Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2013-09-20
We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} but a half-light radius of only ∼24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r{sub h} = 14 pc; n ∼ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r{sub h} = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (∼> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ∼ 70 km s{sup –1}) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L{sub V} = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L{sub V} . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M{sub B} ∼ –18 to –19.
Electrostatic instability of some jellium model lattices of high symmetry to their plane cleavage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholopov, Eugene V; Kalashnikova, Vita V
2007-01-01
Jellium model structures composed of regular lattices of equal point charges immersed in a neutralizing uniform background are considered. The symmetric description eliminating the effect of potentials without transverse structural modulation is extended to the events specified by alternating distances between point-charge planes. Based on modulated potentials typical of plane-wise lattice summation, the energy of interaction between two semi-infinite hemi-crystals divided by a plane is obtained for cubic and hexagonal crystals, where all the characteristic orientations of the cleavage plane are taken into account. We found that simple cubic and hexagonal lattices, as well as cubic and hexagonal diamond structures, turn out to be unstable for certain cleavage planes. The most favourable cleavage planes for the bcc, fcc and hcp structures are also emphasized
Discrete breathers in classical ferromagnetic lattices with easy-plane anisotropy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khalack, J. M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2003-01-01
Discrete breathers (nonlinear localized modes) have been shown to exist in various nonlinear Hamiltonian lattice systems. This paper is devoted to the investigation of a classical d-dimensional ferromagnetic lattice with easy plane anisotropy. Its dynamics is described via the Heisenberg model...
Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: One-particle plane waves and potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, D.A.
1997-01-01
Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined quantum lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a one-dimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakawa, Nobuaki; Moriai, Atsushi; Morii, Yukio
2001-01-01
It is necessary to determine Δd/d in the internal stress measurement by the neutron diffraction method. Therefore, in case the non-strain spacing of lattice planes d 0 (hkl) is measured using bulk material, even though it does and attaches in a sample table length or every width and it is performing the diffraction measurement, it is difficult to determine for a true non-strain spacing of lattice planes by a processing strain, the grain-orientation, etc. It is available for the infinite thing spacing of lattice planes near non-strain condition to be measured by doing random rotation for bulk material in a beam center, and measuring an average spacing of lattice planes. Practical non-strain spacing of lattice planes measurement equipment was made, and the measurement was performed about much structure material. (author)
Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I; Manevitch, L I; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F
2016-09-01
We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "NL pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the
Bit-level plane image encryption based on coupled map lattice with time-varying delay
Lv, Xiupin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Bo
2018-04-01
Most of the existing image encryption algorithms had two basic properties: confusion and diffusion in a pixel-level plane based on various chaotic systems. Actually, permutation in a pixel-level plane could not change the statistical characteristics of an image, and many of the existing color image encryption schemes utilized the same method to encrypt R, G and B components, which means that the three color components of a color image are processed three times independently. Additionally, dynamical performance of a single chaotic system degrades greatly with finite precisions in computer simulations. In this paper, a novel coupled map lattice with time-varying delay therefore is applied in color images bit-level plane encryption to solve the above issues. Spatiotemporal chaotic system with both much longer period in digitalization and much excellent performances in cryptography is recommended. Time-varying delay embedded in coupled map lattice enhances dynamical behaviors of the system. Bit-level plane image encryption algorithm has greatly reduced the statistical characteristics of an image through the scrambling processing. The R, G and B components cross and mix with one another, which reduces the correlation among the three components. Finally, simulations are carried out and all the experimental results illustrate that the proposed image encryption algorithm is highly secure, and at the same time, also demonstrates superior performance.
Extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in a geometrically nonlinear lattice oscillating in the plane
Zhang, Zhen; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Smirnov, Valeri; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2018-01-01
We study the in-plane damped oscillations of a finite lattice of particles coupled by linear springs under distributed harmonic excitation. Strong nonlinearity in this system is generated by geometric effects due to the in-plane stretching of the coupling spring elements. The lattice has a finite number of nonlinear transverse standing waves (termed nonlinear normal modes - NNMs), and an equal number of axial linear modes which are nonlinearly coupled to the transverse ones. Nonlinear interactions between the transverse and axial modes under harmonic excitation give rise to unexpected and extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in the lattice. In particular, we directly excite a transverse NNM by harmonic forcing (causing simulataneous indirect excitation of a corresponding axial linear mode due to nonlinear coupling), and identify three energy transfer mechanisms in the lattice. First, we detect the stable response of the directly excited transverse NNM (despite its instability in the absence of forcing), with simultaneous stability of the indirectly excited axial linear mode. Second, by changing the system and forcing parameters we report extreme nonlinear "energy explosions," whereby, after an initial regime of stability, the directly excited transverse NNM loses stability, leading to abrupt excitation of all transverse and axial modes of the lattice, at all possible wave numbers. This strong instability is triggered by the parametric instability of an indirectly excited axial mode which builds energy until the explosion. This is proved through theoretical analysis. Finally, in other parameter ranges we report intermittent, intense energy transfers from the directly excited transverse NNM to a small set of transverse NNMs with smaller wavelengths, and from the indirectly excited axial mode to a small set of axial modes, but with larger wavelengths. These intermittent energy transfers resemble energy cascades occurring in turbulent flows. Our results show that
Area-preserving diffeomorphisms in gauge theory on a non-commutative plane. A lattice study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bietenholz, W.; Bigarini, A.; INFN, Sezione di Perugia; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin; Torrielli, A.
2007-06-01
We consider Yang-Mills theory with the U(1) gauge group on a non-commutative plane. Perturbatively it was observed that the invariance of this theory under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs) breaks down to a rigid subgroup SL(2,R). Here we present explicit results for the APD symmetry breaking at finite gauge coupling and finite non-commutativity. They are based on lattice simulations and measurements of Wilson loops with the same area but with a variety of different shapes. Our results confirm the expected loss of invariance under APDs. Moreover, they strongly suggest that non-perturbatively the SL(2,R) symmetry does not persist either. (orig.)
Continuous Easy-Plane Deconfined Phase Transition on the Kagome Lattice
Zhang, Xue-Feng; He, Yin-Chen; Eggert, Sebastian; Moessner, Roderich; Pollmann, Frank
2018-03-01
We use large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study an extended Hubbard model of hard core bosons on the kagome lattice. In the limit of strong nearest-neighbor interactions at 1 /3 filling, the interplay between frustration and quantum fluctuations leads to a valence bond solid ground state. The system undergoes a quantum phase transition to a superfluid phase as the interaction strength is decreased. It is still under debate whether the transition is weakly first order or represents an unconventional continuous phase transition. We present a theory in terms of an easy plane noncompact C P1 gauge theory describing the phase transition at 1 /3 filling. Utilizing large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations with parallel tempering in the canonical ensemble up to 15552 spins, we provide evidence that the phase transition is continuous at exactly 1 /3 filling. A careful finite size scaling analysis reveals an unconventional scaling behavior hinting at deconfined quantum criticality.
And the Title for Densest Galaxy Goes To…
Kohler, Susanna
2015-07-01
Two surprisingly small heavy-weights have been discovered around galaxies in the nearby Virgo cluster by a team led by undergrads Michael Sandoval and Richard Vo and their advisor Aaron Romanowsky of San Jose State University. Setting a new record, these two objects now hold the title of the densest galaxy and the densest free-floating stellar system ever observed. Classification Difficulties What is the difference between large star clusters and small galaxies? Once thought to be distinct categories, the decade-old discovery of a new class of object, ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs), blurred the line between them somewhat: UCDs sit awkwardly between the two categories in size, mass and luminosity. So what are UCDs? It's hard to say — in part because their full range of possible parameters has yet to be carefully explored. Sandoval and his team set out to address this problem by combing through archival data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, searching for objects that display properties between those of star clusters and galaxies. Their search yielded two especially interesting objects: one around the galaxy M59, and the other around M85 (see figure 2). Follow-up observations with Subaru Telescope and the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope provided additional imaging and spectroscopic information. Plot of stellar surface mass density vs. mass of known stellar systems. The data include the two new objects (M85-HCC1 and M59-UCD3) as well as globular clusters, UCDs, and compact elliptical galaxies. Credit: Sandoval et al. 2015 Record-Breakers What makes these two discoveries so unusual? Both are remarkably dense compared to similar objects! The first, M59-UCD3, was categorized as an ultracompact dwarf galaxy — but it's significantly more dense than any other galaxy discovered. The night sky in M59-UCD3 would appear to contain roughly a million stars, compared to the few thousand we see overhead here in the Solar neighborhood. M85-HCC1 is another ten times denser
Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun
2017-12-01
The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.
Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force
Goswami, Partha
2016-05-01
We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic
Pallipurath, Anuradha R; Skelton, Jonathan M; Warren, Mark R; Kamali, Naghmeh; McArdle, Patrick; Erxleben, Andrea
2015-10-05
Understanding the polymorphism exhibited by organic active-pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in particular the relationships between crystal structure and the thermodynamics of polymorph stability, is vital for the production of more stable drugs and better therapeutics, and for the economics of the pharmaceutical industry in general. In this article, we report a detailed study of the structure-property relationships among the polymorphs of the model API, Sulfamerazine. Detailed experimental characterization using synchrotron radiation is complemented by computational modeling of the lattice dynamics and mechanical properties, in order to study the origin of differences in millability and to investigate the thermodynamics of the phase equilibria. Good agreement is observed between the simulated phonon spectra and mid-infrared and Raman spectra. The presence of slip planes, which are found to give rise to low-frequency lattice vibrations, explains the higher millability of Form I compared to Form II. Energy/volume curves for the three polymorphs, together with the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic free energy computed from the phonon frequencies, explains why Form II converts to Form I at high temperature, whereas Form III is a rare polymorph that is difficult to isolate. The combined experimental and theoretical approach employed here should be generally applicable to the study of other systems that exhibit polymorphism.
Silva, Goncalo; Semiao, Viriato
2017-07-01
The first nonequilibrium effect experienced by gaseous flows in contact with solid surfaces is the slip-flow regime. While the classical hydrodynamic description holds valid in bulk, at boundaries the fluid-wall interactions must consider slip. In comparison to the standard no-slip Dirichlet condition, the case of slip formulates as a Robin-type condition for the fluid tangential velocity. This makes its numerical modeling a challenging task, particularly in complex geometries. In this work, this issue is handled with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), motivated by the similarities between the closure relations of the reflection-type boundary schemes equipping the LBM equation and the slip velocity condition established by slip-flow theory. Based on this analogy, we derive, as central result, the structure of the LBM boundary closure relation that is consistent with the second-order slip velocity condition, applicable to planar walls. Subsequently, three tasks are performed. First, we clarify the limitations of existing slip velocity LBM schemes, based on discrete analogs of kinetic theory fluid-wall interaction models. Second, we present improved slip velocity LBM boundary schemes, constructed directly at discrete level, by extending the multireflection framework to the slip-flow regime. Here, two classes of slip velocity LBM boundary schemes are considered: (i) linear slip schemes, which are local but retain some calibration requirements and/or operation limitations, (ii) parabolic slip schemes, which use a two-point implementation but guarantee the consistent prescription of the intended slip velocity condition, at arbitrary plane wall discretizations, further dispensing any numerical calibration procedure. Third and final, we verify the improvements of our proposed slip velocity LBM boundary schemes against existing ones. The numerical tests evaluate the ability of the slip schemes to exactly accommodate the steady Poiseuille channel flow solution, over
Silva, Goncalo; Semiao, Viriato
2017-07-01
The first nonequilibrium effect experienced by gaseous flows in contact with solid surfaces is the slip-flow regime. While the classical hydrodynamic description holds valid in bulk, at boundaries the fluid-wall interactions must consider slip. In comparison to the standard no-slip Dirichlet condition, the case of slip formulates as a Robin-type condition for the fluid tangential velocity. This makes its numerical modeling a challenging task, particularly in complex geometries. In this work, this issue is handled with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), motivated by the similarities between the closure relations of the reflection-type boundary schemes equipping the LBM equation and the slip velocity condition established by slip-flow theory. Based on this analogy, we derive, as central result, the structure of the LBM boundary closure relation that is consistent with the second-order slip velocity condition, applicable to planar walls. Subsequently, three tasks are performed. First, we clarify the limitations of existing slip velocity LBM schemes, based on discrete analogs of kinetic theory fluid-wall interaction models. Second, we present improved slip velocity LBM boundary schemes, constructed directly at discrete level, by extending the multireflection framework to the slip-flow regime. Here, two classes of slip velocity LBM boundary schemes are considered: (i) linear slip schemes, which are local but retain some calibration requirements and/or operation limitations, (ii) parabolic slip schemes, which use a two-point implementation but guarantee the consistent prescription of the intended slip velocity condition, at arbitrary plane wall discretizations, further dispensing any numerical calibration procedure. Third and final, we verify the improvements of our proposed slip velocity LBM boundary schemes against existing ones. The numerical tests evaluate the ability of the slip schemes to exactly accommodate the steady Poiseuille channel flow solution, over
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harutyunyan, Valeri S.; Abrahamyan, Aren A.; Aivazyan, Ashot P.
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: To the out-of-plane strain ε x induced in the (0 0 0 1) atomic planes of Mg(OH) 2 , the contributions of constituent octahedral layers ε x (1) and interlayers ε x (2) are of opposite sign. Highlights: ► Elasticity anisotropy of rare earth metal hydroxides is theoretically analyzed. ► Elastic anisotropy within (0 0 0 1) atomic planes is studied from energy consideration. ► The out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of octahedral layers and interlayers are of opposite sign. ► Auxeticity of the hydrogen sublattice (interlayers) results from weak interlayer bonding. ► The obtained expression for the in-plane Young’s modulus results in useful conclusions. - Abstract: Within the framework of the Hook’s generalized law and using the experimental data for characteristic crystallographic parameters and stiffness constants available from literature, the individual elastic properties of constituent octahedral layers and interlayers of the (0 0 0 1) atomic planes in the Mg(OH) 2 and Ca(OH) 2 crystal lattices are theoretically quantified from intermolecular interaction energy. It is shown that, under uniaxial type of deformation applied along the (0 0 0 1) basal planes, in the “load-deformation response” the octahedral layers and interlayers exhibit the positive and negative Poisson’s ratio, respectively. Manifestation of such a type strong elastic anisotropy in the basal atomic planes and auxetic elastic behavior of the hydrogen sub-lattice (interlayers) upon applied uniaxial load result from a large difference in the strength of bonding within octahedral layers and interlayers. The intermolecular binding energy is contributed both by “hydroxyl–hydroxyl” and “metal atom–hydroxyl” dispersion interactions, whereas the Young’s modulus in the direction parallel to a (0 0 0 1) plane is practically contributed only by the former interaction. For this Young’s modulus, an approximate analytical expression is derived, which is
Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamanaka, Mizuki; Egawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya
2018-05-01
AlInN epitaxial films with film thicknesses up to approximately 300 nm were grown nearly lattice-matched to a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The AlInN films showed relative good crystal qualities and flat surfaces, despite the existence of surface pits connected to dislocations in the underlying GaN film. The refractive index derived in this study agreed well with a previously reported result obtained over the whole visible wavelength region. The extinction coefficient spectrum exhibited a clear absorption edge, and the bandgap energy for AlInN nearly lattice-matched to GaN was determined to be approximately 4.0 eV.
Crystalline and lattice matched Ba0.7Si0.3O layers on plane and vicinal Si(001) surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zachariae, J.
2006-01-01
In this work the low temperature growth conditions of epitaxial and lattice-matched Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 O layers on Si(100) were investigated using the combination of low energy electron diffraction (LEED), x-ray photoemission (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). With these methods crystallinity, stoichiometry and electronic structure of both occupied and unoccupied levels were studied as a function of layer thickness. Oxide layers were generated by evaporating the metals in oxygen ambient pressure with the sample at room temperature. Perfect crystallinity and lattice matching was only obtained starting with a preadsorbed monolayer (ML) of Sr or Ba at a concentration close to one monolayer. The XPS analysis shows that Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 O as a high-K gate dielectric offers an adequate band gap, an appropriate band alignment and a atomically sharp interface to the Si(001) substrate. No silicide and silicate species, or SiO 2 formation at the interface after oxidation were found. To show that Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 O is really appropriate to replace SiO 2 as a gate dielectric, first C-V and I-V curves of MOS-diodes with SrO, BaO and Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 O as gateoxide were measured under ambient conditions. Besides other results, it turns out that the measured dielectric constant of Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 O conforms with the expected value of ε ∼ 25 - 30. Exploring ways for self-organized structuring of insulating films, the possibility to produce replicas of step trains, given by a vicinal Si(001)-4 [110] surface, in layers of crystalline and perfectly lattice matched Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 O were investigated. For this purpose high-resolution spot profile analyses in low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) both on flat Si(001) and on vicinal Si(001)-4 [110] were carried out. The G(S) analysis of these mixed oxide layers reveals a strong influence of local compositional fluctuations of Sr and Ba ions and their respective scattering phases, which appears as an unphysically large variation
Wilbrink, H.A.
1982-01-01
In this paper we develop a theory for nearaffine planes analogous to the theory of ordinary affine translation planes. In a subsequent paper we shall use this theory to give a characterization of a certain class of Minkowski planes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, P.
1983-01-01
The author presents a general introduction to lattice gauge theories and discusses non-perturbative methods in the gauge sector. He then shows how the lattice works in obtaining the string tension in SU(2). Lattice QCD at finite physical temperature is discussed. Universality tests in SU(2) lattice QCD are presented. SU(3) pure gauge theory is briefly dealt with. Finally, fermions on the lattice are considered. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.; Wohlenberg, T.
1976-01-01
Void lattices in metals apparently owe their stability to elastically anisotropic interactions. An ordered array of voids on the anion sublattice in fluorite does not fit so neatly into this scheme of things. Crowdions may play a part in the formation of the void lattice, and stability may derive from other sources. (Auth.)
Discretization of superintegrable systems on a plane
Kabát, Z.
2012-02-01
We construct difference analogues of so called Smorodinsky-Winternitz superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane. Using methods of umbral calculus, we obtain difference equations for generalized isotropic harmonic oscillator on the uniform lattice, and also its solution in terms of power series. In the case of gauge-rotated Hamiltonian, the solution is a polynomial, well-defined in the whole plane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.
1995-12-01
The so-called doubling problem in the lattice description of fermions led to a proof that under certain circumstances chiral gauge theories cannot be defined on the lattice. This is called the no-go theorem. It implies that if Γ/sub/A is defined on a lattice then its infrared limit, which should correspond to the quantum description of the classical action for the slowly varying fields on lattice scale, is inevitably a vector like theory. In particular, if not circumvented, the no-go theorem implies that there is no lattice formulation of the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory or SU(5) GUT, even though the fermions belong to anomaly-free representations of the gauge group. This talk aims to explain one possible attempt at bypassing the no-go theorem. 20 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randjbar-Daemi, S
1995-12-01
The so-called doubling problem in the lattice description of fermions led to a proof that under certain circumstances chiral gauge theories cannot be defined on the lattice. This is called the no-go theorem. It implies that if {Gamma}/sub/A is defined on a lattice then its infrared limit, which should correspond to the quantum description of the classical action for the slowly varying fields on lattice scale, is inevitably a vector like theory. In particular, if not circumvented, the no-go theorem implies that there is no lattice formulation of the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory or SU(5) GUT, even though the fermions belong to anomaly-free representations of the gauge group. This talk aims to explain one possible attempt at bypassing the no-go theorem. 20 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, L.
1975-01-01
An analysis is given of a number of variants of the basic lattice of the planned ISABELLE storage rings. The variants were formed by removing cells from the normal part of the lattice and juggling the lengths of magnets, cells, and insertions in order to maintain a rational relation of circumference to that of the AGS and approximately the same dispersion. Special insertions, correction windings, and the working line with nonlinear resonances are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catterall, Simon
2013-01-01
Discretization of supersymmetric theories is an old problem in lattice field theory. It has resisted solution until quite recently when new ideas drawn from orbifold constructions and topological field theory have been brought to bear on the question. The result has been the creation of a new class of lattice gauge theory in which the lattice action is invariant under one or more supersymmetries. The resultant theories are local and free of doublers and in the case of Yang-Mills theories also possess exact gauge invariance. In principle they form the basis for a truly non-perturbative definition of the continuum supersymmetric field theory. In this talk these ideas are reviewed with particular emphasis being placed on N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1984-01-01
After reviewing some recent developments in supercomputer access, the author discusses a few areas where perturbation theory and lattice gauge simulations make contact. The author concludes with a brief discussion of a deterministic dynamics for the Ising model. This may be useful for numerical studies of nonequilibrium phenomena. 13 references
Frustrated lattices of Ising chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudasov, Yurii B; Korshunov, Aleksei S; Pavlov, V N; Maslov, Dmitrii A
2012-01-01
The magnetic structure and magnetization dynamics of systems of plane frustrated Ising chain lattices are reviewed for three groups of compounds: Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 , CsCoCl 3 , and Sr 5 Rh 4 O 12 . The available experimental data are analyzed and compared in detail. It is shown that a high-temperature magnetic phase on a triangle lattice is normally and universally a partially disordered antiferromagnetic (PDA) structure. The diversity of low-temperature phases results from weak interactions that lift the degeneracy of a 2D antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle lattice. Mean-field models, Monte Carlo simulation results on the static magnetization curve, and results on slow magnetization dynamics obtained with Glauber's theory are discussed in detail. (reviews of topical problems)
Lattice dynamical appraisal of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors in graphite lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haridasan, T.M.; Sathyamurthy, G.
1989-12-01
The Debye-Waller factors in graphite for the atomic motions within the basal plane and also across the basal planes have been calculated using the various lattice dynamical models available to date and a critical comparison is made with the existing experimental data from X ray and neutron scattering studies. The present study reveals the need for further investigation on the nature of atomic motion across the basal planes. (author). 15 refs, 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Stefan [DESY (Germany). Neumann Inst. for Computing
2016-11-01
These configurations are currently in use in many on-going projects carried out by researchers throughout Europe. In particular this data will serve as an essential input into the computation of the coupling constant of QCD, where some of the simulations are still on-going. But also projects computing the masses of hadrons and investigating their structure are underway as well as activities in the physics of heavy quarks. As this initial project of gauge field generation has been successful, it is worthwhile to extend the currently available ensembles with further points in parameter space. These will allow to further study and control systematic effects like the ones introduced by the finite volume, the non-physical quark masses and the finite lattice spacing. In particular certain compromises have still been made in the region where pion masses and lattice spacing are both small. This is because physical pion masses require larger lattices to keep the effects of the finite volume under control. At light pion masses, a precise control of the continuum extrapolation is therefore difficult, but certainly a main goal of future simulations. To reach this goal, algorithmic developments as well as faster hardware will be needed.
Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, G.
2003-01-01
The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single...... and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...
Scott, Paul
2006-01-01
A lattice is a (rectangular) grid of points, usually pictured as occurring at the intersections of two orthogonal sets of parallel, equally spaced lines. Polygons that have lattice points as vertices are called lattice polygons. It is clear that lattice polygons come in various shapes and sizes. A very small lattice triangle may cover just 3…
On linear waveguides of square and triangular lattice strips: an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Basant Lal Sharma
number of applications in science [58], some of which find applications in ... higher order of neighbour interactions in the lattice models leads to ..... an even integer. Similar ...... [25] Sharma B L 2016 Transmission of anti-plane shear waves in.
Random skew plane partitions with a piecewise periodic back wall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boutillier, Cedric; Mkrtchyan, Sevak; Reshetikhin, Nicolai
Random skew plane partitions of large size distributed according to an appropriately scaled Schur process develop limit shapes. In the present work we consider the limit of large random skew plane partitions where the inner boundary approaches a piecewise linear curve with non-lattice slopes. Muc...
Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves
Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo
2018-04-01
Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.
LATTICE: an interactive lattice computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staples, J.
1976-10-01
LATTICE is a computer code which enables an interactive user to calculate the functions of a synchrotron lattice. This program satisfies the requirements at LBL for a simple interactive lattice program by borrowing ideas from both TRANSPORT and SYNCH. A fitting routine is included
Determining the scale in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Hudspith, R. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; and others
2015-12-15
We discuss scale setting in the context of 2+1 dynamical fermion simulations where we approach the physical point in the quark mass plane keeping the average quark mass constant. We have simulations at four beta values, and after determining the paths and lattice spacings, we give an estimation of the phenomenological values of various Wilson flow scales.
Lattice continuum and diffusional creep.
Mesarovic, Sinisa Dj
2016-04-01
Diffusional creep is characterized by growth/disappearance of lattice planes at the crystal boundaries that serve as sources/sinks of vacancies, and by diffusion of vacancies. The lattice continuum theory developed here represents a natural and intuitive framework for the analysis of diffusion in crystals and lattice growth/loss at the boundaries. The formulation includes the definition of the Lagrangian reference configuration for the newly created lattice, the transport theorem and the definition of the creep rate tensor for a polycrystal as a piecewise uniform, discontinuous field. The values associated with each crystalline grain are related to the normal diffusional flux at grain boundaries. The governing equations for Nabarro-Herring creep are derived with coupled diffusion and elasticity with compositional eigenstrain. Both, bulk diffusional dissipation and boundary dissipation accompanying vacancy nucleation and absorption, are considered, but the latter is found to be negligible. For periodic arrangements of grains, diffusion formally decouples from elasticity but at the cost of a complicated boundary condition. The equilibrium of deviatorically stressed polycrystals is impossible without inclusion of interface energies. The secondary creep rate estimates correspond to the standard Nabarro-Herring model, and the volumetric creep is small. The initial (primary) creep rate is estimated to be much larger than the secondary creep rate.
On Helmholtz Problem for Plane Periodical Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akishin, P.G.; Vinitskij, S.I.
1994-01-01
The plane Helmholtz problem of the periodical disc structures with the phase shifts conditions of the solutions along the basis lattice vectors and the Dirichlet conditions on the basic boundaries is considered. The Green function satisfying the quasi periodical conditions on the lattice is constructed. The Helmholtz problem is reduced to the boundary integral equations for the simple layer potentials of this Green function. The methods of the discretization of the arising integral equations are proposed. The procedures of calculation of the matrix elements are discussed. The reality of the spectral parameter of the nonlinear continuous and discretized problems is shown. 8 refs., 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1982-01-01
After a description of a pure Yang-Mills theory on a lattice, the author considers a three-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory. Thereafter he discusses the exact relation between lattice gauge theories with the gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3). Finally he presents Monte Carlo data on phase transitions in SU(2) and SO(3) lattice gauge models. (HSI)
Instability of in-plane vortices in two-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wysin, G.M.
1994-01-01
An analysis of the core region of an in-plane vortex in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model with easy-plane anisotropy λ=J z /J xy leads to a clear understanding of the instability towards transformation into an out-of-plane vortex as a function of anisotropy. The anisotropy parameter λ c at which the in-plane vortex becomes unstable and develops into an out-of-plane vortex is determined with an accuracy comparable to computer simulations for square, hexagonal, and triangular lattices. For λ c , the in-plane vortex is stable but exhibits a normal mode whose frequency goes to zero as ω∝(λ c -λ) 1/2 as λ approaches λ c . For λ>λ c , the static nonzero out-of-plane spin components grow as (λ-λ c ) 1/2 . The lattice dependence of λ c is determined strongly by the number of spins in the core plaquette, is fundamentally a discreteness effect, and cannot be obtained in a continuum theory
Lattices with unique complements
Saliĭ, V N
1988-01-01
The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.
Coherent lattice vibrations in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadin, Alan M.
2008-01-01
A recent analysis has shown that the pair wavefunction within the BCS theory may be represented in real-space as a spherical electronic orbital (on the scale of the coherence length ξ 0 ) coupled to a standing-wave lattice vibration with wavevector 2k F and a near-resonant phonon frequency. The present paper extends this picture to a coherent pattern of phonon standing-waves on the macroscopic scale, with electrons forming Bloch waves and an energy gap much like those in the classic band theory of crystals. These parallel planes form a diffractive waveguide permitting electron waves to traveling parallel to the planes, corresponding to lossless supercurrent. A similar picture may be extended to unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, with an array of standing spin waves rather than phonons. Such coherent lattice vibrations should be universal indicators of the superconducting state, and should be observable below T c using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Further implications of this picture are discussed
New integrable lattice hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickering, Andrew; Zhu Zuonong
2006-01-01
In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula
Mobile localization in nonlinear Schroedinger lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Gardenes, J.; Falo, F.; Floria, L.M.
2004-01-01
Using continuation methods from the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik lattice, we have studied the structure of numerically exact mobile discrete breathers in the standard discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We show that, away from that integrable limit, the mobile pulse is dressed by a background of resonant plane waves with wavevectors given by a certain selection rule. This background is seen to be essential for supporting mobile localization in the absence of integrability. We show how the variations of the localized pulse energy during its motion are balanced by the interaction with this background, allowing the localization mobility along the lattice
Complex 3D Vortex Lattice Formation by Phase-Engineered Multiple Beam Interference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jolly Xavier
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present the computational results on the formation of diverse complex 3D vortex lattices by a designed superposition of multiple plane waves. Special combinations of multiples of three noncoplanar plane waves with a designed relative phase shift between one another are perturbed by a nonsingular beam to generate various complex 3D vortex lattice structures. The formation of complex gyrating lattice structures carrying designed vortices by means of relatively phase-engineered plane waves is also computationally investigated. The generated structures are configured with both periodic as well as transversely quasicrystallographic basis, while these whirling complex lattices possess a long-range order of designed symmetry in a given plane. Various computational analytical tools are used to verify the presence of engineered geometry of vortices in these complex 3D vortex lattices.
Generalized isothermic lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doliwa, Adam
2007-01-01
We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem
Existence of Projective Planes
Perrott, Xander
2016-01-01
This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.
Lattice theory for nonspecialists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hari Dass, N.D.
