WorldWideScience

Sample records for densely populated region

  1. Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Pal, Jeremy S; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2017-08-01

    The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions. The most intense hazard from extreme future heat waves is concentrated around densely populated agricultural regions of the Ganges and Indus river basins. Climate change, without mitigation, presents a serious and unique risk in South Asia, a region inhabited by about one-fifth of the global human population, due to an unprecedented combination of severe natural hazard and acute vulnerability.

  2. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  3. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  4. Relations between species rarity, vulnerability, and range contraction for a beetle group in a densely populated region in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Rarity is often considered an indication of species extinction risk, and it is frequently used to obtain measures of species vulnerability. However, there is no strong evidence of a correlation between species vulnerability and threat. Moreover, there is no consensus about how rarity should be measured. I used a multidimensional characterization of species rarity to calculate a vulnerability index for tenebrionid beetles inhabiting an Italian region in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. I used different metrics to examine 3 dimensions of rarity: species range, ecology, and population. Species with rarity values below the median were scored as rare for each dimension. I combined rarity scores into a vulnerability index. I then correlated species vulnerability with range trends (expanded vs. contracted). Different measures of the same rarity dimension were strongly correlated and produced similar vulnerability scores. This result indicates rarity-based vulnerability estimates are slightly affected by the way a certain rarity dimension is measured. Vulnerability was correlated with range trends; species with the highest vulnerability had the strongest range contraction. However, a large number of common species also underwent range contraction in the last 50 years, and there was no clear relation between range contraction and their ecology. This indicates that in general human-induced environmental changes affected species irrespective of their assumed vulnerability and that focusing only on rare species may severely bias perceptions of the extent of species decline. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. A decision support model for waste management in support of developing low carbon, eco regions. Case studies of densely populated kampung settlements in urban areas in Jakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candra Dewi, Ova

    2013-01-01

    Due to the various types of waste disposal, treatment, utilization and technologies, decision support model for waste management is needed to assist planners and decision makers in finding most suitable way to manage municipal solid waste efficiently. Many planners and decision makers in the area of municipal solid waste have a lack of thorough understanding of the complex chains of waste management system. Therefore the impact for the environment quality and the public health can only be judged at the rudimentary level. However, most existing models are primarily focusing on cost or environmental analysis. Only few consider other crucial factors such as the demographic condition, the characteristics of urban form and urban infrastructure, land transformation aspects due to urban development. Consequently, such models often meet difficulties to cope with cultural requirement. Based on those reasons, a decision support model to set up alternatives of most appropriate technology for sustainable waste management towards a low carbon eco-city on a regional basis is developed in this PhD study. The Low Carbon- and Eco-Region, in particular the contribution of waste management sector, is a vision of living in low rate of carbon generation, using fewer natural resources, and encouraging energy recovery and/or waste reduction at source by improving the used material quality (up-cycling). This decision support model is constructed mainly based on the cultural requirement and local context of a region and synergize the geographic, environmental, social capital and economics aspects in order to fulfill the needs of the respective region and its society. The method employed in this model is not solely a new developed model, but also an advanced model in material flow analysis (STAN), and life cycle assessment on solid waste system (EASEWASTE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). At the same time the model also assists the stakeholders in improving the environmental quality

  6. A decision support model for waste management in support of developing low carbon, eco regions. Case studies of densely populated kampung settlements in urban areas in Jakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candra Dewi, Ova

    2013-06-14

    Due to the various types of waste disposal, treatment, utilization and technologies, decision support model for waste management is needed to assist planners and decision makers in finding most suitable way to manage municipal solid waste efficiently. Many planners and decision makers in the area of municipal solid waste have a lack of thorough understanding of the complex chains of waste management system. Therefore the impact for the environment quality and the public health can only be judged at the rudimentary level. However, most existing models are primarily focusing on cost or environmental analysis. Only few consider other crucial factors such as the demographic condition, the characteristics of urban form and urban infrastructure, land transformation aspects due to urban development. Consequently, such models often meet difficulties to cope with cultural requirement. Based on those reasons, a decision support model to set up alternatives of most appropriate technology for sustainable waste management towards a low carbon eco-city on a regional basis is developed in this PhD study. The Low Carbon- and Eco-Region, in particular the contribution of waste management sector, is a vision of living in low rate of carbon generation, using fewer natural resources, and encouraging energy recovery and/or waste reduction at source by improving the used material quality (up-cycling). This decision support model is constructed mainly based on the cultural requirement and local context of a region and synergize the geographic, environmental, social capital and economics aspects in order to fulfill the needs of the respective region and its society. The method employed in this model is not solely a new developed model, but also an advanced model in material flow analysis (STAN), and life cycle assessment on solid waste system (EASEWASTE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). At the same time the model also assists the stakeholders in improving the environmental quality

