholesterol enriched J774 cells, HDL mediated higher cell cholesterol efflux than influx compared to serum and isolated LDL; therefore, HDL was used as the extracellular acceptor. The results from healthy volunteers showed that the rate of cholesterol efflux was negatively correlated with weight, BMI, blood pressure, and FERHDL and positively correlated with HDL-C, HDL2-C, and apoAI levels. Conclusions: A LC/MS/MS method for the measurement of HDL mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells has been established. This method is non-radioactive, precise and reliable and is potentially useful for the assessment of HDL function and cardiovascular disease risks.

  17. The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: baseline characteristics of study participants. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: impact on Global Health outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The study aims to report the baseline characteristics of the fully randomized AIM-HIGH study population. Residual risk persists despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease, many of whom have atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, and small dense LDL particles). All study participants had established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C at 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L) and were randomized to receive extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point is time to the first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization with average follow-up of 4.1 years. Between 2006 and 2010, 8,162 individuals signed consent to be screened, 4,275 began study drug run-in, and 3,414 were randomized to treatment. Mean age at entry was 64 ± 9 years, 85% were men, and 92% were white. As expected, risk factors were prevalent with 34% having diabetes; 71%, hypertension; and 81%, metabolic syndrome. Most participants had coronary artery disease (92%), whereas 11% had peripheral arterial disease; and 12%, cerebrovascular disease. Previous coronary revascularization occurred in 82%, and 54% reported a prior myocardial infarction. Among participants on a statin at entry (94%), mean baseline LDL-C was 71 mg/dL (1.84 mmol/L); mean HDL-C, 34.9 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L); and median triglycerides, 161 mg/dL (1.82 mmol/L). AIM-HIGH enrolled a high-risk group of patients with established atherosclerotic CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study should determine whether there is incremental clinical benefit of niacin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients who

  18. Obstructive jaundice leads to accumulation of oxidized low density lipoprotein in human liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Comert; Yucel Ustundag; Ishak Ozel Tekin; Banu Dogan Gun; Figen Barut

    2006-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) molecule is one of the most important modified lipoproteins produced during the oxidative stress. Modified lipoproteins have been defined as being part of the immune inflammatory mechanisms in association with oxidant stress. We have reported the accumulation of ox-LDL in Balb/c mice liver after bile duct ligation previously. Here, we investigated this finding in human beings with obstructive jaundice.Our study demonstrates that obstructive jaundice results in tremendous accumulation of ox-LDL in the liver tissue of patients.

  19. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  20. Lipoprotein metabolism mediates the association of MTP polymorphism with beta-cell dysfunction in healthy subjects and in nondiabetic normolipidemic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Cassader, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) predicts incident diabetes independently of insulin resistance, adiposity and metabolic syndrome through unclear mechanisms. Dietary fat consumption and lipoperoxidative stress predispose to diabetes in the general population and to liver injury in NASH. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) polymorphism modulates lipoprotein metabolism in the general population and liver disease in NASH; a functional MTP polymorphism recently predicted incident diabetes independently of insulin resistance in the general population. We simultaneously assessed the impact of MTP polymorphism, diet, adipokines and lipoprotein metabolism, on glucose homeostasis in NASH. MTP -493G/T polymorphism, dietary habits, adipokines and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) responses to an oral fat load, were cross-sectionally correlated to oral glucose tolerance test- and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test-derived Minimal Model indexes of glucose homeostasis in 40 nondiabetic normolipidemic patients with NASH and 40 age-,sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Despite comparable insulin resistance, fasting lipids, adipokines and dietary habits, MTP GG genotype had significantly more severe beta-cell dysfunction; higher plasma Tg, FFA, intestinal and hepatic very low-density lipoprotein 1 subfractions and oxLDL responses and deeper HDL-C fall than GT/TT carriers in patients and controls. Postprandial HDL-C and oxLDL responses independently predicted beta-cell dysfunction and mediated the effect of MTP polymorphism on beta-cell function. In nondiabetic normolipidemic NASH, MTP -493G/T polymorphism modulates beta-cell function, an effect mediated by postprandial HDL-C and oxLDL metabolism. The impact of this polymorphism on the risk of diabetes and the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapies in restoring beta-cell function in NASH

  1. The relationship between serum amyloid A and apolipoprotein A-I in high-density lipoprotein isolated from patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-xue; LIU Hong; YAN Li-rong; ZHANG Ye-ping; GUAN Xiao-yuan; XU Zhi-min; JIA You-hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Alteration in the protein composition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed as a mechanism for the development of coronary heart disease (CHD).In HDL,an increase in serum amyloid A protein (SAA) accompanying the decrease in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been found during the acute inflammation period.However,whether this phenomenon persists in CHD patients,a disease related to inflammation,is unknown.The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between SAA and apoA-I in HDL isolated from CHD patients.Methods Overall,98 patients with confirmed stable CHD and 90 control subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled in this case-control study.Potassium bromide (KBr) density gradient ultracentrifugation was used to isolate HDL from plasma.The levels of SAA and apoA-I in the HDL samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.Pearson's correlation and general linear models were used in the analysis.Results Compared with controls,patients with CHD had a significant decrease in the amount of apoA-I ((14.21±8.44) μg/ml vs.(10.95±5.95) μg/ml,P =0.003) in HDL and a significant increase in the amount of log SAA (1.21±0.46 vs.1.51±0.55,P <0.00001).Differences were independent of age,body mass index (BMI),HDL cholesterol (HDL-C),and other factors.An independently and statistically significant positive correlation between log SAA and apoA-I in HDL was observed only in the CHD group (β =2.0,P =0.026).In the general linear model,changes in Iog(SAA),age,age2,gender,BMI and HDL-C could explain a statistically significant 43% of the variance in apoA-I.Conclusions This study provides direct evidence for the first time that there was an independent positive correlation between log SAA and apoA-I in the HDL of CHD patients,indicating the alteration of protein composition in HDL.However,the question of whether this alteration in HDL is associated with impairment of HDL functions requires further research.

  2. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashty, M; Motazacker, M M; Levels, J; de Vries, M; Mahmoudi, M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Rezaee, F

    2014-03-03

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis from the site of synthesis to effector locations. To better understand the role of VLDL and LDL in the transport of proteins, we applied a combination of LTQ ORBITRAP-XL (nLC-MS/MS) with both in-SDS-PAGE gel and in-solution tryptic digestion of pure and defined VLDL and LDL fractions. We identified the presence of 95 VLDL- and 51 LDL-associated proteins including all known apolipoproteins and lipid transport proteins, and intriguingly a set of coagulation proteins, complement system and anti- microbial proteins. Prothrombin, protein S, fibrinogen γ, PLTP, CETP, CD14 and LBP were present on VLDL but not on LDL. Prenylcysteine oxidase 1, dermcidin, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, TFPI-1 and fibrinogen α chain were associated with both VLDL and LDL. Apo A-V is only present on VLDL and not on LDL. Collectively, this study provides a wealth of knowledge on the protein constituents of the human plasma lipoprotein system and strongly supports the notion that protein shuttling through this system is involved in the regulation of biological processes. Human diseases related to proteins carried by VLDL and LDL can be divided in three major categories: 1 - dyslipidaemia, 2 - atherosclerosis and vascular disease, and 3 - coagulation disorders.

  3. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  4. Effect of improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on low-density lipoprotein size, electronegative low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, José L; Vinagre, Irene; de Juan-Franco, Elena; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Pérez, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intensified hypoglycemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the distribution of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity between high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its relation with the lipid profile and other qualitative properties of LDL. Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of poor glycemic control and normal or near normal LDL cholesterol were recruited. Lifestyle counseling and pharmacologic hypoglycemic therapy were intensified to improve glycemic control, but lipid-lowering therapy was unchanged. At 4 ± 2 months, glycosylated hemoglobin had decreased by a mean of 2.1%, but the only effect on the lipid profile were statistically significant decreases in nonesterified fatty acids and apolipoprotein B concentration. LDL size increased and the proportion of electronegative LDL decreased significantly. In parallel, total Lp-PLA2 activity decreased significantly, promoting a redistribution of Lp-PLA2 activity toward a higher proportion in high-density lipoprotein. Improvements in glycemic control led to more marked changes in Lp-PLA2 activity and distribution in patients with diabetes who had not received previous lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, optimizing glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes promotes atheroprotective changes, including larger LDL size, decreased electronegative LDL, and a higher proportion of Lp-PLA2 activity in high-density lipoprotein.

  5. Constitutive androstane receptor activation decreases plasma apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberna, Anne-Laure; Assem, Mahfoud; Xiao, Rui; Ayers, Steve; Gautier, Thomas; Guiu, Boris; Deckert, Valérie; Chevriaux, Angélique; Grober, Jacques; Le Guern, Naig; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Moore, David D; Lagrost, Laurent; Masson, David

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western-type diet were treated weekly with the Car agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or the vehicle only for 8 weeks. In Ldlr(-/-) mice, treatment with TCPOBOP induced a decrease in plasma triglyceride and intermediate-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (≈30% decrease in both cases after 2 months, Plipoproteins associated with a decrease in hepatic triglyceride content and the repression of several genes involved in lipogenesis. TCPOBOP treatment also induced a marked increase in the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor in the liver, which probably contributed to the decrease in intermediate-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein levels. Atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic valves of TCPOBOP-treated Ldlr(-/-) mice were also reduced (-60%, Plipoprotein receptor, the effect of TCPOBOP on plasma cholesterol levels and the development of atherosclerotic lesions was markedly attenuated. CAR is a potential target in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  6. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.

  7. Triglyceride to HDL-C Ratio is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwani, Nur Ahmad Kamil Zati; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Zin, Ruziana Mona Wan Mohd; Fuziah, Md Zain; Hong, Janet Yeow Hua; Abqariyah, Yahya; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Wan Nazaimoon, Wan Mohamud

    2017-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of triglyceride to hdl-c ratio (TG:HDL-C) as an insulin resistance (IR) marker for overweight and obese children. A total of 271 blood samples of obese and overweight children aged 9-16 years were analysed for fasting glucose, lipids and insulin. Children were divided into IR and non-insulin resistance, using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The children were then stratified by tertiles of TG: HDL-C ratio. The strength between TG:HDL-C ratio and other parameters of IR were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Odds ratio was estimated using multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stages and IR potential risk factors. Children with IR had significantly higher TG:HDL-C ratio (2.48) (p = 0.01). TG:HDL-C ratio was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.104, p HDL-C ratio showed significant increase in mean insulin level (p = 0.03), HOMA-IR (p = 0.04) and significantly higher number of children with acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome. The odds of having IR was about 2.5 times higher (OR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.23, 4.95; p = 0.01) for those in the highest tertiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Hence, TG:HDL-C may be a useful tool to identify high risk individuals.

  8. Protective effect of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on human vascular endothelial cells damaged by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti

  9. Protective effect of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on human vascular endothelial cells damaged by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs. In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK, especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti

  10. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Guiducci, Candace; Surti, Aarti; Burtt, Noël P.; Rieder, Mark J; Cooper, Gregory M.; Roos, Charlotta; Benjamin F Voight; Havulinna, Aki S.; Wahlstrand, Björn; Hedner, Thomas; Corella, Dolores; Tai, E Shyong; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Blood concentrations of lipoproteins and lipids are heritable1 risk factors for cardiovascular disease2,3. Using genome-wide association data from three studies (n = 8,816 that included 2,758 individuals from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative specific to the current paper as well as 1,874 individuals from the FUSION study of type 2 diabetes and 4,184 individuals from the SardiNIA study of aging-associated variables reported in a companion paper in this issue4) and targeted replication associat...

  11. Effects of modifying triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins on cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Madiha; Sazonov, Vasilisa; Gutkin, Stephen W; Hokanson, John E

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of triglycerides (and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) are increasingly being recognized as treatment targets to lower cardiovascular risk in certain patient subgroups, including individuals receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Evidence suggests that these agents reduce the risk of coronary events more markedly in patients with elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Further, intensive long-term statin therapy that reduces both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to triglycerides to cardiovascular events compared with more moderate statin treatment. Long-term therapy with fibric-acid derivatives, which lower triglycerides and raise HDL-C, appears to reduce mortality in patients with elevated triglycerides and/or those experiencing the most marked reductions in triglycerides on therapy. However, randomized clinical trials involving fibrates have not shown consistent benefit. Niacin (nicotinic acid), which is the most effective available medication for raising HDL-C and also lowers triglycerides, has not been as extensively studied as fibrates in long-term randomized controlled trials. Initial reports (eg, Coronary Drug Project) demonstrated a reduction in coronary disease but not total mortality in patients randomized to niacin. However, a 15-year follow-up demonstrated that all-cause mortality was significantly reduced in those initially randomized to niacin. At the pathophysiologic level, elevated triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are recognized as potential factors in driving atherosclerotic progression, particularly in mild-to-moderate lesions. Elevated triglycerides also constitute a plausible therapeutic target in certain patients with coronary heart disease (and/or insulin resistance) but without profound LDL-C elevations. The foregoing and other evidence has led consensus panels to lower the upper limit for "normal" triglycerides to 150 mg/dL. Adequately powered

  12. Relationship between two common lipoprotein lipase variants and the metabolic syndrome and its individual components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K. K.; Hansen, Tine W.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common lipoprotein lipase (LPL) variants are important determinants of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (C) concentrations. High TG/low HDL-C tend to cluster with hypertension, glucose intolerance, and abdominal obesity and comprise the metabolic...... syndrome (MetS). The role of LPL variants as a cause of MetS is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between two common LPL variants and the presence of MetS and its individual components. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, including 2348 Danish women (50.7%) and men, age 41-72 years, without...

  13. The multiligand α2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Jørgen; Nykjær, Anders; Petersen, Claus Munck

    1994-01-01

    The fusion of separate lines of research has greatly helped in elucidating the function of the giant members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) supergene family. The cDNA encoding a large protein structurally closely related to LDLR, and hence named LDLR-related protein (LRP......), was cloned by Herz et al. in 1988.'Evidence was provided demonstrating that LRP can function as a receptor for chylomicron remnants@-migrating very low density lipoproteins (P-VLDL) rich in apolipoprotein E (apoE)?' The a2-macroglobulin (a2M) receptor (a2MR) was purified from rat livep and human p l a~e n t...

  14. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  15. Effect of palm olein oil in a moderate-fat diet on low-density lipoprotein composition in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Paul J; Benadé, A J Spinnler

    2002-01-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) can be modulated by the type and amount of fat in the diet. There is, however, a paucity of information on the effect of different types and quantity of dietary fat on the plasma LDL composition in vervets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of dietary fat on the concentrations and composition of circulating plasma LDL in vervets consuming moderate-fat diets containing either animal fat, sunflower oil or palm olein. Fifty adult male vervets, never exposed to a Western-type atherogenic diet, were randomly assigned to two groups. For 6 weeks 30 vervets were fed a moderate-fat (28%E) moderate-cholesterol (26 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) diet (MFD) with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) of 0.4; 20 vervets were fed a high-fat (34%E) high-cholesterol (98 mg cholesterol/1000 kJ) diet (HFD) with a P/S ratio of 0.6. Fasting blood samples were collected from all 50 vervets for plasma lipid measurements. The 30 vervets receiving the MFD were stratified into three comparable experimental groups of 10 each according to their LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and bodyweight. One group continued with the MFD, in which 11%E was derived from lard (MFD-AF); in the other two groups the lard was substituted isocalorically with either sunflower oil (SO) (MFD-SO) or palm olein oil (PO) (MFD-PO). The three groups were fed the respective experimental diets for 24 months and LDL component concentrations and composition were assessed at 6-monthly intervals. In the long-term study the MFD-AF, MFD-SO and MFD-PO groups showed no significant time-specific group differences at 6, 12, 18 or 24 months with regard to the LDL component concentrations, composition, as well as the LDL molecular weight. As expected, after 6 weeks of dietary exposure the HFD group had significantly higher plasma and

  16. Comparison of apoprotein B of low density lipoproteins of human interstitial fluid and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J L; Pflug, J; Reichl, D

    1984-08-15

    Virtually all apoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins of the peripheral interstitial fluid of subjects with primary lymphoedema float in the ultracentrifugal field in the density interval 1.019-1.063 g/ml; in this respect they are similar to plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL). 2. Virtually all apo-B-containing lipoproteins of interstitial fluid migrate in the electrophoretic field with pre-beta mobility; in this respect they are similar to plasma very-low-density lipoproteins. 3. The apoB of lipoproteins of interstitial fluid does not differ in terms of Mr from apoB-100 of human plasma [Kane, Hardman & Paulus (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 2465-2469] as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. Both apoB of interstitial fluid and plasma are heterogenous in terms of their charge as determined by isoelectric focusing of their complexes with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P40. ApoB of plasma LDL focuses between pH5.9 and 6.65, and that of interstitial fluid LDL between pH 5.9 and 6.1. Thus the overall charge of apoB of interstitial fluid is more negative than that of its plasma LDL counterpart.

  17. Achievement of recommended lipid and lipoprotein levels with combined ezetimibe/statin therapy versus statin alone in patients with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Betteridge, D John; Farnier, Michel; Leiter, Lawrence A; Lin, Jianxin; Shah, Arvind; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Brudi, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Treatment guidelines identify low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary target of therapy with secondary targets of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Data were pooled from 27 randomised, double-blind, active or placebo-controlled trials in 21,794 adult hypercholesterolaemic patients (LDL-C 1.81-6.48 mmol/L) receiving ezetimibe/statin or statin for 4-24 weeks. Percentages of patients achieving various targets were calculated among diabetes (n = 6541) and non-diabetes (n = 15,253) subgroups. Significantly more patients with and without diabetes achieved specified levels of LDL-C (< 2.59, < 1.99, < 1.81 mmol/L), non-HDL-C (< 3.37, < 2.59 mmol/L) and apoB (< 0.9, < 0.8 g/L) with ezetimibe/statin versus statin. Patients with diabetes had larger mean per cent reductions in LDL-C and non-HDL-C than non-diabetes patients. A greater percentage of patients achieved both the LDL-C and apoB targets and all three LDL-C, apoB, and non-HDL-C targets with ezetimibe/statin versus statin in both subgroups. Patients with diabetes benefitted at least as much as, and sometimes more than, non-diabetes patients following treatment with ezetimibe/statin.

  18. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz-Górzyńska, Magdalena; Banach, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic kidney disease is characterized by significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, including differences in quantitative and qualitative content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Recent studies have revealed that serum HDL cholesterol levels do not predict CVD in CKD patients; thus CKD-induced modifications in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may be responsible for the increase in CV risk in CKD patients. Various methods are available to separate several subclasses of HDL and confirm their atheroprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions associated with inflammation and oxidation, HDL can progressively lose normal biological activities and be converted into dysfunctional HDL. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge on subfractions of HDL and HDL dysfunction in CKD.