1984-01-01
These lectures were delivered as part of the academic training programme at the NIKHEF-H. These lectures were intended primarily for experimentalists, and theorists not specializing in lattice methods. The goal was to present the essential spirit behind the lattice approach and consequently the author has concentrated mostly on issues of principle rather than on presenting a large amount of detail. In particular, the author emphasizes the deep theoretical infra-structure that has made lattice studies meaningful. At the same time, he has avoided the use of heavy formalisms as they tend to obscure the basic issues for people trying to approach this subject for the first time. The essential ideas are illustrated with elementary soluble examples not involving complicated mathematics. The following subjects are discussed: three ways of solving the harmonic oscillator problem; latticization; gauge fields on a lattice; QCD observables; how to solve lattice theories. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1983-04-01
In the last few years lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena in gauge theories. The lattice serves as an ultraviolet cutoff, rendering the theory well defined and amenable to numerical and analytical work. Of course, as with any cutoff, at the end of a calculation one must consider the limit of vanishing lattice spacing in order to draw conclusions on the physical continuum limit theory. The lattice has the advantage over other regulators that it is not tied to the Feynman expansion. This opens the possibility of other approximation schemes than conventional perturbation theory. Thus Wilson used a high temperature expansion to demonstrate confinement in the strong coupling limit. Monte Carlo simulations have dominated the research in lattice gauge theory for the last four years, giving first principle calculations of nonperturbative parameters characterizing the continuum limit. Some of the recent results with lattice calculations are reviewed
On Traveling Waves in Lattices: The Case of Riccati Lattices
Dimitrova, Zlatinka
2012-09-01
The method of simplest equation is applied for analysis of a class of lattices described by differential-difference equations that admit traveling-wave solutions constructed on the basis of the solution of the Riccati equation. We denote such lattices as Riccati lattices. We search for Riccati lattices within two classes of lattices: generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices and generalized Holling lattices. We show that from the class of generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices only the Wadati lattice belongs to the class of Riccati lattices. Opposite to this many lattices from the Holling class are Riccati lattices. We construct exact traveling wave solutions on the basis of the solution of Riccati equation for three members of the class of generalized Holling lattices.
Lattice degeneracies of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-10-01
We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shindler, A.
2007-07-01
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-07-15
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
In-plane anisotropic strain of elastically and plastically deformed III-nitrides on lithium gallate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namkoong, Gon; Huang, Sa; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan
2009-01-01
We have investigated both elastically and plastically deformed GaN films on lithium gallate, LiGaO 2 , by molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane lattice parameters were determined from high resolution X-ray diffraction and indicated two different groups of in-plane lattice parameters, influenced by the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 . The measured in-plane lattice parameters indicate that there exist both compressive and tensile strains of in-plane GaN along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 , respectively. This anisotropic strain in GaN films forms a slight distortion of the basal-plane hexagonal structure of GaN films, leading to a different critical thickness of 4.0 ± 0.17 and 7.8 ± 0.7 nm along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 , respectively.
Cross plane scattering correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.
1990-01-01
Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution
Salehi, H.; Aryadoust, M.; Shoushtari, M. Zargar
2014-07-01
In this paper, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystal of 3D with rhombohedral(I) lattice is studied theoretically. The crystal composite constituted of nickel spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and density of states are performed with the plane wave expansion method in the irreducible part of Brillouin zone. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of lattice angle on the band structure and width of the band gap rhombohedral(I) lattice in the irreducible part of the first Brillouin zone and its planes separately. The results show that more than one complete band gape are formed in the four planes of the irreducible part. The most complete band gaps are formed in the (111) plane and the widest complete band gap in (443) with an angle greater than 80. So, if the sound passes through the (111) and (443) planes for the lattice angle close to 90, the crystal phononic displays the excellent insulation behavior. Moreover, in the other planes, the lattice angle does not affect on the width and the number of band gaps. Also, for the filling fraction 5 %, the widest complete band gap is formed. These results are consistent with the effect of symmetry on the band gap width, because the (111) plane has the most symmetry.
Fourier plane imaging microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)
2014-09-14
We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Epelbaum E.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress on nuclear lattice simulations using chiral eﬀective ﬁeld theory. We discuss lattice results for dilute neutron matter at next-to-leading order, three-body forces at next-to-next-toleading order, isospin-breaking and Coulomb eﬀects, and the binding energy of light nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jersak, J.
1986-01-01
This year has brought a sudden interest in lattice Higgs models. After five years of only modest activity we now have many new results obtained both by analytic and Monte Carlo methods. This talk is a review of the present state of lattice Higgs models with particular emphasis on the recent development
PSB Chromaticity Correction in both Planes
Bartosik, Hannes; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
In view of the LHC injector upgrade program (LIU[1]), all LHC pre-accelerators and in particular the CERN Booster (PSB) are being reviewed for potential lattice optics and equipment optimizations. The option to correct the chromaticity in both planes would be very helpful for a better control of the beam in the presence of both non-linearities and space charge. Moreover, one could reduce decoherence phenomena that otherwise limit the usefulness of resonance measurement techniques based on a turn-by-turn BPM system.
Instabilities of Kirkendall planes
Dal, van M.J.H.; Gusak, A.M.; Cserhati, C.; Kodentsov, A.; Loo, van F.J.J.
2001-01-01
Reconsideration of the Kirkendall effect is presented. It is demonstrated (experimentally as well as theoretically) that Kirkendall planes can be multiple, stable or unstable within a single-phase reaction zone. A general criterion of instabilty is given.
Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes
Kandasamy, Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K.; Smarandache, Florentin
2015-01-01
Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.
On singularities of lattice varieties
Mukherjee, Himadri
2013-01-01
Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imafuku, Muneyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Kazuyuki; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi
2008-01-01
Generalized formula of the x-ray stress analysis for a single crystal with unknown stress-free lattice parameter was proposed. This method enables us to evaluate the plane stress states with any combination of diffraction planes. We can choose and combine the appropriate x-ray sources and diffraction plane families, depending on the sample orientation and the apparatus, whenever diffraction condition is satisfied. The analysis of plane stress distributions in an iron single crystal was demonstrated combining with the diffraction data for Fe{211} and Fe{310} plane families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, Paul
1989-01-01
The forty-year dream of understanding the properties of the strongly interacting particles from first principles is now approaching reality. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD - the field theory of the quark and gluon constituents of strongly interacting particles) was initially handicapped by the severe limitations of the conventional (perturbation) approach in this picture, but Ken Wilson's inventions of lattice gauge theory and renormalization group methods opened new doors, making calculations of masses and other particle properties possible. Lattice gauge theory became a major industry around 1980, when Monte Carlo methods were introduced, and the first prototype calculations yielded qualitatively reasonable results. The promising developments over the past year were highlighted at the 1988 Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - Lattice 88 - held at Fermilab
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders
2017-01-01
It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikowska, T.
1999-01-01
The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackenzie, Paul
1989-03-15
The forty-year dream of understanding the properties of the strongly interacting particles from first principles is now approaching reality. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD - the field theory of the quark and gluon constituents of strongly interacting particles) was initially handicapped by the severe limitations of the conventional (perturbation) approach in this picture, but Ken Wilson's inventions of lattice gauge theory and renormalization group methods opened new doors, making calculations of masses and other particle properties possible. Lattice gauge theory became a major industry around 1980, when Monte Carlo methods were introduced, and the first prototype calculations yielded qualitatively reasonable results. The promising developments over the past year were highlighted at the 1988 Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - Lattice 88 - held at Fermilab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, Norman H
2000-01-01
The architecture and capabilities of the computers currently in use for large-scale lattice QCD calculations are described and compared. Based on this present experience, possible future directions are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikowska, T.
2001-01-01
The description of reactor lattice codes is carried out on the example of the WIMSD-5B code. The WIMS code in its various version is the most recognised lattice code. It is used in all parts of the world for calculations of research and power reactors. The version WIMSD-5B is distributed free of charge by NEA Data Bank. The description of its main features given in the present lecture follows the aspects defined previously for lattice calculations in the lecture on Reactor Lattice Transport Calculations. The spatial models are described, and the approach to the energy treatment is given. Finally the specific algorithm applied in fuel depletion calculations is outlined. (author)
Transformational plane geometry
Umble, Ronald N
2014-01-01
Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas
This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along...... the ultrasound beam. The first part of the contribution investigates the compromise between frame rate and plane wave image quality including the influence of grating lobes from a λ-pitch transducer. A method for optimizing the image quality is suggested, and it is shown that the frame rate can be increased...... healthy volunteers. Complex flow patterns were measured in an anthropomorphic flow phantom and showed good agreement with the velocity field simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The last part of the contribution investigates two clinical applications. Plane wave imaging was used for slow velocity...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petronzio, R.
1992-01-01
Lattice gauge theories are about fifteen years old and I will report on the present status of the field without making the elementary introduction that can be found in the proceedings of the last two conferences. The talk covers briefly the following subjects: the determination of α s , the status of spectroscopy, heavy quark physics and in particular the calculation of their hadronic weak matrix elements, high temperature QCD, non perturbative Higgs bounds, chiral theories on the lattice and induced theories
Kiefel, Martin; Jampani, Varun; Gehler, Peter V.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a convolutional layer that is able to process sparse input features. As an example, for image recognition problems this allows an efficient filtering of signals that do not lie on a dense grid (like pixel position), but of more general features (such as color values). The presented algorithm makes use of the permutohedral lattice data structure. The permutohedral lattice was introduced to efficiently implement a bilateral filter, a commonly used image processing operation....
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D
2016-09-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.
Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.
2004-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term
Vortex lattices in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.
1995-01-01
We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée
2010-01-01
. The applicability analysis carried out here focuses on the actual feasibility of the integration and the potential trade-offs which appear when two contradicting principles are combined. Taking advantage of the flexibility of the GMPLS control plane does not seem to be as easy and as straightforward as expected...
Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....
Lattice topological field theory on nonorientable surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karimipour, V.; Mostafazadeh, A.
1997-01-01
The lattice definition of the two-dimensional topological quantum field theory [Fukuma et al., Commun. Math. Phys. 161, 157 (1994)] is generalized to arbitrary (not necessarily orientable) compact surfaces. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between real associative *-algebras and the topological state sum invariants defined on such surfaces. The partition and n-point functions on all two-dimensional surfaces (connected sums of the Klein bottle or projective plane and g-tori) are defined and computed for arbitrary *-algebras in general, and for the group ring A=R[G] of discrete groups G, in particular. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Large local lattice expansion in graphene adlayers grown on copper
Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, José; Arezki, Hakim; Nguyen, Van Luan; Shen, Jiahong; Mucha-Kruczyński, Marcin; Yao, Fei; Boutchich, Mohamed; Chen, Yue; Lee, Young Hee; Asensio, Maria C.
2018-05-01
Variations of the lattice parameter can significantly change the properties of a material, and, in particular, its electronic behaviour. In the case of graphene, however, variations of the lattice constant with respect to graphite have been limited to less than 2.5% due to its well-established high in-plane stiffness. Here, through systematic electronic and lattice structure studies, we report regions where the lattice constant of graphene monolayers grown on copper by chemical vapour deposition increases up to 7.5% of its relaxed value. Density functional theory calculations confirm that this expanded phase is energetically metastable and driven by the enhanced interaction between the substrate and the graphene adlayer. We also prove that this phase possesses distinctive chemical and electronic properties. The inherent phase complexity of graphene grown on copper foils revealed in this study may inspire the investigation of possible metastable phases in other seemingly simple heterostructure systems.
Electron-lattice Interaction and Nonlinear Excitations in Cuprate Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, J.; Eschrig, H.; Drechsler, S.L.; Malek, J.
1995-01-01
A low temperature lattice modulation of the chains of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is considered by deriving a Hamiltonian of electron-lattice interaction from density-functional calculations for deformed lattice and solving it for the groundstate. Hubbard-type Coulomb interaction is included. The obtained groundstate is a charge-density-wave state with a pereodicity of four lattice constants and a gap for one-electron excitations of about 1eV, sensitively depending on parameters of the Hamiltonian. There are lots of polaronic and solitonic excitations with formation energies deep in the gap, which can pin the Fermi level and thus produce again metallicity of the chain. They might also contribute to pairing of holes in adjacent CuO 2 -planes. (author)
Mechanical and electrical strain response of a piezoelectric auxetic PZT lattice structure
Fey, Tobias; Eichhorn, Franziska; Han, Guifang; Ebert, Kathrin; Wegener, Moritz; Roosen, Andreas; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Greil, Peter
2016-01-01
A two-dimensional auxetic lattice structure was fabricated from a PZT piezoceramic. Tape casted and sintered sheets with a thickness of 530 μm were laser cut into inverted honeycomb lattice structure with re-entrant cell geometry (θ = -25°) and poling direction oriented perpendicular to the lattice plane. The in-plane strain response upon applying an uniaxial compression load as well as an electric field perpendicular to the lattice plane were analyzed by a 2D image data detection analysis. The auxetic lattice structure exhibits orthotropic deformation behavior with a negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio of -2.05. Compared to PZT bulk material the piezoelectric auxetic lattice revealed a strain amplification by a factor of 30-70. Effective transversal coupling coefficients {{d}al}31 of the PZT lattice exceeding 4 × 103 pm V-1 were determined which result in an effective hydrostatic coefficient {{d}al}h 66 times larger than that of bulk PZT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chodos, A.
1978-01-01
A version of lattice gauge theory is presented in which the shape of the lattice is not assumed at the outset but is a consequence of the dynamics. Other related features which are not specified a priori include the internal and space-time symmetry groups and the dimensionality of space-time. The theory possesses a much larger invariance group than the usual gauge group on a lattice, and has associated with it an integer k 0 analogous to the topological quantum numer of quantum chromodynamics. Families of semiclassical solutions are found which are labeled by k 0 and a second integer x, but the analysis is not carried far enough to determine which space-time and internal symmetry groups characterize the lowest-lying states of the theory
Graphene antidot lattice waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels
2012-01-01
We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael
2007-01-01
Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2007-01-15
Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.
Carbon nanotube plane fastener
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaori Hirahara
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.
Colignatus, Thomas
2011-01-01
CONQUEST OF THE PLANE provides: an integrated course for geometry and analysis a didactic build-up that avoids traditional clutter use of only the essentials for good understanding proper place for vectors, complex numbers, linear algebra and trigonometry an original and elegant development of trigonometry an original and elegant foundation for calculus examples from physics, economics and statistics integration within the dynamic environment of Mathematica ...
An Algorithm for constructing Hjelmslev planes
Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha
2013-01-01
Projective Hjelmslev planes and Affine Hjelmselv planes are generalisations of projective planes and affine planes. We present an algorithm for constructing a projective Hjelmslev planes and affine Hjelsmelv planes using projective planes, affine planes and orthogonal arrays. We show that all 2-uniform projective Hjelmslev planes, and all 2-uniform affine Hjelsmelv planes can be constructed in this way. As a corollary it is shown that all 2-uniform Affine Hjelmselv planes are sub-geometries o...
Simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging.
Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Paulson, Eric S
2017-11-01
Intrafraction motion can result in a smearing of planned external beam radiation therapy dose distributions, resulting in an uncertainty in dose actually deposited in tissue. The purpose of this paper is to present a pulse sequence that is capable of imaging a moving target at a high frame rate in two orthogonal planes simultaneously for MR-guided radiotherapy. By balancing the zero gradient moment on all axes, slices in two orthogonal planes may be spatially encoded simultaneously. The orthogonal slice groups may be acquired with equal or nonequal echo times. A Cartesian spoiled gradient echo simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging (SOPI) sequence was tested in phantom and in vivo. Multiplexed SOPI acquisitions were performed in which two parallel slices were imaged along two orthogonal axes simultaneously. An autocalibrating phase-constrained 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition) algorithm was implemented to reconstruct the multiplexed data. SOPI images without intraslice motion artifacts were reconstructed at a maximum frame rate of 8.16 Hz. The 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA reconstruction separated the parallel slices aliased along each orthogonal axis. The high spatiotemporal resolution provided by SOPI has the potential to be beneficial for intrafraction motion management during MR-guided radiation therapy or other MRI-guided interventions. Magn Reson Med 78:1700-1710, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
Lattice Dynamics of Gallium Phosphide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarnell, J.L.; Warren, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Dean, P.J.
1968-01-01
Dispersion curves for phonons propagating in the [100], [110], and [111] directions in gallium phosphide have been measured using a triple-axis neutron diffraction spectrometer operating in the constant-Q mode. The sample was a pseudo-single crystal which was prepared by gluing together 36 single crystal plates of gallium phosphide 1 to 2.5 cm in diameter and ∼0.07 cm thick. The plates were grown epitaxially on substrates of gallium arsenide or gallium phosphide, and aligned individually by neutron diffraction. Rocking curves for eight reflections symmetrically distributed in the plane of the experiment had full widths at half maximum in the range 0.52° - 0.58° and were approximately Gaussian in shape. Gallium phosphide crystallizes in the zinc blende structure. A group theoretic analysis of the lattice dynamics of this structure and a shell model fit to the measured dispersion curves are presented. Various optical properties of gallium phosphide are discussed in terms of the phonon dispersion curves. In particular, the phonons which assist indirect electronic transitions are identified as those at the zone boundary in the [100] direction (symmetry point X) in agreement with theoretical and experimental indications that the extrema of the conduction and valence bands are at X and Γ (center of the zone), respectively. The LO branches lie above the TO branches throughout the Brillouin zone in contradiction to the predictions of Keyes and Mitra. The shell model fit indicates that the charge on the gallium atom is negative. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krojts, M.
1987-01-01
The book by the known american physicist-theoretist M.Kreuts represents the first monography in world literature, where a new perspective direction in elementary particle physics and quantum field theory - lattice formulation of gauge theories is stated systematically. Practically all main ideas of this direction are given. Material is stated in systematic and understandable form
Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD
Gupta, R.
2005-08-01
This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bali, G.S.
2005-01-01
I comment on progress of lattice QCD techniques and calculations. Recent results on pentaquark masses as well as of the spectrum of excited baryons are summarized and interpreted. The present state of calculations of quantities related to the nucleon structure and of electromagnetic transition form factors is surveyed
Finite lattice extrapolation algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henkel, M.; Schuetz, G.
1987-08-01
Two algorithms for sequence extrapolation, due to von den Broeck and Schwartz and Bulirsch and Stoer are reviewed and critically compared. Applications to three states and six states quantum chains and to the (2+1)D Ising model show that the algorithm of Bulirsch and Stoer is superior, in particular if only very few finite lattice data are available. (orig.)
Williamson, S. Gill
2010-01-01
Will the cosmological multiverse, when described mathematically, have easily stated properties that are impossible to prove or disprove using mathematical physics? We explore this question by constructing lattice multiverses which exhibit such behavior even though they are much simpler mathematically than any likely cosmological multiverse.
de Raedt, Hans; von der Linden, W.; Binder, K
1995-01-01
In this chapter we review methods currently used to perform Monte Carlo calculations for quantum lattice models. A detailed exposition is given of the formalism underlying the construction of the simulation algorithms. We discuss the fundamental and technical difficulties that are encountered and
Scott, Paul
2006-01-01
A "convex" polygon is one with no re-entrant angles. Alternatively one can use the standard convexity definition, asserting that for any two points of the convex polygon, the line segment joining them is contained completely within the polygon. In this article, the author provides a solution to a problem involving convex lattice polygons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Autin, B.
1984-01-01
After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)
Unquenched lattice upsilon spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcantonio, L.M.
2001-03-01
A non-relativistic effective theory of QCD (NRQCD) is used in calculations of the upsilon spectrum. Simultaneous multi-correlation fitting routines are used to yield lattice channel energies and amplitudes. The lattice configurations used were both dynamical, with two flavours of sea quarks included in the action; and quenched, with no sea quarks. These configurations were generated by the UKQCD collaboration. The dynamical configurations used were ''matched'', having the same lattice spacing, but differing in the sea quark mass. Thus, it was possible to analyse trends of observables with sea quark mass, in the certainty that the trend isn't partially due to varying lattice spacing. The lattice spacing used for spectroscopy was derived from the lattice 1 1 P 1 - 1 3 S 1 splitting. On each set of configurations two lattice bare b quark masses were used, giving kinetic masses bracketing the physical Υ mass. The only quantity showing a strong dependence on these masses was the hyperfine splitting, so it was interpolated to the real Υ mass. The radial and orbital splittings gave good agreement with experiment. The hyperfine splitting results showed a clear signal for unquenching and the dynamical hyperfine splitting results were extrapolated to a physical sea quark mass. This result, combined with the quenched result yielded a value for the hyperfine splitting at n f = 3, predicting an η b mass of 9.517(4) GeV. The NRQCD technique for obtaining a value of the strong coupling constant in the M-barS-bar scheme was followed. Using quenched and dynamical results a value was extrapolated to n f = 3. Employing a three loop beta function to run the coupling, with suitable matching conditions at heavy quark thresholds, the final result was obtained for n f = 5 at a scale equal to the Z boson mass. This result was α(5)/MS(Mz)=0.110(4). Two methods for finding the mass of the b quark in the MS scheme were employed. The results of both methods agree within error but the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J
2006-01-01
We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models
Gauge theories and integrable lattice models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1989-01-01
Investigations of new knot polynomials discovered in the last few years have shown them to be intimately connected with soluble models of two dimensional lattice statistical mechanics. In this paper, these results, which in time may illuminate the whole question of why integrable lattice models exist, are reconsidered from the point of view of three dimensional gauge theory. Expectation values of Wilson lines in three dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories can be computed by evaluating the partition functions of certain lattice models on finite graphs obtained by projecting the Wilson lines to the plane. The models in question - previously considered in both the knot theory and statistical mechanics literature - are IRF models in which the local Boltzmann weights are the matrix elements of braiding matrices in rational conformal field theories. These matrix elements, in turn, can be represented in three dimensional gauge theory in terms of the expectation value of a certain tetrahedral configuration of Wilson lines. This representation makes manifest a surprising symmetry of the braiding matrix elements in conformal field theory. (orig.)
Multiplexed infrared plasmonic surface lattice resonances
Gutha, Rithvik R.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Sharp, Christina; Wing, Waylin J.
2018-01-01
We demonstrate that arrays of flat gold nanodisks with rectangular lattices can support a tunable hybrid frequency gap formed by the surface lattice resonances in the substrate ((+1, 0)sub) and the superstrate ((-1, 0)sup). For a certain polarization, rotation of the arrays reduces this gap, forming a band crossing (degenerate state) wherein both surface lattice resonances happen around a single wavelength (˜1300 nm). This highlights a situation wherein hybridization of the Rayleigh anomaly with localized surface plasmon resonances with different multipolar natures happens around the same wavelength. We demonstrate that for a different polarization of the incident light the arrays support the formation of a photonic-plasmonic state at about 1650 nm. Our results show that as the projection of the wave vector of the incident light on the planes of the nanodisk arrays increases, within a given wavelength range, the (+1, 0) mode of this state becomes amplified. Under this condition, this mode can undergo a significant blue shift without broadening, while its amplitude increases.
Superspace approach to lattice supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostelecky, V.A.; Rabin, J.M.
1984-01-01
We construct a cubic lattice of discrete points in superspace, as well as a discrete subgroup of the supersymmetry group which maps this ''superlattice'' into itself. We discuss the connection between this structure and previous versions of lattice supersymmetry. Our approach clarifies the mathematical problems of formulating supersymmetric lattice field theories and suggests new methods for attacking them
Basis reduction for layered lattices
Torreão Dassen, Erwin
2011-01-01
We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woloshyn, R.M.
1988-03-01
The basic concepts of the Lagrangian formulation of lattice field theory are discussed. The Wilson and staggered schemes for dealing with fermions on the lattice are described. Some recent results for hadron masses and vector and axial vector current matrix elements in lattice QCD are reviewed. (Author) (118 refs., 16 figs.)
Basis reduction for layered lattices
E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)
2011-01-01
htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these
Across plane ionic conductivity of highly oriented neodymium doped ceria thin films.
Baure, G; Kasse, R M; Rudawski, N G; Nino, J C
2015-05-14
A methodology to limit interfacial effects in thin films is proposed and explained. The strategy is to reduce the impact of the electrode interfaces and eliminate cross grain boundaries that impede ionic motion. To this end, highly oriented Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (NDC) nanocrystalline thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on platinized single crystal a-plane sapphire substrates. High resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified the films were textured with columnar grains. The average widths of the columns were approximately 40 nm and not significantly changed by film thickness between 100 and 300 nm. HR-XTEM and XRD determined the {111} planes of NDC were grown preferentially on top of the {111} planes of platinum despite the large lattice mismatch between the two planes. From the XRD patterns, the out of plane strains on the platinum and NDC layers were less than 1%. This can be explained by the coincident site lattice (CSL) theory. Rotating the {111} ceria planes 19.11° with respect to the {111} platinum planes forms a Σ7 boundary where 1 in 7 cerium lattice sites are coincident with the platinum lattice sites. This orientation lowers interfacial energy promoting the preferential alignment of those two planes. The across plane ionic conductivity was measured at low temperatures (<350 °C) for the various film thicknesses. It is here shown that columnar grain growth of ceria can be induced on platinized substrates allowing pathways that are clear of blocking grain boundaries that cause conductivities to diminish as film thickness decreases.
Topological color codes on Union Jack lattices: a stable implementation of the whole Clifford group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Bombin, H.; Andrist, Ruben S.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2010-01-01
We study the error threshold of topological color codes on Union Jack lattices that allow for the full implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. After mapping the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random three-body Ising model on a Union Jack lattice, we compute its phase diagram in the temperature-disorder plane using Monte Carlo simulations. Surprisingly, topological color codes on Union Jack lattices have a similar error stability to color codes on triangular lattices, as well as to the Kitaev toric code. The enhanced computational capabilities of the topological color codes on Union Jack lattices with respect to triangular lattices and the toric code combined with the inherent robustness of this implementation show good prospects for future stable quantum computer implementations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buechner, O. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lippert, Th. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Melkumyan, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Orth, B. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: dirk.pleiter@desy.de; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wegner, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wollny, S. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2006-04-01
As the need for computing resources to carry out numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) formulated on a lattice has increased significantly, efficient use of the generated data has become a major concern. To improve on this, groups plan to share their configurations on a worldwide level within the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG). Doing so requires standardized description of the configurations, standards on binary file formats and common middleware interfaces. We describe the requirements and problems, and discuss solutions. Furthermore, an overview is given on the implementation of the LatFor DataGrid [http://www-zeuthen.desy.de/latfor/ldg], a France/German/Italian grid that will be one of the regional grids within the ILDG grid-of-grids concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsanyi, Sz.; Kampert, K.H.; Fodor, Z.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest
2016-06-01
We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to the MeV scale we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (χ) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and χ, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.
1977-01-01
The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)
Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.
2018-01-01
We present a numerical scheme to solve the Wigner equation, based on a lattice discretization of momentum space. The moments of the Wigner function are recovered exactly, up to the desired order given by the number of discrete momenta retained in the discretization, which also determines the accuracy of the method. The Wigner equation is equipped with an additional collision operator, designed in such a way as to ensure numerical stability without affecting the evolution of the relevant moments of the Wigner function. The lattice Wigner scheme is validated for the case of quantum harmonic and anharmonic potentials, showing good agreement with theoretical results. It is further applied to the study of the transport properties of one- and two-dimensional open quantum systems with potential barriers. Finally, the computational viability of the scheme for the case of three-dimensional open systems is also illustrated.
Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Sachrajda, C T
2016-01-01
I review the the application of the lattice formulation of QCD and large-scale numerical simulations to the evaluation of non-perturbative hadronic effects in Standard Model Phenomenology. I present an introduction to the elements of the calculations and discuss the limitations both in the range of quantities which can be studied and in the precision of the results. I focus particularly on the extraction of the QCD parameters, i.e. the quark masses and the strong coupling constant, and on important quantities in flavour physics. Lattice QCD is playing a central role in quantifying the hadronic effects necessary for the development of precision flavour physics and its use in exploring the limits of the Standard Model and in searches for inconsistencies which would signal the presence of new physics.
Lattices of dielectric resonators
Trubin, Alexander
2016-01-01
This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas and lattices of d...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, A.; Hasenfratz, P.
1985-01-01
This paper deals almost exclusively with applications in QCD. Presumably QCD will remain in the center of lattice calculations in the near future. The existing techniques and the available computer resources should be able to produce trustworthy results in pure SU(3) gauge theory and in quenched hadron spectroscopy. Going beyond the quenched approximation might require some technical breakthrough or exceptional computer resources, or both. Computational physics has entered high-energy physics. From this point of view, lattice QCD is only one (although the most important, at present) of the research fields. Increasing attention is devoted to the study of other QFTs. It is certain that the investigation of nonasymptotically free theories, the Higgs phenomenon, or field theories that are not perturbatively renormalizable will be important research areas in the future
Lattice degeneracies of geometric fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-05-01
We give the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom carried by geometric fermions on all lattices of maximal symmetries in d = 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. These numbers are lattice dependent, but in the (free) continuum limit, part of the degrees of freedom have to escape to infinity by a Wilson mechanism built in, and 2sup(d) survive for any lattice. On self-reciprocal lattices we compare the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions with the minimal numbers of naive fermions on these lattices and argue that these numbers are equal. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1962-01-01
The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the well-known laboratories in the field of light-water lattices, who exchanged the latest information on the status of work in their countries and discussed both the theoretical and the experimental aspects of the subjects. The supporting papers covered most problems, including criticality, resonance absorption, thermal utilization, spectrum calculations and the physics of plutonium bearing systems. Refs, figs and tabs
Diffusion in heterogeneous lattices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír
2010-01-01
Roč. 256, č. 17 (2010), s. 5137-5144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : lattice- gas systems * diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2010
Automated lattice data generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayyar Venkitesh
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them can be tedious and error-prone when done “by hand”. In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.
Automated lattice data generation
Ayyar, Venkitesh; Hackett, Daniel C.; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.
2018-03-01
The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them) can be tedious and error-prone when done "by hand". In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, J [Agra Coll. (India). Dept. of Physics
1977-03-01
In the present work, a local model pseudopotential has been proposed to study the lattice dynamics of thorium. The model potential depends on the core and ionic radii, and accounts for the s-d-f hybridization effects in a phenomenological way. When this form of potential is applied to derive the photon dispersion curves of Th, sufficiently good agreement is found between the computed and experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowler, Ken
1990-01-01
One of the major recent developments in particle theory has been the use of very high performance computers to obtain approximate numerical solutions of quantum field theories by formulating them on a finite space-time lattice. The great virtue of this new technique is that it avoids the straitjacket of perturbation theory and can thus attack new, but very fundamental problems, such as the calculation of hadron masses in quark-gluon field theory (quantum chromodynamics - QCD)
Duality and noncommutative planes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jøndrup, Søren
2015-01-01
We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...
Adamatzky, Andrew
2015-01-01
The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...