  7. Siting of nuclear power plants in densely populated countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Y.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the safety of reactor siting, three typical approaches can be applied; the deterministic approach, the probabilistic approach and the combined approach. In regard to a risk associated with siting, the design of a reactor has to do with both individual and societal risk, while exclusion distance mainly has to do with individual risk, and surrounding population primarily has to do with societal risk. Consequently, in a densely populated area, more attention should be paid to societal risk. There are many reactor sites in the world which can be described as concentrated siting. Although concentrated siting has a lot of merits, such as reducing the construction cost or maintenance cost of reactors, more careful consideration should be paid to safety-related matters of such concentrated reactors because the risk to the individual from accidents caused by concentrated reactors is larger than that from a single reactor. As for the recent controversial issue concerning siting criteria, it appears that the present international consensus on siting philosophy is still valid after the TMI accident. (author)

  8. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3 were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB and the other in the historical city centre (CC. Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m−3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m−3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv. This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm, gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42− daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4

  9. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; Querol, X.

    2012-08-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m-3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m-3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42- daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.

  10. Electron acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized two electron population dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Masood, W.

    2008-01-01

    The electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in unmagnetized two population electron quantum plasmas. The quantum hydrodynamic model is employed with the Sagdeev potential approach to describe the arbitrary amplitude electron acoustic waves in a two electron population dense Fermi plasma. It is found that hot electron density hump structures are formed in the subsonic region in such type of quantum plasmas. The wave amplitude as well as the width of the soliton are increased with the increase of percentage presence of cold (thinly populated) electrons in a multicomponent quantum plasma. It is found that an increase in quantum diffraction parameter broadens the nonlinear structure. Furthermore, the amplitude of the nonlinear electron acoustic wave is found to increase with the decrease in Mach number. The numerical results are also presented to understand the formation of solitons in two electron population Fermi plasmas.

  11. Regional Population Projections for China

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, F.L.; Cao, G.-Y.; Hizsnyik, E.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the size and the regional diversity of China, a prudent analysis of many economic and policy issues needs to consider the regional differences in climate, soil, water, and other natural resource endowments, population density, and social and economic development. Future-oriented multi-regional assessments require regionally detailed scenarios. A key component of such scenarios is the evolution of the population in different regions. For studies of land-use change and agriculture, ...

  12. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  14. Admissibility region for rarefaction shock waves in dense gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamfirescu, C.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the vapour phase and close to the liquid–vapour saturation curve, fluids made of complex molecules are expected to exhibit a thermodynamic region in which the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic ? is negative. In this region, non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves are

  15. Admissibility region for rarefaction shock waves in dense gases

    OpenAIRE

    Zamfirescu, C.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the vapour phase and close to the liquid–vapour saturation curve, fluids made of complex molecules are expected to exhibit a thermodynamic region in which the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic ? is negative. In this region, non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves are physically admissible, namely they obey the second law of thermodynamics and fulfil the speed-orienting condition for mechanical stability. Previous studies have demonstrated that the thermodynami...

  16. Lectures on the physics of the super dense region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1980-06-01

    In these notes the main physical processes of interest in laser produced plasmas in the superdense region of the plasma (densities above the critical density for penetration of the laser radiation) are discussed. The processes of energy transport and hydrodynamic compression are considered with particular emphasis on the generation of high pressure and its utilisation in the production of high density plasmas. The notes are presented under the headings; introduction, thermal conduction, plasma pressure generated by laser irradiation of a solid, shock waves, compression of matter, plasma compression and heating in exploding pusher targets, plasma compression in ablatively imploded targets. 124 references. (U.K.)

  17. MITIGATION SCENARIOS FOR RESIDENTIAL FIRES IN DENSELY POPULATED URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SUKAHAJI VILLAGE, BANDUNG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saut Aritua Hasiholan Sagala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential fires are a form of disaster that often occurs in urban areas especially in densely populated settlements. This study looks at possible mitigation scenarios for this kind of disaster. A case study was conducted in Babakan Ciparay Sub-District in Bandung City, among the densely populated settlements, and was focused especially on Sukahaji Village, a sub-unit of Babakan Ciparay, which is the most densely populated village in Bandung City with up to 234.14 people/ha. There have been six structural fires recorded from 2007 until 2010 occurring in Sukahaji. This study applied stratified random sampling as the preferred sampling technique and data collection method from a total population of 3,227 buildings. The data was then examined using risk analysis. The results have led to two intervention measures suggested as mitigation scenarios for residential fires that can be applied within the Sukahaji Village. The study concludes that mitigation measures through strengthening community capacity can be the principal option in reducing risk to fires in densely populated urban settlements.