  19. Progress of cardioprotective effects of high density lipoprotein: function and mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ge SUN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high density lipoprotein (HDL in human plasma is a heterogeneous lipoprotein consisting of roughly equal contents of lipid and protein in roughly equal content, and it consists of several subtypes. HDL possesses several well-documented functions, including anti-atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, inhibiting vascular inflammation, preventing thrombosis and apoptosis, and promoting endothelial repair. Recently, more cardiovascular protective functions of HDL have been found, mainly including the ability of suppressing immune inflammatory reaction, inhibiting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, and regulating the plasma glucose level. It is of great importance to understand how different HDL subtypes contribute to the potentially cardioprotective functions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.13

  20. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  1. Sexual differences in lipoprotein composition in a family with dyslipidemic hypertension with premature atheroschlerosis: deficiency of high-density lipoprotein-L and high-density lipoprotein-M "apolipoprotein-I alone" particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T A; Moore, M A; Joyce, M; Go, R C; Segrest, J P; Blackwell, T

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a family with a high incidence of premature atherosclerosis and primary hypertriglyceridemia in the women. The lipoprotein composition of this family was investigated with a new methodology that combines gradient ultracentrifugation to isolate lipoprotein subfractions with high-performance liquid chromatography to quantitate apolipoproteins. The major lipoprotein abnormalities that were identified in the hyperlipidemic women in this family were (1) an increased mass of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) with triglyceriderich VLDL but normal IDL composition; (2) triglyceride-rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with normal cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations; (3) a relatively normal total mass of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-L and HDL-M but with a reduction in the apolipoprotein A-I/A-II ratio and a decrease in the cholesterol to triglyceride ratio; (4) an elevation of HDL-D apolipoprotein A-I. The reduction in the apolipoprotein A-I/A-II ratio was also seen in the hyperlipidemic men and in most of nonhyperlipidemic family members and was the most common lipoprotein abnormality that was identified in this family (9 of 11 family members who were not on lipid-lowering medications were affected). The hypertriglyceridemic women appeared to have an increase in the "A-I + A-II" HDL particles in all subfractions and an increase in the "A-I alone" particles in HDL-D. These increases provided the apparently normal total mass of HDL that was observed in these women. These increases in HDL were not seen in the hypertriglyceridemic men. We conclude that a deficiency of the "A-I alone" particle in HDL-L and HDL-M may contribute to the premature atherosclerosis that was seen in this family and that it appears to precede the appearance of hypertriglyceridemia. The increase in the "A-I + A-II" HDL particles did not appear to provide the same protection as would be expected from "A-I alone" HDL.

  2. 应用TG/HDL-C评估老年2型糖尿病患者小而致密低密度脂蛋白水平的变化情况及相关血脂谱特点%The evaluation of small dense LDL and lipid characteristics in aged type 2 diabetic patients by TG/HDL-C index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓烨; 胡予

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估老年2型糖尿病患者小而致密低密度脂蛋白(sdLDL)水平的变化情况及相关血脂谱特点.方法 114例老年2型糖尿病患者根据低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)和糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)水平进行分组分层.检测指标主要有体重指数(BMI)、HbA1c、胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、LDL-C、载脂蛋白A(Apo-A)、载脂蛋白B(Apo-B)、载脂蛋白E(Apo-E)和脂蛋白a(Lp-a),并应用TG/HDL-C评估sdLDL水平.结果 约有1/3的老年2型糖尿病患者存在sdLDL水平的升高.当LDL-C<3.12 mmol/L时,sdLDL升高者的BMI、TG、Apo-A、Apo-B、Apo-E明显高于sdLDL水平正常者,HDL-C则明显降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);但这种亚组间的差异在LDL-C≥3.12 mmol/L时则不明显.结论 在老年2型糖尿病患者人群中,应用TG/HDL-C可初步筛查出存在sdLDL水平升高的患者,该类患者的血脂谱变化主要表现为TG、ApoA、ApoB和Apo-E水平的升高和HDL-C的降低.%Objective To evaluate the small dense LDL (sdLDL) and lipid characteristics of aged type 2 diabetic patients by TG/HDL-C index. Methods 114 aged type 2 diabetic patients were divided into different subgroups according to the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C)and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The body mass index(BMI) ,HbA1c,cholesterol(TC) ,triglyceride(TG) ,high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C) , LDL-C ,apolipoprotein A ( Apo-A) , apolipoprotein B ( Apo-B) , apolipoprotein E ( Apo-E) and lipoprotein ( Lp-a) were tested. Results The proportion of patients with high level of sdLDL in aged type 2 diabetic patients was 33. 33%. When LDL-C <3. 12 mmol/L,the BMI,TG,Apo-A,Apo-B and Apo-E levels of patients with sdLDL were significantly higher than those of patients without sdLDL and the HDL -C level was significantly lower. However, the difference between the subgroups was not significant when LDL-C ≥3. 12 mmol/L. Conclusions The aged type 2 diabetic patients

  3. Expression of scavenger receptor-BI and low-density lipoprotein receptor and differential use of lipoproteins to support early steroidogenesis in luteinizing macaque granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Greason, Erin; Rodriguez, Annabelle; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Chaffin, Charles L

    2009-02-01

    An ovulatory hCG stimulus to rhesus macaques undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols results in a rapid and sustained increase in progesterone synthesis. The use of lipoproteins as a substrate for progesterone synthesis remains unclear, and the expression of lipoprotein receptors [very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI)] soon after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (lipoprotein receptor expression and lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and HDL) support of steroidogenesis during luteinization of macaque granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were aspirated from rhesus monkeys undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation before or up to 24 h after an ovulatory hCG stimulus. The expression of VLDLR decreased within 3 h of hCG, whereas LDLR and SR-BI increased at 3 and 12 h, respectively. Granulosa cells isolated before hCG were cultured for 24 h in the presence of FSH or FSH plus hCG with or without VLDL, LDL, or HDL. Progesterone levels increased in the presence of hCG regardless of lipoprotein addition, although LDL, but not HDL, further augmented hCG-induced progesterone. Other cells were cultured with FSH or FSH plus hCG without an exogenous source of lipoprotein for 24 h, followed by an additional 24 h culture with or without lipoproteins. Cells treated with hCG in the absence of any lipoprotein were unable to maintain progesterone levels through 48 h, whereas LDL (but not HDL) sustained progesterone synthesis. These data suggest that an ovulatory stimulus rapidly mobilizes stored cholesterol esters for use as a progesterone substrate and that as these are depleted, new cholesterol esters are obtained through an LDLR- and/or SR-BI-mediated mechanism.

  4. TaqI B1/B2 and -629A/C cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene polymorphisms and their association with CETP activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a Tehranian population. Part of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam S Daneshpour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene TaqI intron 1 B1/B2 polymorphism and the -629A/C CETP promoter polymorphism in respect to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in a healthy Iranian population taken from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS. The relationship between CETP activity and HDL-C level was also determined along with body mass index, blood pressure and tobacco smoking status. PCR-RFLP used to amplify a segment of the CETP intron 1 TaqI (B2/B1 polymorphism from 1021 individuals and we selected 345 individuals from the lowest, middle and highest HDL-C deciles and investigated the -629A/C polymorphism. We also evaluated the CETP activity of 103 of these individuals, each with at least one homozygous allele. The presence of the TaqI B2 and -629A/C A alleles were significantly associated with increased HDL-C levels (B2B2 = 1.19 ± 0.31 mmolL-1 vs. B1B1 = 1.01 ± 0.2 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001; AA = 1.15 ± 0.41 mmol L-1 vs. CC = 0.95 ± 0.28 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001 and decreased the CETP activity (B1B1 = 67.8 ± 8.9 pmol L-1 vs. B2B2 = 62.6 ± 9.6 pmol L-1 for p < 0.01; CC = 68.6 ± 8.4 pmol L-1 vs. AA = 62.7 ± 9.7 pmol L-1 for p < 0.002. The frequencies were 0.382 for the TaqI B2 allele and 0.462 for the -629A/C A allele, with linkage disequilibrium analysis giving D = 0.0965 and D' = 0.4695. We demonstrated that the TaqI B1 and B2 alleles and the -629A/C A and C alleles were in linkage disequilibrium in our population and that there was a significant association between the B2 and A alleles and high HDL-C levels and low CETP activity. Linkage disequilibrium between the TaqI A and B2 alleles also detected.

  5. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  6. Effect of methylglyoxal on the physico-chemical and biological properties of low-density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, C.G.; Vermeer, M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Koppele, J. te; Princen, H.M.G.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    1998-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, non-enzymatic glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been suggested to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. α-Dicarbonyl compounds were identified as intermediates in the non-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported in patients with diab

  7. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels we

  8. High-density lipoprotein attenuates inflammation and coagulation response on endotoxin challenge in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birjmohun, Rakesh S; van Leuven, Sander I; Levels, Johannes H M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Meijers, Joost C M; Levi, Marcel; Kastelein, John J P; van der Poll, Tom; Stroes, Erik S G

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is a strong independent cardiovascular risk factor, which has been attributed to its role in reverse cholesterol transport. Whereas HDL also has potent antiinflammatory effects, the relevance of this property remains to be established in huma

  9. Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...

  10. Phenotype of heterozygotes for low-density lipoprotein receptor mutations identified in different background populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Henrik Kjaerulf; Benn, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mutations on phenotype is often overestimated because of ascertainment bias. We determined the effect of background population on cholesterol phenotype associated with specific mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the relative importance of background population...... and type of mutation (LDL receptor [LDLR] or APOB R3500Q) for cholesterol phenotype....

  11. Phenotypes of hypertriglyceridemia caused by excess very-low-density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Tremblay, A.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the composition of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and the proportion of VLDL to total apolipoprotein B (apoB) particles in patients with hypertriglyceridemia caused by excess VLDL. METHODS: Subjects were selected from 2023 consecutive patients attending the

  12. Phenotype of heterozygotes for low-density lipoprotein receptor mutations identified in different background populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Henrik Kjaerulf; Benn, Marianne;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mutations on phenotype is often overestimated because of ascertainment bias. We determined the effect of background population on cholesterol phenotype associated with specific mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the relative importance of background population...

  13. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  14. How Well Does BODIPY-Cholesteryl Ester Mimic Unlabeled Cholesteryl Esters in High Density Lipoprotein Particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect on ...

  15. Direct Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Glycated Albumin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. The aim in this st...

  16. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  17. The HDL hypothesis : does high-density lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Kastelein, John J P; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2010-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for

  18. Separation of apolipoproteins of human very low density lipoproteins by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, W; Gross, W

    1983-07-01

    Chromatofocusing represents a new chromatographic procedure for the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric points. We describe the application of this method for the fractionation of the urea-soluble apolipoproteins of very low density lipoproteins. They were separated into five peaks, four of which were homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 7 mol/l urea.

  19. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  20. High-Density Lipoprotein Modulates Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drew, Brian G.; Duffy, Stephen J.; Formosa, Melissa F.; Natoli, Alaina K.; Henstridge, Darren C.; Penfold, Sally A.; Thomas, Walter G.; Mukhamedova, Nigora; de Courten, Barbora; Forbes, Josephine M.; Yap, Felicia Y.; Kaye, David M.; van Hall, Gerrit; Febbraio, Mark A.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Sviridov, Dmitri; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Background-Low plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and aspects of the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP-activat

  1. Effect of methylglyoxal on the physico-chemical and biological properties of low-density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, C.G.; Vermeer, M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Koppele, J. te; Princen, H.M.G.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    1998-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, non-enzymatic glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been suggested to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. α-Dicarbonyl compounds were identified as intermediates in the non-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported in patients with

  2. Mutation in apolipoprotein B associated with hypobetalipoproteinemia despite decreased binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Jan Skov;

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in apolipoprotein B (APOB) may reduce binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the LDL receptor and cause hypercholesterolemia. We showed that heterozygotes for a new mutation in APOB have hypobetalipoproteinemia, despite a reduced binding of LDL to the LDL receptor. APOB R3480P hete...

  3. The HDL hypothesis : does high-density lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Kastelein, John J P; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for

  4. Low-density lipoprotein-lowering strategies: target versus maximalist versus population percentile.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maximalist low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering strategies such as lowering LDL as much as possible or, alternatively, using the most potent LDL-lowering regimens have become increasingly popular. Almost all attention has focused on the potential advantages of these approaches w

  5. Low density lipoprotein : structure, dynamics, and interactions of apoB-100 with lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murtola, Teemu; Vuorela, Timo A.; Hyvonen, Marja T.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis. Despite its importance to health, the structure of LDL is not known in detail. This is worrying since the lack of LDL's st

  6. Association of low density lipoprotein levels and glycaemic control in type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathish TR.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier diabetes mellitus (DM was thought to be a disease of carbohydrate metabolism. Looking at the effects of insulin deficiency on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, diabetes mellitus is now being called more a disease of lipid metabolism than carbohydrate metabolism. A cross-sectional study was conducted during March 2005 to March 2006 to study the low-density lipoproteins (LDL levels in diabetes mellitus and its relation to glycaemic control. LDL levels were estimated. Comparison of lipid levels were made between group of diabetic patients with glycated hemoglobin less than 8.0% and a group of diabetic patients with glycated hemoglobin more than 8.0% and the controls. The lipid fractions i.e. total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL levels were higher in the poorly controlled diabetes patients as compared to well controlled diabetic patients and nondiabetic patients. Increased levels of low-density lipoprotein may be a contributory factor to the high risk of atherosclerosis induced coronary artery disease observed in diabetes mellitus patients. Reduction of blood glucose levels is likely to reduce low density lipoprotein levels and the risk of complication, with the lowest risk being in those with glycosylated hemoglobin values in the normal range ie. Less than 8.0%

  7. Genome-wide association studies identified novel loci for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and its postprandial lipemic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to low-density lipoprotein alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) t...

  8. A Splice Region Variant in LDLR Lowers Non-high Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Protects against Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Helgason, Hannes; Helgadottir, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Through high coverage whole-genome sequencing and imputation of the identified variants into a large fraction of the Icelandic population, we found four independent signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) that associate with levels of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol...

  9. The Predictive Value of Elevation in Serum Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein for Premature Coronary Artery Disease%血清氧化低密度脂蛋白升高对早发冠心病的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师艳莉; 车京津; 李连; 张彦彦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of serum oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD). Methods Sixty-six patients with coro-nary atrery disease (CAD) confirmed by angiography were selected to be PCAD group, and 56 patients with normal coronary artery confirmed by angiography were included in control group. The serum levels of ox-LDL, high density lipoprotein choles-terol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), creatinine (SCr), uric acid (UA), other serum biochemical indicators and differences of the proportions of male, hypertension, diabetes, smoking history and family history of CAD were compared between two groups. Results (1)There were higher serum values of ox-LDL, TG, SCr, UA, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and proportion of male pa-tients in PCAD group than those of control group (P<0.05), but there was a lower plasma level of HDL-C in PCAD group than that of control group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in other indicators between two groups. (2) There were positive correlations between UA, SCr and ox-LDL ( rs were 0.243 and 0.186 respectively, P were 0.006 and 0.034 respective-ly). (3)The logistic regression analysis showed that ox-LDL, HDL-C and SCr were influential factors to PCAD(OR were 1.155, 0.143 and 1.052 respectively). Conclusion Elevations of ox-LDL, HDL-C and SCr are independent predictors of PCAD.%目的探讨早发冠心病(PCAD)患者血清氧化低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)及传统心血管危险因子的特征。方法连续选取经冠状动脉造影术确诊的冠心病(CAD)患者66例选入PCAD组,冠脉血管正常的患者56例作为对照组。比较2组患者血清ox-LDL、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、三酰甘油(TG)、血肌酐(SCr)、尿酸(UA)等生化指标水平及性别、冠心病家族史、体质指数、高血压史、糖尿病史、吸烟史等的差异。结果(1)PCAD组血清ox-LDL、TG

  10. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C......L-(347-448) in Escherichia coli. In addition to binding to alpha2MR/LRP, LpL-(313-448) displayed binding to heparin with an affinity similar to that of the LpL monomer, whereas it bound poorly to lipoprotein particles. Moreover, LpL-(313-448) displayed heparin sensitive binding to normal, but not to HSPG...

  11. [The alternative view on diagnostic of hyperlipoproteinemia, cholesterol lipoproteins of low density and effect of statins: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupoleva, T A; Tikhomirov, D S; Grumbkova, L O; Ignatova, E N; Romanova, T Iu; Filatov, F P; Garanzha, T A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of statins occur in several stages: 1) inhibition in hepatocytes of synthesis of functionally specific pool of spirit cholesterol, polar mono-layer of lipoproteins of very low density; 2) activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density, formation of apoE/B-100-ligand and absorption of lipoproteins of very low density by insulin-depended cells; 3) decreasing of content of and spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of very low density in blood plasma; 4) activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of low density, formation of apoB-100-ligand and absorption of lipoproteins of low density by insulin-independent cells; 5) decreasing of level of and increasing of content of lipoproteins of high density. During first weeks of effect of statins occurs decreasing of concentration of triglycerides and unesterified spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of very low density in blood plasma. Then, slower and more durational decreasing of level of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of low density occurs. The value of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of low density is primarily determined by content of palmitic saturated fatty acid in food, its endogenous synthesis from glucose and concentration of palmitic triglycerides and lipoproteins of very low density of the same name in blood plasma. The effect of preparations is biologically valid and corresponds to alternative hypolipidemic preparations. All these preparations have an effect following a common algorithm: they activate, using different mechanisms, receptor absorption of lipoproteins of very low density or lipoproteins of low density by cells. The level of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of low density in full measure depends on content of triglycerides in blood. The concentration of spirit cholesterol in blood plasma has a reliable diagnostic significance only under physiological content of triglycerides. The main criterion of diagnostic and control of hypolipidemic therapy

  12. Enzymatic Modification of Plasma Low Density Lipoproteins in Rabbits: A Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert

    1993-04-01

    Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.