Digital lattice gauge theories
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
Dielectric lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1983-06-01
Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)
Dielectric lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1984-01-01
Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)element ofG that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ), x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space G which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)sigmasub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportional sigmasub(i)sigmasub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder-Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson-loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI=0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
MBE growth and characterization of ZnTe epilayers on m-plane sapphire substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, Wei-Che; Yamashita, Sotaro; Aiba, Takayuki; Taguri, Kosuke [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Asahi, Toshiaki [Technology Development Center, JX Nippon Mining and Metals Corporation, Hitachi 317-0056 (Japan); Togo, Hiroyoshi [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan)
2014-07-15
ZnTe epilayers were grown on transparent (10-10) oriented (m -plane) sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Pole figure imaging was used to study the domain distribution within the layer. (211)-oriented ZnTe domains were formed on m -plane sapphire. The presence of only one kind of (211) ZnTe domain formed on the 2 -tilted m -plane sapphire substrates was confirmed. Thus, single domain (211) ZnTe epilayers can be grown on the m -plane sapphire using MBE. Although differences in the crystal structure and lattice mismatch are large, precise control of the substrate surface lattice arrangement result in the formation of high-quality epitaxial layers. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, A; Gonzalez, E M; Vicent, J L; Gilbert, D A; Liu Kai; Milošević, M V
2013-01-01
The dynamics of the pinned vortex, antivortex and interstitial vortex have been studied in superconducting/magnetic hybrids consisting of arrays of Co/Pd multilayer nanodots embedded in Nb films. The magnetic nanodots show out-of-plane magnetization at the remanent state. This magnetic state allows for superconducting vortex lattices of different types in an applied homogeneous magnetic field. We experimentally and theoretically show three such lattices: (i) a lattice containing only antivortices; (ii) a vortex lattice entirely pinned on the dots; and (iii) a vortex lattice with pinned and interstitial vortices. Between the flux creep (low vortex velocity) and the free flux flow (high vortex velocity) regimes the interaction between the magnetic array and the vortex lattice governs the vortex dynamics, which in turn enables distinguishing experimentally the type of vortex lattice which governs the dissipation. We show that the vortex lattice with interstitial vortices has the highest onset velocity where the lattice becomes ordered, whereas the pinned vortex lattice has the smallest onset velocity. Further, for this system, we directly estimate that the external force needed to depin vortices is 60% larger than the one needed to depin antivortices; therefore we are able to decouple the antivortex–vortex motion. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, M.; Seidman, D.N.
1982-10-01
The (211) fundamental and (101) superlattice planes, of the bct lattice, were analysed chemically on an atomic plane-by-plane basis. It was demonstrated that the composition of each individual plane can be determined as a function of depth without any ambiguity. The overall average Mo concentration was measured to be 17.1 at. % for the (211) fundamental plane. Details of the field evaporation behavior of the (211) fundamental and (101) superlattice planes were studied. The field-evaporation behavior is described in terms of the field-evaporation rate, the order of the field evaporated ions, etc. Each individual atomic plane field evaporated on an atomic plane-by-plane basis for the (211) fundamental plane. While for (101) superlattice plane a group of planes consisting of one plane of Mo atoms and four planes of Ni atoms field-evaporated as a unit. An abnormal increase in the number of Mo atoms was found in the central portion of the (211) fundamental plane. Possible mechanisms for the abnormal field evaporation rate are discussed. It is concluded that the atom probe technique can be used to follow the physics and chemistry of the field-evaporation process and the chemistry of the alloy as a function of position, on a subnanometer scale, throughout the specimen. 13 figures
Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beloy, K.
2010-01-01
We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10 -18 and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.
Lattice topology dictates photon statistics.
Kondakci, H Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A
2017-08-21
Propagation of coherent light through a disordered network is accompanied by randomization and possible conversion into thermal light. Here, we show that network topology plays a decisive role in determining the statistics of the emerging field if the underlying lattice is endowed with chiral symmetry. In such lattices, eigenmode pairs come in skew-symmetric pairs with oppositely signed eigenvalues. By examining one-dimensional arrays of randomly coupled waveguides arranged on linear and ring topologies, we are led to a remarkable prediction: the field circularity and the photon statistics in ring lattices are dictated by its parity while the same quantities are insensitive to the parity of a linear lattice. For a ring lattice, adding or subtracting a single lattice site can switch the photon statistics from super-thermal to sub-thermal, or vice versa. This behavior is understood by examining the real and imaginary fields on a lattice exhibiting chiral symmetry, which form two strands that interleave along the lattice sites. These strands can be fully braided around an even-sited ring lattice thereby producing super-thermal photon statistics, while an odd-sited lattice is incommensurate with such an arrangement and the statistics become sub-thermal.
Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, Stephen R.
2005-01-01
I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime
The lattice correspondence and diffusional-displacive phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, J.F.; Muddle, B.C.
1999-01-01
When a coherent interface is maintained between parent and product phases in a solid state phase transformation, then it is always possible to define a lattice correspondence across this interface and describe the structural change by a homogeneous lattice deformation, S T . For certain transformations, this strain is an invariant plane strain, with the invariant plane defining the planar, coherent interface between parent and product. This group includes the familiar martensitic face-centred cubic to close-packed hexagonal transformation in, for example, cobalt-based alloys, but it is demonstrated here that it also contains transformations giving rise to a broad range of plate-shaped, diffusional precipitation products. For many such transformation products, the transformation strain has a significant shear component and the accommodation of shear strain energy is potentially an important, and often overlooked, factor in both the nucleation and growth of such products. More commonly S T is not an invariant plane strain and, if a planar interface is to be preserved between parent and product, it is necessary to combine S T with a lattice invariant strain to allow a partially-coherent interface that is macroscopically invariant. It is demonstrated that there are diffusional transformation products which also have the geometric and crystallographic features of both of the common forms of partially-coherent martensitic products
Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes
Filmus, Yuval; Hrube, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilcup, G.
1986-01-01
A progress report on a lattice project at Los Alamos is presented. The projects are basically of two sorts: approaching the continuum (determination of MCRG flows under the blocking transformation, and beta-function along Wilson and improved action lines); and arriving at the continuum (hadron spectrum, coupling constants, and matrix elements). Since the ultimate goal is to determine matrix elements for which chiral symmetry is very relevant, the authors choose the formalism whose chiral properties are easier to understand, i.e., staggered fermions
Lattice of quantum predictions
Drieschner, Michael
1993-10-01
What is the structure of reality? Physics is supposed to answer this question, but a purely empiristic view is not sufficient to explain its ability to do so. Quantum mechanics has forced us to think more deeply about what a physical theory is. There are preconditions every physical theory must fulfill. It has to contain, e.g., rules for empirically testable predictions. Those preconditions give physics a structure that is “a priori” in the Kantian sense. An example is given how the lattice structure of quantum mechanics can be understood along these lines.
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...
Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Oitmaa, J.
2018-04-01
We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S = 1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.
Lattice cell burnup calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pop-Jordanov, J.
1977-01-01
Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics
Crisafulli, M.; Martinelli, G.; Sachrajda, Christopher T.; Crisafulli, M; Gimenez, V; Martinelli, G; Sachrajda, C T
1994-01-01
We present the first lattice calculation of the B-meson binding energy \\labar and of the kinetic energy \\lambda_1/2 m_Q of the heavy-quark inside the pseudoscalar B-meson. In order to cancel the ambiguities due to the ultraviolet renormalons present in the operator matrix elements, this calculation has required the non-perturbative subtraction of the power divergences present in the Lagrangian operator \\energy and in the kinetic energy operator \\kkinetic. The non-perturbative renormalization of the relevant operators has been implemented by imposing suitable renormalization conditions on quark matrix elements in the Landau gauge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.
1991-11-01
The results of experiments and calculations on Gd lattices are presented, and a comparison of experimental and calculational data is given. This latter can be divided into four groups. The first belongs to the comparison of criticality parameters, the second group is related with the comparison of 2D distributions, the third one relates the comparison of intra-macrocell distributions, whereas the fourth group is devoted for the comparison of spectral parameters. For comparison, the computer code RFIT based on strict statistical criteria has been used. The calculated and measured results agree, in most cases, sufficiently. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 13 figs.; 9 tabs
Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes
Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina
2000-01-01
The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.
Lattice Transparency of Graphene.
Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O
2017-03-08
Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.
Introduction to lattice gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Cock, P.
1988-03-01
A general introduction to Lattice Gauge Theory (LGT) is given. The theory is discussed from first principles to facilitate an understanding of the techniques used in LGT. These include lattice formalism, gauge invariance, fermions on the lattice, group theory and integration, strong coupling methods and mean field techniques. A review of quantum chromodynamics on the lattice at finite temperature and density is also given. Monte Carlo results and analytical methods are discussed. An attempt has been made to include most relevant data up to the end of 1987, and to update some earlier reviews existing on the subject. 224 refs., 33 figs., 14 tabs
Hadron structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Andreas
2008-01-01
Some elements and current developments of lattice QCD are reviewed, with special emphasis on hadron structure observables. In principle, high precision experimental and lattice data provide nowadays a very detailled picture of the internal structure of hadrons. However, to relate both, a very good controle of perturbative QCD is needed in many cases. Finally chiral perturbation theory is extremely helpful to boost the precision of lattice calculations. The mutual need and benefit of all four elements: experiment, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and chiral perturbation theory is the main topic of this review
Lattice formulations of reggeon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brower, R.C.; Ellis, J.; Savit, R.; Zinn-Justin, J.
1976-01-01
A class of lattice analogues to reggeon field theory is examined. First the transition from a continuum to a lattice field theory is discussed, emphasizing the necessity of a Wick rotation and the consideration of symmetry properties. Next the theory is transformed to a discrete system with two spins at each lattice site, and the problems of the triple-reggeon interaction and the reggeon energy gap are discussed. It is pointed out that transferring the theory from the continuum to a lattice necesarily introduces new relevant operators not normally present in reggeon field theory. (Auth.)
Conceptual Design of Wave Plane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter
The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...
Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices
Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.
2000-01-01
In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the
Elimination of spurious lattice fermion solutions and noncompact lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, T.D.
1997-09-22
It is well known that the Dirac equation on a discrete hyper-cubic lattice in D dimension has 2{sup D} degenerate solutions. The usual method of removing these spurious solutions encounters difficulties with chiral symmetry when the lattice spacing l {ne} 0, as exemplified by the persistent problem of the pion mass. On the other hand, we recall that in any crystal in nature, all the electrons do move in a lattice and satisfy the Dirac equation; yet there is not a single physical result that has ever been entangled with a spurious fermion solution. Therefore it should not be difficult to eliminate these unphysical elements. On a discrete lattice, particle hop from point to point, whereas in a real crystal the lattice structure in embedded in a continuum and electrons move continuously from lattice cell to lattice cell. In a discrete system, the lattice functions are defined only on individual points (or links as in the case of gauge fields). However, in a crystal the electron state vector is represented by the Bloch wave functions which are continuous functions in {rvec {gamma}}, and herein lies one of the essential differences.
Phase diagram and Chiral Magnetic Effect in Dirac Semimetals from Lattice Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyda D.L.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Dirac Semimetals Na3Bi and Cd3As2 are recently discovered materials, which low energy electronic spectrum is described by two flavours of massless 3+1D fermions. In order to study electronic properties of these materials we formulated lattice field theory with rooted staggered fermions on anisotropic lattice. It is shown that in the limit of zero temporal lattice spacing this theory reproduces effective theory of Dirac semimetals. Using the lattice field theory we study the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals in the plane effective coupling constant - Fermi velocity anisotropy. We also measure conductivity of Dirac Semimetals within lattice field theory in external magnetic field. Our results confirm the existence of Chiral Magnetic Effect in Dirac Semimetals.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of antiplane shear loading of a stationary crack
Schlüter, Alexander; Kuhn, Charlotte; Müller, Ralf
2018-01-01
In this work, the lattice Boltzmann method is applied to study the dynamic behaviour of linear elastic solids under antiplane shear deformation. In this case, the governing set of partial differential equations reduces to a scalar wave equation for the out of plane displacement in a two dimensional domain. The lattice Boltzmann approach developed by Guangwu (J Comput Phys 161(1):61-69, 2000) in 2006 is used to solve the problem numerically. Some aspects of the scheme are highlighted, including the treatment of the boundary conditions. Subsequently, the performance of the lattice Boltzmann scheme is tested for a stationary crack problem for which an analytic solution exists. The treatment of cracks is new compared to the examples that are discussed in Guangwu's work. Furthermore, the lattice Boltzmann simulations are compared to finite element computations. Finally, the influence of the lattice Boltzmann relaxation parameter on the stability of the scheme is illustrated.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassenfratz, P.
1983-01-01
It is generally accepted that relativistic field theory is relevant in high energy physics. It is also recognized that even in QCD, which is asymptotically free, the scope of perturbation theory is very limited. Despite the tremendous theoretical and experimental effort to study scaling, scaling violations, e + e - , lepton pair creation, jets, etc., the answer to the question whether and to what extent is QCD the theory of strong interactions is vague. At present-day energies it is difficult to disentangle perturbative and non-perturbative effects. The author states that QCD must be understood and that quantitative non-perturbative methods are needed. He states that the lattice formulation of field theories is a promising approach to meeting this need and discusses the formulation in detail in this paper
Geometry of lattice field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honan, T.J.
1986-01-01
Using some tools of algebraic topology, a general formalism for lattice field theory is presented. The lattice is taken to be a simplicial complex that is also a manifold and is referred to as a simplicial manifold. The fields on this lattice are cochains, that are called lattice forms to emphasize the connections with differential forms in the continuum. This connection provides a new bridge between lattice and continuum field theory. A metric can be put onto this simplicial manifold by assigning lengths to every link or I-simplex of the lattice. Regge calculus is a way of defining general relativity on this lattice. A geometric discussion of Regge calculus is presented. The Regge action, which is a discrete form of the Hilbert action, is derived from the Hilbert action using distribution valued forms. This is a new derivation that emphasizes the underlying geometry. Kramers-Wannier duality in statistical mechanics is discussed in this general setting. Nonlinear field theories, which include gauge theories and nonlinear sigma models are discussed in the continuum and then are put onto a lattice. The main new result here is the generalization to curved spacetime, which consists of making the theory compatible with Regge calculus
Homogenization theory in reactor lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benoist, P.
1986-02-01
The purpose of the theory of homogenization of reactor lattices is to determine, by the mean of transport theory, the constants of a homogeneous medium equivalent to a given lattice, which allows to treat the reactor as a whole by diffusion theory. In this note, the problem is presented by laying emphasis on simplicity, as far as possible [fr
Remarks on lattice gauge models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1981-01-01
The author reports a study of the phase structure of lattice gauge models where one takes as a gauge group a non-abelian discrete subgroup of SU(3). In addition he comments on a lattice action proposed recently by Manton and observes that it violates a positivity property. (Auth.)
Remarks on lattice gauge models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1981-01-01
The author reports on a study of the phase structure of lattice gauge models where one takes as a gauge group a non-abelian discrete subgroup of SU(3). In addition he comments on a lattice action proposed recently by Manton (1980) and observes that it violates a positivity property. (Auth.)
Lattices, supersymmetry and Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, D.M.
1984-01-01
It is shown that a graded extension of the space group of a (generalised) simple cubic lattice exists in any space dimension, D. The fermionic variables which arise admit a Kaehlerian interpretation. Each graded space group is a subgroup of a graded extension of the appropriate Euclidean group, E(D). The relevance of this to the construction of lattice theories is discussed. (author)
Lattice polytopes in coding theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Soprunov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss combinatorial questions about lattice polytopes motivated by recent results on minimum distance estimation for toric codes. We also include a new inductive bound for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes. As an application, we give new formulas for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes for special lattice point configurations.
Computing the writhe on lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laing, C; Sumners, D W
2006-01-01
Given a polygonal closed curve on a lattice or space group, we describe a method for computing the writhe of the curve as the average of weighted projected writhing numbers of the polygon in a few directions. These directions are determined by the lattice geometry, the weights are determined by areas of regions on the unit 2-sphere, and the regions are formed by the tangent indicatrix to the polygonal curve. We give a new formula for the writhe of polygons on the face centred cubic lattice and prove that the writhe of polygons on the body centred cubic lattice, the hexagonal simple lattice, and the diamond space group is always a rational number, and discuss applications to ring polymers
Lattice function measurement with TBT BPM data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, M.J.
1995-06-01
At Fermilab Main Ring some of the Beam Position Monitors (BPM) are instrumented with Turn-By-Turn (TBT) capability to record up to 1,024 consecutive turns of BPM data for each given trigger. For example, there are 9 horizontal plane and 8 vertical plane BPM's in the sector D3 and D4. The BPM data, which records the betatron oscillation, is fitted to obtain beam parameters x, x', y, y', and Δp/p, using the calculated beam line transfer matrix. The resulted TBT beam parameters (x, x') or (y, y') are fitted to ellipses to obtain the lattice function β, α, and the emittance associated with the betatron oscillation. The tune of the machine can be calculated from the phase space angles of the successive turns, in the normalized phase space. The beam parameters can also be used to extract transfer matrix to be used for local and global coupling analysis. The process of fitting the BPM data produces information that can be used to diagnose problems such as calibration, noise level and polarity. Being available at every turn and at changing beam position the information carries a lot of statistical power. Since most of the BPM's are located at high beta location only the x and y beam position information is not simultaneously available. The BPM data fitting processing essentially bridged the gap
Effects of Geometry on the Steady Performance of Planing Hulls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, M. K.; Andersen, Poul
2003-01-01
A vortex-lattice method is applied to planing hull forms. The geometry of the jet surfaces next to the wetted hull is estimated on the basis of the hull geometry while its sidewise extent has been found numerically applying a non-linear free-surface pressure condition in the jet region. The method...... is applied to practical hull forms with chines spray rails and with varying deadrise over the length of the boat. The deadrise variation has a large influence on lift and drag. For a design situation, where the total lift and centre of effort is given, the influence on the total drag is less due to change...
Electromagnetic forces and torques in nanoparticles irradiated by plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia de Abajo, F.J.
2004-01-01
Optical tweezers and optical lattices are making it possible to control small particles by means of electromagnetic forces and torques. In this context, a method is presented in this work to calculate electromagnetic forces and torques for arbitrarily-shaped objects in the presence of other objects illuminated by a plane wave. The method is based upon an expansion of the electromagnetic field in terms of multipoles around each object, which are in turn used to derive forces and torques analytically. The calculation of multipole coefficients are obtained numerically by means of the boundary element method. Results are presented for both spherical and non-spherical objects
In-plane anisotropic strain of elastically and plastically deformed III-nitrides on lithium gallate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Namkoong, Gon, E-mail: gnamkoon@odu.ed [Old Dominion University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Applied Research Center, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Huang, Sa; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)
2009-10-30
We have investigated both elastically and plastically deformed GaN films on lithium gallate, LiGaO{sub 2}, by molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane lattice parameters were determined from high resolution X-ray diffraction and indicated two different groups of in-plane lattice parameters, influenced by the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}. The measured in-plane lattice parameters indicate that there exist both compressive and tensile strains of in-plane GaN along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}, respectively. This anisotropic strain in GaN films forms a slight distortion of the basal-plane hexagonal structure of GaN films, leading to a different critical thickness of 4.0 {+-} 0.17 and 7.8 {+-} 0.7 nm along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}, respectively.
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
Generating asymptotically plane wave spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund
2003-01-01
In an attempt to study asymptotically plane wave spacetimes which admit an event horizon, we find solutions to vacuum Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimension which have a globally null Killing field and rotational symmetry. We show that while such solutions can be deformed to include ones which are asymptotically plane wave, they do not posses a regular event horizon. If we allow for additional matter, such as in supergravity theories, we show that it is possible to have extremal solutions with globally null Killing field, a regular horizon, and which, in addition, are asymptotically plane wave. In particular, we deform the extremal M2-brane solution in 11-dimensional supergravity so that it behaves asymptotically as a 10-dimensional vacuum plane wave times a real line. (author)
Two-transitive MInkowski planes
Wilbrink, H.A.
1982-01-01
In this paper we determine all finite Minkowski planes with an automorphism group which satisfies the following transitivity property: any ordered pair of nonparallel points can be mapped onto any other ordered pair of nonparallel points.
Irreversible stochastic processes on lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nord, R.S.
1986-01-01
Models for irreversible random or cooperative filling of lattices are required to describe many processes in chemistry and physics. Since the filling is assumed to be irreversible, even the stationary, saturation state is not in equilibrium. The kinetics and statistics of these processes are described by recasting the master equations in infinite hierarchical form. Solutions can be obtained by implementing various techniques: refinements in these solution techniques are presented. Programs considered include random dimer, trimer, and tetramer filling of 2D lattices, random dimer filling of a cubic lattice, competitive filling of two or more species, and the effect of a random distribution of inactive sites on the filling. Also considered is monomer filling of a linear lattice with nearest neighbor cooperative effects and solve for the exact cluster-size distribution for cluster sizes up to the asymptotic regime. Additionally, a technique is developed to directly determine the asymptotic properties of the cluster size distribution. Finally cluster growth is considered via irreversible aggregation involving random walkers. In particular, explicit results are provided for the large-lattice-size asymptotic behavior of trapping probabilities and average walk lengths for a single walker on a lattice with multiple traps. Procedures for exact calculation of these quantities on finite lattices are also developed
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E
2014-01-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)
Introduction to lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, R.
1987-01-01
The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off ≅ 1/α, where α is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit α → 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This will be the emphasis of the first lecture. In the second lecture, the author reviews the essential ingredients of formulating QCD on the lattice and discusses scaling and the continuum limit. In the last lecture the author summarizes the status of some of the main results. He also mentions the bottlenecks and possible directions for research. 88 refs
Lattice Methods for Quantum Chromodynamics
DeGrand, Thomas
2006-01-01
Numerical simulation of lattice-regulated QCD has become an important source of information about strong interactions. In the last few years there has been an explosion of techniques for performing ever more accurate studies on the properties of strongly interacting particles. Lattice predictions directly impact many areas of particle and nuclear physics theory and phenomenology. This book provides a thorough introduction to the specialized techniques needed to carry out numerical simulations of QCD: a description of lattice discretizations of fermions and gauge fields, methods for actually do
Localized structures in Kagome lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxena, Avadh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Law, K J H [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS; Kevrekidis, P G [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and stability of gap vortices and multi-pole gap solitons in a Kagome lattice with a defocusing nonlinearity both in a discrete case and in a continuum one with periodic external modulation. In particular, predictions are made based on expansion around a simple and analytically tractable anti-continuum (zero coupling) limit. These predictions are then confirmed for a continuum model of an optically-induced Kagome lattice in a photorefractive crystal obtained by a continuous transformation of a honeycomb lattice.
Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukawa, Akira
2006-01-01
A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years
Borwein, J M; McPhedran, R C
2013-01-01
The study of lattice sums began when early investigators wanted to go from mechanical properties of crystals to the properties of the atoms and ions from which they were built (the literature of Madelung's constant). A parallel literature was built around the optical properties of regular lattices of atoms (initiated by Lord Rayleigh, Lorentz and Lorenz). For over a century many famous scientists and mathematicians have delved into the properties of lattices, sometimes unwittingly duplicating the work of their predecessors. Here, at last, is a comprehensive overview of the substantial body of
Muon-spin rotation studies of the flux lattice in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(SCN){sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.L. [Saint Andrews Univ. (United Kingdom). Sch. of Phys. and Astron.; Blundell, S.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Pratt, F.L. [RIKEN-RAL, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pattenden, P.A. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Forgan, E.M. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Space Research; Sasaki, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Aegerter, C.M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik; Hunt, M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik; Chow, K.H. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Hayes, W. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Singleton, J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Keller, H. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik; Savic, I.M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik
1997-02-15
Muon spin rotation ({mu}SR) studies of the vortex lattice in the superconductor {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(SCN){sub 2} have revealed a crossover from a quasi-2d to a vortex-line lattice structure for fields below a characteristic field B{sub cr}. The {mu}SR-lineshapes measured from the vortex-line lattice have allowed a re-evaluation of the in-plane penetration depth. (orig.)
Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices.
Abolins, B P; Zillich, R E; Whaley, K B
2018-03-14
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.
Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices
Abolins, B. P.; Zillich, R. E.; Whaley, K. B.
2018-03-01
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.
Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires
Wang, Ping
2015-12-22
Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is demonstrated on InN NWs. In-polarity InN NWs form typical hexagonal structure with pyramidal growth front, whereas N-polarity InN NWs slowly turn to the shape of hexagonal pyramid and then convert to an inverted pyramid growth, forming diagonal pyramids with flat surfaces and finally coalescence with each other. This contrary growth behavior driven by lattice-polarity is most likely due to the relatively lower growth rate of the (0001 ̅) plane, which results from the fact that the diffusion barriers of In and N adatoms on the (0001) plane (0.18 and 1.0 eV, respectively) are about two-fold larger in magnitude than those on the (0001 ̅) plane (0.07 and 0.52 eV), as calculated by first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The formation of diagonal pyramids for the N-polarity hexagonal NWs affords a novel way to locate quantum dot in the kink position, suggesting a new recipe for the fabrication of dot-based devices.
Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam
2018-04-01
We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.
Lattice Studies of Hyperon Spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-04-01
I describe recent progress at studying the spectrum of hadrons containing the strange quark through lattice QCD calculations. I emphasise in particular the richness of the spectrum revealed by lattice studies, with a spectrum of states at least as rich as that of the quark model. I conclude by prospects for future calculations, including in particular the determination of the decay amplitudes for the excited states.
Harmonic oscillator on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ader, J.P.; Bonnier, B.; Hontebeyrie, M.; Meyers, C.
1983-01-01
The continuum limit of the ground state energy for the harmonic oscillator with discrete time is derived for all possible choices of the lattice derivative. The occurrence of unphysical values is shown to arise whenever the lattice laplacian is not strictly positive on its Brillouin zone. These undesirable limits can either be finite and arbitrary (multiple spectrum) or infinite (overlapping sublattices with multiple spectrum). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrand, T.
1997-01-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and α s (M z ), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs
Takami, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, A.
2000-01-01
The Wigner functions on the one dimensional lattice are studied. Contrary to the previous claim in literature, Wigner functions exist on the lattice with any number of sites, whether it is even or odd. There are infinitely many solutions satisfying the conditions which reasonable Wigner functions should respect. After presenting a heuristic method to obtain Wigner functions, we give the general form of the solutions. Quantum mechanical expectation values in terms of Wigner functions are also ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao Sanshui; He Sailing
2002-12-01
An FDTD numerical method for computing the off-plane band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly free-electron metals is presented. The method requires only a two-dimensional discretization mesh for a given off-plane wave number k{sub z} although the off-plane propagation is a three-dimensional problem. The off-plane band structures of a square lattice of metallic rods with the high-frequency metallic model in the air are studied, and a complete band gap for some nonzero off-plane wave number k{sub z} is founded.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Sanshui; He Sailing
2002-01-01
An FDTD numerical method for computing the off-plane band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly free-electron metals is presented. The method requires only a two-dimensional discretization mesh for a given off-plane wave number k z although the off-plane propagation is a three-dimensional problem. The off-plane band structures of a square lattice of metallic rods with the high-frequency metallic model in the air are studied, and a complete band gap for some nonzero off-plane wave number k z is founded
Lattice strain evolution in IMI 834 under applied stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daymond, Mark R.; Bonner, Neil W.
2003-01-01
The effect of elastic and plastic anisotropy on the evolution of lattice strains in the titanium alloy IMI834 has been examined during a uniaxial tensile test, by in situ monitoring on the Engin instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. Measurements were made at load during an incremental loading test. The data is analysed in the light of the requirements for engineering residual stress scanning measurements performed at polychromatic neutron and synchrotron diffraction sources. Comparisons between the measured strains from different lattice families and the predictions from an elasto-plastic self-consistent model are made. Agreement is good in the elastic regime and for most diffraction planes in the plastic regime
Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Servranckx, R.V.; Wienands, U.; Craddock, M.K.; Rees, G.H.
1989-03-01
Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. In addition the new lattices have fewer depolarizing resonances than the old circular lattices
Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...
Lattice gauge theory using parallel processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.; Chou, K.C.; Zichichi, A.
1987-01-01
The book's contents include: Lattice Gauge Theory Lectures: Introduction and Current Fermion Simulations; Monte Carlo Algorithms for Lattice Gauge Theory; Specialized Computers for Lattice Gauge Theory; Lattice Gauge Theory at Finite Temperature: A Monte Carlo Study; Computational Method - An Elementary Introduction to the Langevin Equation, Present Status of Numerical Quantum Chromodynamics; Random Lattice Field Theory; The GF11 Processor and Compiler; and The APE Computer and First Physics Results; Columbia Supercomputer Project: Parallel Supercomputer for Lattice QCD; Statistical and Systematic Errors in Numerical Simulations; Monte Carlo Simulation for LGT and Programming Techniques on the Columbia Supercomputer; Food for Thought: Five Lectures on Lattice Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merriam, J.D.
1988-01-01
Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics
Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futa Yuichi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].
Conformal invariance self-avoiding walks in the plane or on a random surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duplantier, B.
1988-01-01
The two-dimensional (2D) properties of polymers embedded in a solvent, are studied. They are modeled on a lattice by self-avoiding walks. The polymer properties either in the plane with a fixed metric, or on a random 2D surface, where the metric has critical fluctuations, are considered. In the scope of the work, the following topics are discussed: the watermelon topology; the O(n) model and Coulomb gas technique; the model and critical behaviours of polymers on a two-dimensional random lattice; the conformal invariance in a random surface and higher topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Stixrude, Lars; Cohen, Ronald E.
2001-01-01
High-pressure structural distortions of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) element zinc have been a subject of controversy. Earlier experimental results and theory showed a large anomaly in lattice strain with compression in zinc at about 10 GPa which was explained theoretically by a change in Fermi surface topology. Later hydrostatic experiments showed no such anomaly, resulting in a discrepancy between theory and experiment. We have computed the compression and lattice strain of hcp zinc over a wide range of compressions using the linearized augmented plane-wave method paying special attention to k-point convergence. We find that the behavior of the lattice strain is strongly dependent on k-point sampling, and with large k-point sets the previously computed anomaly in lattice parameters under compression disappears, in agreement with recent experiments
Effect of applied orthorhombic lattice distortion on the antiferromagnetic phase of CeAuSb2
Park, Joonbum; Sakai, Hideaki; Erten, Onur; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; Hicks, Clifford W.
2018-01-01
We study the response of the antiferromagnetism of CeAuSb2 to orthorhombic lattice distortion applied through in-plane uniaxial pressure. The response to pressure applied along a 〈110 〉 lattice direction shows a first-order transition at zero pressure, which shows that the magnetic order spontaneously lifts the (110 ) /(1 1 ¯0 ) symmetry of the unstressed lattice. Sufficient 〈100 〉 pressure appears to rotate the principal axes of the order from 〈110 〉 to 〈100 〉 . At low 〈100 〉 pressure, the transition at TN is weakly first order; however, it becomes continuous above a threshold 〈100 〉 pressure. We discuss the possibility that this behavior is driven by order parameter fluctuations, with the restoration of a continuous transition being a result of reducing the point-group symmetry of the lattice.
The second most abundant element in the universe. The densest ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Which Direction Does the Frictional Force Act? Question raised in the Think It Over section of Resonance, Vol. 1, No. 8. Rajaram Nityananda. Think It Over Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 82-84 ...