  18. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  19. Efficient Online Aggregates in Dense-Region-Based Data Cube Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, Kais; Lauer, Tobias

    In-memory OLAP systems require a space-efficient representation of sparse data cubes in order to accommodate large data sets. On the other hand, most efficient online aggregation techniques, such as prefix sums, are built on dense array-based representations. These are often not applicable to real-world data due to the size of the arrays which usually cannot be compressed well, as most sparsity is removed during pre-processing. A possible solution is to identify dense regions in a sparse cube and only represent those using arrays, while storing sparse data separately, e.g. in a spatial index structure. Previous dense-region-based approaches have concentrated mainly on the effectiveness of the dense-region detection (i.e. on the space-efficiency of the result). However, especially in higher-dimensional cubes, data is usually more cluttered, resulting in a potentially large number of small dense regions, which negatively affects query performance on such a structure. In this paper, our focus is not only on space-efficiency but also on time-efficiency, both for the initial dense-region extraction and for queries carried out in the resulting hybrid data structure. We describe two methods to trade available memory for increased aggregate query performance. In addition, optimizations in our approach significantly reduce the time to build the initial data structure compared to former systems. Also, we present a straightforward adaptation of our approach to support multi-core or multi-processor architectures, which can further enhance query performance. Experiments with different real-world data sets show how various parameter settings can be used to adjust the efficiency and effectiveness of our algorithms.

  20. Module discovery by exhaustive search for densely connected, co-expressed regions in biomolecular interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Colak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of functionally related groups of genes (functional modules from large-scale data is an important issue in computational biology. Gene expression experiments and interaction networks are well studied large-scale data sources, available for many not yet exhaustively annotated organisms. It has been well established, when analyzing these two data sources jointly, modules are often reflected by highly interconnected (dense regions in the interaction networks whose participating genes are co-expressed. However, the tractability of the problem had remained unclear and methods by which to exhaustively search for such constellations had not been presented.We provide an algorithmic framework, referred to as Densely Connected Biclustering (DECOB, by which the aforementioned search problem becomes tractable. To benchmark the predictive power inherent to the approach, we computed all co-expressed, dense regions in physical protein and genetic interaction networks from human and yeast. An automatized filtering procedure reduces our output which results in smaller collections of modules, comparable to state-of-the-art approaches. Our results performed favorably in a fair benchmarking competition which adheres to standard criteria. We demonstrate the usefulness of an exhaustive module search, by using the unreduced output to more quickly perform GO term related function prediction tasks. We point out the advantages of our exhaustive output by predicting functional relationships using two examples.We demonstrate that the computation of all densely connected and co-expressed regions in interaction networks is an approach to module discovery of considerable value. Beyond confirming the well settled hypothesis that such co-expressed, densely connected interaction network regions reflect functional modules, we open up novel computational ways to comprehensively analyze the modular organization of an organism based on prevalent and largely

  1. Module discovery by exhaustive search for densely connected, co-expressed regions in biomolecular interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Recep; Moser, Flavia; Chu, Jeffrey Shih-Chieh; Schönhuth, Alexander; Chen, Nansheng; Ester, Martin

    2010-10-25

    Computational prediction of functionally related groups of genes (functional modules) from large-scale data is an important issue in computational biology. Gene expression experiments and interaction networks are well studied large-scale data sources, available for many not yet exhaustively annotated organisms. It has been well established, when analyzing these two data sources jointly, modules are often reflected by highly interconnected (dense) regions in the interaction networks whose participating genes are co-expressed. However, the tractability of the problem had remained unclear and methods by which to exhaustively search for such constellations had not been presented. We provide an algorithmic framework, referred to as Densely Connected Biclustering (DECOB), by which the aforementioned search problem becomes tractable. To benchmark the predictive power inherent to the approach, we computed all co-expressed, dense regions in physical protein and genetic interaction networks from human and yeast. An automatized filtering procedure reduces our output which results in smaller collections of modules, comparable to state-of-the-art approaches. Our results performed favorably in a fair benchmarking competition which adheres to standard criteria. We demonstrate the usefulness of an exhaustive module search, by using the unreduced output to more quickly perform GO term related function prediction tasks. We point out the advantages of our exhaustive output by predicting functional relationships using two examples. We demonstrate that the computation of all densely connected and co-expressed regions in interaction networks is an approach to module discovery of considerable value. Beyond confirming the well settled hypothesis that such co-expressed, densely connected interaction network regions reflect functional modules, we open up novel computational ways to comprehensively analyze the modular organization of an organism based on prevalent and largely available large