  13. Transvascular low-density lipoprotein transport in patients with diabetes mellitus (type 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2002-01-01

    accumulation and, thus, atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an in vivo method for measurement of transvascular transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and applied it in 16 patients with maturity-onset diabetes (type 2) and 29 healthy control subjects. Autologous 131I-labeled LDL...... plasma insulin levels in diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transvascular LDL transport may be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that lipoprotein flux into the arterial wall is increased in people with diabetes, possibly explaining the accelerated development of atherosclerosis....... in patients with diabetes and control subjects, respectively (P2.5%/h and 5.3+/-1.6%/h (P

  14. Turkish Heart Study: lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahley, R W; Palaoğlu, K E; Atak, Z; Dawson-Pepin, J; Langlois, A M; Cheung, V; Onat, H; Fulks, P; Mahley, L L; Vakar, F

    1995-04-01

    We examined the plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and selected apolipoproteins in approximately 9,000 men and women from six different regions of Turkey with markedly different diets, ranging from an Aegean coast diet high in olive oil (plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acids enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids) to an inland Anatolian diet high in meat and dairy products (plasma cholesteryl esters enriched in saturated fatty acids). The rural population consuming an olive oil-rich diet had the lowest plasma cholesterol levels (men, 149 mg/dl; women, 150 mg/dl). The urban populations of Istanbul and Adana had higher plasma cholesterol levels (men, 202 and 184 mg/dl, respectively; women, 181 and 190 mg/dl, respectively). Affluent men had the highest cholesterol levels (207 mg/dl). The low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels tended to parallel the total cholesterol levels (highest for Istanbul men at 136 mg/dl and lowest for Aegean coast men and women at approximately 100 mg/dl). Strikingly, the Turkish people were found to have very low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) (mean values for all six regions: men, 34-38 mg/dl; women, 37-45 mg/dl) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios that were high (mean values for all six regions: men, 4.5-5.5; women, 3.9-5.0). The low HDL-C levels appear to be caused, at least in part, by a genetic factor. Triglyceride levels also tended to be high in Turkish men (approximately 120-150 mg/dl) and women (approximately 90-110 mg/dl). Thus, even though the total plasma cholesterol levels are not excessively elevated in comparison to those in other populations, the presence of low HDL-C or low HDL-C coupled with mildly elevated triglyceride levels may represent a significant risk factor for heart disease in the Turkish population. Affluence and higher education were associated with higher cholesterol levels. Lack of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption also tended to be associated with a

  15. Effects of hazelnuts consumption on fasting blood sugar and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Darvish Damavandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that nuts consumption have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic or normolipidemic subjects. However, similar studies in diabetes field are quite rare. So, we aimed to investigate the effects of hazelnut consumption on fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 Diabetes. Materials and Methods: An 8-week controlled randomized parallel study in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty eligible volunteers were assigned to either the control or intervention groups. 10% of total daily calorie intake was replaced with hazelnuts in intervention group. Blood samples were collected from fasting patients at the start and at the end of the study. Results: After 8 weeks, there were significant differences in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations between two groups, using analyses of covariance ( P = 0.009, which was due to the larger HDL-C reduction in control group ( P = 0.003. Although, Hazelnut group achieved greater reduction in triglyceride (TG concentrations than control group, these changes were not statistically significant. Neither between-group changes nor within-group changes were significant for FBS, total cholesterol (TC, TG, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that incorporation of hazelnuts into diet can prevent reduction of HDL-C concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes, but had no effect on FBS or other lipid profile indices.

  16. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 facilitates heme scavenging after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaiqing; Manaenko, Anatol; Shao, Anwen; Ou, Yibo; Yang, Peng; Budbazar, Enkhjargal; Nowrangi, Derek; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2017-04-01

    Heme-degradation after erythrocyte lysis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 is a receptor expressed predominately at the neurovascular interface, which facilitates the clearance of the hemopexin and heme complex. In the present study, we investigated the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 in heme removal and neuroprotection in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Endogenous low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and hemopexin were increased in ipsilateral brain after intracerebral hemorrhage, accompanied by increased hemoglobin levels, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and neurological deficits. Exogenous human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 protein reduced hematoma volume, brain water content surrounding hematoma, blood-brain barrier permeability and improved neurological function three days after intracerebral hemorrhage. The expression of malondialdehyde, fluoro-Jade C positive cells and cleaved caspase 3 was increased three days after intracerebral hemorrhage in the ipsilateral brain tissues and decreased with recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1. Intracerebral hemorrhage decreased and recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 1. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 siRNA reduced the effect of human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 on all outcomes measured. Collectively, our findings suggest that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 contributed to heme clearance and blood-brain barrier protection after intracerebral hemorrhage. The use of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 as supplement provides a novel approach to ameliorating intracerebral hemorrhage brain injury via its pleiotropic neuroprotective effects.

  17. Remnant lipoproteins induced proliferation of human prostate cancer cell, PC-3 but not LNCaP, via low density lipoprotein receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Nakano, Takamitsu; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Sadao; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been shown to be one of the risk factors for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of remnant lipoproteins on cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Remnant lipoproteins were isolated as remnant like particles (RLP) from human plasma. We used RLP for TG-rich lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins (LDL) for cholesterol-rich lipoproteins respectively and examined the effect of lipoproteins on proliferation of PC-3 and LNCaP cells using MTS assays. Moreover, we studied the effect of RLP and LDL treatment on the regulation of lipoprotein receptors in prostate cancer cells to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein-induced cell proliferation and lipoprotein receptor expression using real-time PCR, Western blotting assays and siRNA. RLP effectively induced PC-3 cell proliferation more than LDL, whereas both RLP and LDL could not induce LNCaP cell proliferation except at a higher concentration of RLP. LDL receptor (LDLr) was expressed in both prostate cancer cells but there was a sharp difference of sterol regulation between two cells. In PC-3 cells, LDL decreased the LDLr expression in some degree, but RLP did not. Meanwhile LDLr expression in LNCaP was easily downregulated by RLP and LDL. Blocking LDLr function significantly inhibited both RLP- and LDL-induced PC-3 cell proliferation. This study demonstrated that RLP-induced PC-3 cell proliferation more than LDL; however, both RLP and LDL hardly induced LNCaP cell proliferation. The differences of proliferation by lipoproteins might be involved in the regulation of LDLr expression.

  18. Lipoprotein composition and serum cholesterol ester fatty acids in nonwesternized Melanesians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, S; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Vessby, B

    1996-02-01

    In this study, the relationships between dietary fat [as measured by serum cholesterol ester fatty acids (CE-FA)], age, smoking, body mass index, and serum lipids were analyzed in 151 subsistence horticulturalists, aged 20-86 yr, from Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea. Their diet consists of tubers, fruit, coconut, fish, and vegetables with a negligible influence of western food and alcohol. Total fat intake is low [21% of energy (en%)], while saturated fat intake from coconuts is high (17 en%, mainly lauric and myristic acid). In multivariate analysis, 11-43% of the variation of the serum lipoprotein composition was explained by CE-FA, age, and smoking habits. The proportion of CE20:5n-3 explained much of the variation of triglycerides (TG, negative relation) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, positive) in both sexes and serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, positive) in the males. CE16:0 was positively related to TG and negatively related to HDL-C and ApoA1 in both sexes, and in males it related negatively to total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In males, negative relationships were present between CE18:2n-6 and TC and between CE14:0 and serum lipoprotein(a). Smoking was independently associated with lower ApoA1 in both sexes and with lower HDL-C and higher TG, TC, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B in males. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid showed the same potentially beneficial relationships with lipoproteins and apolipoproteins as in western populations. The relations of palmitic acid to serum lipids may be explained in terms of endogenous fat synthesis at a low-fat intake, rather than reflecting its relative intake.

  19. MicroRNAs regulates the high density lipoprotein biogenesis and its transport%MicroRNA 调控高密度脂蛋白的合成及转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪俊军; 吴嘉

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein ( HDL ) has been considered as an important mediator in favoring cardioprotective effects .However , recent studies revealed that HDL-C-raising therapeutics alone failed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases , suggesting that the HDLfunctionalitymay be more critical for its cardioprotective properties than the simple HDL-C levels.microRNAs ( miRNAs) have been identified as the novel regulators of lipid metabolism and played essential roles in the key steps of reverse cholesterol transport, involving in HDL biogenesis , cellular cholesterol mobilization , hepatic HDL uptake and excretion.The intensive research on lipid metabolism-related miRNAs may provide further clarification on the molecular regulatory mechanisms for HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport and plasma HDL-C levels, advancing our knowledge on the effects of HDL in pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases.%血浆高密度脂蛋白( HDL)具有心血管保护作用;但近年研究表明,仅升高血浆HDL胆固醇( HDL-C)水平并不能降低心血管疾病的发生风险;可见,HDL的功能而并非单纯HDL-C水平才是其发挥心血管保护作用的关键。微小核糖核酸( miRNAs)是参与脂质代谢过程的新型调控因子,在HDL生物合成、细胞内胆固醇动员、肝脏HDL摄取与代谢等胆固醇逆向转运关键环节中均发挥了重要作用。对脂质代谢相关miRNAs的深入研究,将有助于进一步探明HDL介导的胆固醇逆向转运过程及血浆HDL-C水平的分子调控机制,从而更科学、更全面的认识HDL在心血管疾病发生、发展中的作用。(中华检验医学杂志,2015,38:436-438)

  20. Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu; Li Wenjuan; Hou Xinguo; Wang Chuan; Li Chengqiao; Zhang Xiuping; Yang Weifang

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes,dyslipidemia,hypertension,and cardiovascular disease.Moreover,IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes.However,direct detection of IR is complicated.In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in nonobese people,we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.Methods This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women).Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose,insulin,liver enzymes,lipid profiles and creatinine.Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR.The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR.Results Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809),respectively,for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844)and 0.756 (0.672-0.840),respectively,for men.To identify IR,the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%,specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%,specificity 73.4%),respectively,for women,and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%,specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%,specificity 69.2%),respectively,for men.Conclusion TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

  1. Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Li, Wenjuan; Hou, Xinguo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Chengqiao; Zhang, Xiuping; Yang, Weifang; Ma, Zeqiang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Zheng, Huizhen; Ma, Aixia; Song, Jun; Lin, Peng; Liang, Kai; Liu, Fuqiang; Gong, Lei; Wang, Meijian; Xiao, Juan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Junpeng; Wang, Lingshu; Tian, Meng; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Ruxing; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes. However, direct detection of IR is complicated. In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in non-obese people, we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women). Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, lipid profiles and creatinine. Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR. Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809), respectively, for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844) and 0.756 (0.672-0.840), respectively, for men. To identify IR, the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%, specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 73.4%), respectively, for women, and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%, specificity 69.2%), respectively, for men. TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

  2. Relationship between Serum Albumin Level and Monocyte-to-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio with Saphenous Vein Graft Disease in Coronary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboga, Mehmet Kadri; Yayla, Cagri; Balci, Kevser Gulcihan; Ozeke, Ozcan; Maden, Orhan; Kisacik, Halil; Temizhan, Ahmet; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2017-06-01

    Background Previous studies proposed that inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired endothelial dysfunction have a crucial role in occurrence of saphenous vein graft (SVG) disease (SVGD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (MHR) and serum albumin (SA) level as readily available inflammatory and oxidative stress markers with the presence of SVGD in patients with a coronary bypass. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, a total of 257 patients (n = 112 SVGD [+] [mean age was 65.3 ± 8.4 years, 75.0% males] and n = 145 SVGD [-] [mean age was 66.5 ± 10.1 years, 74.5% males]) were enrolled. At least one SVG with ≥ 50% stenosis was defined as SVGD. Independent predictors of SVGD were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results White blood cell, neutrophil, monocyte, the age of SVG, and MHR were significantly higher, whereas SA level was significantly lower in patients with SVGD. In regression analysis, neutrophil, age of SVG, SA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.232 [0.156-0.370], p MHR (OR: 1.122 [1.072-1.174], p MHR (r = 0.238, p MHR has a 71.4% sensitivity and 60.0% specificity for prediction of SVGD. Conclusion Consequently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a significant and independent association between SA and MHR with SVGD. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. High-density lipoproteins: a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Mohamed Saleem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TS Mohamed Saleem1, PV Sandhya Rani1, K Gauthaman21Department of Pharmacology, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boyanapalli, Andhrapradesh, India; 2Department of Drug Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Derna, LibyaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease has a high rate of mortality in both Western and developing countries. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherothrombosis with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and high levels of low-density lipoprotein is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular disease. Lipid-lowering drugs like statins, niacin, fibrates, and some newer agents, ie, the apolipoprotein A-I mimetics and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, not only increase HDL levels but are also effective in reducing key atherogenic lipid components, including triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that HDL possesses a diverse range of biological actions, and that increasing HDL levels by drug treatment may be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, lipoproteins, statins, apolipoprotein, atherosclerosis

  4. Leptin levels and lipoprotein profiles in patients with cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Serdar; Atamer, Aytaç; Atamer, Yildiz; Can, Ahmet Selçuk; Bilici, Aslan; Taçyildiz, İbrahim; Koçyiğit, Yüksel; Yenice, Necati

    2015-06-01

    To determine the relationships between serum leptin and levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in patients with cholelithiasis. Patients with ultrasound-confirmed cholelithiasis and controls frequency-matched for age, sex, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels were recruited. Fasting blood samples from all study participants were assayed for glucose, haemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride. Serum Lp(a), ApoA-1 and ApoB levels were measured using nephelometric assays; serum leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 90 patients with cholelithiasis and 50 controls were included in the study. Serum levels of leptin, Lp(a), total cholesterol, triglyceride and ApoB were significantly increased, and levels of ApoA-1 and HDL-C were significantly decreased, in patients with cholelithiasis compared with controls. Serum leptin in patients with cholelithiasis were significantly positively correlated with Lp(a) and ApoB and negatively correlated with ApoA-1. Patients with cholelithiasis have higher leptin levels and an altered lipoprotein profile compared with controls, with increased leptin levels being associated with increased Lp(a) and ApoB levels, and decreased ApoA-1 levels, in those with cholelithiasis. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days. Results: Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities. PMID:27366348

  6. Apolipoprotein E mediates enhanced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol clearance by low-dose streptococcal serum opacity factor via hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant streptococcal serum opacity factor (rSOF) mediates the in vitro disassembly of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, a neo-HDL that is cholesterol poor, and a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) containing apoE. Given the occurrence of apoE on the CERM, we tested the hypothesis that rSOF injection into mice would reduce total plasma cholesterol clearance via apoE-dependent hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). rSOF (4 μg) injection into wild-type C57BL/6J mice formed neo-HDL, CERM, and lipid-free apoA-I, as observed in vitro, and reduced plasma total cholesterol (-43%, t(1/2)=44±18 minutes) whereas control saline injections had a negligible effect. Similar experiments with apoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice reduced plasma total cholesterol ≈0% and 20%, respectively. rSOF was potent; injection of 0.18 μg of rSOF produced 50% of maximum reduction of plasma cholesterol 3 hours postinjection, corresponding to a ≈0.5-mg human dose. Most cholesterol was cleared hepatically (>99%), with rSOF treatment increasing clearance by 65%. rSOF injection into mice formed a CERM that was cleared via hepatic LDLR that recognize apoE. This reaction could provide an alternative mechanism for reverse cholesterol transport.

  7. [Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Cncentration and Presence of Subfractions of Small Dense Low Density Lipoproteins as Independent Factors of Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, O I; Utkina, E A; Artemieva, N V; Ezhov, M V; Adamova, I Yu; Pokrovsky, S N

    2016-06-01

    To study relation of lipoproteina - Lp(a) and subfractional composition of apoB containing lipoproteins to the presence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Manerial and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum, Lp(a), and subfractions of apoB containing lipoproteins were determined in blood serum of 187 patients with known data of instrumental examination. Lp(a) concentration was not linked to any of risk factors, levels total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein CH, and subfractions of lipoproteins. In total group triglyceride (TGG) level correlated with content of small dense LDL (sdLDL) (r=0.445, 2 mg/dl in blood plasma (atherogenic profile B), as well as lowering of concentration of large LDL subfractions significantly increased probability of IHD presence in patients with elevated Lp(a) concentration Lp(a) concentration. Lp(a) is an independent factor of risk of coronary atherosclerosis more significant than shifts in subfractional composition of apoB containing lipoproteins. In patients with Lp(a) concentration less or equal 30 mg/dl subfractions of sdLDL were directly related to TG. Level of sdLDL and large lipoproteins of intermediate density are directly related to the presence of IHD. Large LDL correlates with concentration of HDL DL C and probably is cardioprotective. sdLDL content>2 mg/l or hypertriglyceridemia (TG>1.7 mmol/l) significantly increase chances of detection of confirmed IHD in patients with elevated Lp(a).

  8. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLASMA CHOLESTEROL、TRIGLYCERIDE、HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN AND ION TRANSPORT ENZYMES IN ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符云峰; 王素敏; 卢振敏; 李红

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between levels of plasma cholesterol (Ch), triglyceride (TG)、high density lipoprotein(HDL) and ion transport enzyme activities in red cell membranes of essential hypertensive patients.Methods Plasma Ch, TG, HDL-c, activites of Na+ -K+ -ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, Ca2+-binding capacity of interior membrane surface, and membrane Ch, phospholipid(PL) were measured in 32 normotensive (NT) subjects and 55 essential hypertensive patients(HT).Results ①Mean artery pressure(MAP), plasma Ch、TG and membrane Ch levels, and membrane cholesterol/phospholipid(C/P) molar ratio were significantly increased compared with those in NT group, respectively; ②The plasma HDL-c level, the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the Ca2+-binding capacity of the interior membrane surface in HT group were significantly lower than those in NT group, respectively.Conclusion The depressed activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-binding capacity of the interior surface in cell membranes are the major evidence of ion transport abnormalities in essential hypertension. The plasma TG and membrance C/P molar ratio-dependent changes in membrane microviscosity seem to be responsible for the modulation of particular ion transport pathways.

  9. Interactions of Six SNPs in ABCA1gene and Obesity in Low HDL-C Disease in Kazakh of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the interactions between six functional polymorphisms in ABCA1 and obesity in Kazakhs with low HDL-C levels. Methods: A total of 204 patients with low HDL-C and 207 health control subjects, which were randomly selected from among 5692 adult Kazakhs, were matched for age and sex. We genotyped ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms of rs2515602, rs3890182, rs2275542, rs2230806, rs1800976, and rs4149313. Results: (1 The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2515602, rs2230806 and rs4149313 were different between normal HDL-C and low HDL-C subjects, the genotypic frequency of rs2275542 was also different between normal HDL-C and low HDL-C subjects (p < 0.05; (2 the level of HDL-C (rs2515602 and rs2275542 in normal HDL-C subjects were different among the genotypes (p < 0.05; the levels of TC, LDL-C (rs2515602, rs4149313; TG (rs2515602, rs1800976, rs4149313 in low HDL-C patients were different among the genotypes (p < 0.05; (3 interactions between the rs3890182, rs2275542, rs180096, and rs4149313 polymorphisms in ABCA1 gene and obesity may be associated with low HDL-C disease; (4 the C-C-C-A-A-G, T-C-C-A-A-A, T-C-C-A-A-G, C-C-C-A-A-A, C-T-G-G-A-A, and T-T-C-G-A-A haplotypes were significant between the subjects with normal HDL-C and low HDL-C level (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The differences in serum lipid levels between normal HDL-C and low HDL-C subjects among Kazakhs might partly result from ABCA1 gene polymorphisms; ABCA1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease might partly result from interactions between ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and obesity; the C-C-C-A-A-G, T-C-C-A-A-A, and T-C-C-A-A-G haplotypes may serve as risk factors of low HDL-C disease among Kazakhs, the C-C-C-A-A-A, C-T-G-G-A-A, and T-T-C-G-A-A haplotypes may serve as protective factor of low HDL-C disease among Kazakhs.