Shattered glass seeking the densest matter: the color glass condensate
Appell, D
2004-01-01
"Physicists investigating heavy-particle collisions believe they are on the track of a universal form of matter, one common to very high energy particles ranging from protons to heavy nuclei such as uranium. Some think that this matter, called a color glass condensate, may explain new nuclear properties and the process of particle formation during collisions. Experimentalists have recently reported intriguing data that suggest a color glass condensate has actually formed in past work" (1 page)
Interaction of gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, V.
1988-01-01
The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rathkjen, Arne
A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...
Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes
Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.
1996-01-01
We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems
Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes
Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina
2000-01-01
The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.
Gravitational Couplings for Generalized Orientifold Planes
Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina
2000-01-01
The Wess-Zumino action for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) is presented and a series power expantion is realized from which processes that involves GOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes are showed.
The Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PO de Wet
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The study of spanning trees and Steiner trees arises naturally in applications, such as in the design of integrated circuit boards, communication networks, power networks and pipelines of minimum cost. In such applications the Steiner ratio is an indication of how badly a minimum spanning tree performs compared to a Steiner minimal tree. In this paper a short proof is presented for the Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice in the Euclidean plane. A Steiner tree in two dimensions is "lifted" to become a rectilinear tree in three dimensions, where it is altered. The rectilinear tree is then projected back into the plane and the result readily follows. A short note at the end of the paper compares our three-dimensional rectilinear trees to "impossible objects" such as Escher's "Waterfall."
C-point and V-point singularity lattice formation and index sign conversion methods
Kumar Pal, Sushanta; Ruchi; Senthilkumaran, P.
2017-06-01
The generic singularities in an ellipse field are C-points namely stars, lemons and monstars in a polarization distribution with C-point indices (-1/2), (+1/2) and (+1/2) respectively. Similar to C-point singularities, there are V-point singularities that occur in a vector field and are characterized by Poincare-Hopf index of integer values. In this paper we show that the superposition of three homogenously polarized beams in different linear states leads to the formation of polarization singularity lattice. Three point sources at the focal plane of the lens are used to create three interfering plane waves. A radial/azimuthal polarization converter (S-wave plate) placed near the focal plane modulates the polarization states of the three beams. The interference pattern is found to host C-points and V-points in a hexagonal lattice. The C-points occur at intensity maxima and V-points occur at intensity minima. Modulating the state of polarization (SOP) of three plane waves from radial to azimuthal does not essentially change the nature of polarization singularity lattice as the Poincare-Hopf index for both radial and azimuthal polarization distributions is (+1). Hence a transformation from a star to a lemon is not trivial, as such a transformation requires not a single SOP change, but a change in whole spatial SOP distribution. Further there is no change in the lattice structure and the C- and V-points appear at locations where they were present earlier. Hence to convert an interlacing star and V-point lattice into an interlacing lemon and V-point lattice, the interferometer requires modification. We show for the first time a method to change the polarity of C-point and V-point indices. This means that lemons can be converted into stars and stars can be converted into lemons. Similarly the positive V-point can be converted to negative V-point and vice versa. The intensity distribution in all these lattices is invariant as the SOPs of the three beams are changed in an
Finite-lattice-spacing corrections to masses and g factors on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roskies, R.; Wu, J.C.
1986-01-01
We suggest an alternative method for extracting masses and g factors from lattice calculations. Our method takes account of more of the infrared and ultraviolet lattice effects. It leads to more reasonable results in simulations of QED on a lattice
Quantum lattice model solver HΦ
Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Todo, Synge; Kawashima, Naoki
2017-08-01
HΦ [aitch-phi ] is a program package based on the Lanczos-type eigenvalue solution applicable to a broad range of quantum lattice models, i.e., arbitrary quantum lattice models with two-body interactions, including the Heisenberg model, the Kitaev model, the Hubbard model and the Kondo-lattice model. While it works well on PCs and PC-clusters, HΦ also runs efficiently on massively parallel computers, which considerably extends the tractable range of the system size. In addition, unlike most existing packages, HΦ supports finite-temperature calculations through the method of thermal pure quantum (TPQ) states. In this paper, we explain theoretical background and user-interface of HΦ. We also show the benchmark results of HΦ on supercomputers such as the K computer at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS) and SGI ICE XA (Sekirei) at the Institute for the Solid State Physics (ISSP).
Lattice QCD for nuclear physics
Meyer, Harvey
2015-01-01
With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities. The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics. A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...
Directed nucleation assembly of DNA tile complexes for barcode-patterned lattices
Yan, Hao; Labean, Thomas H.; Feng, Liping; Reif, John H.
2003-07-01
The programmed self-assembly of patterned aperiodic molecular structures is a major challenge in nanotechnology and has numerous potential applications for nanofabrication of complex structures and useful devices. Here we report the construction of an aperiodic patterned DNA lattice (barcode lattice) by a self-assembly process of directed nucleation of DNA tiles around a scaffold DNA strand. The input DNA scaffold strand, constructed by ligation of shorter synthetic oligonucleotides, provides layers of the DNA lattice with barcode patterning information represented by the presence or absence of DNA hairpin loops protruding out of the lattice plane. Self-assembly of multiple DNA tiles around the scaffold strand was shown to result in a patterned lattice containing barcode information of 01101. We have also demonstrated the reprogramming of the system to another patterning. An inverted barcode pattern of 10010 was achieved by modifying the scaffold strands and one of the strands composing each tile. A ribbon lattice, consisting of repetitions of the barcode pattern with expected periodicity, was also constructed by the addition of sticky ends. The patterning of both classes of lattices was clearly observable via atomic force microscopy. These results represent a step toward implementation of a visual readout system capable of converting information encoded on a 1D DNA strand into a 2D form readable by advanced microscopic techniques. A functioning visual output method would not only increase the readout speed of DNA-based computers, but may also find use in other sequence identification techniques such as mutation or allele mapping.
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinter, Simon
2012-11-13
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinter, Simon
2012-01-01
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a 2 ) discretization effects.
Nonpolar ZnO film growth and mechanism for anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pant, P.; Budai, J.D.; Narayan, J.
2010-01-01
Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction, we investigated the strain relaxation mechanisms for nonpolar (1 1 -2 0) a-plane ZnO epitaxy on (1 -1 0 2) r-plane sapphire, where the in-plane misfit ranges from -1.5% for the [0 0 0 1]ZnO-parallel [1 -1 0 -1]sapphire to -18.3% for the [-1 1 0 0]ZnO-parallel [-1 -1 2 0]sapphire direction. For the large misfit [-1 1 0 0]ZnO direction the misfit strains are fully relaxed at the growth temperature, and only thermal misfit and defect strains, which cannot be relaxed fully by slip dislocations, remain on cooling. For the small misfit direction, lattice misfit is not fully relaxed at the growth temperature. As a result, additive unrelaxed lattice and thermal misfit and defect strains contribute to the measured strain. Our X-ray diffraction measurements of lattice parameters show that the anisotropic in-plane biaxial strain leads to a distortion of the hexagonal symmetry of the ZnO basal plane. Based on the anisotropic strain relaxation observed along the orthogonal in-plane [-1 1 0 0] and [0 0 0 1]ZnO stress directions and our HRTEM investigations of the interface, we show that the plastic relaxation occurring in the small misfit direction [0 0 0 1]ZnO by dislocation nucleation is incomplete. These results are consistent with the domain-matching paradigm of a complete strain relaxation for large misfits and a difficulty in relaxing the film strain for small misfits.
Kondo length in bosonic lattices
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea
2017-09-01
Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.
Supersymmetry on the noncommutative lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Jun; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sugino, Fumihiko
2003-01-01
Built upon the proposal of Kaplan et al. (heplat{0206109}), we construct noncommutative lattice gauge theory with manifest supersymmetry. We show that such theory is naturally implementable via orbifold conditions generalizing those used by Kaplan et al. We present the prescription in detail and illustrate it for noncommutative gauge theories latticized partially in two dimensions. We point out a deformation freedom in the defining theory by a complex-parameter, reminiscent of discrete torsion in string theory. We show that, in the continuum limit, the supersymmetry is enhanced only at a particular value of the deformation parameter, determined solely by the size of the noncommutativity. (author)
Machines for lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, P.B.
1989-05-01
The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig
Graphene on graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Søren Schou; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Power, Stephen
2015-01-01
Graphene bilayer systems are known to exhibit a band gap when the layer symmetry is broken by applying a perpendicular electric field. The resulting band structure resembles that of a conventional semiconductor with a parabolic dispersion. Here, we introduce a bilayer graphene heterostructure......, where single-layer graphene is placed on top of another layer of graphene with a regular lattice of antidots. We dub this class of graphene systems GOAL: graphene on graphene antidot lattice. By varying the structure geometry, band-structure engineering can be performed to obtain linearly dispersing...
Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Sahebsara
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.
[Lattice degeneration of the retina].
Boĭko, E V; Suetov, A A; Mal'tsev, D S
2014-01-01
Lattice degeneration of the retina is a clinically important type of peripheral retinal dystrophies due to its participation in the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. In spite of extensive epidemiological, morphological, and clinical data, the question on causes of this particular type of retinal dystrophies currently remains debatable. Existing hypotheses on pathogenesis of retinal structural changes in lattice degeneration explain it to a certain extent. In clinical ophthalmology it is necessary to pay close attention to this kind of degenerations and distinguish between cases requiring preventive treatment and those requiring monitoring.
Lattice calculations in gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebbi, C.
1985-01-01
The lattice formulation of quantum gauge theories is discussed as a viable technique for quantitative studies of nonperturbative effects in QCD. Evidence is presented to ascertain that whole classes of lattice actions produce a universal continuum limit. Discrepancies between numerical results from Monto Carlo simulations for the pure gauge system and for the system with gauge and quark fields are discussed. Numerical calculations for QCD require very substantial computational resources. The use of powerful vector processors of special purpose machines, in extending the scope and magnitude or the calculations is considered, and one may reasonably expect that in the near future good quantitative predictions will be obtained for QCD
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage
2011-01-01
We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.
Krivosheeva, A V; Shaposhnikov, V L; Krivosheev, A E; Borisenko, V E
2002-01-01
The effect of isotopic and unaxial deformation of the crystal lattice on the electronic band structure of indirect band gap semiconductors Mg sub 2 Si and Mg sub 2 Ge has been simulated by means of the linear augmented plane wave method. The reduction of the lattice constant down to 95 % results in a linear increase of the direct transition in magnesium silicide by 48%. The stresses arising under unaxial deformation shift the bands as well as result in splitting of degenerated states. The dependence of the interband transitions on the lattice deformation is nonlinear in this case
Representation theory of lattice current algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, A.Yu.; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich; Faddeev, L.D.; Froehlich, L.D.; Schomerus, V.; Kyoto Univ.
1996-04-01
Lattice current algebras were introduced as a regularization of the left-and right moving degrees of freedom in the WZNW model. They provide examples of lattice theories with a local quantum symmetry U q (G). Their representation theory is studied in detail. In particular, we construct all irreducible representations along with a lattice analogue of the fusion product for representations of the lattice current algebra. It is shown that for an arbitrary number of lattice sites, the representation categories of the lattice current algebras agree with their continuum counterparts. (orig.)
Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft
Vorus, William S
2017-01-01
This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.
Plane waves with weak singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, Justin R.
2003-03-01
We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)
Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)
Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors...
Plane waves and spacelike infinity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marolf, Donald; Ross, Simon F
2003-01-01
In an earlier paper, we showed that the causal boundary of any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the null convergence condition consists of a single null curve. In Einstein-Hilbert gravity, this would include any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the weak null energy condition. For conformally flat plane waves such as the Penrose limit of AdS 5 x S 5 , all spacelike curves that reach infinity also end on this boundary and the completion is Hausdorff. However, the more generic case (including, e.g., the Penrose limits of AdS 4 x S 7 and AdS 7 x S 4 ) is more complicated. In one natural topology, not all spacelike curves have limit points in the causal completion, indicating the need to introduce additional points at 'spacelike infinity' - the endpoints of spacelike curves. We classify the distinct ways in which spacelike curves can approach infinity, finding a two-dimensional set of distinct limits. The dimensionality of the set of points at spacelike infinity is not, however, fixed from this argument. In an alternative topology, the causal completion is already compact, but the completion is non-Hausdorff
How to 'visualize' lattice defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doi, Kenji
1974-01-01
Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)
Critical manifold of the kagome-lattice Potts model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Scullard, Christian R
2012-01-01
Any two-dimensional infinite regular lattice G can be produced by tiling the plane with a finite subgraph B⊆G; we call B a basis of G. We introduce a two-parameter graph polynomial P B (q, v) that depends on B and its embedding in G. The algebraic curve P B (q, v) = 0 is shown to provide an approximation to the critical manifold of the q-state Potts model, with coupling v = e K − 1, defined on G. This curve predicts the phase diagram not only in the physical ferromagnetic regime (v > 0), but also in the antiferromagnetic (v B (q, v) = 0 provides the exact critical manifold in the limit of infinite B. Furthermore, for some lattices G—or for the Ising model (q = 2) on any G—the polynomial P B (q, v) factorizes for any choice of B: the zero set of the recurrent factor then provides the exact critical manifold. In this sense, the computation of P B (q, v) can be used to detect exact solvability of the Potts model on G. We illustrate the method for two choices of G: the square lattice, where the Potts model has been exactly solved, and the kagome lattice, where it has not. For the square lattice we correctly reproduce the known phase diagram, including the antiferromagnetic transition and the singularities in the Berker–Kadanoff phase at certain Beraha numbers. For the kagome lattice, taking the smallest basis with six edges we recover a well-known (but now refuted) conjecture of F Y Wu. Larger bases provide successive improvements on this formula, giving a natural extension of Wu’s approach. We perform large-scale numerical computations for comparison and find excellent agreement with the polynomial predictions. For v > 0 the accuracy of the predicted critical coupling v c is of the order 10 −4 or 10 −5 for the six-edge basis, and improves to 10 −6 or 10 −7 for the largest basis studied (with 36 edges). This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of
Computers for lattice field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Y.
1994-01-01
Parallel computers dedicated to lattice field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the three recent projects, the Teraflops project in the US, the CP-PACS project in Japan and the 0.5-Teraflops project in the US. Some new commercial parallel computers are also discussed. Recent development of semiconductor technologies is briefly surveyed in relation to possible approaches toward Teraflops computers. (orig.)
Synthesis of spatially variant lattices.
Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier
2012-07-02
It is often desired to functionally grade and/or spatially vary a periodic structure like a photonic crystal or metamaterial, yet no general method for doing this has been offered in the literature. A straightforward procedure is described here that allows many properties of the lattice to be spatially varied at the same time while producing a final lattice that is still smooth and continuous. Properties include unit cell orientation, lattice spacing, fill fraction, and more. This adds many degrees of freedom to a design such as spatially varying the orientation to exploit directional phenomena. The method is not a coordinate transformation technique so it can more easily produce complicated and arbitrary spatial variance. To demonstrate, the algorithm is used to synthesize a spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystal to flow a Gaussian beam around a 90° bend. The performance of the structure was confirmed through simulation and it showed virtually no scattering around the bend that would have arisen if the lattice had defects or discontinuities.
From lattice gases to polymers
Frenkel, D.
1990-01-01
The modification of a technique that was developed to study time correlations in lattice-gas cellular automata to facilitate the numerical simulation of chain molecules is described. As an example, the calculation of the excess chemical potential of an ideal polymer in a dense colloidal
Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, W.C.
1984-01-01
Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors
Nuclear physics on the lattice?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koonin, S.E.
1985-01-01
The goal of the paper is to try to adapt lattice gauge theory to build in some biases in order for being applicable to nuclear physics. In so doing the calculations are made more precise, and the author can address questions like the size of the nucleon, the nucleon-nucleon potential, the modifications of the nucleon in the nuclear medium, etc. (Auth.)
Differential geometry of group lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert
2003-01-01
In a series of publications we developed ''differential geometry'' on discrete sets based on concepts of noncommutative geometry. In particular, it turned out that first-order differential calculi (over the algebra of functions) on a discrete set are in bijective correspondence with digraph structures where the vertices are given by the elements of the set. A particular class of digraphs are Cayley graphs, also known as group lattices. They are determined by a discrete group G and a finite subset S. There is a distinguished subclass of ''bicovariant'' Cayley graphs with the property ad(S)S subset of S. We explore the properties of differential calculi which arise from Cayley graphs via the above correspondence. The first-order calculi extend to higher orders and then allow us to introduce further differential geometric structures. Furthermore, we explore the properties of ''discrete'' vector fields which describe deterministic flows on group lattices. A Lie derivative with respect to a discrete vector field and an inner product with forms is defined. The Lie-Cartan identity then holds on all forms for a certain subclass of discrete vector fields. We develop elements of gauge theory and construct an analog of the lattice gauge theory (Yang-Mills) action on an arbitrary group lattice. Also linear connections are considered and a simple geometric interpretation of the torsion is established. By taking a quotient with respect to some subgroup of the discrete group, generalized differential calculi associated with so-called Schreier diagrams are obtained
Lattice dynamics of lithium oxide
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Li2O finds several important technological applications, as it is used in solid- state batteries, can be used as a blanket breeding material in nuclear fusion reactors, etc. Li2O exhibits a fast ion phase, characterized by a thermally induced dynamic disorder in the anionic sub-lattice of Li+, at elevated temperatures ...
Lattice fields and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1989-06-01
I review the lattice formulation of gauge theories and the use of numerical methods to investigate nonperturbative phenomena. These methods are directly applicable to studying hadronic matter at high temperatures. Considerable recent progress has been made in numerical algorithms for including dynamical fermions in such calculations. Dealing with a nonvanishing baryon density adds new unsolved challenges. 33 refs
Borgs, C.; Chayes, J.T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.
1999-01-01
We introduce a mean-field model of lattice trees based on embeddings into d of abstract trees having a critical Poisson offspring distribution. This model provides a combinatorial interpretation for the self-consistent mean-field model introduced previously by Derbez and Slade [9], and provides an
Lattice quantum chromodynamics: Some topics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I will begin with a lightning quick overview of the basic lattice gauge theory and then go on to .... The Monte Carlo technique to evaluate C(t), or the expectation value of any other observable ... x }occurs with a probability proportional to. 890.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itzykson, C.
1983-10-01
We review the formulation of field theory and statistical mechanics on a Poissonian random lattice. Topics discussed include random geometry, the construction of field equations for arbitrary spin, the free field spectrum and the question of localization illustrated in the one dimensional case
Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Gambhir, Arjun Singh
In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements
Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2017-08-01
In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements
A novel algorithm for a quasiperiodic plane lattice with fivefold symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramachandrarao, P.; Sinha, A.; Sastry, G.V.S.; Pandey, L.
1991-01-01
Conventionally, Penrose tilings with fivefold symmetry are constructed with the aid of two characteristic rhombic tiles and sets of rules based on either matching of markings on the tiles or their subdivision. Both these procedures involve decision making when tiling is to be done extensively. In the present communication, fool-proof method of producing Penrose tilings using a set of operations that can be repeated ad infinitum is described. The steps in the present procedure are akin to conventional crystallographic operations and can be expressed in simple mathematical terms which bring out some interesting aspects of Penrose tilings. (orig.)
Spectrally Efficient OFDMA Lattice Structure via Toroidal Waveforms on the Time-Frequency Plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sultan Aldirmaz
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the performance of frequency division multiplexed (FDM signals, where multiple orthogonal Hermite-Gaussian carriers are used to increase the bandwidth efficiency. Multiple Hermite-Gaussian functions are modulated by a data set as a multicarrier modulation scheme in a single time-frequency region constituting toroidal waveform in a rectangular OFDMA system. The proposed work outperforms in the sense of bandwidth efficiency compared to the transmission scheme where only single Gaussian pulses are used as the transmission base. We investigate theoretical and simulation results of the proposed methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramanujan, R.V.
2003-01-01
The concept of the dividing surface has been extensively used to define the relationships between thermodynamic quantities at the interface between two phases; it is also useful in calculations of interfacial energy (γ). However, in the original formulation, the two phases are continuum phases, the atomistic nature of the interface was not considered. It is, therefore, useful to examine the use of the dividing surface in the context of atomistic interfacial energy calculations. The case of a planar fcc:hcp interface is considered and the dividing surface positions which are useful in atomistic interfacial energy calculations are stated, one position equates γ to the excess internal energy, the other position allows us to use the Gibbs adsorption equation. An example of a calculation using the convenient dividing surface positions is presented
Complete flexural vibration band gaps in membrane-like lattice structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Dianlong; Liu Yaozong; Qiu Jing; Wang Gang; Zhao Honggang
2006-01-01
The propagation of flexural vibration in the periodical membrane-like lattice structure is studied. The band structure calculated with the plane wave expansion method indicates the existence of complete gaps. The frequency response function of a finite periodic structure is simulated with finite element method. Frequency ranges with vibration attenuation are in good agreement with the gaps found in the band structure. Much larger attenuations are found in the complete gaps comparing to those directional ones. The existence of complete flexural vibration gaps in such a lattice structure provides a new idea for vibration control of thin plates
Computational tools and lattice design for the PEP-II B-Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Yunhai; Irwin, John; Nosochkov, Yuri; Yan, Yiton
1997-01-01
Several accelerator codes were used to design the PEP-II lattices, ranging from matrix-based codes, such as MAD and DIMAD, to symplectic-integrator codes, such as TRACY and DESPOT. In addition to element-by-element tracking, we constructed maps to determine aberration strengths. Furthermore, we have developed a fast and reliable method (nPB tracking) to track particles with a one-turn map. This new technique allows us to evaluate performance of the lattices on the entire tune-plane. Recently, we designed and implemented an object-oriented code in C++ called LEGO which integrates and expands upon TRACY and DESPOT
Finite temperature and chemical potential in lattice QCD and its critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.
2002-01-01
We propose a method to study lattice QCD at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ). We compare the method with direct results and with the Glasgow method by using n f =4 QCD at Im(μ)≠0. We locate the critical endpoint (E) of QCD on the Re(μ)-T plane. We use n f =2+1 dynamical staggered quarks with semi-realistic masses on L t =4 lattices. Our results are based on O(10 3 - 10 4 ) configurations. (orig.)
Magnetic structure and resonance properties of hexagonal antidot lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchenko, A.I.; Krivoruchko, V.N.
2012-01-01
Static and resonance properties of ferromagnetic films with an antidot lattice (pores in the film) are studied. The description of the system is based on micromagnetic modeling and analytical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The dependences of ferromagnetic resonance spectra on the in-plane direction of applied magnetic field and on the lattice parameters are investigated. The dependences of a dynamic system response on frequency at fixed magnetic field and on field at fixed frequency, when the field changes cause the static magnetic order to change are explored. It is found that the specific peculiarities of the system dynamics leave unchange for both of these experimental conditions. Namely, for low damping the resonance spectra contain three quasi-homogeneous modes which are due to the resonance of different regions (domains) of the antidot lattice cell. It is shown the angular field dependences of each mode are characterized by a twofold symmetry and the related easy axes are mutually rotated by 60 degrees. As the result, a hexagonal symmetry of the system static and dynamic magnetic characteristics is realized. The existence in the resonance spectrum of several quasi-homogeneous modes related to different regions of the unit cell could be fundamental for working elements of magnonic devices.
Statistical hydrodynamics of lattice-gas automata
Grosfils, Patrick; Boon, Jean-Pierre; Brito López, Ricardo; Ernst, M. H.
1993-01-01
We investigate the space and time behavior of spontaneous thermohydrodynamic fluctuations in a simple fluid modeled by a lattice-gas automaton and develop the statistical-mechanical theory of thermal lattice gases to compute the dynamical structure factor, i.e., the power spectrum of the density correlation function. A comparative analysis of the theoretical predictions with our lattice gas simulations is presented. The main results are (i) the spectral function of the lattice-gas fluctuation...
Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelian Alaci
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.
Lattice QCD. A critical status report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Karl
2008-10-15
The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)
Lattice QCD. A critical status report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, Karl
2008-10-01
The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)
Gauge theories on a small lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robson, D.; Webber, D.M.
1980-01-01
We present exact solutions to U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) lattice gauge theories on a Kogut-Susskind lattice consisting of a single plaquette. We demonstrate precise equivalence between the U(1) theory and the harmonic oscillator on an infinite one-dimensional lattice, and between the SU(N) theory and an N-fermion Schroedinger equation. (orig.)
Spatiotemporal complexity in coupled map lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Kunihiko
1986-01-01
Some spatiotemporal patterns of couple map lattices are presented. The chaotic kink-like motions are shown for the phase motion of the coupled circle lattices. An extension of the couple map lattice approach to Hamiltonian dynamics is briefly reported. An attempt to characterize the high-dimensional attractor by the extension of the correlation dimension is discussed. (author)
Clar sextets in square graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2011-01-01
A periodic array of holes transforms graphene from a semimetal into a semiconductor with a band gap tuneable by varying the parameters of the lattice. In earlier work only hexagonal lattices have been treated. Using atomistic models we here investigate the size of the band gap of a square lattice...
Spatial classification with fuzzy lattice reasoning
Mavridis, Constantinos; Athanasiadis, I.N.
2017-01-01
This work extends the Fuzzy Lattice Reasoning (FLR) Classifier to manage spatial attributes, and spatial relationships. Specifically, we concentrate on spatial entities, as countries, cities, or states. Lattice Theory requires the elements of a Lattice to be partially ordered. To match such
Work Planing Automation at Mechanical Subdivision
Dzindzelėta, Vytautas
2005-01-01
Work planing automation, installation possibilities and future outlook at mechanical subdivision. To study how the work planing has changed before and after automation process and to analyse automation process methodology.
Combinatorial geometry in the plane
Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor
2014-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa
SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.
2003-01-01
The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics
Inexpensive chirality on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamleh, W.; Williams, A.G.; Adams, D.
2000-01-01
Full text: Implementing lattice fermions that resemble as closely as possible continuum fermions is one of the main goals of the theoretical physics community. Aside from a lack of infinitely powerful computers, one of the main impediments to this is the Nielsen-Ninomiya No-Go theorem for chirality on the lattice. One of the consequences of this theorem is that exact chiral symmetry and a lack of fermion doublers cannot be simultaneously satisfied for fermions on the lattice. In the commonly used Wilson fermion formulation, chiral symmetry is explicitly sacrificed on the lattice to avoid fermion doubling. Recently, an alternative has come forward, namely, the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and one of its solutions, the Overlap fermion. The Ginsparg-Wilson relation is a statement of lattice-deformed chirality. The Overlap-Dirac operator is a member of the family of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In recent times, Overlap fermions have been of great interest to the community due to their excellent chiral properties. However, they are significantly more expensive to implement than Wilson fermions. This expense is primarily due to the fact that the Overlap implementation requires an evaluation of the sign function for the Wilson-Dirac operator. The sign function is approximated by a high order rational polynomial function, but this approximation is poor close to the origin. The less near-zero modes that the Wilson- Dirac operator possesses, the cheaper the Overlap operator will be to implement. A means of improving the eigenvalue properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator by the addition of a so-called 'Clover' term is put forward. Numerical results are given that demonstrate this improvement. The Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem and chirality on the lattice are reviewed. The general form of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation are given, and the Overlap solution is discussed. Properties of the Overlap-Dirac operator are given, including locality and analytic
Chiral fermions on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1995-01-01
The overlap approach to chiral gauge theories on arbitrary D-dimensional lattices is studied. The doubling problem and its relation to chiral anomalies for D = 2 and 4 is examined. In each case it is shown that the doublers can be eliminated and the well known perturbative results for chiral anomalies can be recovered. We also consider the multi-flavour case and give the general criteria for the construction of anomaly free chiral gauge theories on arbitrary lattices. We calculate the second order terms in a continuum approximation to the overlap formula in D dimensions and show that they coincide with the bilinear part of the effective action of D-dimensional Weyl fermions coupled to a background gauge field. Finally, using the same formalism we reproduce the correct Lorentz, diffeomorphism and gauge anomalies in the coupling of a Weyl fermion to 2-dimensional gravitation and Maxwell fields. (author). 15 refs
Entropy favours open colloidal lattices
Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve
2013-03-01
Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.
Electroweak interactions on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieu, T.D.
1994-07-01
It is shown that the lattice fermion doubling phenomenon is connected to the chiral anomaly which is unique to the electroweak interactions. The chiral anomaly is the breaking of chiral gauge symmetry at the quantum level due to the quantum fluctuations. Such breaking, however, is undesirable and to be avoided. The preservation of gauge symmetry imposes stringent constraints on acceptable chiral gauge theory. It is argued that the constraints are unnecessary because the conventional quantization of chiral gauge theory has missed out some crucial contributions of the chiral interactions. The corrected quantization yields consistent theory in which there is no gauge anomaly and in which various mass terms can be introduced with neither the loss of gauge invariance nor the need for the Higgs mechanism. The new quantization also provide a solution to the difficulty of how to model the electroweak interactions on the lattice. 9 refs. 1 fig
Entanglement scaling in lattice systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Audenaert, K M R [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Cramer, M [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
We review some recent rigorous results on scaling laws of entanglement properties in quantum many body systems. More specifically, we study the entanglement of a region with its surrounding and determine its scaling behaviour with its size for systems in the ground and thermal states of bosonic and fermionic lattice systems. A theorem connecting entanglement between a region and the rest of the lattice with the surface area of the boundary between the two regions is presented for non-critical systems in arbitrary spatial dimensions. The entanglement scaling in the field limit exhibits a peculiar difference between fermionic and bosonic systems. In one-spatial dimension a logarithmic divergence is recovered for both bosonic and fermionic systems. In two spatial dimensions in the setting of half-spaces however we observe strict area scaling for bosonic systems and a multiplicative logarithmic correction to such an area scaling in fermionic systems. Similar questions may be posed and answered in classical systems.
Transitionless lattices for LAMPF II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franczak, B.J.