  2. Bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton system in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1986-05-01

    The steady state bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton semiconductor is considered. The intrinsic optical feedback is provided by the recombination mechanism. The exciton-biexciton and biexciton-biexciton interactions play the role of non-linearity responsible for biexciton bistability to occur. The conditions leading to the effect of bistability are obtained and two-parameter phase transition diagrams are drawn for both intensity and frequency bistable phenomena. (author)

  3. Evidence of the Dampening Effect of Dense E-region Structures on E-F Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmboldt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results from a combination of instruments including ionosondes, GPS receivers, the Very Large Array (VLA), and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) are used to demonstrate the role structure within the E-region plays in coupling between instabilities within the E and F regions at midlatitudes. VLA observations of cosmic sources at 74 MHz during summer nighttime in 2002 detected northwest-to-southeast aligned wavefronts, consistent with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). These waves were only found when contemporaneous observations from nearby ionosondes detected echoes from sporadic-E layers. However, when the peak density of these layers was high (foEs> 3 MHz), there were no MSTIDs detected. Similar results are presented using the first station of the LWA, LWA1, to perform all-sky imaging of dense E-region structures (sporadic-E "clouds") via coherent scattering of distant analog TV broadcasts at 55 MHz. These observations were conducted during summer/autumn 2012 and include simultaneous GPS-based observations of F-region disturbances.Left: LWA1 all-sky image of ionospheric echoes of analog TV transmissions at 55.25 MHz. Right: Doppler speed maps for the brightest echoes.

  4. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Takeshita

    Full Text Available Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2 on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered.

  5. Evaluation of regional ionospheric grid model over China from dense GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global or regional ionospheric models have been established for monitoring the ionospheric variations. However, the spatial and temporal resolutions are not enough to describe total electron content (TEC variations in small scales for China. In this paper, a regional ionospheric grid model (RIGM with high spatial-temporal resolution (0.5° × 0.5° and 10-min interval in China and surrounding areas is established based on spherical harmonics expansion from dense GPS measurements provided by Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and the International GNSS Service (IGS. The correlation coefficient between the estimated TEC from GPS and the ionosonde measurements is 0.97, and the root mean square (RMS with respect to Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE Global Ionosphere Maps (GIMs is 4.87 TECU. In addition, the impact of different spherical harmonics orders and degrees on TEC estimations are evaluated and the degree/order 6 is better. Moreover, effective ionospheric shell heights from 300 km to 700 km are further assessed and the result indicates that 550 km is the most suitable for regional ionospheric modeling in China at solar maximum.

  6. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  7. Identification of the antigenic region of Neospora caninum dense granule protein 7 using ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaky, Hanan H; Fereig, Ragab M; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2018-06-26

    Dense granule protein 7 (NcGRA7) is a potent diagnostic antigen of Neospora caninum. Some studies have reported on the difficult expression, low yield, and variable degree of solubility of recombinant NcGRA7. We aimed to unravel the possible causes for these issues and tested NcGRA7 antigenicity in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The NcGRA7 coding sequence (217 amino acids) was split into five amino acid regions: NcGRA7m (27-217), NcGRA7m3 (27-160), NcGRA7m4 (27-135), NcGRA7m5 (161-190), and NcGRA7m6 (188-217). Three fragments, NcGRA7m, NcGRA7m3 and NcGRA7m4, exhibited high antigenic properties when tested against experimentally-infected mice and dog sera by ELISA. High levels of IgG2 antibodies against NcGRA7m were observed in field dog sera. In experimentally and naturally-infected cattle, the N. caninum-specific sera only reacted with NcGRA7m, indicating that this antigenic region differs among the three animal species. This study presents valuable information about the antigenic properties and topology of NcGRA7, and highlights its suitability for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Nuclear energy in a densely populated and built-up country such as the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Eschhaus, M.; Hensel, W.; Kayser, J.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear energy is absolutely necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany. By 1995, 75% of the energy used in that country for electricity production will be nuclear, which means an installed nuclear power of approximately 100 000 MW with all its nuclear infrastructure such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal and transport of a great deal of radioactive material between these services. Many sites are needed for these activities, including transport, which is, in fact, comprised of moving sites on special lines. Risk analysis is also needed for all this, the basis of which is the use of land in the western part of the country by population and industry. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the most densely populated and built-up areas in the world. A computer program with a voluminous information system which stores all the relevant land-use data was written. A simulation program was also written to analyse the required regional capacity for transport of nuclear material in respect of different sites for power plants, reprocessing plants and waste disposal. This simulation program makes optimization with variable criteria. All the railway lines which can be used for heavy transport are stored in the computer as well as the traffic routes and rivers. The computer calculations show that, especially for selection of sites for reprocessing plants, the minimization of transport should be an important criterion in an intensely used country like the Federal Republic of Germany. The country will be forced to undertake detailed regional planning for the introduction of nuclear energy to achieve minimum risk to the population and minimum risk to the introduction itself. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional fabrication of thick and densely populated soft constructs with complex and actively perfused channel network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, C Rodrigo; Ko, Suk Kyu; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental steps needed to design functional tissues and, ultimately organs is the ability to fabricate thick and densely populated tissue constructs with controlled vasculature and microenvironment. To date, bioprinting methods have been employed to manufacture tissue constructs with...