  10. A green tea catechin extract upregulates the hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursill, Christina A; Roach, Paul D

    2007-07-01

    Green tea extracts have hypocholesterolaemic properties in epidemiological and animal intervention studies. Upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor may be one mechanism to explain this as it is the main way cholesterol is removed from the circulation. This study aimed to determine if a green tea extract could upregulate the hepatic LDL receptor in vivo in the rat. A green tea extract (GTE) enriched in its anti-oxidant constituents, the catechins, was fed to rats (n = 6) at concentrations of either 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% (w/w) mixed in with their normal chow along with 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol for 12 days. Administration of the GTE had no effect on plasma total or LDL cholesterol concentrations but high-density lipoprotein significantly increased (41%; p extract was able to increase the efflux of cholesterol from liver cells.

  11. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  12. Serum apolipoprotein(a) levels and its effect on the measured values of low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Serum low density lipoprotein cholesterl (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)]levels were analyzed in 1032 sequential cases on routine physical check up, with special attention to the effect of Lp(a) on the LDL-C values. Since the determination of LDL-C by various

  13. Evaluation of paraoxonase, malondialdehyde, and lipoprotein levels in patients with asymptomatic cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamer, Aytac; Kurdas-Ovunc, Ayse O; Yesil, Atakan; Atamer, Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    To compare lipoprotein and malondialdehyde levels and paraoxonase-1 activity between subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis and controls. Eighty subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis (55 women, 25 men, mean age: 51, SD 14 years) and 40 control subjects without cholelithiasis (25 women, 25 men, mean age: 51, SD 12 years) were enrolled to the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, lipoproteins, and malondialdehyde were measured. In the cholelithiasis group, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and malondialdehyde were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and paraoxonase-1 were significantly lower than the controls. In cholelithiasis patients with serum glucose level>100 mg/dL, body mass index, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher than cholelithiasis patients with serum glucose level100 mg/dL. In cholelithiasis patients with TG>150 mg/dL, mean age, body mass index, glucose, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde were significantly higher than in cholelithiasis patients with TGcholelithiasis subgroup with TG>150 mg/dL, HDL-C level and paraoxonase-1 activity were lower than in the cholelithiasis subgroup with TGcholelithiasis have evidence of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Patients with asymptomatic cholelithiasis with components of the metabolic syndrome have more lipid peroxidation and less antioxidant capacity than patients with asymptomatic cholelithiasis but without the components of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible ...

  15. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible ...

  16. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K W; Macfarlane, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  17. Practical technique to quantify small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol using dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trirongjitmoah, Suchin; Iinaga, Kazuya; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Chiba, Hitoshi; Sriyudthsak, Mana; Shimizu, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) cholesterol is clinically significant. We propose a practical technique to estimate the amount of sdLDL cholesterol using dynamic light scattering (DLS). An analytical solution in a closed form has newly been obtained to estimate the weight fraction of one species of scatterers in the DLS measurement of two species of scatterers. Using this solution, we can quantify the sdLDL cholesterol amount from the amounts of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which are commonly obtained through clinical tests. The accuracy of the proposed technique was confirmed experimentally using latex spheres with known size distributions. The applicability of the proposed technique was examined using samples of human blood serum. The possibility of estimating the sdLDL amount using the HDL data was demonstrated. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation of sdLDL amounts using DLS is feasible for point-of-care testing in clinical practice.

  18. INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and  butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was  demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control.   Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol

  19. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and statin use among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Laura G; Hammill, Bradley G; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Jones, W Schuyler

    2016-05-01

    At the time of this study, guidelines recommended a primary goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL for all patients, an optional goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 70 mg/dL for patients with overt cardiovascular disease and statins for patients with diabetes and overt cardiovascular disease and patients 40 years and older with diabetes and at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study examined statin use and achievement of lipid goals among 111,730 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years and older in 2011. Three-quarters of patients met the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dL. Patients with cardiovascular disease were more likely to meet the goal than those without, not controlling for other differences. Patients on a statin were more likely to meet the goal. There is considerable opportunity for improvement in cholesterol management in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. [Study on the selective removal of plasma low-density lipoprotein and fibrinogen by degraded carrageenan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haixia; Yin, Liang; Fang, Bo; Du, Longbing; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingling; You, Chao

    2010-08-01

    The selective removal of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen (Fib) by degraded carrageenan was studied by the present authors. Degraded carrageenan was prepared by acid with carrageenan as the main material. The effects of acid conditions on the molecular weight were investigated, and the proper reaction conditions were ascertained. The results of infrared spectrometry indicated that the degraded carrageenan is a heparin-like polysaccharide. Then the selective removal of LDL/Fibrinogen by degraded carrageenan was studied. When molecular weight was about 10,000, pH was 5.10 and the concentration of degraded carrageenan was 800 mg/L, the average reduction percentages were 60.0% for total cholesterol(TC), 79.4% for LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and 93.8% for fibrinogen. There were no significant changes with relation to the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total protein (TP). So, degraded carrageenan was shown to be of good selectivity on plasma LDL/Fibrinogen apheresis.

  1. Associations of lipoprotein lipase gene rs326 with changes of lipid profiles after a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-chun; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Li; Fang, Ding-zhi

    2014-04-23

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  2. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-chun Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008 and Apo A-I (p = 0.005 after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  3. Alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein subfraction in serum of a patient with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peynet, J.; Legrand, A.; Messing, B.; Thuillier, F.; Rousselet, F.

    1989-04-01

    An alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction was seen in a patient presenting with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis, who was given long-term cyclic parenteral nutrition. This subfraction, observed in addition to normal HDL, was precipitated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium chloride. The patient's serum lipoproteins were analyzed after fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The alpha slow-moving HDL floated in the ultracentrifugation subfractions with densities ranging from 1.028 to 1.084 kg/L, and their main apolipoproteins included apolipoprotein E in addition to apolipoprotein A-I. These HDL were larger than HDL2. The pathogenesis of this unusual HDL subfraction is hypothesized.

  4. Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Reduced High-Density Lipoprotein Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Content and Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Cardiac Cell Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinck, Jonas W; Thomas, Aurélien; Lauer, Estelle; Jornayvaz, François R; Brulhart-Meynet, Marie-Claude; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Pataky, Zoltan; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Eriksson, Mats; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morel, Sandrine; Kwak, Brenda R; van Eck, Miranda; James, Richard W; Frias, Miguel A

    2016-05-01

    The dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus has multiple etiologies and impairs lipoprotein functionality, thereby increasing risk for cardiovascular disease. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have several beneficial effects, notably protecting the heart from myocardial ischemia. We hypothesized that glycation of HDL could compromise this cardioprotective effect. We used in vitro (cardiomyocytes) and ex vivo (whole heart) models subjected to oxidative stress together with HDL isolated from diabetic patients and nondiabetic HDL glycated in vitro (methylglyoxal). Diabetic and in vitro glycated HDL were less effective (Pdiabetic patients (Pdiabetic HDL were inversely correlated with hemoglobin A1c (Pdiabetic HDL were significantly, positively correlated (both diabetic HDL increased its S1P content and restored its cardioprotective function. Our data demonstrate that glycation can reduce the S1P content of HDL, leading to increased cardiomyocyte cell death because of less effective activation of intracellular survival pathways. It has important implications for the functionality of HDL in diabetes mellitus because HDL-S1P has several beneficial effects on the vasculature. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. High-density lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport: strategies for raising HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosheska Trajkovska, Katerina; Topuzovska, Sonja

    2017-08-01

    A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge. HDL heterogeneity is the result of the activity of several factors that assemble and remodel HDL particles in plasma: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (HL), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), endothelial lipase (EL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The RCT pathway consists of the following steps: 1. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to plasma, 2. LCAT-mediated esterification of cholesterol and remodeling of HDL particles, 3. direct pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver, and 4. indirect pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver via CETP-mediated transfer There are several established strategies for raising HDL cholesterol in humans, such as lifestyle changes; use of drugs including fibrates, statins, and niacin; and new therapeutic approaches. The therapeutic approaches include CETP inhibition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, synthetic farnesoid X receptor agonists, and gene therapy. Results of clinical trials should be awaited before further clinical management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  6. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y-H; Chang, D-M; Lin, K-C; Hsieh, C-H; Lee, Y-J

    2013-08-01

    To date, few studies have demonstrated the impact of variations in blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic patients. This study aimed to assess the associations of mean values and variability in metabolic parameters with the development of DN in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 864 patients who had participated in a comprehensive diabetic care program for at least for 3 years were studied. Patients were stratified into progressor (n = 180) and non-progressor groups (n = 684) according to the status of progression of DN during the follow-up period. By Cox regression analysis, a higher mean HDL-C level was observed to be a protective factor against the progression of DN [hazard ratio (95% CI): 0.971(0.953-0.989), P = 0.002] and a higher HDL-C variation was found to be associated with a higher risk [hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.177(1.032-1.341), P = 0.015] of DN progression. By the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, patients with a higher HDL-C level and lower HDL-C variability were found to have the lowest risk of development of nephropathy. Our study demonstrated for the first time that type 2 diabetic patients under a standard disease management program who have a stable and a higher mean HDL-C level were associated with a lower risk of development of DN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Associate Director for Science Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Kathryn S. Porter, M.D., M.S., Director ...

  8. Studies on the Effects of Steroid Hormone Contraceptives on Lipid, Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein Metabolism in Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培娟; 宋思; 杨秋英; 桂幼伦; 贺昌海

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of steroid hormone contraceptives (SHCs), such as Mercilon, Chinese No. 1 pill, Post-coital pill, Mesigyna, and Cyclofem, on lipid metabolism in Chinese women during the last decade.Materials & Methods A total of 122 healthy volunteers who requested contraception were recruited in the study and one of the above-mentioned SHCs was administered.Fasting serum samples were taken from each subject before, during and after treatments. Triglycerides ( TG ) , total cholesterol ( TC ) , high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c ) , low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c ) , Apolipoprotein A I, A II and B were measured. The changes in the ratios of TC/HDL-c, Apo A I/Apo B were also observed.Results Although the levels of lipid were either increased or decreased by any one of the 5 contraceptives, these changes recovered after withdrawal of the drug administration. No significant changes were detected in the ratios of TC/HDL-c, Apo A I/Apo B during treatments.Conclusion The results suggest that there is no obvious impact on lipid profile induced by any of the 5 contraceptives within one year. The induced effects on lipid metabolism could be reduced by alternate use of 2 contraceptives with different biological activities.

  9. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiao-Xiang; Rodenburg, Sarah E; Hill, Dana; Vandevoort, Catherine A

    2011-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

  10. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-Xiang Dong; Sarah E Rodenburg; Dana Hill; Catherine A VandeVoort

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

  11. High density lipoprotein 3 inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis via promoting cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei JIANG; Peng-ke YAN; Jian-xiong CHEN; Bing-yang ZHU; Xiao-yong LEI; Wei-dong YIN; Duan-fang LIAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) on oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells.Methods: RAW264.7 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L ox-LDL for various durations up to 48 h, and apoptosis was detected using Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis. Total cholesterol levels were detected by high performance liquid chromatography, cholesterol efflux was determined by Tritium labeling, and the cellular lipid droplets were assayed by oil red O staining. Results: Treatment with 50 mg/L ox-LDL for 12, 24, and 48 h increased the apoptotic rate of RAW264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. The peak apoptotic rate (47.7%) was observed after 48 h incubation. HDL3 at various concentrations (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200mg/L) inhibited the ox-LDL (50 mg/L for 48 h)-mediated apoptosis that was accompanied by an increased rate of intracellular cholesterol efflux, and decreased total cholesterol levels in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Blockage of cholesterol efflux by brefeldin decreased the protective effect of HDL3 on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Increase of the cholesterol efflux effected by another cholesterol acceptor, β-cyclodextrin, led to a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate of cells. Conclusion: HDL3 antagonizes ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7cells, through reducing the accumulation of toxic cholesterol.

  12. Unique Features of High-Density Lipoproteins in the Japanese: In Population and in Genetic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yokoyama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia.

  13. Correlation between the High Density Lipoprotein and its Subtypes in Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To detect the changes of high density lipoprotein (HDL and its subtypes in serum of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods: 337 hospitalized patients were selected from our hospital during August, 2014 - January, 2015, and divided into CHD group (n = 190 and control group (n = 127. Lipoprint lipoprotein analyzer was used to classify low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and its sub-components, as well as HDL particle size and its sub-components. The changes of the subtypes in patients with CHD were statistically analyzed. The possible mechanism was explored. Results: (1 Compared with the control group, the concentration of HDL in CHD patients reduced, HDLL significantly decreased (P S increased (P L had the most significant decreased; (3 HDL and all HDL subtypes were positively correlated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, of which, HDLL had the biggest correlation with apoA-I (P M had a maximum correlation with HDL (P Conclusion: HDL maturation disorders existed in the serum of CHD patients, HDLL may be protected factor for CHD, whose decrease was closely related wit the risk increase of CHD. The cardiovascular protection function of HDLL may be related with apoA-I content.

  14. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A;

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low densit...... to receptor-covered sensor chips. Our results indicate that apolipoprotein A-V may influence plasma lipid homeostasis by enhancing receptor-mediated endocytosis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-27......Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low density...... lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited...

  15. Single step reconstitution of multifunctional high-density lipoprotein-derived nanomaterials using microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YongTae; Fay, Francois; Cormode, David P; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Tang, Jun; Hennessy, Elizabeth J; Ma, Mingming; Moore, Kathryn; Farokhzad, Omid C; Fisher, Edward Allen; Mulder, Willem J M; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A

    2013-11-26

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that transports peripheral cholesterol to the liver. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) exhibits antiatherothrombotic properties and is being considered as a natural treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, HDL nanoparticle platforms have been created for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. The current methods for HDL reconstitution involve lengthy procedures that are challenging to scale up. A central need in the synthesis of rHDL, and multifunctional nanomaterials in general, is to establish large-scale production of reproducible and homogeneous batches in a simple and efficient fashion. Here, we present a large-scale microfluidics-based manufacturing method for single-step synthesis of HDL-mimicking nanomaterials (μHDL). μHDL is shown to have the same properties (e.g., size, morphology, bioactivity) as conventionally reconstituted HDL and native HDL. In addition, we were able to incorporate simvastatin (a hydrophobic drug) into μHDL, as well as gold, iron oxide, quantum dot nanocrystals or fluorophores to enable its detection by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Our approach may contribute to effective development and optimization of lipoprotein-based nanomaterials for medical imaging and drug delivery.

  16. Antibodies toward high-density lipoprotein components inhibit paraoxonase activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuca, J R; Ames, P R J; Isenberg, D A; Alves, J Delgado

    2007-06-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased incidence of vascular disease, and oxidative stress is recognized as an important feature in this condition, despite the underlying mechanisms not being fully understood. In these patients, an interaction between lipoproteins and the immune system has been suggested, but most studies have only looked at antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of antibodies directed against high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and to identify a possible association between these antibodies and paraoxonase (PON), an antioxidant enzyme present in HDL. Plasma from 55 patients with SLE was collected and IgG aHDL and antiapolipoprotein A-I (aApo A-I) antibodies were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Standardization of the method was performed in a control population of 150 healthy subjects. Plasma levels above 5 standard deviations of the mean of the control population were considered positive. PON activity was assessed by quantification of p-nitrophenol formation (micromol/mL/min). Patients with SLE had higher titers of aHDL (P aHDL and aApo A-I antibodies (r = 0.61; P aHDL and aApo A-I antibodies in patients with SLE. These antibodies were associated with reduced PON activity in plasma, and the in vitro inhibition assay confirmed a direct inhibition of the enzyme activity.

  17. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  18. The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family: a cellular Swiss army knife?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykjaer, Anders; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-06-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cell-surface receptors produced by mammals and other organisms. Initially thought to be endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins, recent findings have shown that these receptors have other roles in a range of cellular processes. Among other activities, members of this family act as signal transducers in neuronal migration processes, regulate synaptic plasticity or control vitamin homeostasis. Such multifunctionality is achieved by interaction with diverse cell-surface proteins including glycolipid-anchored receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. Here, we review the molecular interactions of this protein family with other cell-surface proteins that provide specificity and versatility - a versatility that may be reminiscent of a cellular Swiss army knife.

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) in ovarian follicles of Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M S; Ronderos, J R; Rimoldi, O J; Brenner, R R

    2001-04-01

    The ability of Triatoma infestans ovarian follicles to synthesize a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) has been examined by immunohistochemical methods. This kind of lipoprotein can be envisaged as a storage hexameric protein present in the hemolymph of some insect species. VHDL immunoreactivity is observed in oocytes at different stages of maturation. The antigen is present in the oocyte cytoplasm as well as in the follicular epithelial cells. The immunopositive reaction in the apical surface of follicle cells suggests both a VHDL synthesis and a secretion process. Furthermore, VHDL seems to be stored into oocyte in yolk granules. On the contrary, no immunopositive reaction is observed in the intracellular spaces between follicle cells, suggesting that VHDL is not incorporated from hemolymph into the oocyte.

  20. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  1. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  2. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus: modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; L. Zwang; M.V. Huisman; J.D. Banga; W.J. Sluiter; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2 di

  3. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus : modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Zwang, Louwerens; Huisman, Menno V.; Banga, Jan Dirk; Sluiter, Wim. J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2

  4. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus : modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Zwang, Louwerens; Huisman, Menno V.; Banga, Jan Dirk; Sluiter, Wim. J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2 di

  5. Alimentary lipemia: plasma high-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins CII and CIII in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, M L; Barnhart, R L; Srivastava, L S; Perisutti, G; Allen, C; Hogg, E; Glueck, C J; Jackson, R L

    1983-02-01

    Three healthy male and three female inpatient volunteers consumed isocaloric diets for 4 wk. At weekly intervals, a fatty meal (100 g fat) was consumed by each fasting subject and blood drawn at 2 h intervals for 12 h. Of the four oral fat loads, two contained saturated fat (polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio = 0.34) and two contained unsaturated fat (polyunsaturated/saturated fat = 2.21). The magnitude of alimentary lipemia, expressed as area under the plasma triglyceride curve, was 3- to 4-fold higher in males than females. Alimentary lipemia was inversely related to the subjects' fasting plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, HDL apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and directly related to plasma triglycerides. The P/S ratios of the daily diet or the fat meal did not significantly influence the plasma triglyceride curve. After fat intake, mean (+/- SEM) plasma total apoCII and CIII fell to 54 +/- 20% and 73 +/- 5% of base-line, respectively, at 12 h in five of six subjects. After oral fat, an initial fall and a subsequent rise in apoCII and CIII in HDL was associated with reciprocal changes in apoC concentrations in very low-density lipoproteins. We speculate from the data that 1) plasma HDL and their apoC concentrations are important determinants of chylomicron clearance and 2) transfer of apoCs from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the early phase of fat absorption does not result in the total recycling of apoCs from these lipoproteins to HDL during the late phase of alimentary lipemia.