1984-10-01
Some techniques are described for the design of synchrotron lattices that have zero dispersion in the straight sections and/or imaginary transition energy (negative momentum-compaction factor) but no excessive amplitudes of the dispersion function. Included as an application is a single-stage synchrotron, with variable optics, that has different ion-optical properties at injection and extraction but requires a complex way of programming the quadrupoles. In addition, a two-stage facility consisting of a 45-GeV synchrotron of 1100-m circumference and a 9-GeV booster of half that size is presented. As alternates to these separated-function lattices, some combined-function modules are given that can be used to construct a synchrotron with similar properties
Graphene antidot lattice transport measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, David; Cagliani, Alberto; Gammelgaard, Lene
2017-01-01
We investigate graphene devices patterned with a narrow band of holes perpendicular to the current flow, a few-row graphene antidot lattice (FR-GAL). Theoretical reports suggest that a FR-GAL can have a bandgap with a relatively small reduction of the transmission compared to what is typical...... for antidot arrays devices. Graphene devices were fabricated using 100 keV electron beam lithography (EBL) for nanopatterning as well as for defining electrical contacts. Patterns with hole diameter and neck widths of order 30 nm were produced, which is the highest reported pattern density of antidot lattices...... in graphene reported defined by EBL. Electrical measurements showed that devices with one and five rows exhibited field effect mobility of ∼100 cm2/Vs, while a larger number of rows, around 40, led to a significant reduction of field effect mobility (
Cellular automata in cytoskeletal lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, S A; Watt, R C; Hameroff, S R
1984-01-01
Cellular automata (CA) activities could mediate biological regulation and information processing via nonlinear electrodynamic effects in cytoskeletal lattice arrays. Frohlich coherent oscillations and other nonlinear mechanisms may effect discrete 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -11/ s interval events which result in dynamic patterns in biolattices such as cylindrical protein polymers: microtubules (MT). Structural geometry and electrostatic forces of MT subunit dipole oscillations suggest neighbor rules among the hexagonally packed protein subunits. Computer simulations using these suggested rules and MT structural geometry demonstrate CA activities including dynamical and stable self-organizing patterns, oscillators, and traveling gliders. CA activities in MT and other cytoskeletal lattices may have important biological regulatory functions. 23 references, 6 figures, 1 table.
Innovations in lattice QCD algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orginos, Konstantinos
2006-01-01
Lattice QCD calculations demand a substantial amount of computing power in order to achieve the high precision results needed to better understand the nature of strong interactions, assist experiment to discover new physics, and predict the behavior of a diverse set of physical systems ranging from the proton itself to astrophysical objects such as neutron stars. However, computer power alone is clearly not enough to tackle the calculations we need to be doing today. A steady stream of recent algorithmic developments has made an important impact on the kinds of calculations we can currently perform. In this talk I am reviewing these algorithms and their impact on the nature of lattice QCD calculations performed today
Baryon structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, C.
2009-01-01
We present recent lattice results on the baryon spectrum, nucleon electromagnetic and axial form factors, nucleon to Δ transition form factors as well as the Δ electromagnetic form factors. The masses of the low lying baryons and the nucleon form factors are calculated using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions down to pion mass of about 270 MeV. We compare to the results of other collaborations. The nucleon to Δ transition and Δ form factors are calculated in a hybrid scheme, which uses staggered sea quarks and domain wall valence quarks. The dominant magnetic dipole nucleon to Δ transition form factor is also evaluated using dynamical domain wall fermions. The transverse density distributions of the Δ in the infinite momentum frame are extracted using the form factors determined from lattice QCD. (author)
Multigrid for Staggered Lattice Fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brower, Richard C. [Boston U.; Clark, M. A. [Unlisted, US; Strelchenko, Alexei [Fermilab; Weinberg, Evan [Boston U.
2018-01-23
Critical slowing down in Krylov methods for the Dirac operator presents a major obstacle to further advances in lattice field theory as it approaches the continuum solution. Here we formulate a multi-grid algorithm for the Kogut-Susskind (or staggered) fermion discretization which has proven difficult relative to Wilson multigrid due to its first-order anti-Hermitian structure. The solution is to introduce a novel spectral transformation by the K\\"ahler-Dirac spin structure prior to the Galerkin projection. We present numerical results for the two-dimensional, two-flavor Schwinger model, however, the general formalism is agnostic to dimension and is directly applicable to four-dimensional lattice QCD.
Second order bounce back boundary condition for the lattice Boltzmann fluid simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, In Chan
2000-01-01
A new bounce back boundary method of the second order in error is proposed for the lattice Boltzmann fluid simulation. This new method can be used for the arbitrarily irregular lattice geometry of a non-slip boundary. The traditional bounce back boundary condition for the lattice Boltzmann simulation is of the first order in error. Since the lattice Boltzmann method is the second order scheme by itself, a boundary technique of the second order has been desired to replace the first order bounce back method. This study shows that, contrary to the common belief that the bounce back boundary condition is unilaterally of the first order, the second order bounce back boundary condition can be realized. This study also shows that there exists a generalized bounce back technique that can be characterized by a single interpolation parameter. The second order bounce back method can be obtained by proper selection of this parameter in accordance with the detailed lattice geometry of the boundary. For an illustrative purpose, the transient Couette and the plane Poiseuille flows are solved by the lattice Boltzmann simulation with various boundary conditions. The results show that the generalized bounce back method yields the second order behavior in the error of the solution, provided that the interpolation parameter is properly selected. Coupled with its intuitive nature and the ease of implementation, the bounce back method can be as good as any second order boundary method
DNA-linked NanoParticle Lattices with Diamond Symmetry: Stability, Shape and Optical Properties
Emamy, Hamed; Tkachenko, Alexei; Gang, Oleg; Starr, Francis
The linking of nanoparticles (NP) by DNA has been proven to be an effective means to create NP lattices with specific order. Lattices with diamond symmetry are predicted to offer novel photonic properties, but self-assembly of such lattices has proven to be challenging due to the low packing fraction, sensitivity to bond orientation, and local heterogeneity. Recently, we reported an approach to create diamond NP lattices based on the association between anisotropic particles with well-defined tetravalent DNA binding topology and isotropically functionalized NP. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to evaluate the Gibbs free energy of these lattices, and thereby determine the stability of these lattices as a function of NP size and DNA stiffness. We also predict the equilibrium shape for the cubic diamond crystallite using the Wulff construction method. Specifically, we predict the equilibrium shape using the surface energy for different crystallographic planes. We evaluate surface energy directly form molecular dynamics simulation, which we correlate with theoretical estimates from the expected number of broken DNA bonds along a facet. Furthermore we study the optical properties of this structure, e.g optical bandgap.
Computing nucleon EDM on a lattice
Abramczyk, Michael; Aoki, Sinya; Blum, Tom; Izubuchi, Taku; Ohki, Hiroshi; Syritsyn, Sergey
2018-03-01
I will discuss briefly recent changes in the methodology of computing the baryon EDM on a lattice. The associated correction substantially reduces presently existing lattice values for the proton and neutron theta-induced EDMs, so that even the most precise previous lattice results become consistent with zero. On one hand, this change removes previous disagreements between these lattice results and the phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM. On the other hand, the nucleon EDM becomes much harder to compute on a lattice. In addition, I will review the progress in computing quark chromo-EDM-induced nucleon EDM using chiral quark action.
Heavy water critical experiments on plutonium lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyawaki, Yoshio; Shiba, Kiminori
1975-06-01
This report is the summary of physics study on plutonium lattice made in Heavy Water Critical Experiment Section of PNC. By using Deuterium Critical Assembly, physics study on plutonium lattice has been carried out since 1972. Experiments on following items were performed in a core having 22.5 cm square lattice pitch. (1) Material buckling (2) Lattice parameters (3) Local power distribution factor (4) Gross flux distribution in two region core (5) Control rod worth. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones calculated by METHUSELAH II code. It is concluded from this study that calculation by METHUSELAH II code has acceptable accuracy in the prediction on plutonium lattice. (author)
Computing nucleon EDM on a lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramczyk, Michael; Izubuchi, Taku
2017-06-18
I will discuss briefly recent changes in the methodology of computing the baryon EDM on a lattice. The associated correction substantially reduces presently existing lattice values for the proton and neutron theta-induced EDMs, so that even the most precise previous lattice results become consistent with zero. On one hand, this change removes previous disagreements between these lattice results and the phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM. On the other hand, the nucleon EDM becomes much harder to compute on a lattice. In addition, I will review the progress in computing quark chromo-EDM-induced nucleon EDM using chiral quark action.
Aliasing modes in the lattice Schwinger model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.
2007-01-01
We study the Schwinger model on a lattice consisting of zeros of the Hermite polynomials that incorporates a lattice derivative and a discrete Fourier transform with many properties. Such a lattice produces a Klein-Gordon equation for the boson field and the exact value of the mass in the asymptotic limit if the boundaries are not taken into account. On the contrary, if the lattice is considered with boundaries new modes appear due to aliasing effects. In the continuum limit, however, this lattice yields also a Klein-Gordon equation with a reduced mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, Rainer
2014-02-01
The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.
Apiary B Factory lattice design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.
1991-04-01
The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab
BROOKHAVEN: Lattice gauge theory symposium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1986-12-15
Originally introduced by Kenneth Wilson in the early 70s, the lattice formulation of a quantum gauge theory became a hot topic of investigation after Mike Creutz, Laurence Jacobs and Claudio Rebbi demonstrated in 1979 the feasibility of meaningful computer simulations. The initial enthusiasm led gradually to a mature research effort, with continual attempts to improve upon previous results, to develop better computational techniques and to find new domains of application.
Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelin, G
1974-07-01
The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.
Screening in graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, Marco Haller; Jauho, A. P.; Pedersen, T. G.
2011-01-01
We compute the dynamical polarization function for a graphene antidot lattice in the random-phase approximation. The computed polarization functions display a much more complicated structure than what is found for pristine graphene (even when evaluated beyond the Dirac-cone approximation...... the plasmon dispersion law and find an approximate square-root dependence with a suppressed plasmon frequency as compared to doped graphene. The plasmon dispersion is nearly isotropic and the developed approximation schemes agree well with the full calculation....
Symplectic maps for accelerator lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.; Gabella, W.
1988-05-01
We describe a method for numerical construction of a symplectic map for particle propagation in a general accelerator lattice. The generating function of the map is obtained by integrating the Hamilton-Jacobi equation as an initial-value problem on a finite time interval. Given the generating function, the map is put in explicit form by means of a Fourier inversion technique. We give an example which suggests that the method has promise. 9 refs., 9 figs
Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelin, G.
1974-01-01
The phonon dispersion relations of the Δ-, Λ-, and Σ-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2014-02-15
The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.
Wave transmission in nonlinear lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennig, D.; Tsironis, G.P.
1999-01-01
The interplay of nonlinearity with lattice discreteness leads to phenomena and propagation properties quite distinct from those appearing in continuous nonlinear systems. For a large variety of condensed matter and optics applications the continuous wave approximation is not appropriate. In the present review we discuss wave transmission properties in one dimensional nonlinear lattices. Our paradigmatic equations are discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equations and their study is done through a dynamical systems approach. We focus on stationary wave properties and utilize well known results from the theory of dynamical systems to investigate various aspects of wave transmission and wave localization. We analyze in detail the more general dynamical system corresponding to the equation that interpolates between the non-integrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the integrable Albowitz-Ladik equation. We utilize this analysis in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney model and investigate transmission and band modification properties. We discuss the modifications that are effected through an electric field and the nonlinear Wannier-Stark localization effects that are induced. Several applications are described, such as polarons in one dimensional lattices, semiconductor superlattices and one dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap systems. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Spin lattices of walking droplets
Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John
2017-11-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.
Calculational methods for lattice cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Askew, J.R.
1980-01-01
At the current stage of development, direct simulation of all the processes involved in the reactor to the degree of accuracy required is not an economic proposition, and this is achieved by progressive synthesis of models for parts of the full space/angle/energy neutron behaviour. The split between reactor and lattice calculations is one such simplification. Most reactors are constructed of repetitions of similar geometric units, the fuel elements, having broadly similar properties. Thus the provision of detailed predictions of their behaviour is an important step towards overall modelling. We shall be dealing with these lattice methods in this series of lectures, but will refer back from time to time to their relationship with overall reactor calculation The lattice cell is itself composed of somewhat similar sub-units, the fuel pins, and will itself often rely upon a further break down of modelling. Construction of a good model depends upon the identification, on physical and mathematical grounds, of the most helpful division of the calculation at this level
Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)
2016-03-01
Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.
An introduction to finite projective planes
Albert, Abraham Adrian
2015-01-01
Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and
Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes
White, K. P., III
1983-08-01
Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.
Orientation of quartz nanocrystallites in the silicon lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalanov, M.U.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Khamraeva, R.N.; Rustamova, V.M.; Ummatov, Kh.D.
2006-01-01
Full text: Basing on the study of medium angle diffuse X-ray scattering from silicon single crystals, it was supposed to be due to rod like oxygen precipitates. It was shown by us later, that depending on the growth conditions, as-grown silicon single crystals contain quartz crystal inclusions at an amount of 0.3 / 0.5 wt. % . Since it has not been done before, the aim of this work was to study the shape and orientation of quartz inclusions relative to a chosen axis of the silicon crystal lattice. We studied p-Si single crystals of one crucible origin with the specific resistance ρ 0 ≅ 1/10 Ohm· cm with different cut surfaces parallel to the crystal planes (100), (110) and (111). All the samples were cut and polished in the bar form with the sizes of 20x12x1.5 mm 3 . The dislocation density was N D ≅ 10 1 /10 3 cm -2 , the concentrations of oxygen and boron were N O ≅ 2/ 4 x10 17 cm -3 and N B ≅ 3· 10 1 5 c m -3 . Structure was analyzed at the set-up DRON-3M ( λ Cu K∝ = 0.1542 nm) at the room temperature in the angle range of angles 2Θ = 10/70 deg. The diffraction spectrum of the sample cut in (111) includes 5 selective reflections and the only diffuse one at 2Θ≅ 20 deg (d/n≅ 0.3136 nm), having a large width 0.1032 rad, which is due to presence of amorphous SiO x precipitate in the surface layer of silicon single crystal. The dominative selective line with d/n≅ 0.3136 nm at 2Θ≅ 28.5 deg belongs to reflection from (111) planes of the silicon lattice and the second less intensive one comes from the same planes with Cu K β radiation. Another selective reflection of a medium intensity at 2Θ≅ 59 deg with d/n≅ 0.1568 nm is its second order (222) and forbidden by the weakening laws. The rest narrow but weak lines with d/n≅ 0.3345 nm at 2Θ≅ 26.6 deg and 0.2468 nm at≅36.6 deg correspond to the diffraction reflections (101) and (110) from the crystal quartz lattice SiO 2 . It means that they are caused by optimally oriented quartz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hou-Guang, E-mail: houguang@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Hung, Sung-Po [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China)
2014-02-15
Highlights: ► Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane ZnO layers were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates. ► Crystallinity and electrical properties were studied upon growth condition and doping concentration. ► The out-of-plane lattice spacing of ZnO films reduces monotonically with increasing Sb doping level. ► The p-type conductivity of ZnO:Sb film is closely correlated with annealing condition and Sb doping level. -- Abstract: In this study, the epitaxial growth of Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) ZnO thin films on r-plane (11{sup ¯}02) sapphire substrates was performed by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The influence of the sputter deposition conditions and Sb doping concentration on the microstructural and electrical properties of Sb-doped ZnO epitaxial films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Hall-effect measurement. The measurement of the XRD phi-scan indicated that the epitaxial relationship between the ZnO:Sb layer and sapphire substrate was (112{sup ¯}0){sub ZnO}//(11{sup ¯}02){sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [11{sup ¯}00]{sub ZnO}//[112{sup ¯}0]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}. The out-of-plane a-axis lattice parameter of ZnO films was reduced monotonically with the increasing Sb doping level. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) observation confirmed the absence of any significant antimony oxide phase segregation across the thickness of the Sb-doped ZnO epitaxial film. However, the epitaxial quality of the films deteriorated as the level of Sb dopant increased. The electrical properties of ZnO:Sb film are closely correlated with post-annealing conditions and Sb doping concentrations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2015-06-29
The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.
Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owerre, S A
2017-01-01
The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1–3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) spin–orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases. (paper)
Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice.
Owerre, S A
2017-05-10
The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.
Lattice dynamics and lattice thermal conductivity of thorium dicarbide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Zongmeng [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Huai, Ping, E-mail: huaiping@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Qiu, Wujie [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ke, Xuezhi, E-mail: xzke@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Zhang, Wenqing [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Zhiyuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2014-11-15
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of ThC{sub 2} with a monoclinic symmetry have been studied by means of density functional theory and direct force-constant method. The calculated properties including the thermal expansion, the heat capacity and the elastic constants are in a good agreement with experiment. Our results show that the vibrational property of the C{sub 2} dimer in ThC{sub 2} is similar to that of a free standing C{sub 2} dimer. This indicates that the C{sub 2} dimer in ThC{sub 2} is not strongly bonded to Th atoms. The lattice thermal conductivity for ThC{sub 2} was calculated by means of the Debye–Callaway model. As a comparison, the conductivity of ThC was also calculated. Our results show that the ThC and ThC{sub 2} contributions of the lattice thermal conductivity to the total conductivity are 29% and 17%, respectively.
Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsapalis, A.
2008-01-01
The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)
Nucleon Structure from Lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zanotti, J. M.
2011-01-01
Lattice simulations of hadronic structure are now reaching a level where they are able to not only complement, but also provide guidance to current and forthcoming experimental programmes.By considering new simulations at low quark masses and on large volumes, we review the recent progress that has been made in this area by the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration. In particular, results obtained close to the physical point for several quantities, including electromagnetic form factors and moments of parton distribution functions, show some indication of approaching their phenomenological values.
GLAD: a generic lattice debugger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, M.J.
1992-01-01
Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)
Lattice dynamics of ionic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahan, G.D.
1990-01-01
The theory of lattice dynamics for ionic and rare-gas crystals is derived in the harmonic approximation. We start from a Hamiltonian and average over electron coordinates in order to obtain an effective interaction between ion displacements. We assume that electronic excitations are localized on a single ion, which limits the theory to ionic crystals. The deformation-dipole model and the indirect-ionic-interaction model are derived. These two contributions are closely linked, and together provide an accurate description of short-range forces
Rojas Bocanegra, Alberto
2004-01-01
Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de degeneración periférica de retina Lattice y su relación con estados refractivos y rupturas retinales. Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal con exploración de asociación, mediante análisis de casos y controles. Se examinaron 680 ojos en el Instituto de Investigaciones Optométricas e Instituto de Córnea. El estado refractivo se determinó mediante técnica estática y el estado retinal mediante oftalmoscopia indirecta con indentación escleral. Resultados...
Lattice degeneration of the retina.
Byer, N E
1979-01-01
Lattice degeneration of the retina is the most important of all clinically distinct entities that effect the peripheral fundus and are related to retinal detachment. The purpose of this review is to survey the extensive literature, to evaluate the many diverse opinions on this subject, and to correlate and summarize all the known facts regarding this disease entity. The disease is fully defined and described, both clinically and histologically. Some aspects of the disease are still poorly understood, and some remain controversial, especially in the area of management. For this reason, the indications for treatment are discussed under eight subsections, with a view toward providing practical guidelines for recommendations in management.
The lattice dynamics of imidazole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Link, K.H.
1983-05-01
The lattice dynamics of imidazole have been investigated. To this end dispersion curves have been determined at 10 K by inelastic coherent neutron scattering. RAMAN measurements have been done to investigate identical gamma - point modes. The combination of extinction rules for RAMAN - and neutron scattering leads to the symmetry assignment of identical gamma - point modes. The experiment yields a force constant of the streching vibration of the hydrogen bond of 0.33 mdyn/A. A force model has been developed to describe the intermolecular atom - atom Interactions in imidazole. (orig./BHO)
Evidence for lattice-polarization-enhanced field effects at the SrTiO_{3}-based heterointerface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Y.; R. Zhang, H.; Lei, Y.
2016-01-01
Electrostatic gating provides a powerful approach to tune the conductivity of the two-dimensionalelectron liquid between two insulating oxides. For the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface, suchgating effect could be further enhanced by a strong lattice polarization of STO caused by simultaneousappl......Electrostatic gating provides a powerful approach to tune the conductivity of the two-dimensionalelectron liquid between two insulating oxides. For the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface, suchgating effect could be further enhanced by a strong lattice polarization of STO caused...... expansion of the out-of-plane lattice of STO. Photo excitation affects the polarizationprocess by accelerating the field-induced lattice expansion. The present work demonstrates the greatpotential of combined stimuli in exploring emergent phenomenon at complex oxide interfaces....
Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blum, T.; et al.,
2013-10-22
This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.
A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks
Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine
Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aivazyan, Yu M; Mergelyan, O S; Poulatov, M P
1974-01-01
Aproblem for the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate between two other dielectrics is solved. The dielectric constant of the plate depends periodically on three coordinates. From this solution it is possible to obtain the equations for fields and the angular distribution of diffracted waves for the particular cases of a crystal plate and a dielectric surface fluted in all directions. If the expansion is made in the variable of the electron density in crystals, the results will correspond to the problem for the X-ray diffraction on a crystal lattice, the values of the coefficient ..cap alpha -->..sub(tau) being determined by the lattice parameters.
Radioactivity in the galactic plane
Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.
1976-01-01
The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.
Compact planes, mostly 8-dimensional. A retrospect
Salzmann, Helmut R.
2014-01-01
Results on $8$-dimensional topological planes are scattered in the literature. It is the aim of the present paper to give a survey of these geometries, in particular of information obtained after the appearance of the treatise Compact Projective Planes or not included in this book. For some theorems new proofs are given and a few related results concerning planes of other dimensions are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, W.
1976-01-01
α-rhombohedral boron is the simplest boron modification, with only 12 atoms per unit cell. The boron atoms are arranged in B 12 icosahedra, which are centered at the lattice points of a primitive rhombohedral lattice. The icosahedra are slightly deformed, as the five-fold symmetry of the ideal icosahedron is incompatible with any crystal structure. The lattice dynamics of α-boron are discussed in terms of the model developed by Weber and Thorpe. (Auth.)
Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)
2016-08-08
We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.
Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Pinzón
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization. Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.
Lattice dynamics in solid oxygen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobashi, K.; Klein, M.L.; Chandrasekharan, V.
1979-01-01
Lattice dynamical calculations for the bulk α, β, and γ phases of solid O 2 and for the monolayer α and β phases have been made in the harmonic approximation. In the α and β phases, atom-atom 6-12 potentials are employed. In the γ phase, effective potentials are used between molecular centers and only the translational lattice vibrations are calculated. It is found that Laufer and Leroi's potential parameters give two k=O frequencies at 42.7 and 43.6 cm -1 in the bulk α-O 2 , and at 40.7 cm -1 for the degenerate k=0 modes in the β phase. The observed Raman lines for α-O 2 at 43 and 79 cm -1 , which are both known to exhibit isotope shifts, are thus tentatively assigned to an accidentally degenerate line and a two-phonon band, respectively, In view of the possible contribution from anharmonic effects, the agreement of the calculation with experiment (48-51 cm -1 ) in β-O 2 may be better than it seems. For the bulk γ-O 2 , a discrepancy is observed between the calculated elastic constants and those derived from Brillouin scattering experiments. This discrepancy may be due to the neglect of translation-rotation coupling. In the monolayer O 2 , Raman active modes at 28.3 and 40.6 cm -1 for the α phase, and 31.9 cm -1 for the β phase are predicted
Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.
2011-01-01
Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.
Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.
Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen
2016-09-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.
Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...
Polarization response of RHIC electron lens lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranjbar, V. H.; Méot, F.; Bai, M.; Abell, D. T.; Meiser, D.
2016-01-01
Depolarization response for a system of two orthogonal snakes at irrational tunes is studied in depth using lattice independent spin integration. Particularly, we consider the effect of overlapping spin resonances in this system, to understand the impact of phase, tune, relative location and threshold strengths of the spin resonances. Furthermore, these results are benchmarked and compared to two dimensional direct tracking results for the RHIC e-lens lattice and the standard lattice. We then consider the effect of longitudinal motion via chromatic scans using direct six dimensional lattice tracking.
Advancements in simulations of lattice quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lippert, T.
2008-01-01
An introduction to lattice QCD with emphasis on advanced fermion formulations and their simulation is given. In particular, overlap fermions will be presented, a quite novel fermionic discretization scheme that is able to exactly preserve chiral symmetry on the lattice. I will discuss efficiencies of state-of-the-art algorithms on highly scalable supercomputers and I will show that, due to many algorithmic improvements, overlap simulations will soon become feasible for realistic physical lattice sizes. Finally I am going to sketch the status of some current large scale lattice QCD simulations. (author)
On diffeomorphism invariance for lattice theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corichi, A.; Zapata, J.
1997-01-01
We consider the role of the diffeomorphism constraint in the quantization of lattice formulations of diffeomorphism invariant theories of connections. It has been argued that in working with abstract lattices one automatically takes care of the diffeomorphism constraint in the quantum theory. We use two systems in order to show that imposing the diffeomorphism constraint is imperative to obtain a physically acceptable quantum theory. First, we consider 2+1 gravity where an exact lattice formulation is available. Next, general theories of connections for compact gauge groups are treated, where the quantum theories are known - for both the continuum and the lattice - and can be compared. (orig.)
Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M.
1995-01-01
We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices
Anomalous diffusion in a dynamical optical lattice
Zheng, Wei; Cooper, Nigel R.
2018-02-01
Motivated by experimental progress in strongly coupled atom-photon systems in optical cavities, we study theoretically the quantum dynamics of atoms coupled to a one-dimensional dynamical optical lattice. The dynamical lattice is chosen to have a period that is incommensurate with that of an underlying static lattice, leading to a dynamical version of the Aubry-André model which can cause localization of single-particle wave functions. We show that atomic wave packets in this dynamical lattice generically spread via anomalous diffusion, which can be tuned between superdiffusive and subdiffusive regimes. This anomalous diffusion arises from an interplay between Anderson localization and quantum fluctuations of the cavity field.
Polarization response of RHIC electron lens lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. H. Ranjbar
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Depolarization response for a system of two orthogonal snakes at irrational tunes is studied in depth using lattice independent spin integration. In particular we consider the effect of overlapping spin resonances in this system, to understand the impact of phase, tune, relative location and threshold strengths of the spin resonances. These results are benchmarked and compared to two dimensional direct tracking results for the RHIC e-lens lattice and the standard lattice. Finally we consider the effect of longitudinal motion via chromatic scans using direct six dimensional lattice tracking.
Internal space decimation for lattice gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flyvbjerg, H.
1984-01-01
By a systematic decimation of internal space lattice gauge theories with continuous symmetry groups are mapped into effective lattice gauge theories with finite symmetry groups. The decimation of internal space makes a larger lattice tractable with the same computational resources. In this sense the method is an alternative to Wilson's and Symanzik's programs of improved actions. As an illustrative test of the method U(1) is decimated to Z(N) and the results compared with Monte Carlo data for Z(4)- and Z(5)-invariant lattice gauge theories. The result of decimating SU(3) to its 1080-element crystal-group-like subgroup is given and discussed. (orig.)
Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters
Pike, William T.
1996-01-01
Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.
Testing the holographic principle using lattice simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jha Raghav G.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The lattice studies of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills (MSYM theory at strong coupling and large N is important for verifying gauge/gravity duality. Due to the progress made in the last decade, based on ideas from topological twisting and orbifolding, it is now possible to study these theories on the lattice while preserving an exact supersymmetry on the lattice. We present some results from the lattice studies of two-dimensional MSYM which is related to Type II supergravity. Our results agree with the thermodynamics of different black hole phases on the gravity side and the phase transition (Gregory–Laflamme between them.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, U.
1988-01-01
It is well known that when two precisely plane-symmetric gravitational waves propagating in an otherwise flat background collide, they focus each other so strongly as to produce a curvature singularity. This paper is the first of several devoted to almost-plane gravitational waves and their collisions. Such waves are more realistic than plane waves in having a finite but very large transverse size. In this paper we review some crucial features of the well-known exact solutions for colliding plane waves and we argue that one of these features, the breakdown of ''local inextendibility'' can be regarded as nongeneric. We then introduce a new framework for analyzing general colliding plane-wave spacetimes; we give an alternative proof of a theorem due to Tipler implying the existence of singularities in all generic colliding plane-wave solutions; and we discuss the fact that the recently constructed Chandrasekhar-Xanthopoulos colliding plane-wave solutions are not strictly plane symmetric and thus do not satisfy the conditions and the conclusion of Tipler's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dionot, Jelle; Mathieu, Claire; Barrett, Nick; Geneste, Gregory
2014-01-01
BaTiO_3 ultrathin films (thickness ≅1.6 nm) with in- and out-of-plane polarization are studied by first-principles calculations. Out-of-plane polarization is simulated using the method proposed by Shimada et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144116 (2010)], which consists in building a supercell containing small domains with alternating up and down polarization. This allows one to investigate the properties of defect free BaTiO_3 ultrathin films with polarization perpendicular to the surface, as a function of in-plane lattice constant, i.e., epitaxial strain. The configurations with polarization perpendicular to the surface (c phase) are found stable under compressive strain, while under tensile strain, the polarization tends to lie in-plane (aa phase), along [110]. In the c phase, the most stable domain width is predicted to be 1 to 2 lattice constants, and the magnitude of the surface rumpling varies according to the direction of the polarization (upwards versus downwards), though its sign is unchanged, the oxygen anions pointing in all cases outwards. Finally, all the surfaces studied are found to be insulating. Analysis of the atom-projected electronic density of states gives insight into the surface contributions to the electronic structure. An important reduction of the Kohn-Sham band gap is predicted at TiO_2 terminations in the c phase (≅1 eV with respect to the aa phase). The Madelung potential at the surface plays the dominant role in modifications of the surface electronic structure. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Piątkowski
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Adding high-melting point elements (Mo, Nb, Ni, Ti, W to complex silumins results in hardening of the latter ones, owing to the formation of new intermetallic phases of the AlxMey type, with refinement of dendrites in α solution and crystals in β phase. The hardening is also due to the effect of various inoculants. An addition of the inoculant is expected to form substrates, the crystal lattice of which, or some (privileged lattice planes and interatomic spaces should bear a strong resemblance to the crystal nucleus. To verify this statement, using binary phase equilibria systems, the coefficient of crystal lattice matching, being one of the measures of the crystallographic similarity, was calculated. A compatibility of this parameter (up to 20% may decide about the structure compatibility between the substrate and crystal which, in turn, is responsible for the effectiveness of alloy modification. Investigations have proved that, given the temperature range of their formation, the density, the lattice type, and the lattice parameter, some intermetallic phases of the AlxMey type can act as substrates for the crystallisation of aluminium and silicon, and some of the silumin hardening phases.
Band structures of phononic crystal composed of lattices with different periodic constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Jia-Guang; Xu, Wen
2014-01-01
With a square lattice mercury and water system being as the model, the band structures of nesting and compound phononic crystals with two different lattice constants were investigated using the method of the supercell plane wave expansion. It was observed that large band gaps can be achieved in low frequency regions by adjusting one of the lattice constants. Meanwhile, effects similar to interstitial impurity defects can be achieved with the increase of lattice constant of the phononic crystal. The corresponding defect modes can be stimulated in band gaps. The larger the lattice constant, the stronger the localization effect of defect modes on the wave. In addition, the change of the filling fraction of impurity exerts great influence on the frequency and localization of defect modes. Furthermore, the change of the position of impurity has notable influence on the frequency of defect modes and their localization. However, the geometry structure and orientation of impurity have little effect on the frequency of defect modes and their localization in the band gap.