  10. NGVLA Observations of Dense Gas Filaments in Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, James; Chen, Mike; Keown, Jared; GAS Team, KEYSTONE Team

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations of continuum emission from nearby star-forming regions with Herschel and JCMT have revealed that filaments are ubiquitous structures within molecular clouds. Such filaments appear to be intimately connected to star formation, with those having column densities of AV > 8 hosting the majority of prestellar cores and young protostars in clouds. Indeed, this “threshold” can be explained simply as the result of supercritical cylinder fragmentation. How specifically star-forming filaments form in molecular clouds, however, remains unclear, though gravity and turbulence are likely involved. Observations of their kinematics are needed to understand how mass flows both onto and through these filaments. We show here results from two recent surveys, the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS) and the K-band Examinations of Young Stellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE) that have used the Green Bank Telescope’s K-band Focal Plane Array instrument to map NH3 (1,1) emission from dense gas in nearby star-forming regions. Data from both surveys show that NH3 emission traces extremely well the high column density gas across these star-forming regions. In particular, the GAS results for NGC 1333 show NH3-based velocity gradients either predominantly parallel or perpendicular to the filament spines. Though the GAS and KEYSTONE data are vital for probing filaments, higher resolutions than possible with the GBT alone are needed to examine the kinematic patterns on the 0.1-pc scales of star-forming cores within filaments. We describe how the Next Generation Very Large Array (NGVLA) will uniquely provide the key wide-field data of high sensitivity needed to explore how ambient gas in molecular clouds forms filaments that evolve toward star formation.

  11. Regional radiation standards for population of Chelyabinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Eh.M.; Zajtseva, Yh.A.; Panteleev, V.V.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Kolotygina, N.V.; Pudovkina, L.V.; Kravtsova, O.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional radiation regulations for population exposures in Chelyabinsk region are developed which are to play the role of standard limits. The priority goal of setting standard level is to consolidate the achieved radioecological balance on the contaminated territories and to establish a mechanism of control over the activities of the facility and over the use of lands in restriction zone by the population

  12. Population development in Ljubljana urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristic of population development and urbanisation processes in Ljubljana and Ljubljana urban region. Up to the end of the seventies fast population growth was a consequence of strong immigration from rural parts of Slovenia and the rest of Yugoslavia. In the eighties and nineties deconcentration of population within the region with intense suburbanisation and depopulation of inner city and older residential neighbourhoods were the main urbanisation processes. In the second half of the nineties the highest population growth was recorded in dispersed rural settlements in the periphery of the region. In some parts of the inner city reurbanisation and gentrification occurred.