  6. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  7. Atenolol induced HDL-C change in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses (PEAR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrin W McDonough

    Full Text Available We sought to identify novel pharmacogenomic markers for HDL-C response to atenolol in participants with mild to moderate hypertension. We genotyped 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR study on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip. During PEAR, participants were randomized to receive atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure and cholesterol levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. This study focused on participants treated with atenolol monotherapy. Association with atenolol induced HDL-C change was evaluated in 232 whites and 152 African Americans using linear regression. No SNPs achieved a Bonferroni corrected P-value. However, we identified 13 regions with consistent association across whites and African Americans. The most interesting of these regions were seven with prior associations with HDL-C, other metabolic traits, or functional implications in the lipid pathway: GALNT2, FTO, ABCB1, LRP5, STARD3NL, ESR1, and LIPC. Examples are rs2144300 in GALNT2 in whites (P=2.29x10(-4, β=-1.85 mg/dL and rs12595985 in FTO in African Americans (P=2.90x10(-4, β=4.52 mg/dL, both with consistent regional association (P<0.05 in the other race group. Additionally, baseline GALNT2 expression differed by rs2144300 genotype in whites (P=0.0279. In conclusion, we identified multiple gene regions associated with atenolol induced HDL-C change that were consistent across race groups, several with functional implications or prior associations with HDL-C.

  8. HDL-P、HDL-C/P与早发冠心病发病风险相关性研究%Correlation Study on HDL-P、HDL-C/P and Premature Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包金兰; 孙润陆; 黄灿霞; 张玉玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between high density lipoprotein particle number (HDL-P), the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and HDL-P numbers (HDL-C/P) and risk factors in premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: 458 patients (man<55,and female<65 years) were selected from cardiology department in our hospital from January 2012 to July 2015. All subjects were diagnosed by coronary angiography and divided into two groups: CHD group with 216 cases and Control group with 242 cases. HDL-P number were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and were classified into 3groups: Small, Medium and Large; the ratio of HDL-C/P were classified into 4 groups as below: <41.0, 41.0 to 46.9, 47.0 to 52.9, ≥53.0. Clinical data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 18.0. Results:(1) After adjusting the relative risk factors, which include smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, large HDL-P could significantly decrease the risk of CHD than small HDL-P, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were 0.253 (0.104-0.611),P=0.002; (2) Compared with HDL-C/P≥53 group, HDL-C/P<41 group and HDL-C/P 41 to 46.9 group significantly decreased the risk of CHD, OR and 95% CI were 0.183 (0.059-0.573), P<0.01 and 0.295 (0.099-0.883),P<0.05. Conclusion: HDL-P and HDL-C/P may be an important index for evaluating premature coronary heart disease.%目的:探讨HDL-P、HDL-C/P与早发冠心病发病风险相关性。方法:搜集2012年1月-2015年7月在我院心内住院患者458例,男性<55岁,女性<65岁,其中冠心病组216例,对照组242例,均行冠状动脉造影,搜集临床资料;采用核磁共振光谱技术检测HDL-P数量,将HDL-P数量分为3组,大颗粒、中颗粒和小颗粒;按HDL-C/P 比值大小分为4组(HDL-C/P<41.0组,41.0-46.9组,47.0-52.9组和≥53.0组)以SPPS18.0统计软件进行统计分析。结果:(1)采用多元logistic回归分

  9. [Hormonal regulation of lipoprotein metabolism: the role in pathogenesis of coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, E I; Metel'skaia, V A; Perova, N V; Shchukina, G N

    2006-01-01

    The character and role of hormonal dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism during postprandial hyperlipemia were studied in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and hyperthyroidism as compared with healthy subjects. Pronounced hypertriglyceridemia alongside with the decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL C) after standard fat load were associated with increased level of insulin and decreased level of cortisol. Moreover, in CHD patients fasting hyperinsulinemia becoming even stronger postprandially resulted in prevalence of antilipolytic action of insulin over lipid-mobilizing effect of cortisol; and an extended postprandial hypertriglyceridemia took place. Patients with hyperthyroidism and low cholesterol level both in atherogenic LDL and antiatherogenic HDL, demonstrated decreased level of apo AI (as in CHD patients) and apo B (three times lower than in CHD patients). Very low ratio of apo B/AI in patients with hyperthyroidism both in fasting and postprandial state was a clear indication of their lipoprotein profile antiatherogeneity. Thus, in patients with hyperthyroidism despite of low HDL C and apo AI levels, antiatherogenic properties of lipoprotein profile are probably determined by very low apo B/AI ratio induced by thyroid hormones, and might be explained by the influence of thyroid hormones on the expression of genes coding these apoproteins.

  10. 入院时高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平对急性ST段抬高心肌梗死患者结局的影响%Impact of high-density lipoprotein levels at hospital admission on the outcome of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇姣; 姜大明; 张波; 高远; 李玉泽; 于海杰; 齐国先

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析急性ST段抬高心肌梗死(ASTEMI)患者入院时高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平对随访一年主要心血管不良事件(MACCE)的影响.方法 选取2009年5月至2010年5月辽宁省20家医院1067例症状发作24h内入院并进行血脂检测的ASTEMI患者.观察基线情况、住院时症状、诊断、治疗及检查结果.随访1、6个月和1年的药物使用及MACCE(心源性死亡、非致死性心肌梗死、脑卒中及再次血运重建).采用Cox比例风险模型分析影响MACCE的独立危险因素.结果 根据患者入院时HDL-C水平均值,分为<1.27 mmol/L组587例(低组)和≥1.27 mmol/L组489例(高组).随访1、6个月及1年时低组非致死性心肌梗死发生率显著高于高组(分别为1.4%vs.0.0%,P=0.01;2.8%vs.0.4%,P=0.003; 4.8%vs.0.9%,P<0.001),随访6个月及1年时低组MACCE发生率显著高于高组(分别为18.3%vs.13.7%,P=0.04; 23.7%vs.18.1%,P=0.03).年龄(HR=1.02,95%CI:1.006~1.035,P=0.005)、糖尿病(HR=1.05,95%CI:1.053~2.171,P=0.03)、HDL-C水平(HR=0.56,95%CI:0.340 ~ 0.921,P=0.02)是ASTEMI患者1年后发生MACCE的独立危险因素.结论 入院时HDL-C水平高的ASTEMI患者随访1年和6个月时的MACCE(主要是非致死性心肌梗死)及1个月时的非致死性心肌梗死发生率显著低于HDL-C水平低的患者,并随时间延长其差异越明显.年龄、糖尿病及HDL-C水平是MACCE的独立危险因素.%Objective To analyze the impact of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at hospital admission on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACCE) in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI).Methods 1067 patients with ASTEMI who were admitted to the 20 hospitals in Liaoning region and with lipid profile tested within the 24 hours of admission from May 2009 until May 2010,were enrolled.Data on basic demographic,clinical,status on admission and method of treatment were

  11. Postprandial lipoprotein profile in two modes of high-intensity intermittent exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; de Moura Mello Antunes, Barbara; Lira, Fabio Santos; Takito, Monica Yuri; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to compare blood lipid postprandial profile response in two modes of high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve individuals (6 men and 6 women) were submitted to a maximal incremental test (to determine maximal aerobic power [MAP] and V. O2peak [peak oxygen uptake]), high-intensity intermittent all-out exercise (60×8-sec bouts interspersed by 12-sec passive recovery) and fixed high-intensity intermittent exercise (100% maximal aerobic speed, consisted of 1-min repetitions at MAP [70 rpm] separated by 1-min of passive recovery). Blood samples were collected pre, immediately, 45 and 90-min postexercise. Serum was analyzed for total cholesterol and its ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (TAG). For TAG there was a main effect of moment with higher values immediately postexercise compared to 45-min postexercise. For VLDL there was a main effect to moment with higher values immediately post exercise than pre and 45-min postexercise; higher values 90-min postexercise than 45-min postexercise. There was no effect for HDL-c, LDL-c, and cholesterol. For area under the curve there was no difference for any variable. Our results indicated that both kinds of acute exercise session lead to no improvement in the acute response of serum lipid profile of healthy young. PMID:27807528

  12. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  13. Innovative pharmaceutical interventions in cardiovascular disease: Focusing on the contribution of non-HDL-C/LDL-C-lowering versus HDL-C-raisingA systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant preclinical studies and clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnast, S.; Fiocco, M.; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.; Jukema, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Non-HDL-cholesterol is well recognised as a primary causal risk factor in cardiovascular disease. However, despite consistent epidemiological evidence for an inverse association between HDL-C and coronary heart disease, clinical trials aimed at raising HDL-C (AIM-HIGH, HPS2-THRIVE, dal-OUTCOMES) fai

  14. Loss of Function of GALNT2 Lowers High-Density Lipoproteins in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Christoffersen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    models. We identified two humans homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in GALNT2 who demonstrated low HDL-C. We also found that GALNT2 loss of function in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates decreased HDL-C. O-glycoproteomics studies of a human GALNT2-deficient subject validated ANGPTL3 and Apo...

  15. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532 rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05. When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020 and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048. In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-c) as predictors of cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler Miralles, Clara Silvana; Wollinger, Luana Maria; Marin, Débora; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Contini, Veronica; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La concentracion excesiva de grasa en la region abdominal se relaciona con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). Se han realizado estudios para identificar los indicadores simples y eficaces de la obesidad abdominal y el riesgo cardiometabolico asociados con el uso de parametros simples, como las medidas antropometricas y bioquimicas. El / alta densidad de colesterol de lipoproteinas de trigliceridos (TG / HDL-c) se ha propuesto como un enfoque mas practico y facil de usar marcador aterogenico, junto con la relacion cintura-estatura (RCEst), lo que hace que una herramienta superior para separar cardiometabolico riesgos relacionados con el sobrepeso / obesidad cuando se compara con el indice de masa corporal (IMC). Objetivo: Verificar la aplicabilidad de la RCEst y la relacion TG / HDL-c como predictores de riesgo cardiometabolico. Métodos: Este estudio transversal se llevo a cabo en el Departamento de Nutricion del Centro Universitario UNIVATES, donde se recogieron datos antropometricos y bioquimicos de los participantes. El analisis estadistico se realizo mediante el paquete estadistico para el software de Ciencias Sociales (SPSS) 20,0, con un nivel de significacion del 5% (p.

  18. Low-Density Lipoprotein Modified by Myeloperoxidase in Inflammatory Pathways and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Delporte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has a key role in atherogenesis. Among the different models of oxidation that have been studied, the one using myeloperoxidase (MPO is thought to be more physiopathologically relevant. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the unique protein of LDL and is the major target of MPO. Furthermore, MPO rapidly adsorbs at the surface of LDL, promoting oxidation of amino acid residues and formation of oxidized lipoproteins that are commonly named Mox-LDL. The latter is not recognized by the LDL receptor and is accumulated by macrophages. In the context of atherogenesis, Mox-LDL accumulates in macrophages leading to foam cell formation. Furthermore, Mox-LDL seems to have specific effects and triggers inflammation. Indeed, those oxidized lipoproteins activate endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages and induce proinflammatory molecules such as TNFα and IL-8. Mox-LDL may also inhibit fibrinolysis mediated via endothelial cells and consecutively increase the risk of thrombus formation. Finally, Mox-LDL has been involved in the physiopathology of several diseases linked to atherosclerosis such as kidney failure and consequent hemodialysis therapy, erectile dysfunction, and sleep restriction. All these issues show that the investigations of MPO-dependent LDL oxidation are of importance to better understand the inflammatory context of atherosclerosis.

  19. Determination of the alpha-tocopherol inhibition rate constant for peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Sean M; Antunes, Fernando; Havrilla, Christine M; Milne, Ginger L; Porter, Ned A

    2002-06-01

    This work reports an estimate of the inhibition rate constant (k(inh)) for alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) based on cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide products formed during autoxidation of intact lipoproteins. The ratio of cis,trans/trans,trans product hydroperoxides was determined during the consumption of the antioxidant. For a reasonable determination of k(inh) in LDL, the pro-oxidant behavior of alpha-TOH was minimized by oxidizing LDL with an unsymmetrical amphiphilic azo initiator which significantly reduces phase-transfer mediated pro-oxidant effects of alpha-TOH. This initiator delivers a more constant flux of initiator radicals into LDL lipid regions and permits determination of alpha-TOH k(inh) in LDL. Development of a tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP) model and analysis of cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide cis,trans/trans,trans product ratios provided an estimated value for the inhibition rate constant of alpha-TOH in a lipoprotein of k(inh) = 5.9 +/- 0.5 x 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)

  20. Low-density lipoprotein mimics blood plasma-derived exosomes and microvesicles during isolation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sódar, Barbara W; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Németh, Andrea; Sperlágh, Beáta; Baranyai, Tamás; Giricz, Zoltán; Wiener, Zoltán; Turiák, Lilla; Drahos, László; Pállinger, Éva; Vékey, Károly; Ferdinandy, Péter; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2016-04-18

    Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them. Based on biophysical properties of LDL this finding was highly unexpected. Current state-of-the-art extracellular vesicle isolation and purification methods did not result in lipoprotein-free vesicle preparations from blood plasma or from platelet concentrates. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed an association of LDL with isolated vesicles upon in vitro mixing. This is the first study to show co-purification and in vitro association of LDL with extracellular vesicles and its interference with vesicle analysis. Our data point to the importance of careful study design and data interpretation in studies using blood-derived extracellular vesicles with special focus on potentially co-purified LDL.

  1. Very low density lipoproteins in intestinal lymph: role in triglyceride and cholesterol transport during fat absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Hughes, Faith B.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.

    1969-01-01

    The role of nonchylomicron very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, Sf 20-400) in the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol was studied during lipid absorption. Various long chain fatty acids were infused intraduodenally in the form of mixed fatty acid—mono-olein-taurocholate micelles; control animals received saline or taurocholate. As compared with controls, all fatty acids (palmitic, oleic, linoleic) resulted in significant increases in chylomicron (Sf > 400) triglyceride. In addition, palmitic acid resulted in a twofold increase in VLDL triglyceride, whereas with the absorption of oleic or linoleic acid VLDL triglyceride did not change significantly. Differences in triglyceride fatty acid composition between chylomicrons and VLDL were observed during lipid absorption. Although the absolute amount of endogenous cholesterol in intestinal lymph was not significantly affected by lipid absorption under these conditions, its lipoprotein distribution differed substantially among the lipid-infused groups. During palmitate absorption, VLDL cholesterol was similar to that in the taurocholate-infused controls, and was equal to chylomicron cholesterol. In contrast, during oleate and linoleate absorption the VLDL cholesterol fell markedly, and was less than half of the chylomicron cholesterol in these groups. The half-time of plasma survival of VLDL cholesterol-14C was found to be twice that of chylomicron cholesterol-14C. These studies demonstrate that dietary long chain fatty acids differ significantly in their effects upon the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol by lipoproteins of rat intestinal lymph. These findings, together with the observed differences in rates of removal of chylomicrons and VLDL from plasma, suggest that variations in lipoprotein production at the intestinal level may be reflected in differences in the subsequent metabolism of absorbed dietary and endogenous lipids. PMID:5355348

  2. A linoleate-enriched cheese product reduces low-density lipoprotein in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P A; Platon, J F; Gershwin, M E; Halpern, G M; Keen, C L; DiPaolo, D; Alexander, J; Ziboh, V A

    1993-10-01

    To test the effect of substituting a modified-fat cheese product into the diets of hypercholesterolemic adults. A 4-month, randomized, double-blind, crossover substitution trial. General community outpatient study. Twenty-six healthy adult volunteers (17 men, 9 women) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > 5.69 mmol/L but < 7.24 mmol/L). Daily substitution of 100 g of cheese, either partial skim-milk mozzarella or modified-fat (vegetable oil) mozzarella cheese product, into participants' normal diets. Participants consumed an assigned cheese for 2 months, at which time they crossed over to consume the other study cheese. Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured at baseline and at 2 and 4 months after initiation of the study. Compliance was assessed by body weight and by biweekly dietary records and interviews. No differences in weight or in the amount or type of calories consumed were found during the study. No statistically significant changes in lipid values resulted from consumption of mozzarella cheese. Modified-fat cheese substitution resulted in a decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level when compared with levels at both baseline (-0.28 mmol/L; 95% Cl, -0.14 to -0.42 mmol/L) and during consumption of the skim-milk mozzarella cheese (-0.38 mmol/L; 95% Cl, -0.2 to -0.70 mmol/L). Findings for total cholesterol were similar. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and apolipoprotein A-l and B-100 levels were unaltered. Both sexes responded similarly. A linoleate-enriched cheese product, in the absence of any other changes in diet or habits, substituted into the normal diets of hypercholesterolemic adults reduced low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol levels.

  3. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  4. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-17

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.

  5. Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2006-06-14

    This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

  6. Rspo2 suppresses CD36-mediated apoptosis in oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis of macrophages contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), a member of the cysteine-rich secreted proteins, has been shown to be involved in the oncogenesis of several types of cancer. It has also been found to be abundantly expressed among the four R-spondin members in macrophages. The present study was performed to determine whether Rspo2 is involved in the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of macrophages. I...