Hadron physics from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2016-11-01
Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it
Lattices for laymen: a non-specialist's introduction to lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callaway, D.J.E.
1985-01-01
The review on lattice gauge theory is based upon a series of lectures given to the Materials Science and Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory. Firstly the structure of gauge theories in the continuum is discussed. Then the lattice formulation of these theories is presented, including quantum electrodynamics and non-abelian lattice gauge theories. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolle, C.A.; Gammel, P.L.; Grier, D.G.; Murray, C.A.; Bishop, D.J.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.
1991-01-01
We report the observation of a novel flux-lattice structure, a commensurate array of flux-line chains. Our experiments consist of the magnetic decoration of the flux lattices in single crystals of Ba-Sr-Ca-Cu-O where the magnetic field is applied at an angle with respect to the conducting planes. For a narrow range of angles, the equilibrium structure is one with uniformly spaced chains with a higher line density of vortices than the background lattice. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with theories which suggest that, in strongly anisotropic materials the vortices develop an attractive interaction in tilted magnetic fields
Extrapolation of lattice gauge theories to the continuum limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, A.; Vaidya, H.
1978-01-01
The problem of extrapolating lattice gauge theories from the strong-coupling phase to the continuum critical point is studied for the Abelian (U(1)) and non-Abelian (SU(2)) theories in three (space--time) dimensions. A method is described for obtaining the asymptotic behavior, for large β, of such thermodynamic quantities and correlation functions as the free energy and Wilson loop function. Certain general analyticity and positivity properties (in the complex β-plane) are shown to lead, after appropriate analytic remappings, to a Stieltjes property of these functions. Rigorous theorems then guarantee uniform and monotone convergence of the Pade approximants, with exact pointwise upper and lower bounds. The first three Pade's are computed for both the free energy and the Wilson function. For the free energy, satisfactory agreement is with the asymptotic behavior computed by an explicit lattice calculation. The strong-coupling series for the Wilson function is found to be considerably more unstable in the lower order terms - correspondingly, convergence of the Pade's is found to be slower than in the free-energy case. It is suggested that higher-order calculations may allow a reasonably accurate determination of the string constant for the SU(2) theory. 14 references
High-resolution lattice-spacing comparator using SR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami
2004-01-01
A novel lattice spacing measurement using a high-resolution self-reference d-spacing comparator has been described. Self selection of monochromatic synchrotron x-rays by a monolithic double channel-cut-crystal monochromator (MDCM) comprising silicon 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 reflections may lead to a stable, highly-collimated and narrow bandwidth beam. Also if utilizing 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 Bragg planes of a silicon sample, the interval between two associated Bragg peaks for the X-rays with wavelength of 0.13438 nm can be extremely small, so that the diffraction angle can be determined with high precision and the traveling time from one peak to the other can be marvelously reduced by the order of at least three compared to the established classical methods such as the Bond method. Thus this so-called self-reference comparator method can dramatically save measurement time and provide an absolute measurement on the basis of the x-ray wavelength of the MDCM, therefore a lattice spacing measurement with uncertainty of 10 -8 , for the 1mm 2 area on a silicon crystal within measurement time of a few ten seconds and has been achieved. (author)
Spatial confinement of ferromagnetic resonances in honeycomb antidot lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivoruchko, V.N.; Marchenko, A.I.
2012-01-01
We report on a theoretical investigation of the magnetic static and dynamic properties of a thin ferromagnetic film with honeycomb lattice of circular antidots using micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations. The theoretical model is based on the Landau–Lifshitz equations and directly accounts for the effects of the magnetic state nonuniformity. A direct calculation of local dynamic susceptibility tensor yields that the resonance spectra consist of four different quasi-uniform modes of the magnetization precession related to the confinement of magnetic domains by the hole mesh. Three of four resonant modes follow a two-fold variation with respect to the in-plane orientation of the applied magnetic field. The easy axes of these modes are mutually rotated by 60° and combine to yield the apparent six-fold configurational anisotropy. Additionally, a mode with intrinsic six-fold symmetry behavior exists, as well. Micromagnetic calculations of the local dynamic susceptibility tensor allow identifying the magnetic unit cell areas/domains responsible for each resonance mode. - Highlights: ► We study the magnetic static and dynamic properties of honeycomb antidot lattices. ► Micromagnetic simulation and analytical calculation were used. ► Four quasi-uniform precession modes exist in resonance spectra. ► The antidot unit cell areas responsible for each resonance mode were identified.
Boron lattice location in room temperature ion implanted Si crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piro, A.M.; Romano, L.; Mirabella, S.; Grimaldi, M.G.
2005-01-01
The B lattice location in presence of a Si-self-interstitial (I Si ) supersaturation, controlled by energetic proton bombardment, has been studied by means of ion channelling and massive Monte Carlo simulations. B-doped layers of Si crystals with a B concentration of 1 x 10 2 B/cm 3 were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Point defect engineering techniques, with light energetic ion implants, have been applied to generate an I Si uniform injection in the electrically active layer. The displacement of B atoms out of substitutional lattice sites was induced by 650 keV proton irradiations at room temperature (R.T.) and the resultant defect configuration was investigated by ion channelling and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques. Angular scans were measured both through and axes along the (1 0 0) plane using the 11 B(p,α) 8 Be nuclear reaction at 650 keV proton energy. Monte Carlo simulated angular scans were calculated considering a variety of theoretical defect configurations, supported by literature, and compared with experimental data. Our experimental scans can be fitted by a linear combination of small (0.3 A) and large B displacements (1.25 A) along the direction, compatible with the B-dumbbell oriented along as proposed by ab initio calculations
Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane
Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir
2011-01-01
In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…
Moving vertices to make drawings plane
Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.
2008-01-01
In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of
Pion structure from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Javadi Motaghi, Narjes
2015-05-12
In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute the second Mellin moments of pion generalized parton distributions and pion electromagnetic form factors. For our calculations we are able to analyze a large set of gauge configurations with 2 dynamical flavours using non-perturbatively the improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermionic action pion masses ranging down to 151 MeV. By employing improved smearing we were able to suppress excited state contamination. However, our data in the physical quark mass limit show that some excited state contamination remains. We show the non-zero sink momentum is optimal for the computation of the electromagnetic form factors and generalized form factors at finite momenta.
Computer programs for lattice calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keil, E.; Reich, K.H.
1984-01-01
The aim of the workshop was to find out whether some standardisation could be achieved for future work in this field. A certain amount of useful information was unearthed, and desirable features of a ''standard'' program emerged. Progress is not expected to be breathtaking, although participants (practically from all interested US, Canadian and European accelerator laboratories) agreed that the mathematics of the existing programs is more or less the same. Apart from the NIH (not invented here) effect, there is a - to quite some extent understandable - tendency to stay with a program one knows and to add to it if unavoidable rather than to start using a new one. Users of the well supported program TRANSPORT (designed for beam line calculations) would prefer to have it fully extended for lattice calculations (to some extent already possible now), while SYNCH users wish to see that program provided with a user-friendly input, rather than spending time and effort for mastering a new program
Monte Carlo lattice program KIM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cupini, E.; De Matteis, A.; Simonini, R.
1980-01-01
The Monte Carlo program KIM solves the steady-state linear neutron transport equation for a fixed-source problem or, by successive fixed-source runs, for the eigenvalue problem, in a two-dimensional thermal reactor lattice. Fluxes and reaction rates are the main quantities computed by the program, from which power distribution and few-group averaged cross sections are derived. The simulation ranges from 10 MeV to zero and includes anisotropic and inelastic scattering in the fast energy region, the epithermal Doppler broadening of the resonances of some nuclides, and the thermalization phenomenon by taking into account the thermal velocity distribution of some molecules. Besides the well known combinatorial geometry, the program allows complex configurations to be represented by a discrete set of points, an approach greatly improving calculation speed
Particle states of lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapoyannis, A.S.; Panagiotou, A.D. [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, Athens (Greece)
2017-11-15
We determine the degeneracy factor and the average particle mass of particles that produce the lattice QCD pressure and specific entropy at zero baryon chemical potential. The number of states of the gluons and the quarks are found to converge above T = 230 MeV to almost constant values, close to the number of states of an ideal quark-gluon phase, while their assigned masses retain high values. The number of states and the average mass of a system containing quarks in interaction with gluons are found to decrease steeply with increase of temperature between T ∝ 150 and 160 MeV, a region contained within the region of the chiral transition. The minimum value of the number of states within this temperature interval indicates that the states are of hadronic nature. (orig.)
Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane
Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying
2018-04-01
Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.
Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir
2011-01-01
In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.
Coherent field propagation between tilted planes.
Stock, Johannes; Worku, Norman Girma; Gross, Herbert
2017-10-01
Propagating electromagnetic light fields between nonparallel planes is of special importance, e.g., within the design of novel computer-generated holograms or the simulation of optical systems. In contrast to the extensively discussed evaluation between parallel planes, the diffraction-based propagation of light onto a tilted plane is more burdensome, since discrete fast Fourier transforms cannot be applied directly. In this work, we propose a quasi-fast algorithm (O(N 3 log N)) that deals with this problem. Based on a proper decomposition into three rotations, the vectorial field distribution is calculated on a tilted plane using the spectrum of plane waves. The algorithm works on equidistant grids, so neither nonuniform Fourier transforms nor an explicit complex interpolation is necessary. The proposed algorithm is discussed in detail and applied to several examples of practical interest.
Fermion determinants in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Christopher Andrew
2001-01-01
The main topic of this thesis concerns efficient algorithms for the calculation of determinants of the kind of matrix typically encountered in lattice QCD. In particular an efficient method for calculating the fermion determinant is described. Such a calculation is useful to illustrate the effects of light dynamical (virtual) quarks. The methods employed in this thesis are stochastic methods, based on the Lanczos algorithm, which is used for the solution of large, sparse matrix problems via a partial tridiagonalisation of the matrix. Here an implementation is explored which requires less exhaustive treatment of the matrix than previous Lanczos methods. This technique exploits the analogy between the Lanczos tridiagonalisation algorithm and Gaussian quadrature in order to calculate the fermion determinant. A technique for determining a number of the eigenvalues of the matrix is also presented. A demonstration is then given of how one can improve upon this estimate considerably using variance reduction techniques, reducing the variance by a factor of order 100 with a further, equal amount of work. The variance reduction method is a two-stage process, involving a Chebyshev approximation to the quantity in question and then the subtraction of traceless operators. The method is applied to the fermion determinant for non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions on a 16 3 x 32 lattice. It is also applicable to a wider class of matrix operators. Finally we discuss how dynamical quark effects may be simulated in a Monte Carlo process with an effective partitioning of low and high eigenmodes. This may be done via selective updating of a trial configuration which highlights the physically relevant effects of light quark modes. (author)
An Application of Linear Algebra over Lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hosseinyazdi
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, first we consider L n as a semimodule over a complete bounded distributive lattice L. Then we define the basic concepts of module theory for L n. After that, we proved many similar theorems in linear algebra for the space L n. An application of linear algebra over lattices for solving linear systems, was given
An Application of Linear Algebra over Lattices
M. Hosseinyazdi
2008-01-01
In this paper, first we consider L n as a semimodule over a complete bounded distributive lattice L. Then we define the basic concepts of module theory for L n. After that, we proved many similar theorems in linear algebra for the space L n. An application of linear algebra over lattices for solving linear systems, was given
Compact lattice QED with Wilson fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoferichter, A.
1994-08-01
We study the phase structure and the chiral limit of 4d compact lattice QED with Wilson fermions (both dynamical and quenched). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and also a modified one suppressing lattice artifacts. Different techniques and observables to locate the chiral limit are discussed. (orig.)
Chimera states in Gaussian coupled map lattices
Li, Xiao-Wen; Bi, Ran; Sun, Yue-Xiang; Zhang, Shuo; Song, Qian-Qian
2018-04-01
We study chimera states in one-dimensional and two-dimensional Gaussian coupled map lattices through simulations and experiments. Similar to the case of global coupling oscillators, individual lattices can be regarded as being controlled by a common mean field. A space-dependent order parameter is derived from a self-consistency condition in order to represent the collective state.
Dark Solitons in FPU Lattice Chain
Wang, Deng-Long; Yang, Ru-Shu; Yang, You-Tian
2007-11-01
Based on multiple scales method, we study the nonlinear properties of a new Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model analytically. It is found that the lattice chain exhibits a novel nonlinear elementary excitation, i.e. a dark soliton. Moreover, the modulation depth of dark soliton is increasing as the anharmonic parameter increases.
Dark Solitons in FPU Lattice Chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Denglong; Yang Youtian; Yang Rushu
2007-01-01
Based on multiple scales method, we study the nonlinear properties of a new Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model analytically. It is found that the lattice chain exhibits a novel nonlinear elementary excitation, i.e. a dark soliton. Moreover, the modulation depth of dark soliton is increasing as the anharmonic parameter increases.
Lattice-Valued Possibilistic Entropy Measure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2008-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 6 (2008), s. 829-846 ISSN 0218-4885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complete lattice * lattice-valued possibilistic distribution * entropy measure * product of possibilistic distribution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008
Unorthodox lattice fermion derivatives and their shortcomings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodwin, G.T.; Kovacs, E.V.
1987-01-01
We discuss the DWY (Lagrangian), Quinn-Weinstein, and Rebbi proposals for incorporating fermions into lattice gauge theory and analyze them in the context of weak coupling perturbation theory. We find that none of these proposals leads to a completely satisfactory lattice transcription of fully-interacting gauge theory
Gauge field theories on a || lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkardt, Matthias
1999-01-01
In these notes, the transverse || lattice approach is presented as a means to control the k + →0 divergences in light-front QCD. Technical difficulties of both the canonical compact formulation as well as the non-compact formulation of the || lattice motivate the color-dielectric formulation, where the link fields are linearized
Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials
Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.
2017-06-20
Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.
Spectral Gaps in Graphene Antidot Lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barbaroux, Jean-Marie; Cornean, Decebal Horia; Stockmeyer, Edgardo
2017-01-01
We consider the gap creation problem in an antidot graphene lattice, i.e. a sheet of graphene with periodically distributed obstacles. We prove several spectral results concerning the size of the gap and its dependence on different natural parameters related to the antidot lattice....
Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parikh, H.; Swain, S.
2005-01-01
The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziyang Lian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An enhanced plane wave expansion (PWE method is proposed to solve piezoelectric phononic crystal (PPC connected with resonant shunting circuits (PPC-C, which is named as PWE-PPC-C. The resonant shunting circuits can not only bring about the locally resonant (LR band gap for the PPC-C but also conveniently tune frequency and bandwidth of band gaps through adjusting circuit parameters. However, thus far, more than one-dimensional PPC-C has been studied just by Finite Element method. Compared with other methods, the PWE has great advantages in solving more than one-dimensional PC as well as various lattice types. Nevertheless, the conventional PWE cannot accurately solve coupling between the structure and resonant shunting circuits of the PPC-C since only taking one-way coupling from displacements to electrical parameters into consideration. A two-dimensional PPC-C model of orthorhombic lattice is established to demonstrate the whole solving process of PWE-PPC-C. The PWE-PPC-C method is validated by Transfer Matrix method as well as Finite Element method. The dependence of band gaps on circuit parameters has been investigated in detail by PWE-PPC-C. Its advantage in solving various lattice types is further illustrated by calculating the PPC-C of triangular and hexagonal lattices, respectively.
Cold collisions in dissipative optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piilo, J; Suominen, K-A
2005-01-01
The invention of laser cooling methods for neutral atoms allows optical and magnetic trapping of cold atomic clouds in the temperature regime below 1 mK. In the past, light-assisted cold collisions between laser cooled atoms have been widely studied in magneto-optical atom traps (MOTs). We describe here theoretical studies of dynamical interactions, specifically cold collisions, between atoms trapped in near-resonant, dissipative optical lattices. The extension of collision studies to the regime of optical lattices introduces several complicating factors. For the lattice studies, one has to account for the internal substates of atoms, position-dependent matter-light coupling, and position-dependent couplings between the atoms, in addition to the spontaneous decay of electronically excited atomic states. The developed one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model combines atomic cooling and collision dynamics in a single framework. The model is based on Monte Carlo wavefunction simulations and is applied when the lattice-creating lasers have frequencies both below (red-detuned lattice) and above (blue-detuned lattice) the atomic resonance frequency. It turns out that the radiative heating mechanism affects the dynamics of atomic cloud in a red-detuned lattice in a way that is not directly expected from the MOT studies. The optical lattice and position-dependent light-matter coupling introduces selectivity of collision partners. The atoms which are most mobile and energetic are strongly favoured to participate in collisions, and are more often ejected from the lattice, than the slow ones in the laser parameter region selected for study. Consequently, the atoms remaining in the lattice have a smaller average kinetic energy per atom than in the case of non-interacting atoms. For blue-detuned lattices, we study how optical shielding emerges as a natural part of the lattice and look for ways to optimize the effect. We find that the cooling and shielding dynamics do not mix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frentrup, Martin, E-mail: frentrup@physik.tu-berlin.de; Wernicke, Tim; Stellmach, Joachim; Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Hatui, Nirupam; Bhattacharya, Arnab [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2013-12-07
In group-III-nitride heterostructures with semipolar or nonpolar crystal orientation, anisotropic lattice and thermal mismatch with the buffer or substrate lead to a complex distortion of the unit cells, e.g., by shearing of the lattice. This makes an accurate determination of lattice parameters, composition, and strain state under assumption of the hexagonal symmetry impossible. In this work, we present a procedure to accurately determine the lattice constants, strain state, and composition of semipolar heterostructures using high resolution X-ray diffraction. An analysis of the unit cell distortion shows that four independent lattice parameters are sufficient to describe this distortion. Assuming only small deviations from an ideal hexagonal structure, a linear expression for the interplanar distances d{sub hkl} is derived. It is used to determine the lattice parameters from high resolution X-ray diffraction 2ϑ-ω-scans of multiple on- and off-axis reflections via a weighted least-square fit. The strain and composition of ternary alloys are then evaluated by transforming the elastic parameters (using Hooke's law) from the natural crystal-fixed coordinate system to a layer-based system, given by the in-plane directions and the growth direction. We illustrate our procedure taking an example of (112{sup ¯}2) Al{sub κ}Ga{sub 1−κ}N epilayers with Al-contents over the entire composition range. We separately identify the in-plane and out-of-plane strains and discuss origins for the observed anisotropy.
Quantum transport in d -dimensional lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manzano, Daniel; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu
2016-01-01
We show that both fermionic and bosonic uniform d -dimensional lattices can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional chains. This reduction leads to the expression for ballistic energy fluxes in uniform fermionic and bosonic lattices. By the use of the Jordan–Wigner transformation we can extend our analysis to spin lattices, proving the coexistence of both ballistic and non-ballistic subspaces in any dimension and for any system size. We then relate the nature of transport to the number of excitations in the homogeneous spin lattice, indicating that a single excitation always propagates ballistically and that the non-ballistic behaviour of uniform spin lattices is a consequence of the interaction between different excitations. (paper)
A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity
Renteln, Paul; Smolin, Lee
1989-01-01
A new lattice regularization of quantum general relativity based on Ashtekar's reformulation of Hamiltonian general relativity is presented. In this form, quantum states of the gravitational field are represented within the physical Hilbert space of a Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory. The gauge field of the theory is a complexified SU(2) connection which is the gravitational connection for left-handed spinor fields. The physical states of the gravitational field are those which are annihilated by additional constraints which correspond to the four constraints of general relativity. Lattice versions of these constraints are constructed. Those corresponding to the three-dimensional diffeomorphism generators move states associated with Wilson loops around on the lattice. The lattice Hamiltonian constraint has a simple form, and a correspondingly simple interpretation: it is an operator which cuts and joins Wilson loops at points of intersection.
Design of the SPEAR 3 magnet lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbett, J.; Limborg, C.; Nosochkov, Y.; Safranek, J.
1998-01-01
The SPEAR 3 Upgrade Project seeks to replace the present 160 nm-rad FODO lattice with an 18 nm-rad double bend achromat (DBA) lattice. The new lattice must conform to the layout of the SPEAR racetrack tunnel and service the existing photon beamlines. Working within these constraints, the authors designed a lattice with 18 achromatic cells and 3 GeV beam energy. This paper reports on design of the main DBA cells, design of the matching cells leading into the 6.5 m racetrack straights, and simulation of the dynamic aperture. The new lattice has gradient dipoles, conventional quadrupoles, and provides horizontal dynamic aperture to ± 20 mm with conservative magnetic multipole errors
Light Hadron Spectroscopy on course lattices with
Lee, F
1999-01-01
The masses and dispersions of light hadrons are calculated in lattice QCD using an O(a sup 2) tadpole-improved gluon action and an O(a sup 2) tadpole-improved next-nearest-neighbor fermion action originally proposed by Hamber and Wu. Two lattices of constant volume with lattice spacings of approximately 0.40 fm and 0.24 fm are considered. The results reveal some scaling violations at the coarser lattice spacing on the order of 5%. At the finer lattice spacing, the nucleon to rho mass ratio reproduces state-of-the-art results using unimproved actions. Good dispersion and rotational invariance up to momenta of pa approx = 1 are also found. The relative merit of alternative choices for improvement operators is assessed through close comparisons with other plaquette-based tadpole-improved actions.
Supersymmetry on a space-time lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaestner, Tobias
2008-10-28
In this thesis the WZ model in one and two dimensions has been thoroughly investigated. With the help of the Nicolai map it was possible to construct supersymmetrically improved lattice actions that preserve one of several supersymmetries. For the WZ model in one dimension SLAC fermions were utilized for the first time leading to a near-perfect elimination of lattice artifacts. In addition the lattice superpotential does not get modified which in two dimensions becomes important when further (discrete) symmetries of the continuum action are considered. For Wilson fermions two new improvements have been suggested and were shown to yield far better results than standard Wilson fermions concerning lattice artifacts. In the one-dimensional theory Ward Identities were studied.However, supersymmetry violations due to broken supersymmetry could only be detected at coarse lattices and very strong couplings. For the two-dimensional models a detailed analysis of supersymmetric improvement terms was given, both for Wilson and SLAC fermions. (orig.)
Lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.
1989-09-01
Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. For the small rings, sixfold symmetric circular lattices with high γ t are retained. In the Accumulator lattice, a straight section with double waist and controlled η function allows for H - injection and phase-space painting. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed
Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices
Yu, Unjong
2015-06-01
Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.
Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael
2016-01-01
In one dimensional systems, it is possible to create periodic structures in phase space through driving, which is called phase space crystals (Guo et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 205303). This is possible even if for particles trapped in a potential without periodicity. In this paper we discuss ultracold atoms in a driven optical lattice, which is a realization of such a phase space crystals. The corresponding lattice structure in phase space is complex and contains rich physics. A phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry, which naturally provides an artificial gauge (magnetic) field. We study the behavior of the quasienergy band structure and investigate the dissipative dynamics. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space provides a new platform to simulate the condensed matter phenomena and study the intriguing phenomena of driven systems far away from equilibrium. (paper)
Supersymmetry on a space-time lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaestner, Tobias
2008-01-01
In this thesis the WZ model in one and two dimensions has been thoroughly investigated. With the help of the Nicolai map it was possible to construct supersymmetrically improved lattice actions that preserve one of several supersymmetries. For the WZ model in one dimension SLAC fermions were utilized for the first time leading to a near-perfect elimination of lattice artifacts. In addition the lattice superpotential does not get modified which in two dimensions becomes important when further (discrete) symmetries of the continuum action are considered. For Wilson fermions two new improvements have been suggested and were shown to yield far better results than standard Wilson fermions concerning lattice artifacts. In the one-dimensional theory Ward Identities were studied.However, supersymmetry violations due to broken supersymmetry could only be detected at coarse lattices and very strong couplings. For the two-dimensional models a detailed analysis of supersymmetric improvement terms was given, both for Wilson and SLAC fermions. (orig.)
Lattice gravity near the continuum limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, G.; Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.; Ren, H.C.
1984-01-01
We prove that the lattice gravity always approaches the usual continuum limit when the link length l -> 0, provided that certain general boundary conditions are satisfied. This result holds for any lattice, regular or irregular. Furthermore, for a given lattice, the deviation from its continuum limit can be expressed as a power series in l 2 . General formulas for such a perturbative calculation are given, together with a number of illustrative examples, including the graviton propagator. The lattice gravity satisfies all the invariance properties of Einstein's theory of general relativity. In addition, it is symmetric under a new class of transformations that are absent in the usual continuum theory. The possibility that the lattice theory (with a nonzero l) may be more fundamental is discussed. (orig.)
Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorecka, Agnieszka [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Gremaud, Benoit [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, FR-75005 Paris (France); Miniatura, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, UMR 6618, UNS, CNRS, 1361 Route des Lucioles, FR-06560 Valbonne (France); Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological university, 60 Nanyang View, Singapore 639673 (Singapore)
2011-08-15
We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter's butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.
Localization of Stable and Chaotic Nonpropagating Structures in Nonlinear Mesoscopic Lattices.
Greenfield, Alan Barry
Recent developments in the study of non-linear localized states, especially non-propagating ones, are outlined. Theoretical models of linear and nonlinear states in a lattice of coupled pendulums and related systems are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to those states which can be described by the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation as well as states where two modes can coexist and states exhibiting chaos. Measurement of localized stable and chaotic states in a 35 site physical pendulum lattice is reported. Various measurement techniques that were used are explained. States that were measured include the tanh profile or kink soliton, and the corresponding uniform state in the wavelength 2 mode, a similar soliton and uniform state in the wavelength 4 mode, a domain wall between the wavelength 2 and 4 modes and a domain wall between a chaotic state and the wavelength 2 mode. Amplitude profiles were measured for the stable kink and domain wall states and smooth curves were obtained by dividing the kink states by the corresponding uniform states. Return maps were measured for two sites in the chaotic domain wall. Simulation of a chaotic domain wall in a 50 site numerical lattice is reported. This system has the advantage that its parameters can be modified much more easily than those of the physical lattice. An attempt is made at quantifying the level of chaos as a function of lattice site with fractal dimension calculations on return maps embedded in a three dimensional space. The drive plane of the chaotic domain wall is mapped out in the drive amplitude - drive frequency plane. Transitions to various stable and quasiperiodic domain walls are noted.
Interstructure Lattices and Types of Peano Arithmetic
Abdul-Quader, Athar
The collection of elementary substructures of a model of PA forms a lattice, and is referred to as the substructure lattice of the model. In this thesis, we study substructure and interstructure lattices of models of PA. We apply techniques used in studying these lattices to other problems in the model theory of PA. In Chapter 2, we study a problem that had its origin in Simpson ([Sim74]), who used arithmetic forcing to show that every countable model of PA has an expansion to PA* that is pointwise definable. Enayat ([Ena88]) later showed that there are 2N0 models with the property that every expansion to PA* is pointwise definable. In this Chapter, we use techniques involved in representations of lattices to show that there is a model of PA with this property which contains an infinite descending chain of elementary cuts. In Chapter 3, we study the question of when subsets can be coded in elementary end extensions with prescribed interstructure lattices. This problem originated in Gaifman [Gai76], who showed that every model of PA has a conservative, minimal elementary end extension. That is, every model of PA has a minimal elementary end extension which codes only definable sets. Kossak and Paris [KP92] showed that if a model is countable and a subset X can be coded in any elementary end extension, then it can be coded in a minimal extension. Schmerl ([Sch14] and [Sch15]) extended this work by considering which collections of sets can be the sets coded in a minimal elementary end extension. In this Chapter, we extend this work to other lattices. We study two questions: given a countable model M, which sets can be coded in an elementary end extension such that the interstructure lattice is some prescribed finite distributive lattice; and, given an arbitrary model M, which sets can be coded in an elementary end extension whose interstructure lattice is a finite Boolean algebra?
Markov chain sampling of the O(n) loop models on the infinite plane
Herdeiro, Victor
2017-07-01
A numerical method was recently proposed in Herdeiro and Doyon [Phys. Rev. E 94, 043322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.043322] showing a precise sampling of the infinite plane two-dimensional critical Ising model for finite lattice subsections. The present note extends the method to a larger class of models, namely the O(n) loop gas models for n ∈(1 ,2 ] . We argue that even though the Gibbs measure is nonlocal, it is factorizable on finite subsections when sufficient information on the loops touching the boundaries is stored. Our results attempt to show that provided an efficient Markov chain mixing algorithm and an improved discrete lattice dilation procedure the planar limit of the O(n) models can be numerically studied with efficiency similar to the Ising case. This confirms that scale invariance is the only requirement for the present numerical method to work.
Bidirectional Fano Algorithm for Lattice Coded MIMO Channels
Al-Quwaiee, Hessa
2013-01-01
channel model. Channel codes based on lattices are preferred due to three facts: lattice codes have simple structure, the code can achieve the limits of the channel, and they can be decoded efficiently using lattice decoders which can be considered
Flux line lattice melting transition in YBa2Cu3O6.94 observed in specific heat experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roulin, M.; Junod, A.; Walker, E.
1996-01-01
When a magnetic field penetrates a type II superconductor, it forms a lattice of thin quantized filaments called magnetic vortices. Resistance, magnetization, and neutron diffraction experiments have shown that the vortex lattice of high-temperature superconductors can melt along a line in the field-temperature plane. The calorimetric signature of melting on this line was observed in a high-accuracy adiabatic specific heat experiment performed on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.94 . The specific heat of the vortex liquid was greater than that of the vortex solid. 17 refs., 3 figs
In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu
2015-01-01
We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)
Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko
2009-05-01
In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.
Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.
Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T
2014-10-01
Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.
Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy
Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris
2011-03-01
Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.
Manipulation and quantification of microtubule lattice integrity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taylor A. Reid
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Microtubules are structural polymers that participate in a wide range of cellular functions. The addition and loss of tubulin subunits allows the microtubule to grow and shorten, as well as to develop and repair defects and gaps in its cylindrical lattice. These lattice defects act to modulate the interactions of microtubules with molecular motors and other microtubule-associated proteins. Therefore, tools to control and measure microtubule lattice structure will be invaluable for developing a quantitative understanding of how the structural state of the microtubule lattice may regulate its interactions with other proteins. In this work, we manipulated the lattice integrity of in vitro microtubules to create pools of microtubules with common nucleotide states, but with variations in structural states. We then developed a series of novel semi-automated analysis tools for both fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments to quantify the type and severity of alterations in microtubule lattice integrity. These techniques will enable new investigations that explore the role of microtubule lattice structure in interactions with microtubule-associated proteins.
Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander
2016-01-01
An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as “homogeneous holographic lattices.' Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities. However, it is not clear whether they are able to capture other lattice effects which are of interest in condensed matter. In this paper we investigate this question focusing our attention on the phenomenon of commensurability, which arises when the lattice scale is tuned to be equal to (an integer multiple of) another momentum scale in the system. We do so by studying the formation of spatially modulated phases in various models of homogeneous holographic lattices. Our results indicate that the onset of the instability is controlled by the near horizon geometry, which for insulating solutions does carry information about the lattice. However, we observe no sharp connection between the characteristic momentum of the broken phase and the lattice pitch, which calls into question the applicability of these models to the physics of commensurability.
Lattice-Based Revocable Certificateless Signature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-Hao Hung
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Certificateless signatures (CLS are noticeable because they may resolve the key escrow problem in ID-based signatures and break away the management problem regarding certificate in conventional signatures. However, the security of the mostly previous CLS schemes relies on the difficulty of solving discrete logarithm or large integer factorization problems. These two problems would be solved by quantum computers in the future so that the signature schemes based on them will also become insecure. For post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography is significant due to its efficiency and security. However, no study on addressing the revocation problem in the existing lattice-based CLS schemes is presented. In this paper, we focus on the revocation issue and present the first revocable CLS (RCLS scheme over lattices. Based on the short integer solution (SIS assumption over lattices, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is shown to be existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attacks. By performance analysis and comparisons, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is better than the previously proposed lattice-based CLS scheme, in terms of private key size, signature length and the revocation mechanism.
Status and future of lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoek, J.
1989-07-01
The current status of lattice Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) calculations, the computer requirements to obtain physical results and the direction computing is taking are described. First of all, there is a lot of evidence that QCD is the correct theory of strong interactions. Since it is an asymptotically free theory we can use perturbation theory to solve it in the regime of very hard collisions. However even in the case of very hard parton collisions the end-results of the collisions are bound states of quarks and perturbation theory is not sufficient to calculate these final stages. The way to solve the theory in this regime was opened by Wilson. He contemplated replacing the space-time continuum by a discrete lattice, with a lattice spacing a. Continuum physics is then recovered in the limit where the correlation length of the theory, say ξ. is large with respect to the lattice spacing. This will be true if the lattice spacing becomes very small, which for asymptotically free theories also implies that the coupling g becomes small. The lattice approach to QCD is in many respects analogous to the use of finite element methods to solve classical field theories. These finite element methods are easy to apply in 2-dimensional simulations but are computationally demanding in the 3-dimensional case. Therefore it is not unexpected that the 4-dimensional simulations needed for lattice gauge theories have led to an explosion in demand for computing power by theorists. (author)
3D Metallic Lattices for Accelerator Applications
Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Temkin, Richard J
2005-01-01
We present the results of research on 3D metallic lattices operating at microwave frequencies for application in (1) accelerator structures with higher order mode suppression, (2) Smith-Purcell radiation beam diagnostics, and (3) polaritonic materials for laser acceleration. Electromagnetic waves in a 3D simple cubic lattice formed by metal wires are calculated using HFSS. The bulk modes in the lattice are determined using single cell calculations with different phase advances in all three directions. The Brillouin diagram for the bulk modes is presented and indicates the absence of band gaps in simple lattices except the band below the cutoff. Lattices with thin wires as well as with thick wires have been analyzed. The Brillouin diagram also indicates the presence of low frequency 3D plasmon mode as well as the two degenerate photon modes analogous to those in a 2D lattice. Surface modes for a semi-infinite cubic lattice are modeled as a stack of cells with different phase advances in the two directions alon...
Inter plane coupling and magnetic properties in a high Tc superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malacarne, L.C.; Mendes, R.S.; Veroneze, P.R.
1997-01-01
We investigate if besides an increasing in T c , an interaction favoring pair tunneling reproduces some characteristic properties of the superconductors, in the presence of a magnetic field. With this objective, we use a sufficiently simple Hamiltonian which maintains the main qualitative aspects of the inter plane interaction through pairs. We also apply an functional integration method for obtaining the Landau-Ginzburg (L G) equations in presence of magnetic field. From these equations, we verify that the applied model presents the properties expected for a superconductor, e.g. magnetic flux quantization, Meissner effect and possible existence of vortex and vortex lattice
Deflection of a vortex pair by an interface in easy-plane ferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caputo, J-G [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, INSA de Rouen, BP 8, 76131 Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex (France); Zagorodny, J P [Physics Institute, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Gaididei, Yu [Bogoliubov Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine (Ukraine); Mertens, F G [Physics Institute, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany)
2003-04-18
We study the motion of a vortex-antivortex pair in easy-plane ferromagnets crossing an interface between two media with different anisotropy. A simple description based on the Thiele approach is obtained. The collective variables are the vortex centres and core radii, the latter are assumed to be slaved to the former. For a normal crossing of the interface by the vortex pair, a simple estimate of the ratio of the separation distances is obtained from energy conservation. This prediction is validated by direct numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz equations for the anisotropic Heisenberg model, on a spin lattice divided into two regions which have different anisotropies.
Compact cluster growth on the half-plane: forest fires in a valley
Kearney, M J
2003-01-01
A two-parameter model on a directed lattice is introduced to represent the growth and spread of clusters on the half-plane. The model exhibits a phase transition in the compact directed percolation universality class between a state where clusters are finite with probability one and a state where clusters are infinite with non-zero probability. In the finite regime, exact expressions are given for the mean perimeter length and area of the generated clusters for a variety of different boundary conditions. An illustrative example is considered, namely a forest fire spreading before a prevailing wind along the floor and sides of an idealized valley.
Lattice solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.
2003-01-01
We systematically study the properties of lattice solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates with either attractive or repulsive atom interactions. This is done, by exactly solving the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a periodic potential. We find new families of lattice soliton solutions that are characterized by the position of the energy eigenvalue within the associated band structure. These include lattice solitons in condensates with either attractive or repulsive atom interactions that exist in finite or semi-infinite gaps, as well as nonlinear modes that exhibit atomic population cutoffs
Supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joseph, Anosh
2013-12-01
In this paper we detail the lattice constructions of several classes of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories in two and three Euclidean spacetime dimensions possessing exact supersymmetry at finite lattice spacing. Such constructions are obtained through the methods of topological twisting and geometric discretization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories with eight and sixteen supercharges in two and three dimensions. We detail the lattice constructions of two-dimensional quiver gauge theories possessing four and eight supercharges and three-dimensional quiver gauge theories possessing eight supercharges.
Construction of Capacity Achieving Lattice Gaussian Codes
Alghamdi, Wael
2016-04-01
We propose a new approach to proving results regarding channel coding schemes based on construction-A lattices for the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel that yields new characterizations of the code construction parameters, i.e., the primes and dimensions of the codes, as functions of the block-length. The approach we take introduces an averaging argument that explicitly involves the considered parameters. This averaging argument is applied to a generalized Loeliger ensemble [1] to provide a more practical proof of the existence of AWGN-good lattices, and to characterize suitable parameters for the lattice Gaussian coding scheme proposed by Ling and Belfiore [3].
Dynamical Regge calculus as lattice gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagura, Hiroyuki
2001-01-01
We propose a hybrid approach to lattice quantum gravity by combining simultaneously the dynamical triangulation with the Regge calculus, called the dynamical Regge calculus (DRC). In this approach lattice diffeomorphism is realized as an exact symmetry by some hybrid (k, l) moves on the simplicial lattice. Numerical study of 3D pure gravity shows that an entropy of the DRC is not exponetially bounded if we adopt the uniform measure Π i dl i . On the other hand, using the scale-invariant measure Π i dl i /l i , we can calculate observables and observe a large hysteresis between two phases that indicates the first-order nature of the phase transition
Calculating luminosity for a coupled Tevatron lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, J.A.; Martens, M.A.; Michelotti, L.; Goderre, G.
1995-05-01
The traditional formula for calculating luminosity assumes an uncoupled lattice and makes use of one-degree-of-freedom lattice functions, β H and β v , for relating transverse beam widths to emittances. Strong coupling requires changing this approach. It is simplest to employ directly the linear normal form coordinates of the one turn map. An equilibrium distribution in phase space is expressed as a function of the Jacobian's eigenvectors and beam size parameters or emittances. Using the equilibrium distributions an expression for the luminosity was derived and applied to the Tevatron lattice, which was coupled due to a quadrupole roll
Optical lattice on an atom chip
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallego, D.; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten
2009-01-01
Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retroreflected using the atom chip surface as a high......-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We transfer thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice....
Continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeckeler, M.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Schierholz, G.; Wiese, U.J.
1993-01-01
On the lattice some of the salient features of pure gauge theories and of gauge theories with fermions in complex representations of the gauge group seem to be lost. These features can be recovered by considering part of the theory in the continuum. The prerequisite for that is the construction of continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields. Such a construction, which is gauge covariant and complies with geometrical constructions of the topological charge on the lattice, is given in this paper. The procedure is explicitly carried out in the U(1) theory in two dimensions, where it leads to simple results. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Urbach, C.
2008-04-01
We study the flavour singlet pseudoscalar mesons from first principles using lattice QCD. With N f =2 flavours of light quark, this is the so-called η 2 meson and we discuss the phenomenological status of this. Using maximally twisted-mass lattice QCD, we extract the mass of the η 2 meson at two values of the lattice spacing for lighter quarks than previously discussed in the literature. We are able to estimate the mass value in the limit of light quarks with their physical masses. (orig.)
Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.
1989-05-01
Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. In the small rings, γ t is kept high enough by choosing a sufficiently large phase advance in the arcs. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed
More on random-lattice fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieu, T.D.; Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ; Markham, J.F.; Paranavitane, C.B.
1995-01-01
The lattice fermion determinants, in a given background gauge field, are evaluated for two different kinds of random lattices and compared to those of naive and wilson fermions in the continuum limit. While the fermion doubling is confirmed on one kind of lattices, there is positive evidence that it may be absent for the other, at least for vector interactions in two dimensions. Combined with previous studies, arbitrary randomness by itself is shown to be not a sufficient condition to remove the fermion doublers. 8 refs., 3 figs
Vortex-Peierls States in Optical Lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkov, A.A.; Demler, Eugene
2006-01-01
We show that vortices, induced in cold atom superfluids in optical lattices, may order in a novel vortex-Peierls ground state. In such a state vortices do not form a simple lattice but arrange themselves in clusters, within which the vortices are partially delocalized, tunneling between classically degenerate configurations. We demonstrate that this exotic quantum many-body state is selected by an order-from-disorder mechanism for a special combination of the vortex filling and lattice geometry that has a macroscopic number of classically degenerate ground states
Lattice-Like Total Perfect Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Araujo Carlos
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A contribution is made to the classification of lattice-like total perfect codes in integer lattices Λn via pairs (G, Φ formed by abelian groups G and homomorphisms Φ: Zn → G. A conjecture is posed that the cited contribution covers all possible cases. A related conjecture on the unfinished work on open problems on lattice-like perfect dominating sets in Λn with induced components that are parallel paths of length > 1 is posed as well.
Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, C.
2009-01-01
Graphene antidot lattices constitute a novel class of nano-engineered graphene devices with controllable electronic and optical properties. An antidot lattice consists of a periodic array of holes that causes a band gap to open up around the Fermi level, turning graphene from a semimetal...... into a semiconductor. We calculate the electronic band structure of graphene antidot lattices using three numerical approaches with different levels of computational complexity, efficiency and accuracy. Fast finite-element solutions of the Dirac equation capture qualitative features of the band structure, while full...
How to Share a Lattice Trapdoor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendlin, Rikke; Peikert, Chris; Krehbiel, Sara
2013-01-01
We develop secure threshold protocols for two important operations in lattice cryptography, namely, generating a hard lattice Λ together with a "strong" trapdoor, and sampling from a discrete Gaussian distribution over a desired coset of Λ using the trapdoor. These are the central operations...... delegation, which is used in lattice-based hierarchical IBE schemes. Our work therefore directly transfers all these systems to the threshold setting. Our protocols provide information-theoretic (i.e., statistical) security against adaptive corruptions in the UC framework, and they are robust against up to ℓ...
Group theory and lattice gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1988-09-01
Lattice gauge theory, formulated in terms of invariant integrals over group elements on lattice bonds, benefits from many group theoretical notions. Gauge invariance provides an enormous symmetry and powerful constraints on expectation values. Strong coupling expansions require invariant integrals over polynomials in group elements, all of which can be evaluated by symmetry considerations. Numerical simulations involve random walks over the group. These walks automatically generate the invariant group measure, avoiding explicit parameterization. A recently proposed overrelaxation algorithm is particularly efficient at exploring the group manifold. These and other applications of group theory to lattice gauge fields are reviewed in this talk. 17 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
No, M.L.; Caillard, D.; San Juan, J.
2009-01-01
Shape memory alloys undergo a martensitic transformation, where thermomechanical properties are basically controlled by the austenite-martensite interphases, exhibiting complex orientation relationships and irrational habit planes. They are usually determined by the phenomenological theory. In this work an experimental study of nine different habit planes and orientation relationships is first realized. Then, an analysis of the interphases in the reciprocal space shows that they cannot be univocally determined by the usual two-dimensional edge-to-edge matching method. Finally, we propose a new method, based on the three-dimensional edge-to-edge matching of dense planes across the interface, to determine the habit planes and the orientation relationships. This method requires only one selected area diffraction pattern on the edge-on interface and a three-dimensional simulation of the reciprocal lattices of both structures. The habit planes determined on CuAlNi by this method agree with the values proposed by the phenomenological theory
Lattice dynamics of alpha uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crummett, W.P.
1978-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the phonon dispersion curves along the three-principal high-symmetry directions have been performed to investigate the lattice dynamics of α-U. The dispersion curves along the [0 zeta 0] and [00 zeta] directions are not too unusual. However, dips and depressions are observed in the [zeta 00] branches similar to those observed in high-T/sub c/ superconductors. Standard group theoretical techniques have been employed to discern the symmetry properties of the phonon branches and to block diagonalize the dynamical matrix of the various phenomenological models that have been applied to α-U. These phenomenological models include: a four neighbor Born-von Karman general tensor model, a twelve neighbor axially symmetric model, and a shell model. None of these models was able to satisfactorily fit the [zeta 00] data. However, a modified form of the shell model which included axially symmetric interactions to six neighbors was found to reproduce most of the dispersion curves well, including the [zeta 00] branches. A simple pseudopotential model was less successful. To obtain all real frequencies from this model it was necessary to include a Born-von Karman short range contribution. These measurements and calculations have implied that the bonding properties of α-U are particularly dependent upon the details of the electronic system
Anderson localization in bipartite lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabrizio, Michele; Castellani, Claudio
2000-01-01
We study the localization properties of a disordered tight-binding Hamiltonian on a generic bipartite lattice close to the band center. By means of a fermionic replica trick method, we derive the effective non-linear σ-model describing the diffusive modes, which we analyse by using the Wilson-Polyakov renormalization group. In addition to the standard parameters which define the non-linear σ-model, namely, the conductance and the external frequency, a new parameter enters, which may be related to the fluctuations of the staggered density of states. We find that, when both the regular hopping and the disorder only couple one sublattice to the other, the quantum corrections to the Kubo conductivity vanish at the band center, thus implying the existence of delocalized states. In two dimensions, the RG equations predict that the conductance flows to a finite value, while both the density of states and the staggered density of states fluctuations diverge. In three dimensions, we find that, sufficiently close to the band center, all states are extended, independently of the disorder strength. We also discuss the role of various symmetry breaking terms, as a regular hopping between same sublattices, or an on-site disorder
Essentially Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Model
Atif, Mohammad; Kolluru, Praveen Kumar; Thantanapally, Chakradhar; Ansumali, Santosh
2017-12-01
The entropic lattice Boltzmann model (ELBM), a discrete space-time kinetic theory for hydrodynamics, ensures nonlinear stability via the discrete time version of the second law of thermodynamics (the H theorem). Compliance with the H theorem is numerically enforced in this methodology and involves a search for the maximal discrete path length corresponding to the zero dissipation state by iteratively solving a nonlinear equation. We demonstrate that an exact solution for the path length can be obtained by assuming a natural criterion of negative entropy change, thereby reducing the problem to solving an inequality. This inequality is solved by creating a new framework for construction of Padé approximants via quadrature on appropriate convex function. This exact solution also resolves the issue of indeterminacy in case of nonexistence of the entropic involution step. Since our formulation is devoid of complex mathematical library functions, the computational cost is drastically reduced. To illustrate this, we have simulated a model setup of flow over the NACA-0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 2.88 ×106.
Infinitesimal diffeomorfisms on the lattice
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
The energy-momentum tensor and local translation Ward identities constitute the essential toolkit to probe the response of a QFT to an infinitesimal change of geometry. This is relevant in a number of contexts. For instance in order to get the thermodynamical equation of state, one wants to study the response of a Euclidean QFT in a finite box to a change in the size of the box. The lattice formulation of QFTs is a prime tool to study their dynamics beyond perturbation theory. However Poincaré invariance is explicitly broken, and is supposed to be recovered only in the continuum limit. Approximate local Ward identities for translations can be defined, by they require some care for two reasons: 1) the energy-momentum tensor needs to be properly defined through a renormalization procedure; 2) the action of infinitesimal local translations (i.e. infinitesimal diffeomorfisms) is ill-defined on local observables. In this talk I will review the issues related to the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor ...
Anderson localization in bipartite lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabrizio, M.; Castellani, C.
2000-04-01
We study the localization properties of a disordered tight-binding Hamiltonian on a generic bipartite lattice close to the band center. By means of a fermionic replica trick method, we derive the effective non-linear σ-model describing the diffusive modes, which we analyse by using the Wilson-Polyakov renormalization group. In addition to the standard parameters which define the non-linear σ-model, namely the conductance and the external frequency, a new parameter enters, which may be related to the fluctuations of the staggered density of states. We find that, when both the regular hopping and the disorder only couple one sublattice to the other, the quantum corrections to the Kubo conductivity vanish at the band center, thus implying the existence of delocalized states. In two dimensions, the RG equations predict that the conductance flows to a finite value, while both the density of states and the staggered density of states fluctuations diverge. In three dimensions, we find that, sufficiently close to the band center, all states are extended, independently of the disorder strength. We also discuss the role of various symmetry breaking terms, as a regular hopping between same sublattices, or an on-site disorder. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, J.; Wiedemann, H.
1976-01-01
A new low-beta configuration has been proposed for PEP which has a reduced β/sub y/* and is capable of delivering design luminosity with lower circulating beam currents that those required in the standard configuration described in the Conceptual Design Report of February, 1976. A feasibility study has been carried out and it is reported in PTM-65, September 8, 1976, by Lee, Morton and Wiedemann. The beam-stay-clear region is specified in PTM-66, September 3, 1976 by H. Wiedemann. The principal advantages of the new lattice are that the lower beam currents lead to lower higher-order-mode power and permit reduction of the total rf power required which in turn reduces both capital cost and operating cost. Its disadvantages stem primarily from the relatively high maximum beta values which occur in the interaction-region quadrupoles. These produce high chromaticities which require a generally stronger sextupole system for their compensation. The advantages outweigh the disadvantages and the new 11-cm-beta configuration has been adopted as the design configuration for energies of 15-GeV and lower. In the remainder of this report we shall discuss the implications of this new configuration for the various systems of PEP. 1 fig., 3 tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;
1983-01-01
A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion...... bear a striking resemblance to those of FCC Yb, which is also a divalent metal with an electronic band structure similar to that of Ca. In particular, the shear moduli c44 and (c11-c 12)/2 differ by a factor of 3.4, which implies that FCC Ca (like FCC Yb) is very anisotropic with regard...
Neutron diffraction and lattice defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
1974-01-01
Study on lattice defects by neutron diffraction technique is described. Wave length of neutron wave is longer than that of X-ray, and absorption cross-section is small. Number of defects observed by ESR is up to several defects, and the number studied with electron microscopes is more than 100. Information obtained by neutron diffraction concerns the number of defects between these two ranges. For practical analysis, several probable models are selected from the data of ESR or electron microscopes, and most probable one is determined by calculation. Then, defect concentration is obtained from scattering cross section. It is possible to measure elastic scattering exclusively by neutron diffraction. Minimum detectable concentration estimated is about 0.5% and 10 20 - 10 21 defects per unit volume. A chopper and a time of flight system are used as a measuring system. Cold neutrons are obtained from the neutron sources inserted into reactors. Examples of measurements by using similar equipments to PTNS-I system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. Interstitial concentration in the graphite irradiated by fast neutrons is shown. Defects in irradiated MgO were also investigated by measuring scattering cross section. Study of defects in Ge was made by measuring total cross section, and model analysis was performed in comparison with various models. (Kato, T.)
Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices
Sonnad, Kiran G
2005-01-01
This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...
Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.
2003-01-01
We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality
Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivasseau, V.
1980-01-01
We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)
Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...
Null-plane quantization of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mustaki, D.
1990-01-01
Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields
Some Features of the Plane Couette Flow
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Skovorodko, Petr
2000-01-01
In the previous paper 1 it was found, in particular, that in the transition regime of the plane Couette flow the values of total energy flux and shear stress may exceed the corresponding free molecular values...
Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients
Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.
2004-01-01
We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general space-time to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave space-times. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.
Growth of cubic InN on r-plane sapphire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cimalla, V.; Pezoldt, J.; Ecke, G.; Kosiba, R.; Ambacher, O.; Spiess, L.; Teichert, G.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.
2003-01-01
InN has been grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction investigations have shown that the InN layers consist of a predominant zinc blende (cubic) structure along with a fraction of the wurtzite (hexagonal) phase which content increases with proceeding growth. The lattice constant for zinc blende InN was found to be a=4.986 A. For this unusual growth of a metastable cubic phase on a noncubic substrate an epitaxial relationship was proposed where the metastable zinc blende phase grows directly on the r-plane sapphire while the wurtzite phase arises as the special case of twinning in the cubic structure
Imaging off-plane shear waves with a two-dimensional phononic crystal lens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiang Chenyu; Luan Pigang
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional flat phononic crystal (PC) lens for focusing off-plane shear waves is proposed. The lens consists of a triangular lattice hole-array, embedded in a solid matrix. The self-collimation effect is employed to guide the shear waves propagating through the lens along specific directions. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps (DtN) method is employed to calculate the band structure of the PC, which can avoid the problems of bad convergence and fake bands automatically in the void-solid PC structure. When the lens is illuminated by the off-plane shear waves emanating from a point source, a subwavelength image appears in the far-field zone. The imaging characteristics are investigated by calculating the displacement fields explicitly using the multiple scattering method, and the results are in good agreement with the ray-trace predictions. Our results may provide insights for designing new phononic devices.
Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachkachi, M.; Kouadik, S.
1994-10-01
Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs
Constructive curves in non-Euclidean planes
Horváth, Ákos G.
2016-01-01
In this paper we overview the theory of conics and roulettes in four non-Euclidean planes. We collect the literature about these classical concepts, from the eighteenth century to the present, including papers available only on arXiv. The comparison of the four non-Euclidean planes, in terms of the known results on conics and roulettes, reflects only the very subjective view of the author.
Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)
2010-07-01
Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.
Khundjua, A. G.; Ptitsin, A. G.; Brovkina, E. A.
2018-01-01
The internal structure of experimentally observed self-accommodation complexes of martensite crystals, which is determined by the system of twinning planes, is studied in this work. The direct correlation of the construction type of the complexes with the subgroups of the austenite lattice symmetry group is shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F Bakhshi Garmi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.
The Lattice-Valued Turing Machines and the Lattice-Valued Type 0 Grammars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Tang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to study a class of the natural languages called the lattice-valued phrase structure languages, which can be generated by the lattice-valued type 0 grammars and recognized by the lattice-valued Turing machines. Design/Methodology/Approach. From the characteristic of natural language, this paper puts forward a new concept of the l-valued Turing machine. It can be used to characterize recognition, natural language processing, and dynamic characteristics. Findings. The mechanisms of both the generation of grammars for the lattice-valued type 0 grammar and the dynamic transformation of the lattice-valued Turing machines were given. Originality/Value. This paper gives a new approach to study a class of natural languages by using lattice-valued logic theory.
Analytic properties for the honeycomb lattice Green function at the origin
Joyce, G. S.
2018-05-01
The analytic properties of the honeycomb lattice Green function are investigated, where is a complex variable which lies in a plane. This double integral defines a single-valued analytic function provided that a cut is made along the real axis from w = ‑3 to . In order to analyse the behaviour of along the edges of the cut it is convenient to define the limit function where . It is shown that and can be evaluated exactly for all in terms of various hypergeometric functions, where the argument function is always real-valued and rational. The second-order linear Fuchsian differential equation satisfied by is also used to derive series expansions for and which are valid in the neighbourhood of the regular singular points and . Integral representations are established for and , where with . In particular, it is proved that where J 0(z) and Y 0(z) denote Bessel functions of the first and second kind, respectively. The results derived in the paper are utilized to evaluate the associated logarithmic integral where w lies in the cut plane. A new set of orthogonal polynomials which are connected with the honeycomb lattice Green function are also briefly discussed. Finally, a link between and the theory of Pearson random walks in a plane is established.
Influence of radiation damage evolution on lattice-location, measurements for Yb and Au in iron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, C.; Abel, F.; Bruneaux, M.; Thome, L.; Bernas, H.; Chaumont, J.
1978-01-01
The influence of radiation damage on lattice-location of heavy impurities (Yb and Au) implanted in iron is studied by channeling experiments. The nature of the impurity-radiation damage interaction has been modified by annealing of room-temperature implanted samples or high temperature implantation. The value of the corrected extinction ratio epsilon measured in several crystallographic directions on room-temperature implanted Yb and Au impurities cannot be interpreted uniquely in terms of different site populations. The annealing and implantation temperature dependences of the ratio epsilon for Yb-implanted Fe are very different. Upon annealing, the value of epsilon is unchanged up to 420 0 C and then drops abruptly. In hot-implant experiments, the extinction ratio starts to fall at approximately 150 0 C when vacancies become mobile. Vacancy-assisted diffusion is suggested to cause the changes of epsilon in both experiments. The temperature dependence of epsilon for the (100) plane is found to differ from that in other directions. This planar effect suggests that Yb impurities move preferentially in the (100) plane, which is the plane of vacancy-loops in Fe. A quantitative analysis of these lattice-location results and of related hyperfne interaction results is presented in a companion paper
Strange Baryon Physics in Full Lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huey-Wen Lin
2007-01-01
Strange baryon spectra and form factors are key probes to study excited nuclear matter. The use of lattice QCD allows us to test the strength of the Standard Model by calculating strange baryon quantities from first principles
Topology optimization and lattice Boltzmann methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Sebastian Arlund
This thesis demonstrates the application of the lattice Boltzmann method for topology optimization problems. Specifically, the focus is on problems in which time-dependent flow dynamics have significant impact on the performance of the devices to be optimized. The thesis introduces new topology...... a discrete adjoint approach. To handle the complexity of the discrete adjoint approach more easily, a method for computing it based on automatic differentiation is introduced, which can be adapted to any lattice Boltzmann type method. For example, while it is derived in the context of an isothermal lattice...... Boltzmann model, it is shown that the method can be easily extended to a thermal model as well. Finally, the predicted behavior of an optimized design is compared to the equiva-lent prediction from a commercial finite element solver. It is found that the weakly compressible nature of the lattice Boltzmann...
Optical properties of graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Flindt, Christian; Pedersen, Jesper Goor
2008-01-01
Undoped graphene is semimetallic and thus not suitable for many electronic and optoelectronic applications requiring gapped semiconductor materials. However, a periodic array of holes (antidot lattice) renders graphene semiconducting with a controllable band gap. Using atomistic modeling, we demo...
Thermoelectric properties of finite graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2011-01-01
We present calculations of the electronic and thermal transport properties of graphene antidot lattices with a finite length along the transport direction. The calculations are based on the π-tight-binding model and the Brenner potential. We show that both electronic and thermal transport...... properties converge fast toward the bulk limit with increasing length of the lattice: only a few repetitions (≃6) of the fundamental unit cell are required to recover the electronic band gap of the infinite lattice as a transport gap for the finite lattice. We investigate how different antidot shapes...... and sizes affect the thermoelectric properties. The resulting thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, can exceed 0.25, and it is highly sensitive to the atomic arrangement of the antidot edges. Specifically, hexagonal holes with pure armchair edges lead to an order-of-magnitude larger ZT as compared to pure...
Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1962-03-01
Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)
Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.
1995-01-01
We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...
Exact vacuum energy of orbifold lattice theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, So
2007-01-01
We investigate the orbifold lattice theories constructed from supersymmetric Yang-Mills matrix theories (mother theories) with four and eight supercharges. We show that the vacuum energy of these theories does not receive any quantum correction perturbatively
Tinkering at the main-ring lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohnuma, S.
1982-08-23
To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.
Simulation of diffusion in concentrated lattice gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehr, K.W.
1986-01-01
Recently the diffusion of particles in lattice gases was studied extensively by theoretical methods and numerical simulations. This paper reviews work on collective and, in particular, on tracer diffusion. The diffusion of tagged particles is characterized by a correlation factor whose behavior as a function of concentration is now well understood. Also the detailed kinetics of the tracer transitions was investigated. A special case is the one-dimensional lattice gas where the tracer diffusion coefficient vanishes. An interesting extension is the case of tagged atoms with a different transition rate. This model allows to study various physical situations, including impurity diffusion, percolation, and diffusion in partially blocked lattices. Finally some recent work on diffusion in lattice gases under the influence of a drift field will be reported. (author)
Nucleon electromagnetic form factors from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, C.; Koutsou, G.; Negele, J. W.; Tsapalis, A.
2006-01-01
We evaluate the isovector nucleon electromagnetic form factors in quenched and unquenched QCD on the lattice using Wilson fermions. In the quenched theory we use a lattice of spatial size 3 fm at β=6.0 enabling us to reach low momentum transfers and a lowest pion mass of about 400 MeV. In the unquenched theory we use two degenerate flavors of dynamical Wilson fermions on a lattice of spatial size 1.9 fm at β=5.6 and lowest pion mass of about 380 MeV enabling comparison with the results obtained in the quenched theory. that unquenching effects are small for the pion masses considered in this work. We compare our lattice results to the isovector part of the experimentally measured form factors
Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.
2003-09-01
We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E, Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC. (orig.)
Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.; Wittig, H.