  13. Ants in Tropical Urban Habitats: The Myrmecofauna in a Densely Populated Area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD RIZALI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ants are the most abundant animals in tropical habitats and have been widely studied in natural and semi-natural tropical systems. However, species in urban tropical habitats remain poorly studied, despite their abundance and potentially important roles in urban ecosystems and pest dynamics. We investigated the ant fauna of Bogor and its surroundings to contribute to the characterization of the myrmecofauna of one of Southeast Asia’s most densely populated regions. Ants were collected both by hand collection and from honey baits in the most common habitats: garbage dumps, households, and home gardens. In total, 94 species were recorded, over two thirds of which occurred in home gardens, which underlines the importance of vegetated habitats for urban planning to support complex ant assemblages. Twelve sampled species are well-known as tramp species that occur primarily in human-dominated landscapes. The two tramp species Anoplolepis gracilipes and Paratrechina longicornis dominated ant assemblages in all locations and most habitat types. The assemblages of tramp species were affected by habitat type, whereas that of non tramp species were not. Forty-five species were also recorded in the Bogor Botanical Garden and five species are also known to be common in cacao agroforests. Hence, research in urban tropical habitats can increase our knowledge of the occurrence of ant species, allowing us to better assess the biodiversity and conservation potential of semi-natural habitats.

  14. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  15. Africa region population projections : 1990-91

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Patience W.; Bos, Eduard; Vu, My T.; Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

    1991-01-01

    As recently as the mid-1970s, the Africa region had a smaller population than the Asia, the Latin American and the Caribbean, or the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa regions. Explosive population growth of more than 3 percent per year, projected to decline only gradually, will make Africa the second largest region by 2005. Its share of the world's population will increase from less than 10 percent now to 20 percent in the middle of the next century and to 25 percent when stationarity is ...

  16. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo; Spena, Angelo; Buttinelli, Mauro; Cantucci, Barbara; Procesi, Monia

    2013-01-01

    from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calculated for each renewable energy technology (solar, wind, geothermal) highlighting the potentiality of the last. Why the Italian case history among the densely populated countries? on the Italian territory is hard to find suitable areas (mostly if greenfields) to use the own underground, with respect to other European countries, due to the presence of seismotectonic activity and many faulted areas characterized by Diffuse Degassing Structures (DDSs, which are rich in CO 2 and CH 4 ). In this cases, public acceptance must be facilitated by the concerted efforts of researchers, universities, NGOs and policy-makers.

  17. Africa region population projections - 1988-89

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, My T.; Bos, Eduard; Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

    1988-01-01

    The report which is part of a series, presents population projection tables for each country in the Africa region. The report provides an explanation on projection results as well as a description of the projection methodology, summarizing the main results. The projections in the report cover the period 1985 - 2150. This time period allows countries to approach stability. The key elements in these projections are the base year (mid 1985). Total population estimates and age - sex structures ar...

  18. From gas to stars in energetic environments: dense gas clumps in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Crystal N.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie; Henkel, Christian; Chen, Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Muller, Erik; Pineda, Jorge L.; Seale, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present parsec-scale interferometric maps of HCN(1-0) and HCO + (1-0) emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is characterized by a very intense ultraviolet ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to impact molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 bright, dense clumps within the 30 Doradus-10 giant molecular cloud. Some of the clumps are aligned along a filamentary structure with a characteristic spacing that is consistent with formation via varicose fluid instability. Our analysis shows that the filament is gravitationally unstable and collapsing to form stars. There is a good correlation between HCO + emission in the filament and signatures of recent star formation activity including H 2 O masers and young stellar objects (YSOs). YSOs seem to continue along the same direction of the filament toward the massive compact star cluster R136 in the southwest. We present detailed comparisons of clump properties (masses, linewidths, and sizes) in 30Dor-10 to those in other star forming regions of the LMC (N159, N113, N105, and N44). Our analysis shows that the 30Dor-10 clumps have similar masses but wider linewidths and similar HCN/HCO + (1-0) line ratios as clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions. Our results suggest that the dense molecular gas clumps in the interior of 30Dor-10 are well shielded against the intense ionizing field that is present in the 30 Doradus region.

  19. Nonlinear Absorption-Gain Response and Population Dynamics in a Laser-Driven Four-Level Dense Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Luo Jinming; Xie Xiaotao

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the response of nonlinear absorption and population dynamics in optically dense media of four-level atoms driven by a single-mode probe laser, via taking the density-dependent near dipole-dipole (NDD) interactions into consideration. The influence of the NDD effects on the absorption of the probe field and population dynamics is predicted via numerical calculations. It is shown that the NDD effects can reduce gradually to transient absorption with the increase of the strengths of the NDD interactions, and transient amplification can be achieved. In the steady-state limit, the probe field exhibits transparency for strong NDD interactions. Alternatively, the population entirely remains at the ground state due to the NDD effects.

  20. A system for household enumeration and re-identification in densely populated slums to facilitate community research, education, and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R Thomson

    Full Text Available We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India.LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data.LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.