  7. Health benefits of high-density lipoproteins in preventing cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Momo, Claudia N; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2012-01-01

    Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are strongly and inversely correlated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, it is becoming clear that a functional HDL is a more desirable target than simply increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. The best known antiatherogenic function of HDL particles relates to their ability to promote reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells. However, HDL also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. This review focuses on the state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL heterogeneity and function and their relationship to cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicts contrast induced-acute kidney injury after percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with coronary heart disease%低水平高密度脂蛋白胆固醇是经皮冠脉介入术后急性肾损伤的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永利; 许静; 刘园园; 杨世诚; 丛洪良; 付乃宽

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨低水平高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,HDL-C)与冠心病患者经皮冠状动脉介入术(percutaneous coronary intervention,PCI)后对比剂诱导的急性肾损伤(contrast induced-acute kidney injury,CI-AKI)的关系.方法 选取天津市胸科医院心内科2009年1月至2011年5月行PCI术的冠心病患者共1500例,于术前及术后72 h内测定其血肌酐水平.入选标准:均为汉族人群,年龄及性别不限;排除标准:既往有恶性肿瘤、泌尿系统感染、肾脏切除手术、腹膜或血液透析治疗或术前两周内曾应用过对比剂.CI-AKI定义为应用对比剂后24 ~ 72 h血清肌酐水平较原有基础升高超过25%或绝对值升高44.2 μmol/L以上,并排除其他影响肾功能的原因.低水平HDL-C定义为HDL-C<1.04 mmol/L.应用单因素分析及多元Logistic回归分析确定CI-AKI及低水平HDL-C的危险因素.结果 在1500例行PCI术的冠心病患者中,共有246例(16.4%)发生了CI-AKI,低水平HDL-C组与正常水平HDL-C组的CI-AKI发病率分别为21.5%和13.3% (P<0.01).进一步分析发现,伴有慢性肾脏疾病者,CI-AKI发病率在低水平HDL-C组与正常水平HDL-C组分别为39.8%和26.5%(P<0.05),而在不伴有慢性肾脏疾病者分别为9.7%和17.7%(P<0.01),差异均具有统计学意义.多元Logistic回归分析显示,低水平HDL-C是冠心病患者PCI术后CI-AKI发生的危险因素,超重、吸烟及贫血是该类患者低水平HDL-C的预测因子.结论 与HDL-C水平正常者相比,低水平HDL-C者PCI术后CI-AKI的发病率显著升高.无论是否伴有慢性肾脏疾病,低水平HDL-C均是冠心病患者PCI术后发生CI-AKI的危险因素.超重、吸烟及贫血是低水平HDL-C的预测因子.%Objective To investigate the relationship of low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients

  9. rs7903146 Polymorphism at Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 Gene Is Associated with Total Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Profile in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Berenguer, Juan; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Carrero, Ana; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Teresa; García-Broncano, Pilar; Diez, Cristina; Guzmán-Fulgencio, María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 polymorphism has been associated with metabolic disturbance and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and potential disturbances on the lipid profile in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. We performed a cross-sectional study on 263 HIV/HVC-coinfected patients. TCF7L2 polymorphism was genotyped by GoldenGate assay. The analysis was performed by linear and logistic regression under a dominant model of inheritance. The variables analyzed were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides. Patients harboring the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype showed a diminished concentration of TC (p=0.003), LDL-C (p=0.004), HDL-C (p=0.012), and non-HDL-C (p=0.013), a lower percentage of TC≥200 mg/dl (p=0.038), and a higher percentage of HDL≤40 mg/dl (p=0.023). In addition, we observed that rs7903146 was differently related to fasting serum lipid levels according to the HCV-genotype (HCV-GT). With regard to HCV-GT1 patients, the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower levels of HDL-C [adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR)=0.91; p=0.049] and an elevated percentage of patients with HDL-C≤40 mg/dl [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.26; p=0.003]. For HCV-GT3 patients, the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower serum values of TC (aAMR=0.81; p=0.037), LDL-C (aAMR=0.67; p=0.001), and non-HDL-C (aAMR=0.75; p=0.002) and a reduced percentage of TC≥200 mg/dl (aOR=0.089; p=0.037). In conclusion, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower levels of TC, LDL, and HDL in HCV-GT3 patients, and lower levels of HDL-C in HCV-GT1 patients, suggesting a role in cardiovascular disease and a potential use as a biomarker in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. PMID:25353718

  10. Evidence of differential allelic effects between adolescents and adults for plasma high-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita P S Middelberg

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA studies identified 95 loci that influence lipid traits in the adult population and found that collectively these explained about 25-30% of heritability for each trait. Little is known about how these loci affect lipid levels in early life, but there is evidence that genetic effects on HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides vary with age. We studied Australian adults (N = 10,151 and adolescents (N = 2,363 who participated in twin and family studies and for whom we have lipid phenotypes and genotype information for 91 of the 95 genetic variants. Heterogeneity tests between effect sizes in adult and adolescent cohorts showed an excess of heterogeneity for HDL-C (p(Het<0.05 at 5 out of 37 loci, but no more than expected by chance for LDL-C (1 out of 14 loci, or trigycerides (0 out 24. There were 2 (out of 5 with opposite direction of effect in adolescents compared to adults for HDL-C, but none for LDL-C. The biggest difference in effect size was for LDL-C at rs6511720 near LDLR, adolescents (0.021 ± 0.033 mmol/L and adults (0.157 ± 0.023 mmol/L, p(Het = 0.013; followed by ZNF664 (p(Het = 0.018 and PABPC4 (p(Het = 0.034 for HDL-C. Our findings suggest that some of the previously identified variants associate differently with lipid traits in adolescents compared to adults, either because of developmental changes or because of greater interactions with environmental differences in adults.

  11. Evidence of Differential Allelic Effects between Adolescents and Adults for Plasma High-Density Lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whitfield, John B.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified 95 loci that influence lipid traits in the adult population and found that collectively these explained about 25–30% of heritability for each trait. Little is known about how these loci affect lipid levels in early life, but there is evidence that genetic effects on HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C) and triglycerides vary with age. We studied Australian adults (N = 10,151) and adolescents (N = 2,363) who participated in twin and family studies and for whom we have lipid phenotypes and genotype information for 91 of the 95 genetic variants. Heterogeneity tests between effect sizes in adult and adolescent cohorts showed an excess of heterogeneity for HDL-C (pHet<0.05 at 5 out of 37 loci), but no more than expected by chance for LDL-C (1 out of 14 loci), or trigycerides (0 out 24). There were 2 (out of 5) with opposite direction of effect in adolescents compared to adults for HDL-C, but none for LDL-C. The biggest difference in effect size was for LDL-C at rs6511720 near LDLR, adolescents (0.021±0.033 mmol/L) and adults (0.157±0.023 mmol/L), pHet = 0.013; followed by ZNF664 (pHet = 0.018) and PABPC4 (pHet = 0.034) for HDL-C. Our findings suggest that some of the previously identified variants associate differently with lipid traits in adolescents compared to adults, either because of developmental changes or because of greater interactions with environmental differences in adults. PMID:22530058

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  13. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.

  14. Accelerated decline in renal function after acute myocardial infarction in patients with high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Masaki; Hayashida, Ryo; Jinno, Yasushi; Tanaka, Akihito; Okada, Koji; Hayashi, Mutsuharu; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-01-01

    High low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (L/H) ratio is associated with progressions of coronary arteriosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. On the other hand, renal function markedly declined after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aims of the present study were (1) to identify what type of patients with AMI would have high L/H ratio at follow-up and (2) to evaluate whether decline in renal function after AMI had accelerated or not in patients with high L/H ratio. The 190 eligible AMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and received atorvastatin (10 mg) were divided into one of two groups according to the L/H ratio at 6-month follow-up: L/H >2 group (n = 81) or L/H ≤2 group (n = 109). The characteristics on admission in the two groups were examined. Furthermore, changes in serum creatinine (sCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during 1- and 6-month follow-up were compared between the two groups. L/H >2 group were significantly younger and had greater body mass index (BMI) and worse lipid profile on admission compared with L/H ≤2 group. Percentage increase in sCr and percentage decrease in eGFR during 1-month follow-up in L/H >2 group tended to be greater than in L/H ≤2 group, and those during 6-month follow-up were significantly greater (16.5 ± 2.77 vs. 9.79 ± 2.23 %, p = 0.03 and 11.8 ± 1.93 vs. 2.75 ± 3.85 %, p = 0.04, respectively). In AMI patients undergoing primary PCI, those who were young and had large BMI and poor lipid profile on admission were likely to have a high L/H ratio at follow-up despite statin therapy. In addition, the decline in renal function after AMI had significantly accelerated in patients with high L/H ratio.

  15. Effect of a novel insulinotropic agent, succinic acid monoethyl ester, on lipids and lipoproteins levels in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamideinduced type 2 diabetes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramalingam Saravanan; Leelavinothan Pari

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of succinic acid monoethyl ester (EMS) on the pattern of lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes was investigated. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 min after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The carboxylic nutrient EMS was administered intraperitonially at a dose of 8 mol/g body weight for 30 days. At the end of experimental period, the effect of EMS on plasma glucose, insulin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide (HP) and serum triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and the percentage of antiatherogenic index (AAI) (ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol) were studied. Administration of EMS to diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in the elevated levels of plasma glucose, TBARS and hydroperoxides as well as TG, PL, FFA, TC, VLDL-C and LDC-C levels. The decreased plasma insulin and serum HDL-C and percentage of AAI in diabetic rats were also reversed towards near normal. The effect produced by EMS was compared with metformin, a reference drug. The results indicates that the administration of EMS and metformin to nicotinamide-streptozotocin diabetic rats normalized plasma glucose, insulin concentrations and caused marked improvement in altered lipids, lipoprotein and lipid peroxidation markers during diabetes. Our results show the antihyperlipidemic properties of EMS and metformin in addition to its antidiabetic action. Moreover, the antihyperlipidemic effect could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis.

  16. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2/megalin is expressed in oligodendrocytes in the mouse spinal cord white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wicher, Grzegorz; Larsson, Mårten; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex

    2006-01-01

    Lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 (LRP2)/megalin is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, and is essential in absorptive epithelia for endocytosis of lipoproteins, low molecular weight proteins, cholesterol and vitamins, as well as in cellular signaling. Previous st...... that spinal cord oligodendrocytes are phenotypically different from those in the brain, and indicate that megalin translocates signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus of oligodendrocytes during the formation and maintenance of myelin of long spinal cord pathways....

  17. Italian multicenter study on low-density lipoprotein apheresis Working Group 2009 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Morozzi, Claudia; Di Giacomo, Serafina

    2013-04-01

    We present results of the second survey of the Italian Multicenter Study on Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis (IMSLDLa-WG/2). The study involved 18 centers in 2009, treating 66 males and 35 females, mean age 47 ± 18 years. Mean age for initiation of drug treatment before low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDLa) was 31 ± 18 years, mean age to the first LDLa was 37 ± 20 years and average duration of treatment was 9 ± 6 years. The techniques used included direct adsorption of lipids, dextran sulfate cellulose adsorption, heparin-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) precipitation, cascade filtration, and plasma exchange. The mean treated plasma/blood volumes/session were 3127 ± 518 mL and 8666 ± 1384 mL, respectively. The average plasma volume substituted was 3500 ± 300 mL. Lipid therapy before LDLa included ezetimibe, statins, ω-3 fatty acids and fenofibrate. Baseline mean LDL cholesterol (LDLC) levels were 386 ± 223 mg/dL. The mean before/after apheresis LDLC level decreased by 67% from 250 ± 108 mg/dL (P = 0.05 vs. baseline) to 83 ± 37 mg/dL (P = 0.001 vs. before). Baseline mean Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] level was 179 ± 136 mg/dL. Mean before/after apheresis Lp(a) level decreased by 71% from 133 ± 120 mg/dL (P = 0.05 vs. baseline) to 39 ± 44 mg/dL (P = 0.001 vs. before). Major and minor side effects occurred in 27 and 62 patients, respectively. Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 62.3% had coronary angiography and 50.4% coronary revascularization before LDLa. Single vessel, double vessel and triple vessel CAD occurred in 19 (30.1%), 15 (23.8%) and 29 (46%) patients, respectively. Both CAD and extra-CAD occurred in 41.5%, 39% had hypertension, 9.9% were smokers, 9.9% consumed alcohol and 42% were physically active. Ischemic cardiovascular events were not observed in any patient over 9 ± 6 years of treatment. Two centers have also treated 34 patients (females: 17/males 17; no. sessions: 36; average plasma volume treated: 3000 mL) for

  18. Lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol distribution is more atherogenic in insulin resistant adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Maahs, David M; Ferland, Annie; Hokanson, John E; Wang, Hong; Pyle, Laura; Kinney, Gregory L; King, Martina; Eckel, Robert H; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) often have a less atherogenic-appearing fasting lipid profile than controls, despite increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as adults. We previously reported an atherogenic lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol distribution associated with insulin resistance (IR) in T1D adults. We sought to determine if T1D youth have more atherogenic profile than controls via a cross-sectional study. Following 3 days of controlled diet and restricted exercise, fasting plasma samples were drawn from 28 T1D youth [50% female, age 15.3 ± 2 yr, body mass index (BMI) 48%ile; diabetes duration 73 ± 52 months, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.3 ± 1.4%] and 17 non-diabetic controls (47% female, age: 15.0 ± 2 yr, BMI 49%ile) prior to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Lipoproteins were fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and lipoprotein cholesterol distribution determined. Outcome measures were IR assessed by glucose infusion rate (GIR) and FPLC lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol distribution. T1D youth were more IR (GIR 9.1 ± 3.6 vs. 14.7 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min, p lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and less as large buoyant high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than controls (p lipoprotein profile. Normal weight T1D youth, especially females, had more atherogenic LDL-C and HDL-C distributions which correlated with lower insulin sensitivity. IR may contribute to the increased CVD burden in T1D. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association between serum adiponectin and HDL-C in type II diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri Kalehsar, Nasser; Golmohammadi, Tagi

    2014-11-16

    Adiponectin has an important role in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, and it also has a role in vascular biology. The aim of this study was to determine the association of adiponectin with HDL-C in type II diabetic patients and healthy individuals. This was a case control study. After 12 hours of fasting, the patients' blood samples was taken, and the serum was separated in a centrifuge tube. The concentration of adiponectin in the serum was measured using ELISA kits. The same procedure also was performed for the members of the control group. The adiponectin levels were signifcantly different between the two groups, i.e., the type II diabetic patients and the individuals in the control group who were healthy nondiabetics (P HDL-C values between the two groups (P HDL-C (P ≤ 0.001). The results of this study can be used to identify individuals at risk for type II diabetes, and to control the risk factors for type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases by increasing the levels of adiponectin in the blood.

  20. Targeting PCSK9 as a promising new mechanism for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Badia, Laura A; Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-08-01

    Statins and other lipid-lowering drugs have dominated the market for many years for achievement of recommended levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, a substantial number of high-risk patients are unable to achieve the LDL-C goal. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) has recently emerged as a new, promising key therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia. PCSK9 is a protease involved in chaperoning the low-density lipoprotein receptor to the process of degradation. PCSK9 inhibitors and statins effectively lower LDL-C. The PCSK9 inhibitors decrease the degradation of the LDL receptors, whereas statins mainly interfere with the synthetic machinery of cholesterol by inhibiting the key rate limiting enzyme, the HMG CoA reductase. PCSK9 inhibitors are currently being developed as monoclonal antibodies for their primary use in lowering LDL-C. They may be especially useful for patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, who at present receive minimal benefit from traditional statin therapy. The monoclonal antibody PCSK9 inhibitors, recently granted FDA approval, show the most promising safety and efficacy profile compared to other, newer LDL-C lowering therapies. This review will primarily focus on the safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody PCSK9 inhibitors in comparison to statins. The review will also address new, alternative PCSK9 targeting drug classes such as small molecules, gene silencing agents, apolipoprotein B antisense oligonucleotides, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors.

  1. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. Keywords: dyslipidemia, statin, colesevelam

  2. Protective effects of endomorphins, endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Xue, Li-Ying; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Qian-Yu; Chen, Qiang

    2006-03-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with oxidative stress. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) exists in the brain and is especially sensitive to oxidative damage. Oxidative modification of LDL has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, protecting LDL from oxidation may be essential in the brain. The antioxidative effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2), endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, on LDL oxidation has been investigated in vitro. The peroxidation was initiated by either copper ions or a water-soluble initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). Oxidation of the LDL lipid moiety was monitored by measuring conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the relative electrophoretic mobility. Low density lipoprotein oxidative modifications were assessed by evaluating apoB carbonylation and fragmentation. Endomorphins markedly and in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited Cu2+ and AAPH induced the oxidation of LDL, due to the free radical scavenging effects of endomorphins. In all assay systems, EM1 was more potent than EM2 and l-glutathione, a major intracellular water-soluble antioxidant. We propose that endomorphins provide protection against free radical-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Serum Fructosamine, Total Cholesterol, and High-Density Lipoprotein in Children with Asthma during Glucocorticoid Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, A J; Wolthers, O D

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims. Glucocorticoids may have adverse effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The present study was conducted to investigate possible effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of inhaled and oral glucocorticoids in children with asthma. Methods. Two randomised controlled trials with blinded crossover designs were performed. Active treatment was 400  μ g inhaled budesonide or 5 mg prednisolone orally daily during one week. The budesonide trial included 17 and the prednisolone trial 20 school children. Serum fructosamine, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were assessed. Results. Serum fructosamine was increased during active treatment (prednisolone 252.3  μ M versus placebo 247.3  μ M; P = 0.03 and budesonide 228.1  μ M versus no treatment 223.1  μ M; P = 0.02). Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were not statistically significantly increased. Conclusion. Short-term treatment with oral prednisolone and inhaled budesonide may adversely affect mean blood glucose concentration. Possible long-term consequences require further investigations.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR rs2228671 Polymorphism and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadan Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR can regulate cholesterol metabolism by removing the excess low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in blood. Since cholesterol metabolism is often disrupted in coronary heart disease (CHD, LDLR as a candidate gene of CHD has been intensively studied. The goal of our study is to evaluate the overall contribution of LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism to the risk of CHD by combining the genotyping data from multiple case-control studies. Our meta-analysis is involved with 8 case-control studies among 7588 cases and 9711 controls to test the association between LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism and CHD. In addition, we performed a case-control study of LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism with the risk of CHD in Chinese population. Our meta-analysis showed that rs2228671-T allele was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CHD (P=0.0005, odds ratio (OR = 0.83, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.75–0.92. However, rs2228671-T allele frequency was rare (1% and was not associated with CHD in Han Chinese (P=0.49, suggesting an ethnic difference of LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism. Meta-analysis has established rs2228671 as a protective factor of CHD in Europeans. The lack of association in Chinese reflects an ethnic difference of this genetic variant between Chinese and European populations.

  5. Antioxidative activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL): Mechanistic insights into potential clinical benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Fernando; Martin, Maximiliano; Guillas, Isabelle; Kontush, Anatol

    2017-12-01

    Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by macrophages represents a key step in the development of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the foam cell formation. Chemical modification of LDL is however necessary to induce this process. Proatherogenic LDL modifications include aggregation, enzymatic digestion and oxidation. LDL oxidation by one-electron (free radicals) and two-electron oxidants dramatically increases LDL affinity to macrophage scavenger receptors, leading to rapid LDL uptake and fatty streak formation. Circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, primarily small, dense, protein-rich HDL3, provide potent protection of LDL from oxidative damage by free radicals, resulting in the inhibition of the generation of pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids. HDL-mediated inactivation of lipid hydroperoxides involves their initial transfer from LDL to HDL and subsequent reduction to inactive hydroxides by redox-active Met residues of apolipoprotein A-I. Several HDL-associated enzymes are present at elevated concentrations in HDL3 relative to large, light HDL2 and can be involved in the inactivation of short-chain oxidized phospholipids. Therefore, HDL represents a multimolecular complex capable of acquiring and inactivating proatherogenic lipids. Antioxidative function of HDL can be impaired in several metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Structural and compositional anomalies in the HDL proteome and lipidome underlie such functional deficiency. Concomitant normalization of the metabolism, circulating levels, composition and biological activities of HDL particles, primarily those of small, dense HDL3, can constitute future therapeutic target.

  6. High-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-I kinetics in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Esther M M; Watts, Gerald F; Farvid, Maryam S; Chan, Dick C; Allen, Michael C; Zilko, Simon R; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2005-06-01

    Low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are independent predictors of coronary artery disease and are often associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying kinetic determinants of HDL metabolism are not well understood. We pooled data from 13 stable isotope studies to investigate the kinetic determinants of apoA-I concentrations in lean and overweight-obese individuals. We also examined the associations of HDL kinetics with age, sex, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment score, and concentrations of apoA-I, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Compared with lean individuals, overweight-obese individuals had significantly higher HDL apoA-I fractional catabolic rate (0.21+/-0.01 vs. 0.33+/-0.01 pools/d; pModel Assessment score, HDL apoA-I PR was an independent predictor of apoA-I concentration. In overweight-obese subjects, hypercatabolism of apoA-I is paralleled by an increased production of apoA-I, with HDL apoA-I PR being the stronger determinant of apoA-I concentration. This could have therapeutic implications for the management of dyslipidemia in individuals with low plasma HDL-cholesterol.