2004-01-01
We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E; Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC
Extended Josephson Relation and Abrikosov lattice deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlock, Peter
2012-01-01
From the point of view of time-dependent Ginzburg Landau (TDGL) theory, a Josephson-like relation is derived for an Abrikosov vortex lattice accelerated and deformed by applied fields. Beginning with a review of the Josephson Relation derived from the two ingredients of a lattice-kinematics assumption in TDGL theory and gauge invariance, we extend the construction to accommodate a time-dependent applied magnetic field, a Floating-Kernel formulation of normal current, and finally lattice deformation due to the electric field and inertial effects of vortex-lattice motion. The resulting Josephson-like relation, which we call an Extended Josephson Relation, applies to a much wider set of experimental conditions than the original Josephson Relation, and is explicitly compatible with the considerations of TDGL theory.
Arbitrary spin fermions on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bullinaria, J.A.
1985-01-01
Lattice actions are constructed for free Dirac and Majorana fermions of arbitrary (half-integer) spin various extensions of the spin 1/2 Kogut-Susskind, Kaehler and Wilson formalisms. In each case, the spectrum degeneracy and preservation of gauge invariance is analysed, and the equivalence or non-equivalence to previously constructed actions is determined. The Kogut-Susskind and lattice Kaehler actions are then written explicitly in terms of spinors to demonstrate how the degenerate fermions couple on the lattice and how the original spinorial actions are recovered (or to recovered) in the continuum limit. Both degenerate and non-degenerate mass terms are dealt with and the various U(1) invariances of the lattice actions are pointed out
Renormalization transformation of periodic and aperiodic lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macia, Enrique; Rodriguez-Oliveros, Rogelio
2006-01-01
In this work we introduce a similarity transformation acting on transfer matrices describing the propagation of elementary excitations through either periodic or Fibonacci lattices. The proposed transformation can act at two different scale lengths. At the atomic scale the transformation allows one to express the systems' global transfer matrix in terms of an equivalent on-site model one. Correlation effects among different hopping terms are described by a series of local phase factors in that case. When acting on larger scale lengths, corresponding to short segments of the original lattice, the similarity transformation can be properly regarded as describing an effective renormalization of the chain. The nature of the resulting renormalized lattice significantly depends on the kind of order (i.e., periodic or quasiperiodic) of the original lattice, expressing a delicate balance between chemical complexity and topological order as a consequence of the renormalization process
Conformally invariant processes in the plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawler, G.F.
2004-01-01
These lectures will focus on recent rigorous work on continuum limits of planar lattice models from statistical physics at criticality. For an introduction, I would like to discuss the general problem of critical exponents and scaling limits for lattice models in equilibrium statistical mechanics. There are a number of models, [e.g., self-avoiding walk (polymers), percolation, loop-erased random walk (uniform spanning trees, domino tilings), Ising model, Potts model, nonintersecting simple random walks] that fall under this general framework. These lectures will consider the case d = 2. Mathematicians are now starting to understand rigorously the scaling limit of two-dimensional systems. For most of these models, the general strategy can be described as: Construct possible continuum limits for these models. Show that there are only a limited number of such limits that are conformally invariant. Prove that the lattice model approaches the continuum limit. We should think of the first step as being similar for all of these models. We will spend the next couple of lectures discussing the continuum limits. One example you should already know - the scaling limit of simple random walk is Brownian motion (which in two dimensions is conformally invariant). The important new ideas are restriction measures and stochastic Loewner evolution (SLE). The later lectures will discuss rigorous results about lattice models approaching the continuum limit - we will discuss nonintersecting random walks (which can be shown to be equivalent to problems about exceptional sets of Brownian paths), percolation on the triangular lattice, and the loop-erased random walk. As a rule, the methods used for the second step are particular to each model
Quantum chromodynamics on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovacs, T.G.; Pittler, F.
2012-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the generally accepted theory of the strong interactions that bind quarks into hadrons like the proton and the neutron. The only systematic way of computing low-energy observables starting from the theory is to discretize it on a space-time lattice and perform large-scale Monte Carlo numerical simulations. In the past years lattice QCD did not only provide more and more precise numerical data to be compared to experimental data but also contributed to a better intuitive understanding of the phenomena occurring in strongly interacting systems. One of the most interesting of these phenomena is the transition of ordinary strongly interacting matter to the so called quark-gluon plasma phase occurring at high temperature and already observed in heavy ion collisions. Quarks that are all confined into hadrons at low temperature become liberated above the critical temperature characterizing the transition. At the same time the chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken at low temperatures also gets restored. Chiral symmetry is intimately connected to the density of low-lying quark states. At low temperature these states are known to follow Wigner-Dyson random matrix statistics. This has been successfully exploited to compute the parameters of the effective chiral Lagrangian describing strongly interacting systems in the low energy limit. In contrast, up to a few years ago there was no generally accepted understanding of the statistical properties of lowlying quark states above the critical temperature. We showed that in simplified models of QCD the low quark eigenmodes obey Poisson statistics that gradually crosses over to Wigner-Dyson statistics higher up in the spectrum. This also implies that the low modes are highly localized which can have significant physical consequences. In this year, for the first time we could verify Poisson statistics for the low quark modes in full dynamical QCD without any
Piracha, Mohammad M; Thorp, Stephen L; Puttanniah, Vinay; Gulati, Amitabh
Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a significant burden for breast cancer survivors. Although multiple therapies have been described, an evolving field of serratus anterior plane blocks has been described in this population. We describe the addition of the deep serratus anterior plane block (DSPB) for PMPS. Four patients with history of PMPS underwent DSPB for anterior chest wall pain. A retrospective review of these patients' outcomes was obtained through postprocedure interviews. Three of the patients previously had a superficial serratus anterior plane block, which was not as efficacious as the DSPB. The fourth patient had a superficial serratus anterior plane that was difficult to separate with hydrodissection but had improved pain control with a DSPB. We illustrate 4 patients who have benefitted from a DSPB and describe indications that this block may be more efficacious than a superficial serratus plane block. Further study is recommended to understand the intercostal nerve branches within the lateral and anterior muscular chest wall planes.
Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.
Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2015-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-15
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
The world according to lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.
1988-12-01
A non-technical introduction to lattice calculations is given. The successes and problems of current calculations are emphasized. A summary of lattice results on non-exotic meson and baryon masses indicates that while calculations in the quenched approximation are becoming reliable, the results differ in systematic ways from the physical values. Results for exotic mesons (glueballs and hybrids) are then presented. The future prospects are discussed. 23 refs., 4 figs
Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombardo, Maria Paola
2008-01-01
Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.
Lattice models and conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.
1988-01-01
Theoretical studies concerning the connection between critical physical systems and the conformal theories are reviewed. The conformal theory associated to a critical (integrable) lattice model is derived. The obtention of the central charge, critical exponents and torus partition function, using renormalization group arguments, is shown. The quantum group structure, in the integrable lattice models, and the theory of Visaro algebra representations are discussed. The relations between off-critical integrable models and conformal theories, in finite geometries, are studied
Soliton solutions in a diatomic lattice system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajima, Nobuo; Satsuma, Junkichi.
1979-04-01
A continuum limit is considered for a diatomic lattice system with a cubic nonlinearity. A long wave equation describing the interaction of acoustic and optical modes is obtained. It reduces, in certain approximations, to equations having coupled wave solutions. The solutions exhibit trapping of an optical mode by an acoustic soliton. The form of the trapped optical wave depends on the mass ratio of adjacent particles in the diatomic lattice. (author)
Matching fields and lattice points of simplices
Loho, Georg; Smith, Ben
2018-01-01
We show that the Chow covectors of a linkage matching field define a bijection of lattice points and we demonstrate how one can recover the linkage matching field from this bijection. This resolves two open questions from Sturmfels & Zelevinsky (1993) on linkage matching fields. For this, we give an explicit construction that associates a bipartite incidence graph of an ordered partition of a common set to all lattice points in a dilated simplex. Given a triangulation of a product of two simp...
Status of the Fermilab lattice supercomputer project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, P.; Eichten, E.; Hockney, G.
1988-10-01
Fermilab has completed construction of a sixteen node (320 megaflop peak speed) parallel computer for lattice gauge theory calculations. The architecture was designed to provide the highest possible cost effectiveness while maintaining a high level of programmability and constraining as little as possible the types of lattice problems which can be done on it. The machine is programmed in C. It is a prototype for a 256 node (5 gigaflop peak speed) computer which will be assembled this winter. 6 refs
Lattice results for heavy light matrix elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soni, A.
1994-09-01
Lattice results for heavy light matrix elements are reviewed and some of their implications are very briefly discussed. Despite the fact that in most cases the lattice results for weak matrix elements at the moment have only a modest accuracy of about 20--30% they already have important phenomenological repercussions; e.g. for V td /V ts , x s /x d and B → K*γ
Finite size scaling and lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, B.A.
1986-01-01
Finite size (Fisher) scaling is investigated for four dimensional SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theories without quarks. It allows to disentangle violations of (asymptotic) scaling and finite volume corrections. Mass spectrum, string tension, deconfinement temperature and lattice β-function are considered. For appropriate volumes, Monte Carlo investigations seem to be able to control the finite volume continuum limit. Contact is made with Luescher's small volume expansion and possibly also with the asymptotic large volume behavior. 41 refs., 19 figs
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-01
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Chiral Schwinger model and lattice fermionic regularizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieu, T.D.; Sen, D.; Xue, S.
1988-01-01
The chiral Schwinger model is studied on the lattice with use of Wilson fermions. The arbitrary mass term for the gauge boson is shown to originate from the arbitrariness of the Wilson parameter, which is required to avoid the doubling phenomenon on the lattice. The necessity for such a term is thus demonstrated in contrast to the mere admissibility as indicated by previous continuum calculations
A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Engui
2008-01-01
By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit
Improved lattice fermion action for heavy quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Yong-Gwi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Jüttner, Andreas; Kaneko, Takashi; Marinkovic, Marina; Noaki, Jun-Ichi; Tsang, Justus Tobias
2015-01-01
We develop an improved lattice action for heavy quarks based on Brillouin-type fermions, that have excellent energy-momentum dispersion relation. The leading discretization errors of O(a) and O(a"2) are eliminated at tree-level. We carry out a scaling study of this improved Brillouin fermion action on quenched lattices by calculating the charmonium energy-momentum dispersion relation and hyperfine splitting. We present a comparison to standard Wilson fermions and domain-wall fermions.
Lattice Paths and the Constant Term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brak, R; Essam, J; Osborn, J; Owczarek, A L; Rechnitzer, A
2006-01-01
We firstly review the constant term method (CTM), illustrating its combinatorial connections and show how it can be used to solve a certain class of lattice path problems. We show the connection between the CTM, the transfer matrix method (eigenvectors and eigenvalues), partial difference equations, the Bethe Ansatz and orthogonal polynomials. Secondly, we solve a lattice path problem first posed in 1971. The model stated in 1971 was only solved for a special case - we solve the full model
Xie, Yali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Shang, Tian; Yang, Huali; Wang, Baomin; Tang, Jin; Li, Run-Wei
2017-05-01
We grew 80 nm FeRh films on different single crystals with various lattice constants. FeRh films on SrTiO3 (STO) and MgO substrates exhibit an epitaxial growth of 45° in-plane structure rotation. In contrast, FeRh on LaAlO3 (LAO) displays a mixed epitaxial growth of both 45° in-plane structure rotation and cube-on-cube relationships. Due to the different epitaxial growth strains and lattice mismatch values, the critical temperature for the magnetic phase transition of FeRh can be changed between 405 and 360 K. In addition, the external magnetic field can shift this critical temperature to low temperature in different rates for FeRh films grown on different substrates. The magnetoresistance appears a maximum value at different temperatures between 320 and 380 K for FeRh films grown on different substrates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yali Xie
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We grew 80 nm FeRh films on different single crystals with various lattice constants. FeRh films on SrTiO3 (STO and MgO substrates exhibit an epitaxial growth of 45° in-plane structure rotation. In contrast, FeRh on LaAlO3 (LAO displays a mixed epitaxial growth of both 45° in-plane structure rotation and cube-on-cube relationships. Due to the different epitaxial growth strains and lattice mismatch values, the critical temperature for the magnetic phase transition of FeRh can be changed between 405 and 360 K. In addition, the external magnetic field can shift this critical temperature to low temperature in different rates for FeRh films grown on different substrates. The magnetoresistance appears a maximum value at different temperatures between 320 and 380 K for FeRh films grown on different substrates.
Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hanabusa
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.
Facchinetti, G.; Ruostekoski, J.
2018-02-01
We study strong, light-mediated, resonant dipole-dipole interactions in two-dimensional planar lattices of cold atoms. We provide a detailed analysis for the description of the dipolar point emitter lattice plane as a "superatom" whose response is similar to electromagnetically induced transparency but which exhibits an ultranarrow collective size-dependent subradiant resonance linewidth. The superatom model provides intuitively simple descriptions for the spectral response of the array, including the complete reflection, full transmission, narrow Fano resonances, and asymptotic expressions for the resonance linewidths of the collective eigenmodes. We propose a protocol to transfer almost the entire radiative excitation to a single correlated subradiant eigenmode in a lattice and show that the medium obtained by stacked lattice arrays can form a cooperative magnetometer. Such a magnetometer utilizes similar principles as magnetometers based on the electromagnetically induced transparency. The accuracy of the cooperative magnetometer, however, is not limited by the single-atom resonance linewidth but the much narrower collective linewidth that results from the strong dipole-dipole interactions.
Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes
Ivanov, Nikolai V.
2016-01-01
The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.
Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5.
Ronning, F; Helm, T; Shirer, K R; Bachmann, M D; Balicas, L; Chan, M K; Ramshaw, B J; McDonald, R D; Balakirev, F F; Jaime, M; Bauer, E D; Moll, P J W
2017-08-17
Electronic nematic materials are characterized by a lowered symmetry of the electronic system compared to the underlying lattice, in analogy to the directional alignment without translational order in nematic liquid crystals. Such nematic phases appear in the copper- and iron-based high-temperature superconductors, and their role in establishing superconductivity remains an open question. Nematicity may take an active part, cooperating or competing with superconductivity, or may appear accidentally in such systems. Here we present experimental evidence for a phase of fluctuating nematic character in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn 5 (ref. 5). We observe a magnetic-field-induced state in the vicinity of a field-tuned antiferromagnetic quantum critical point at H c ≈ 50 tesla. This phase appears above an out-of-plane critical field H* ≈ 28 tesla and is characterized by a substantial in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the presence of a small in-plane field component. The in-plane symmetry breaking has little apparent connection to the underlying lattice, as evidenced by the small magnitude of the magnetostriction anomaly at H*. Furthermore, no anomalies appear in the magnetic torque, suggesting the absence of metamagnetism in this field range. The appearance of nematic behaviour in a prototypical heavy-fermion superconductor highlights the interrelation of nematicity and unconventional superconductivity, suggesting nematicity to be common among correlated materials.
Superfluidity of bosons on a deformable lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackeli, G.; Ranninger, J.
2001-01-01
We study the superfluid properties of a system of interacting bosons on a lattice, which, moreover, are coupled to the vibrational modes of this lattice, treated here in terms of Einstein phonon modes. The ground state corresponds to two correlated condensates: that of the bosons and that of the phonons. Two competing effects determine the common collective sound-wave-like mode with sound velocity v, arising from gauge symmetry breaking. (i) The sound velocity v 0 (corresponding to a weakly interacting Bose system on a rigid lattice) in the lowest-order approximation is reduced due to reduction of the repulsive boson-boson interaction, arising from the attractive part of the phonon-mediated interaction in the static limit. (ii) The second-order correction to the sound velocity is enhanced as compared to that of bosons on a rigid lattice when the boson-phonon interaction is switched on due to the retarded nature of the phonon-mediated interaction. The overall effect is that the sound velocity is essentially unaffected by the coupling with phonons, indicating the robustness of the superfluid state. The induction of a coherent state in the phonon system driven by the condensation of the bosons could be of experimental significance, permitting spectroscopic detection of superfluid properties of bosons. Our results are based on an extension of the Beliaev-Popov formalism for a weakly interacting Bose gas on a rigid lattice to one on a deformable lattice with which it interacts
Lattice calculation of nonleptonic charm decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simone, J.N.
1991-11-01
The decays of charmed mesons into two body nonleptonic final states are investigated. Weak interaction amplitudes of interest in these decays are extracted from lattice four-point correlation functions using a effective weak Hamiltonian including effects to order G f in the weak interactions yet containing effects to all orders in the strong interactions. The lattice calculation allows a quantitative examination of non-spectator processes in charm decays helping to elucidate the role of effects such as color coherence, final state interactions and the importance of the so called weak annihilation process. For D → Kπ, we find that the non-spectator weak annihilation diagram is not small, and we interpret this as evidence for large final state interactions. Moreover, there is indications of a resonance in the isospin 1/2 channel to which the weak annihilation process contributes exclusively. Findings from the lattice calculation are compared to results from the continuum vacuum saturation approximation and amplitudes are examined within the framework of the 1/N expansion. Factorization and the vacuum saturation approximation are tested for lattice amplitudes by comparing amplitudes extracted from lattice four-point functions with the same amplitude extracted from products of two-point and three-point lattice correlation functions arising out of factorization and vacuum saturation
Vitreous in lattice degeneration of retina.
Foos, R Y; Simons, K B
1984-05-01
A localized pocket of missing vitreous invariably overlies lattice degeneration of the retina. Subjects with lattice also have a higher rate of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, which is usually a complication of retinal tears. The latter are in turn a result of alterations in the central vitreous--that is, synchysis senilis leading to posterior vitreous detachment. In order to determine if there is either an association or a deleterious interaction between the local and central lesions of the vitreous in eyes with lattice, a comparison was made in autopsy eyes with and without lattice the degree of synchysis and rate of vitreous detachment. Results show no association between the local and central vitreous lesions, indicating that a higher rate of vitreous detachment is not the basis for the higher rate of retinal detachment in eyes with lattice. Also, there was no suggestion of deleterious interaction between the local and central vitreous lesions, either through vitreodonesis as a basis for precocious vitreous detachment, or through a greater degree of synchysis as a basis for interconnection of local and central lacunae (which could extend the localized retinal detachment in eyes with holes in lattice degeneration).
Lattice thermal conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7-δ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohn, J.L.; Wolf, S.A.; Vanderah, T.A.; Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.
1992-01-01
We report a systematic study of the ab-plane thermal conductivity (K) on single crystal and liquid-phase processed (LPP) specimens of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (δ≤0.16) in the temperature range 10 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. From measurements of electrical conductivity on the same specimens and application of the Wiedemann-Franz law we estimate the relative contributions to the heat conduction from the carriers and the lattice. The normal-state phonon scattering mechanisms are quantified by calculations which employ the conventional theory of lattice heat conduction by longitudinal acoustic phonons. Differences in the magnitude and temperature dependence of K for the LPP and crystal specimens are accounted for by differences in the relative weight of phonon-defect, phonon-carrier, and phonon-phonon scattering. For all specimens phonon-defect scattering predominates throughout most of the temperature range. (orig.)
Resolution of the hydroxyapatite crystal lattice in bone and dental enamel by electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selvig, K.A.
1975-01-01
The molecular and atomic structure of hydroxyapatite was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The form, size and packing of hydroxyapatite crystals in sections of bone and dental hard tissues could be determined. Lattice fringe patterns with repeat distances in the range 2.7-8.2 A occurred in images of individual crystals. On the basis of these fringes the true orientation of the crystals relative to the plane of sectioning was calculated. The observed crystal lattice spacings and interplanar angles were in close agreement with data derived from X-ray diffraction analysis. This study shows that the possibility exists of relating crystallographic analysis to the morphology and fine structure of calcified tissue in health and disease
LAMP-B: a Fortran program set for the lattice cell analysis by collision probability method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchihashi, Keiichiro
1979-02-01
Nature of physical problem solved: LAMB-B solves an integral transport equation by the collision probability method for many variety of lattice cell geometries: spherical, plane and cylindrical lattice cell; square and hexagonal arrays of pin rods; annular clusters and square clusters. LAMP-B produces homogenized constants for multi and/or few group diffusion theory programs. Method of solution: LAMP-B performs an exact numerical integration to obtain the collision probabilities. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Not more than 68 group in the fast group calculation, and not more than 20 regions in the resonance integral calculation. Typical running time: It varies with the number of energy groups and the selection of the geometry. Unusual features of the program: Any or any combination of constituent subprograms can be used so that the partial use of this program is available. (author)
The lattice distortion effect for zinc-blende CrAs and CrSb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamana, Keita; Geshi, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Uchida, Ichiro; Shirai, Masafumi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Suzuki, Naoshi
2004-01-01
We investigated the stability of the ferromagnetism of CrAs and CrSb in the zinc-blende structure against the lattice distortion, systematically. A calculation within the generalized gradient approximation using a full potential linearized augmented plane wave method was performed. We compared the ferromagnetic state and the antiferromagnetic state assuming tetragonal distortion with the lattice constants a and c changing independently and determined the spin polarization ratio in the ferromagnetic phase. The result shows that complete spin polarization (half-metallic ferromagnetism) remains stable even in the presence of large tetragonal distortion. On the other hand, our calculation shows that two monolayers of CrAs is enough to produce a half-metallic state in the CrAs/GaAs multilayer. Thus, the present result suggests that the half-metallic nature persists in various atomic-scale superlattices made of distorted CrAs or CrSb
Computational tools and lattice design for the PEP-II B-Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Yan, Y.
1997-01-01
Several accelerator codes were used to design the PEP-II lattices, ranging from matrix-based codes, such as MAD and DIMAD, to symplectic-integrator codes, such as TRACY and DESPOT. In addition to element-by-element tracking, we constructed maps to determine aberration strengths. Furthermore, we have developed a fast and reliable method (nPB tracking) to track particles with a one-turn map. This new technique allows us to evaluate performance of the lattices on the entire tune-plane. Recently, we designed and implemented an object-oriented code in C++ called LEGO which integrates and expands upon TRACY and DESPOT. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Shimizu, Yuya; Kuramashi, Yoshinobu
2018-02-01
We have made a detailed study of the phase structure for the lattice Schwinger model with one flavor of Wilson fermion on the (m ,g ) plane. For numerical investigation, we develop a decorated tensor renormalization method for lattice gauge theories with fermions incorporating the Grassmann tensor renormalization. Our algorithm manifestly preserves rotation and reflection symmetries. We find not only a parity-broken phase but also a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition by evaluating the central charge and an expectation value of a projection operator into the parity-odd subspace. The BKT phase boundaries converge into the degenerated doubler pole (m ,g )=(-2 ,0 ), while the parity-breaking transition line ends at the physical pole (m ,g )=(0 ,0 ). In addition, our analysis of scaling dimensions indicates that a conformal field theory with SU(2) symmetry arises on the line of m =-2 .
Square-lattice magnetism of diaboleite Pb2Cu(OH)4Cl2
Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Janson, Oleg; Lebernegg, Stefan; Rosner, Helge
2013-02-01
We report on the quasi-two-dimensional magnetism of the natural mineral diaboleite Pb2Cu(OH)4Cl2 with a tetragonal crystal structure, which is closely related to that of the frustrated spin-(1)/(2) magnet PbVO3. Magnetic susceptibility of diaboleite is well described by a Heisenberg spin model on a diluted square lattice with the nearest-neighbor exchange of J≃35 K and about 5% of nonmagnetic impurities. The dilution of the spin lattice reflects the formation of Cu vacancies that are tolerated by the crystal structure of diaboleite. The weak coupling between the magnetic planes triggers the long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN≃11 K. No evidence of magnetic frustration is found. We also analyze the signatures of the long-range order in heat-capacity data, and discuss the capability of identifying magnetic transitions with heat-capacity measurements.
Steady-State Anderson Accelerated Coupling of Lattice Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes Solvers
Atanasov, Atanas
2016-10-17
We present an Anderson acceleration-based approach to spatially couple three-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes (LBNS) flow simulations. This allows to locally exploit the computational features of both fluid flow solver approaches to the fullest extent and yields enhanced control to match the LB and NS degrees of freedom within the LBNS overlap layer. Designed for parallel Schwarz coupling, the Anderson acceleration allows for the simultaneous execution of both Lattice Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes solver. We detail our coupling methodology, validate it, and study convergence and accuracy of the Anderson accelerated coupling, considering three steady-state scenarios: plane channel flow, flow around a sphere and channel flow across a porous structure. We find that the Anderson accelerated coupling yields a speed-up (in terms of iteration steps) of up to 40% in the considered scenarios, compared to strictly sequential Schwarz coupling.
A framework for the calculation of the ΔNγ* transition form factors on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, Andria; Bernard, Véronique; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki
2014-01-01
Using the non-relativistic effective field theory framework in a finite volume, we discuss the extraction of the ΔNγ * transition form factors from lattice data. A counterpart of the Lüscher approach for the matrix elements of unstable states is formulated. In particular, we thoroughly discuss various kinematic settings, which are used in the calculation of the above matrix element on the lattice. The emerging Lüscher–Lellouch factor and the analytic continuation of the matrix elements into the complex plane are also considered in detail. A full group-theoretical analysis of the problem is made, including the partial-wave mixing and projecting out the invariant form factors from data
Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and (ii) a linear and a nonlinear optical lattice. Effective potentials are found for the solitons in both ...
Instantons and topological charge in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Y.; Yoshie, T.
1983-01-01
The existence of instantons on the lattice in SU(2) lattice gauge theory is investigated for various lattice actions with loops of up to six lattice spacings. Instantons exist only for the actions where short range fluctuations are suppressed. A formula for topological properties of the solutions are examined. (orig.)
An approach to the isoperimetric problem on some lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duarte, J.A.M.S.
1979-01-01
In this paper it is shown how elements of convex-set theory and lattice symmetry requirements can be combined to determine the areas, symmetry point groups and lattice constants of all isoperimetric solutions for regular lattices. The technique is also applied to one semi-regular lattice, where it assists in obtaining the exact expansion for polygonal closures. (author)
Deflection of electron beams by ground planes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.
1991-01-01
Analytic methods are used to determine the effect of a nearby ground plane on the trajectory of a relativistic electron beam passing through dense gas. The beam is shown to respond to the ground plane in one of two distinct modes, determined by beam current and energy. Low-power beams deflect from the ground plane and tear longitudinally. High-power beams do not deflect or tear but tilt, i.e., the beam axis is no longer parallel to the direction of propagation. This conclusion is reached by computing the net beam force as a superposition of the ''bare'' ground-plane forces, the shielding forces from the beam-generated plasma, the body coupling forces induced by beam tilt, and the force that arises as the beam separates from the plasma. Effects from electromagnetic retardation and ground resistivity are shown to be negligible in typical cases of interest, and the interaction between ground planes and other external forces is discussed as well
The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs
2017-01-01
Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...
A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"
Eder, W. E.
1982-01-01
Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.
Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.
1987-01-01
Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)
Hyper-lattice algebraic model for data warehousing
Sen, Soumya; Chaki, Nabendu
2016-01-01
This book presents Hyper-lattice, a new algebraic model for partially ordered sets, and an alternative to lattice. The authors analyze some of the shortcomings of conventional lattice structure and propose a novel algebraic structure in the form of Hyper-lattice to overcome problems with lattice. They establish how Hyper-lattice supports dynamic insertion of elements in a partial order set with a partial hierarchy between the set members. The authors present the characteristics and the different properties, showing how propositions and lemmas formalize Hyper-lattice as a new algebraic structure.
On the performance of 1-level LDPC lattices
Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Sakzad, Amin
2013-01-01
The low-density parity-check (LDPC) lattices perform very well in high dimensions under generalized min-sum iterative decoding algorithm. In this work we focus on 1-level LDPC lattices. We show that these lattices are the same as lattices constructed based on Construction A and low-density lattice-code (LDLC) lattices. In spite of having slightly lower coding gain, 1-level regular LDPC lattices have remarkable performances. The lower complexity nature of the decoding algorithm for these type ...
Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory
Schaich, David
In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses
Symmetry of semi-reduced lattices.
Stróż, Kazimierz
2015-05-01
The main result of this work is extension of the famous characterization of Bravais lattices according to their metrical, algebraic and geometric properties onto a wide class of primitive lattices (including Buerger-reduced, nearly Buerger-reduced and a substantial part of Delaunay-reduced) related to low-restricted semi-reduced descriptions (s.r.d.'s). While the `geometric' operations in Bravais lattices map the basis vectors into themselves, the `arithmetic' operators in s.r.d. transform the basis vectors into cell vectors (basis vectors, face or space diagonals) and are represented by matrices from the set {\\bb V} of all 960 matrices with the determinant ±1 and elements {0, ±1} of the matrix powers. A lattice is in s.r.d. if the moduli of off-diagonal elements in both the metric tensors M and M(-1) are smaller than corresponding diagonal elements sharing the same column or row. Such lattices are split into 379 s.r.d. types relative to the arithmetic holohedries. Metrical criteria for each type do not need to be explicitly given but may be modelled as linear derivatives {\\bb M}(p,q,r), where {\\bb M} denotes the set of 39 highest-symmetry metric tensors, and p,q,r describe changes of appropriate interplanar distances. A sole filtering of {\\bb V} according to an experimental s.r.d. metric and subsequent geometric interpretation of the filtered matrices lead to mathematically stable and rich information on the Bravais-lattice symmetry and deviations from the exact symmetry. The emphasis on the crystallographic features of lattices was obtained by shifting the focus (i) from analysis of a lattice metric to analysis of symmetry matrices [Himes & Mighell (1987). Acta Cryst. A43, 375-384], (ii) from the isometric approach and invariant subspaces to the orthogonality concept {some ideas in Le Page [J. Appl. Cryst. (1982), 15, 255-259]} and splitting indices [Stróż (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 421-429] and (iii) from fixed cell transformations to transformations
Kosevich, Yu. A.; Strelnikov, I. A.
2018-02-01
Destructive quantum interference between the waves propagating through laterally inhomogeneous layer can result in their total reflection, which in turn reduces energy flux carried by these waves. We consider the systems of Ge atoms, which fully or partly, in the chequer-wise order, fill a crystal plane in diamond-like Si lattice. We have revealed that a single type of the atomic defects, which are placed in identical positions in different unit cells in the defect crystal plane, can result in double transmission antiresonances of phonon wave packets. This new effect we relate with the complex structure of the diamond-like unit cell, which comprises two atoms in different positions and results in two distinct vibration resonances in two interfering phonon paths. We also consider the propagation of phonon wave packets in the superlatticies made of the defect planes, half-filled in the chequer-wise order with Ge atoms. We have revealed relatively broad phonon stop bands with center frequencies at the transmission antiresonances. We elaborate the equivalent analytical quasi-1D lattice model of the two phonon paths through the complex planar defect in the diamond-like lattice and describe the reduction of phonon heat transfer through the atomic-scale planar defects.