  1. Statistical dynamics of regional populations and economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Hao, Rui; Wang, Peng

    Quantitative analysis of human behavior and social development is becoming a hot spot of some interdisciplinary studies. A statistical analysis on the population and GDP of 150 cities in China from 1990 to 2013 is conducted. The result indicates the cumulative probability distribution of the populations and that of the GDPs obeying the shifted power law, respectively. In order to understand these characteristics, a generalized Langevin equation describing variation of population is proposed, which is based on the correlations between population and GDP as well as the random fluctuations of the related factors. The equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to express the evolution of population distribution. The general solution demonstrates a transition of the distribution from the normal Gaussian distribution to a shifted power law, which suggests a critical point of time at which the transition takes place. The shifted power law distribution in the supercritical situation is qualitatively in accordance with the practical result. The distribution of the GDPs is derived from the well-known Cobb-Douglas production function. The result presents a change, in supercritical situation, from a shifted power law to the Gaussian distribution. This is a surprising result-the regional GDP distribution of our world will be the Gaussian distribution one day in the future. The discussions based on the changing trend of economic growth suggest it will be true. Therefore, these theoretical attempts may draw a historical picture of our society in the aspects of population and economy.

  2. Low doses of six toxicants change plant size distribution in dense populations of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Patama, Marjo; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2018-08-01

    Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects. We tested the response of Lactuca sativa in complete dose-response experiments to six different toxicants at doses that did not decrease population mean and beyond. The tested toxicants were IAA, parthenin, HHCB, 4-tert-octylphenol, glyphosate, and pelargonic acid. Each experiment consisted of 14,400-16,800 seedlings, 12-14 concentrations, 24 replicates per concentration and 50 germinated seeds per replicate. We analyzed the commonness of selective low-dose effects and explored if toxic effects and hormetic stimulation among fast- and slow-growing individuals occurred at the same concentrations as they occur at the population level. Irrespective of the observed response pattern and toxicant, selective low-dose effects were found. Toxin effects among fast-growing individuals usually started at higher doses compared to the population mean, while the opposite was found among slow-growing individuals. Very low toxin exposures tended to homogenize plant populations due to selective effects, while higher, but still hormetic doses tended to heterogenize plant populations. Although the extent of observed size segregation varied with the specific toxin tested, we conclude that a dose-dependent alteration in size distribution of a plant population may generally apply for many toxin exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution remote sensing of densely urbanised regions: a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet E; Wong, Man Sing

    2009-01-01

    Data on the urban environment such as climate or air quality is usually collected at a few point monitoring stations distributed over a city. However, the synoptic viewpoint of satellites where a whole city is visible on a single image permits the collection of spatially comprehensive data at city-wide scale. In spite of rapid developments in remote sensing systems, deficiencies in image resolution and algorithm development still exist for applications such as air quality monitoring and urban heat island analysis. This paper describes state-of-the-art techniques for enhancing and maximising the spatial detail available from satellite images, and demonstrates their applications to the densely urbanised environment of Hong Kong. An Emissivity Modulation technique for spatial enhancement of thermal satellite images permits modelling of urban microclimate in combination with other urban structural parameters at local scale. For air quality monitoring, a Minimum Reflectance Technique (MRT) has been developed for MODIS 500 m images. The techniques described can promote the routine utilization of remotely sensed images for environmental monitoring in cities of the 21(st) century.

  4. Implementing ecological networks through the Red for Green approach in a densely populated country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Achterberg, E.; Grift, van der E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Regional and local governments in Europe are often challenged with establishing suitable institutional practices to meet ecological targets within urban spatial development plans and address the ultimate goal of the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI). EPI has been proliferated by the European

  5. Dense reconstruction of brain-wide neuronal population close to the ground truth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shiwei; Li, Jing; Su, Lei; Li, Anan; Feng, Xiong; Li, Ning; Han, Jiacheng; Kang, Hongtao; Chen, Yijun; Fang, Wenqian; Liu, Yidong; Lin, Huimin; Jin, Sen

    2017-01-01

    Neuron is the basic structure and functional unit of the brain, its projection and connections with other neurons provide a basic physical infrastructure for neural signal storage, allocation, processing, and integration. Recent technique progresses allow for labeling and imaging specific neuronal populations at single axonal level across a whole mouse brain. However, digital reconstruction of these neuron individuals needs months of human labor or sometimes is even an impossible task. Here w...