  7. Functional analysis of low-density lipoprotein receptor in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients with novel 1439 C→T mutation of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jie; JIANG Zhi-sheng; WANG Lu-ya; LIU Shu; XIA Jun-hui; YONG Qiang; DU Lan-ping; PAN Xiao-dong; XUE Hong; CHEN Bao-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), caused by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R) gene mutations, is associated with increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. Until now, limited molecular data concerning FH are available in China. The present study described the clinical profiles and cell biological defects of a Chinese FH kindred with novel LDL-R gene mutation.Methods The patient's LDL-R gene coding region was sequenced. The patient's lymphocytes were isolated and the LDL-R expression, binding and up-take functions were observed by immunohistochemistry staining and flow cytometry detection. The patient's heart and the major large vessels were detected by vessel ultrasound examination and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI).Results The patient's LDL-R expression, LDL binding and up-take functions were significantly lower than normal control (39%, 63% and 76% respectively). A novel homozygous 1439 C→T mutation of the LDL-R gene was detected in the patient and his family. ECG showed atypical angina pectoris. Echocardiogram showed stenosis of the coronary artery and calcification of the aortic valve and its root. Blood vessel ultrasound examination showed the thickness of large vessel intima, and the vessel lumen was narrowed by 71%. MPI showed ischemic changes.Conclusions The LDL-R synthesis dysfunction of FH patients leads to arterial stenosis and calcification, which are the major phenotype of the clinical disorder. The mutation of the LDL-R gene is determined. These data increase the mutational spectrum of FH in China.

  8. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. Materials and Methods: We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20–70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P values with Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. Conclusion: This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method.

  9. Dietary modifications of low-density lipoprotein fatty acids in humans: their effect on low-density lipoprotein-fibroblast interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M F; Esteva, O; Lasserre, M; Jacotot, B

    1986-01-01

    The chemical composition and metabolism of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in a population of Benedictine nuns were studied after 5-month periods during which the predominant dietary fats were sunflower oil, fluid of palm, peanut oil, milk fats, low erucic acid rapeseed (LEAR) oil, corn oil, olive oil, soybean oil. The population was divided into three groups. The control group (C) included 12 subjects selected at random by taking 2 subjects per age pool among those with plasma cholesterol less than 230 mg/dl. Groups H1 and H2 were selected in the same way among those with plasma cholesterol less than 230 mg/dl. Groups H1 and H2 comprised 6 subjects and differed from each other in the amount of plasma cholesteryl esters, i.e., below and above the mean value of group C. Changes in LDL composition, according to the dietary fat, were associated with changes in LDL catabolism studied in fibroblast cultures, but no significant differences were found between the three groups.

  10. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20-70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P correlation formula was used to test the correlation between direct LDL values with Friedewald's formula. There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method.

  11. Triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese Han children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Fen; Liang, Li; Wang, Chun Lin; Fu, Jun Fen

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of serum cholesterol and triglyceride in the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents. Case-control study. Childrens Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Children from 6 years to 17 year old. 188 with simple obesity, and 431 with obesity and metabolic abnormalities. 274 age and gender-matched healthy children as controls. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the detection of cardiovascular disease risk factors by cholesterol and triglyceride in children and adolescents. The ranges of areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 0.798-0.860 and 0.667-0.749, respectively to detect cardiovascular disease risk factors. The ranges of AUC for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 0.631-0.718, 0.596-0.683, and 0.292-0.376, respectively. Triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese Han children and adolescents.

  12. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 determines plasma remnant lipoproteins and accelerates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Saito, Ryo; Sekiya, Motohiro; Igarashi, Masaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Miyahara, Shoko; Koyasu, Saori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Ishii, Kiyoaki; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yahagi, Naoya; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hirohito; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is nutritionally regulated and is known to be a key transcription factor regulating lipogenic enzymes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the roles of SREBP-1 in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Transgenic mice that overexpress SREBP-1c in the liver and SREBP-1-deficient mice were crossed with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice, and the plasma lipids and atherosclerosis were analyzed. Hepatic SREBP-1c overexpression in LDLR-deficient mice caused postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, which resulted in accelerated aortic atheroma formation. Conversely, absence of SREBP-1 suppressed Western diet-induced hyperlipidemia in LDLR-deficient mice and ameliorated atherosclerosis. In contrast, bone marrow-specific SREBP-1 deficiency did not alter the development of atherosclerosis. The size of nascent VLDL particles secreted from the liver was increased in SREBP-1c transgenic mice and reduced in SREBP-1-deficient mice, accompanied by upregulation and downregulation of phospholipid transfer protein expression, respectively. Hepatic SREBP-1c determines plasma triglycerides and remnant cholesterol and contributes to atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic states. Hepatic SREBP-1c also regulates the size of nascent VLDL particles.

  13. Association of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-related markers and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity with cardiovascular risk: effectiveness of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as a method of determining low-density lipoprotein particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shigemasa; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Despite well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia is an independent predictor of coronary events. We investigated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through examining the relation between triglyceride (TG) metabolism and LDL-heterogeneity as assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Estimated LDL-particle size [relative LDL migration (LDL-Rm value)] measured by PAGE with the LipoPhor system (Joko, Tokyo, Japan) was evaluated in 645 consecutive patients with one additional risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for traditional risk factors revealed an elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs)-related markers [TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), very LDL (VLDL) fraction, apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, and apo C-III] level to be an independent predictor of smaller-size LDL-particle size, both in the overall population, and in a subset of patients with serum LDL-C cardiovascular disease, it may be of particular importance to pay attention not only to the quantitative change in the serum LDL-C, but also TG-metabolism associated with LDL-heterogeneity. Combined evaluation of TRLs-related markers and LDL-Rm value may be useful for assessing the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  15. Lipoprotein distribution and serum concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and bile acids: effects of monogenic disturbances in high-density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Carine; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Karuna, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    A-I (apolipoprotein A-I], ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) or LCAT (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) nor HDL-C-increasing mutations in the genes CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) or LIPC (hepatic lipase) were associated with significantly different serum concentrations of BA and C4. Plasma...

  16. Tissue sites of degradation of high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-IV in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Van ' t Hooft, F.M.; Van Tol, A.

    1986-05-01

    The in vivo metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL), labeled by incorporation of /sup 125/I-apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, was studied in the rat and compared with the metabolism of HDL labeled with 131I-apo A-I. The /sup 125/I-apo A-IV labeled HDL was obtained by adding small amounts of radioiodinated apo A-IV to rat serum, followed by separation of the different lipoprotein fractions by chromatography on 6% agarose columns in order to avoid stripping of apolipoproteins by ultracentrifugation. Under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, the /sup 125/I-apo A-IV remained an integral component of HDL and was not exchanged to other lipoproteins, including the free apo A-IV fraction. The serum half-life, measured at between 8 and 28 hours after intravenous injection of labeled HDL, was 8.5 +/- 0.5 hours for HDL apo A-IV and 10.2 +/- 0.7 hours for HDL apo A-I. The tissue sites of catabolism of HDL apo A-IV and HDL apo A-I were analyzed in the leupeptin-model. Only the kidneys and liver showed a significant leupeptin-dependent accumulation of radioactivity. At 4 hours after injection of 125I-apo A-IV/131I-apo A-I labeled HDL, 3.5% +/- 1.0% and 8.4% +/- 2.0% of HDL apo A-IV and 4.6% +/- 1.3% and 2.6% +/- 0.6% of the HDL apo A-I were accumulated in a leupeptin-dependent process in the kidneys and liver, respectively. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that the renal localization of apo A-IV was intracellular and confined to the epithelial cells of the proximal tubuli.

  17. Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Increases Hepatocyte Uptake of Human Plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K.; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ~400,000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]CE uptake by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was respectively 2.4 and 4.5 times faster than from control HDL. CERM-[3H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[3H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[3H]CE but not HDL-[3H]CE uptake thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful. PMID:20879789

  18. HDL-c levels predict the presence of pleural effusion and the clinical outcome of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saballs, M; Parra, S; Sahun, P; Pellejà, J; Feliu, M; Vasco, C; Gumà, J; Borràs, J L; Masana, L; Castro, A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) could be a biomarker of the degree of severity according to prognostic prediction scores in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or the development of clinical complications such as pleural effusion. We included in a retrospective study 107 patients admitted to the hospital that fulfilled diagnostic criteria for CAP between the 30th October 2011 and 1st September 2012. HDL-c levels at admission, CAP prognosis scores (PSI and CURB65) and clinical outcomes were recorded for the study. Basal HDL-c levels were not statistically different according to prognostics scores neither PSI nor CURB-65. Significantly lower levels of HDL-c were also associated to the development of septic shock and admission to the intensive care unit. HDL-c were inversely correlated with acute phase reactants CRP (r = -0.585, P HDL-c [28.9 (15.5) mg/dl vs. 44.6 (21.1) mg/dl]; P = 0.007. HDL-c is a good predictor of the presence of pleural effusion in multivariate analyses and using ROC analyses [AUC = 0.712 (0.591-0.834), P = 0.006]. HDL-c levels of 10 mg/dl showed a sensitivity of 97.6 % and a specificity of 82.4 % for the presence of pleural effusion. Monitoring HDL-c in CAP is an useful serum marker of acute phase response, clinical outcome and the presence of pleural effusion.

  19. Combining LDL-C and HDL-C to predict survival in late life: The InChianti study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Dugo, Marco; Vigna, Giovanni B; Morieri, Mario Luca; Maggio, Marcello; Cherubini, Antonio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    While the relationship between total cholesterol (TC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) progressively weakens with aging, several studies have shown that low TC is associated with increased mortality in older individuals. However, the possible additive/synergic contribution of the two most important cholesterol rich fractions (LDL-C and HDL-C) to mortality risk has not been previously investigated. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between baseline LDL-C and HDL-C, both separately and combined, and 9-years mortality in a sample of community dwelling older individuals from the InCHIANTI study. 1044 individuals over 64 years were included. CVD and cancer mortality were defined by ICD-9 codes 390-459 and 140-239, respectively. LDL-C HDL-C was defined as HDL-C (reference group), total mortality was significantly increased in subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C (H.R.:1.58; 95%CI:1.11-2.25). As regards the specific cause of death, CVD mortality was not affected by LDL-C/HDL-C levels, while cancer mortality was significantly increased in all subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C (with normal HDL-C: H.R.: 2.49; with low HDL-C: H.R.: 4.52). Results were unchanged after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up, and of subjects with low TC (HDL-C represents a marker of increased future mortality.

  20. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.

  1. Superparamagnetic reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanocarriers for magnetically guided drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Sarika; Sabnis, Nirupama A; Raut, Sangram; Lacko, Andras G

    2017-01-01

    Current cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with short- and long-term side effects, affecting the quality of life of cancer survivors. Because malignant cells are known to overexpress specific surface antigens, including receptors, targeted drug delivery is often utilized to reduce or overcome side effects. The current study involves a novel targeting approach using specifically designed nanoparticles, including encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug valrubicin into superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) containing reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles. Specifically, rHDL–SPION–valrubicin hybrid nanoparticles were assembled and characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties, drug entrapment efficiency and receptor-mediated release of the drug valrubicin from the nanoparticles to prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. Prussian blue staining was used to assess nanoparticle movement in a magnetic field. Measurements of cytotoxicity toward PC-3 cells showed that rHDL–SPION–valrubicin nanoparticles were up to 4.6 and 31 times more effective at the respective valrubicin concentrations of 42.4 µg/mL and 85 µg/mL than the drug valrubicin alone. These studies showed, for the first time, that lipoprotein drug delivery enhanced via magnetic targeting could be an effective chemotherapeutic strategy for prostate cancer. PMID:28260891

  2. [Cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins: critical review of the methods of analysis and personal data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orso Giacone, G

    1982-01-01

    It is widely known that atherosclerosis through its complication, i.e. heart and brain infarction, is at the present the main cause of death. The atherosclerotic process has been shown in correlation with hyperlipemia especially as far as the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol level is concerned. A preminent role in removing cholesterol from tissues and arterial walls then in preventing atherosclerosis is played by a specific class of plasma lipoproteins, the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Since the HDL-colesterol level seems to have an inverse correlation with the atherosclerotic disease it is of primary importance to define a reliable and reproducible technique to measure it. One of the aims of this paper was to examine the different methods now available for such a determination. This analysis has underlined the discrepancy among the reference values reported in the literature. However, all the authors agree that only the simultaneous measurement of total and HDL-colesterol levels is of prognostic value. Personal studies are here reported on the relationship between total and HDL-colesterol levels and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The two mentioned laboratory analyses have been performed on blood samples from 250 between male and female human subjects of different age. The obtained results show that the highest HDL-colesterol concentrations determined by a lipoprotein precipitation procedure with dextran sulphate, are typical in the first ten years of life both in male and in female, while the lowest levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol have been evintiated during the fifth decade of life, when the total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular complications rich the highest values. In a following set of investigations, the already examined blood parameters together with the risk factor values have been examined in two groups of subjects, the first one represented by adult healthy persons the second one by patients of similar age from a cardiovascular

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detection of Tumor Cells by Targeting Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptors with Gd-Loaded Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Geninatti Crich

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Gd-DO3A-diph and Gd-AAZTAC17 are lipophilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI agents that display high affinity for low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles. However, on binding to LDL, Gd-DO3A-diph shows a decreased hydration that results in a lower enhancement of water proton relaxation rate. Conversely, GdAAZTAC17 displays a strong relaxation enhancement at the imaging fields. Each LDL particle can load up to 100 and 400 UNITS of Gd-DO3A-diph and Gd-AAZTAC17, respectively. Their LDL adducts are taken up by human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2 and melanoma B16 tumor cells when added to the incubation medium. T, measurements of the labeled cells indicate that Gd-AAZTAC17 is significantly more efficient than Gd-DO3A-diph. Furthermore, it has been found that HepG2 hepatoma cells can internalize higher amounts of Gd-AAZTAC17 than B16 cells and the involvement of LDL receptors (LDLRs has been demonstrated in competition assays with free LDL. Gd-AAZTAC17/LDL adduct proved to be an efficient probe in the magnetic resonance (MR visualization of subcutaneous tumors in animal models obtained by injecting B16 melanoma cells into the right flank of mice. Finally, confocal microscopy validation of the distribution of LDL-based probes in the tumor has been obtained by doping the Gd-AAZTAC17/LDL adduct with a fluorescent phospholipid moiety.

  4. Enzymatically Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein Promotes Foam Cell Formation in Smooth Muscle Cells via Macropinocytosis and Enhances Receptor-Mediated Uptake of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, Bijoy; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Hofmann Bowman, Marion A

    2016-06-01

    Enzyme-modified nonoxidized low-density lipoprotein (ELDL) is present in human atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective is to understand the mechanisms of ELDL uptake and its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Transformation of murine aortic SMCs into foam cells in response to ELDL was analyzed. ELDL, but not acetylated or oxidized LDL, was potent in inducing SMC foam cell formation. Inhibitors of macropinocytosis (LY294002, wortmannin, amiloride) attenuated ELDL uptake. In contrast, inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis (dynasore, sucrose) and inhibitor of caveolae-/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis (filipin) had no effect on ELDL uptake in SMC, suggesting that macropinocytosis is the main mechanism of ELDL uptake by SMC. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is not obligatory for ELDL-induced SMC foam cell formation, but primes SMC for the uptake of oxidized LDL in a RAGE-dependent manner. ELDL increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, cytosolic calcium, and expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in wild-type SMC but not in RAGE(-/-) SMC. The macropinocytotic uptake of ELDL is regulated predominantly by intracellular calcium because ELDL uptake was completely inhibited by pretreatment with the calcium channel inhibitor lacidipine in wild-type and RAGE(-/-) SMC. This is in contrast to pretreatment with PI3 kinase inhibitors which completely prevented ELDL uptake in RAGE(-/-) SMC, but only partially in wild-type SMC. ELDL is highly potent in inducing foam cells in murine SMC. ELDL endocytosis is mediated by calcium-dependent macropinocytosis. Priming SMC with ELDL enhances the uptake of oxidized LDL. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and blood pressure in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol and bl

  6. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and blood pressure in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol

  7. Coexistence of High Fibrinogen and Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Predicts Recurrent Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Concomitant high fibrinogen and low HDL-C levels may be associated with recurrence of CVT. The effect of potential risk factors related to atherothrombosis on recurrent CVT should be closely monitored.

  8. Relationship of lipoproteins to cardiovascular events: the AIM-HIGH Trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Slee, April E; Anderson, Todd; Fleg, Jerome L; Goldberg, Ronald B; Kashyap, Moti L; Marcovina, Santica M; Nash, Stephen D; O'Brien, Kevin D; Weintraub, William S; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Boden, William E

    2013-10-22

    This study sought to examine the relationship between niacin treatment, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in this secondary analysis of the AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) trial. During a 3-year follow-up in 3,414 patients with established CV disease and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, combined niacin + low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy did not reduce CV events compared with LDL-C-lowering therapy alone. Subjects taking simvastatin and/or ezetimibe were randomized to receive extended-release (ER) niacin 1,500 to 2,000 mg or minimal immediate-release niacin (≤ 150 mg) as placebo at bedtime. LDL-C levels in both groups were maintained from 40 to 80 mg/dl. Hazard ratios were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models for relationships between lipoproteins and the composite endpoint of CV death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, or symptom-driven revascularization. CV outcomes were not associated with ER niacin in any baseline lipoprotein tertile. In a subset of patients in both the highest triglyceride (≥ 198 mg/dl) and lowest HDL-C (<33 mg/dl) tertiles, ER niacin showed a trend toward benefit (hazard ratio: 0.74, p = 0.073). In-trial LDL-C levels, non-HDL-C levels, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio were positively associated with CV events in the control group, but these relationships were absent in the ER niacin group. Baseline lipoprotein tertiles did not predict differential benefit or harm with ER niacin added to LDL-C-lowering therapy, but a small dyslipidemic subgroup may benefit. ER niacin attenuated expected relationships of lipoprotein risk factors with CV events, raising the possibility that nonlipoprotein actions of niacin could affect risk. (Niacin Plus Statin to Prevent Vascular Events [AIM-HIGH]; NCT00120289). Copyright © 2013 American College

  9. Variation tendency in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipopro-tein A-Ⅰ in different thyroid function status during pregnancy%孕期不同甲状腺功能状态血清高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和载脂蛋白A-Ⅰ的变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡佳; 张曼

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究不同甲状腺功能状态对孕妇血清高密度脂蛋白胆固醇( high density cholesterol, HDL-C)和载脂蛋白A-Ⅰ( apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ, ApoA-Ⅰ)代谢的影响. 方法:采集30名甲状腺功能正常(正常组)、19名亚临床甲状腺功能减退(亚甲减组)及8名亚临床甲状腺功能亢进(亚甲亢组)孕妇孕9~12、14~17、23~26和37~40周的空腹血清标本,测其血清HDL-C和ApoA-Ⅰ含量. 采用重复测量数据方差分析的秩和检验分析4个妊娠时段孕妇血清HDL-C、ApoA-Ⅰ含量的变化;采用一般线性模型( general linear model, GLM )分析3 组孕妇孕期血清HDL-C、ApoA-Ⅰ含量的差异. 结果:孕期各组孕妇血清HDL-C含量的变化差异均无统计学意义(χ2 =5. 428,P=0. 143;χ2 =2. 027,P=0. 567;χ2 =2. 885,P=0. 410),正常孕妇和亚甲减孕妇血清ApoA-Ⅰ的含量增高,差异均有统计学意义(χ2 =46. 343,P<0. 001;χ2 =35. 984,P<0. 001),亚甲亢孕妇血清ApoA-Ⅰ含量的变化差异无统计学意义(χ2 =6. 750,P=0. 080). 亚甲亢孕妇孕期血清HDL-C和ApoA-Ⅰ的含量均低于正常孕妇,差异均有统计学意义(P=0.025,P=0.027),正常孕妇与亚甲减孕妇孕期血清 HDL-C和 ApoA-Ⅰ含量的差异均无统计学意义(P =0. 378,P =0. 549). 结论:妊娠期亚甲亢影响孕妇血清HDL-C和ApoA-Ⅰ代谢,进而影响胎儿的生长发育;妊娠期亚甲减(经优甲乐治疗后)未发现影响孕妇血清HDL-C和ApoA-Ⅰ代谢.%Objective:To study the metabolism of high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C ) and apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ( ApoA-Ⅰ) in different thyroid function status during pregnancy. Methods:This study re-cruited thirty cases of euthyroid, with nineteen cases of subclinical hypothyroid and eight cases of subclini-cal hyperthyroid pregnancy. The concentrations of fasting serum HDL-C and ApoA-Ⅰwere detected and ana-lyzed from 9-12, 14-17, 23-26, and 37-40 gestational weeks. Friedman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks was adopted to

  10. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) impacts on erythrocyte viscoelasticity and its molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Yang, Li; Liu, Yao; Gao, Wei; Peng, Weiyan; Sung, K-L Paul; Sung, Lanping Amy

    2009-10-16

    The oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays an important role in atherosclerosis, yet it remains unclear if it damages circulating erythrocytes. In this study, erythrocyte deformability and its membrane proteins after Ox-LDL incubations are investigated by micropipette aspiration, thiol radical measurement, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results show that Ox-LDL incubation reduces the erythrocyte deformability, decreases free thiol radical contents in erythrocytes, and induces the cross-linking among membrane proteins. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals a high molecular weight (HMW) complex as well as new bands between spectrins and band 3 and reduced ratios between band 3 and other major membrane skeletal proteins. Analyses indicate that Ox-LDL makes erythrocytes harder to deform through a molecular mechanism by which the oxidation of free thiol radicals forms disulfide bonds among membrane skeletal proteins.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase is not essential in macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S

    1991-08-15

    The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be explained in terms of their activity as either aqueous- or lipid-peroxyl radical scavengers. Two potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (MK 886 and Revlon 5901), which had no radical-scavenging properties, were unable to block LDL modification. It is concluded that 5-lipoxygenase is not essential for LDL oxidation by macrophages.

  12. Glycation of high-density lipoprotein in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jia-teng; SHEN Ying; L(U) An-kang; LU Lin; SHEN Wei-feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether glycation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increases cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by altering its anti-atherogenic property.Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from Pubmed and Medline in English from 2000 to 2013,with keywords "glycation","HDL",and "atherosclerosis".Study selection Articles regarding glycation of HDL and its role in atherogenesis in both humans and experimental animal models were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results Glycation alters the structure of HDL and its associated enzymes,resulting in an impairment of atheroprotective functionality and increased risks for cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients.Conclusion Glycation of HDL exerts a deleterious effect on the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes.

  13. Effect of splitting simvastatin tablets for control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, David; Beckey, Nick P; Raval, Harsha S; Schnacky, Kimberly R; Calabrese, Vincent; Coakley, Roy W; Goodhope, Robert C

    2005-06-15

    The efficacy, safety, and economics of a voluntary conversion from whole simvastatin tablets to split tablets in 6 Veterans Affairs medical centers were retrospectively evaluated in 3,787 patients who received a consistent daily dose (5 to 40 mg) of simvastatin in 1999. Baseline and final low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and average change from baseline were not significantly different between groups (p >0.05), nor were the incidence of transaminase increases (p >0.05) or measurements of patient compliance (p = 0.07). Widespread implementation of this initiative resulted in a cost avoidance of >$1.2 million in the 6 medical centers and $10.3 million across the Veterans Affairs medical system in 1999, with >$46 million avoided in 2003.

  14. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Related Proteins as Regulators of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loic Auderset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS is a highly organised structure. Many signalling systems work in concert to ensure that neural stem cells are appropriately directed to generate progenitor cells, which in turn mature into functional cell types including projection neurons, interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Herein we explore the role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor family, in particular family members LRP1 and LRP2, in regulating the behaviour of neural stem and progenitor cells during development and adulthood. The ability of LRP1 and LRP2 to bind a diverse and extensive range of ligands, regulate ligand endocytosis, recruit nonreceptor tyrosine kinases for direct signal transduction and signal in conjunction with other receptors, enables them to modulate many crucial neural cell functions.

  15. Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-Antioxidant Biflavonoids from Garcinia madruno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Bastida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno, one of which, 7''-O-(6''''-acetyl-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new compound identified on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR (HMQC and HMBC spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The antioxidant activity of the biflavonoids against low-density lipoprotein (LDL peroxidation induced with Cu2+, was studied by means of a TBARS assay. The antioxidant potential of a biflavonoid fraction (BF was also evaluated and correlated with its biflavonoid content. The flavanone-(3→8''-flavone biflavonoids displayed antioxidant activity, particularly morelloflavone, which was significantly more potent than quercetin, with a CE50 of 12.36 μg/mL. Lipid peroxidation, was also significantly reduced in the presence of the BF (EC50 = 11.85 μg/mL. These results suggest that the BF is an excellent antioxidant.

  16. Counterpoint: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Targets Are Not Needed in Lipid Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Ray, Kausik

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of accumulating evidence, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treat-to-goal approaches no longer seem to be the best way to optimize lipid-modifying therapy to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The potential for a net ASCVD risk reduction benefit is a more individualized approach to clinical decision making and may better inform patient preferences. However, risk estimation tools will need to be developed to facilitate more personalized CVD risk estimation in statin-treated patients. In the meantime, LDL-C thresholds rather than targets may aid in determining which patients might benefit from additional LDL-C-lowering therapy beyond statins. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Transendothelial exchange of low-density lipoprotein is unaffected by the presence of severe atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Jensen, Trine Krogsgaard

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that transendothelial exchange of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is influenced by the presence of severe atherosclerosis; we previously found this exchange elevated in diabetes patients. METHODS: By an in vivo isotope method, we compared transendothelial LDL...... exchange in 24 patients with angiographically verified coronary atherosclerosis, 11 patients with angiographically verified peripheral atherosclerosis, 60 patients with diabetes, and in 42 controls. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL ((131)I-LDL) and 125-iodinated albumin ((125)I-albumin) were injected...... intravenously (i.v.), and the 1-h fractional escape rates (FER(LDL) and FER(alb)) were taken as indices of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS: Patients with coronary or peripheral atherosclerosis had FER(LDL) similar to that of controls [4.3 (3.5-5.1) and 3.2 (2.3-4.1) versus 4.2 (3.7-4.7)%/h; P>0.05], even...

  18. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  19. Hepatic lipase, genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Kamstrup, Pia R; Andersen, Rolf V

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase influences metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICD: ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease). OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the hepatic lipase genetic variants V.......91 (95% CI 0.89-0.94), respectively; this calculation assumes that genetically elevated HDL levels confer decreased risk similar to common HDL elevations. In contrast, when all cases and controls were combined, the observed odds ratios for ICD for these three genetic variants vs. noncarriers were 1.19 (0.......76-1.88), 1.04 (0.96-1.13), and 1.08 (0.89-1.30), respectively. Hazard/odds ratios for ICD in carriers vs. noncarriers of the four remaining hepatic lipase genetic variants did not differ consistently from 1.0. CONCLUSION: Hepatic lipase genetic variants with elevated levels of HDL cholesterol did...

  20. Pregnancy in a Woman with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Not on Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in women with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH has been rarely reported and might pose risks on the mother and her fetus. Although most reported cases remained on low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis, there are no clear guidelines regarding the management of this entity. We report the first case of an uncomplicated pregnancy in a 24-year-old homozygous FH woman who was not maintained on LDL apheresis. FH expresses a wide variability in the phenotype, and management of homozygous FH cases who desire to become pregnant should be individualized based on preconceptional assessment with frequent antenatal follow-up. Decisions on management should be made after weighing the risks versus benefits of LDL apheresis.

  1. Oxidative modification of high density lipoprotein induced by cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江渝; 刘红; 彭家和; 叶治家; 何凤田; 董燕麟; 刘秉文

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the oxidative modification of high density lipoprotein (HDL) induced by cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Methods: HDL cocultured with SMCs at 37℃ in 48 h was subjected, and native HDL (N-HDL) served as control. Oxidative modification of HDL was identified by using agarose gel electrophoresis. Absorbances of conjugated diene (CD) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) were measured with ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 234 and 560 nm respectively, and fluorescence intensity of thiobarbuturic acid reaction substance (TBARS) with fluorescence spectrophotometry at 550 nm emission wavelength with excitation at 515 nm. Results: In comparison with N-HDL, the electrophoretic mobility of SMCs-cocultured HDL was increased, and the contents of CD, LOOH and TBARS HDL were very significantly higher than those of the control HDL (P<0.01). Conclusion: Oxidative modification of HDL can be induced by human arterial SMCs.

  2. A disposable electrochemical sensor based on protein G for High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammem, H; Hafaid, I; Bohli, N; Garcia, A; Meilhac, O; Abdelghani, A; Mora, L

    2015-11-01

    In this work, two biosensors were developed for the detection of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) particles, which are biomarkers inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk and which represent therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis. The electrochemical properties of the grafted antibody on interdigitated gold electrode were achieved by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The used deposition method was based on oriented antibody Anti-ApoA1 with an intermediate thin layer of protein G. The developed biosensor was able to detect both native plasma HDL and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles respectively with the detection limit of 50n g/mL and 1 ng/mL, respectively. Dynamic contact angle and atomic force microscopy were used. The developed biosensors are able to differentiate the HDL particles according to their differences in size and interactions with the immobilized antibody.

  3. DETECTING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR MUTANT GENE OF RABBIT BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Enqi; Zhao Sihai; Chen Zhenglan; Yang Penghui

    2006-01-01

    Objective Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic (WHHL) rabbits with low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) gene mutation have provided unprecedented opportunities for the study of human atherosclerosis, in order to confirm LDL receptor gene status in rabbits, we developed a simple PCR technique to detect LDL mutations in rabbits. Methods Rabbits genomic DNA were extracted from ear biopsy, and amplified by PCR to detect 12 bp deletion mutation in WHHL rabbits. PCR products were directly digested with BglⅠ, and then applied to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results PCR products from homozygous LDLr +/+ rabbits generated 2 bands of 212 and 94 bp after BglⅠ digestion, LDLr +/- rabbits generated 3 bands (294, 212, and 94 bp), LDLr -/- animals, however, generated only 1 product (294 bp). Conclusion This modified PCR method is simple and reliable.

  4. High density lipoprotein – a hero, a mirage or a witness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri eSviridov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative relationship between plasma High Density Lipoprotein (HDL levels and risk of cardiovascular disease is a firmly established medical fact, but attempts to reproduce protective properties of HDL by pharmacologically elevating HDL levels were mostly unsuccessful. This conundrum presents a fundamental question: were the approaches used to raise HDL flawed or the protective effects of HDL are an epiphenomenon. Recent attempts to elevate plasma HDL were universally based on reducing HDL catabolism by blocking reverse cholesterol transport. Here we argue that this mode of HDL elevation may be mechanistically different to natural mechanisms and thus be counterproductive. We further argue that independently of whether HDL is a driving force or a surrogate measure of the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, approaches aimed at increasing HDL supply, rather than reducing its catabolism, would be most beneficial for speeding up reverse cholesterol transport and improving protection against cardiovascular disease.

  5. Identification of the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Scavenger Receptor CD36 in Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Aase; Levin, Klaus; Højlund, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophage CD36 scavenges oxidized low-density lipoprotein, leading to foam cell formation, and appears to be a key proatherogenic molecule. Increased expression of CD36 has been attributed to hyperglycemia and to defective macrophage insulin signaling in insulin resistance. Premature...... atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Here, we report the identification of a soluble form of CD36 (sCD36) in plasma and hypothesize that sCD36 would be elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: sCD36 in plasma...... was demonstrated by immunopurification and Western blotting. We established ELISA assays to determine sCD36 in plasma and measured sCD36 in obese type 2 diabetic patients, obese nondiabetic relatives, and obese and lean control subjects. sCD36 was markedly elevated in type 2 diabetic patients compared with both...

  6. Revealing structural and dynamical properties of high density lipoproteins through molecular simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivuniemi, A.; Vattulainen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have intrigued the scientific community for decades because of their crucial preventive role in coronary heart disease. However, it has been a taunting task to reveal the precise molecular structure and dynamics of HDL. Further......, because of the complex composition of HDL, understanding the impact of its structure and dynamics on the function of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport has also been a major issue. Recent progress in molecular simulation methodology and computing power has made a difference, as it has enabled...... essentially atomistic considerations of HDL particles over microsecond time scales, thereby proving substantial added value to experimental research. In this article, we discuss recent highlights concerning the structure and dynamics of HDL particles as revealed by atomistic and coarse-grained molecular...

  7. Effect of Curcumin on the Gene Expression of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms and effective target ponits of lipid-lowering drug, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, and study the effect of curcumin on the expression of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in macrophages in mice. Methods: Macrophages in mice were treated with curcumin, which was purified from the ethanolly extraction of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae for 24 h. The LDL receptors expressed in the macrophages were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assay of Dil labeled LDL uptake by flow cytometer. Results: It was found for the first time that 10 μmol/L-50μmol/L curcumin could obviously up-regulate the expression of LDL receptor in macrophages in mice, and a dose-effect relationship was demonstrated. Conclusion: One of the lipid-lowering mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, was completed by the effect of curcumin through the up-regulation of the expression of LDL receptor.

  8. Low density lipoprotein: structure, dynamics, and interactions of apoB-100 with lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murtola, T.; Vuorela, T. A.; Hyvonen, M. T.;

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis. Despite its importance to health, the structure of LDL is not known in detail. This is worrying since the lack of LDL......'s structural information makes it more difficult to understand its function. In this work, we have combined experimental and theoretical data to construct LDL models comprised of the apoB-100 protein wrapped around a lipid droplet of about 20 nm in size. The models are considered by near-atomistic multi......-microsecond simulations to unravel structural as well as dynamical properties of LDL, with particular attention paid to lipids and their interactions with the protein. We find that the distribution and the ordering of the lipids in the LDL particle are rather complex. The previously proposed 2- and 3- layer models turn...

  9. Achievement of 2011 European low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of either VOYAGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn W; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Palmer, Mike K; Barter, Philip J

    2013-05-01

    Guidelines published in 2011 by the European Atherosclerosis Society and the European Society of Cardiology recommend a goal of either low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) VOYAGER individual patient data meta-analysis treated with rosuvastatin 10-40 mg, atorvastatin 10-80 mg or simvastatin 10-80 mg who achieved this goal. We analysed 25,075 patient exposures from high-risk patients. Paired comparisons were made between each rosuvastatin dose and an equal or higher dose of either atorvastatin or simvastatin, with a series of meta-analyses that included only randomised studies that directly compared rosuvastatin and its comparator treatments. As statin dose increased, higher percentages of patients achieved LDL-C VOYAGER highlight the importance of an effective statin at an appropriate dose to achieve treatment goals for LDL-C in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  11. Safety profile of subjects treated to very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (JUPITER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Brendan M; Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; MacFadyen, Jean; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-12-01

    Recent US guidelines expand the indications for high-intensity statin therapy, yet data on the safety of attaining very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are scarce. Among 16,304 participants in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) with on-treatment LDL-C levels, we identified 767 who did and 7,387 who did not achieve LDL-C JUPITER, achieving LDL-C levels <30 mg/dl with high-intensity statin therapy appeared to be generally well tolerated but associated with certain adverse events, including more physician-reported diabetes, hematuria, hepatobiliary disorders, and insomnia. These data may guide the monitoring of patients on intensive statin therapy and adverse events in trials of therapies that lead to very low LDL-C levels.

  12. Association between traditional cholesterol parameters, lipoprotein particle concentration, novel biomarkers and carotid plaques in retired National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Salim S; Pompeii, Lisa; Lincoln, Andrew E; Dunn, Reginald E; Tucker, Andrew M; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Vogel, Robert A; Boone, Jeffrey L; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-06-01

    We assessed whether low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] can identify subclinical atherosclerosis better than traditional cholesterol parameters in retired National Football League (NFL) players. It is not known whether LDL-P and the biomarker hs-CRP can identify subclinical atherosclerosis better than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in retired NFL players, given high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these players. Carotid artery plaque screening was performed with traditional lipids, LDL-P, and hs-CRP in 996 retired players. Logistic regression analyses comparing highest with the lowest quartile were performed. Carotid artery plaques were seen in 41%. LDL-C (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.59), non-HDL-C (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67), and LDL-P (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62) were associated with plaques in adjusted models. Among 187 retired players with metabolic syndrome, LDL-C (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.53-3.72) was not associated with carotid plaques, whereas LDL-P (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.16-11.84) and non-HDL-C (OR 2.63, 95% CI 0.91-7.63, p=0.07; borderline significant) were associated with carotid plaques. hs-CRP (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.71-1.79) was not associated with carotid plaques. Carotid artery plaques were common in retired NFL players and were strongly associated with LDL-P, especially among those with metabolic syndrome. hs-CRP was not associated with carotid plaques in this cohort. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Overexpression of LOXIN Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Carlos; Jara, Casandra; Willis, Naomi D; Pérez-Contreras, Karen; Gutierrez, Nicolas; Toledo, Jorge; Fernandez, Paulina; Radojkovic, Claudia; Zuñiga, Felipe A; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) are adult stem cells located in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Studies have indicated that hEPC play an important role in the recovery and repair of injured endothelium, however, their quantity and functional capacity is reduced in several diseases including hypercholesterolemia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that hEPC express lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and its activation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether overexpression of LOXIN, a truncated isoform of LOX-1 that acts as a dominant negative, plays a protective role against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in hEPC. Human endothelial progenitor cells exposed to ox-LDL showed a significant increase in LOX-1 expression, and apoptosis began at ox-LDL concentrations above 50 μg/mL. All hEPC apoptosed at 200 μg/mL ox-LDL. High LOXIN expression was gen