  6. Iodine Support of Population in Vinnytsa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Vlasenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 9 localities in Vinnitsa region the study of iodine support of population was conducted. 810 persons were examined including 540 children aged 7–12 years old living under the conditions of combined influence of geochemical and anthropogenic ecological factors. Vinnitsa region was found to be the territory with the mild iodine deficiency. Schoolboys with endemic increase of thyroid gland appeared to have typically higher prevalence of chronic somatic pathology. The peculiarities of goitrous endemia confirm complex pathogenesis of thyromegaly in children under conditions of combined influence of anthropogenic and geochemical factors, caused not only by the absolute iodine insufficiency but also by influence of additional goiterous factors. These peculiarities determine the necessity of complex approach to perform preventive antithyroid measures.

  7. Herschel observations in the ultracompact HII region Mon R2 : Water in dense photon-dominated regions (PDRs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuente, A.; Berne, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Rizzo, J. R.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pilleri, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Guesten, R.; Akyilmaz, M.; Benz, A. O.; Boulanger, F.; Bruderer, S.; Dedes, C.; France, K.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Harris, A.; Joblin, C.; Klein, T.; Kramer, C.; Le Petit, F.; Lord, S. D.; Martin, P. G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Okada, Y.; Pety, J.; Phillips, T. G.; Roellig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; van der Tak, F.; Teyssier, D.; Usero, A.; Yorke, H.; Schuster, K.; Melchior, M.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Fich, M.; McCoey, C.; Pearson, J.; Dieleman, P.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Monoceros R2, at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultracompact Hii region (UC Hii) where the photon-dominated region (PDR) between the ionized gas and the molecular cloud can be resolved with Herschel. Therefore, it is an excellent laboratory to study the chemistry in extreme PDRs (G0 >

  8. Gasdynamics of H II regions. V. The interaction of weak R ionization fronts with dense clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Bedijn, P J

    1981-06-01

    The interaction of weak R-type ionization fronts with a density enhancement is calculated numerically as a function of time within the framework of the champagne model of the evolution of H II regions. Calculations are performed under the assumption of plane-parallel geometry for various relative densities of the cloud in which the exciting star is formed and a second cloud with which an ionization front from the first cloud interacts. The supersonic ionization front representing the outer boundary of an H II region experiencing the champagne phase is found to either evolve into a D-type front or remain of type R, depending on the absolute number of photons leaving the H II region that undergoes the champagne phase. Recombinations in the ionized gas eventually slow the ionization front, however photon fluxes allow it to speed up again, resulting in oscillatory propagation of the front. Front-cloud interactions are also shown to lead to the development of a backward-facing shock, a forward-facing shock, and a density maximum in the ionized gas. The results can be used to explain the origin of bright rims in H II regions.

  9. An influence of low-stability region on dense gas phenomena and their peculiarities in the ORC fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An existence of low stability region in the dense vapours and its influence on some peculiarities in behaviour of selected dry and isentropic ORC fluids is discussed. The retrograde phenomena in the flow of BZT fluids [1.] can be simply related to the mechanical and thermodynamic stability parameters. These new refrigerant and their properties have been analysed based on the software tools REFPROP v.9.1 [2.]. Test examples have confirmed an importance of low thermodynamic stability area in the vicinity of saturation boundary line and neighbourhood of critical point of the fluid. The analytical results have been obtained for selected pure fluids applicable in the ORC and heat pump technology such C4H10, C6H5CH3, C12H26, R123, R134a, R227ea, R245fa, low GWP hydrofluoroolefins (R1234xxXand a group of linear and cyclic siloxanes.

  10. Dense cores in dark clouds. I. CO observations and column densities of high-extinction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.C.; Linke, R.A.; Benson, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety small (approx.5') visually opaque regions have been selected from Palomar Sky Atlas prints and surveyed in the 2.7 mm J = 1→0 lines of C 18 O and 13 CO. The regions are primarily in complexes of obscuration, including those in Taurus and Ophiuchus. The typical C 18 O emission region has C 18 O line width 0.6 km s - 1 , optical depth 0.4, excitation temperature 10 K, and column density 2 x 10 15 cm - 2 . It has size 0.3 pc, visual extinction approx.11 mag, and mass approx.30 M/sub sun/. Comparison with equilibrium and collapse models indicates that purely thermal supporting motions are consistent with the present data, but unlikely. If the full C 18 O line width reflects turbulent supporting motions, nearly all of the observed clouds are consistent with stable equilibrium. If only part of the C 18 O line width reflects supporting motions, many clouds are also consistent with turbulent contraction. More than half of the clouds have significant departures from Gaussian line shape. The most common asymmetry is a blueshifted peak in the 13 CO line, which is consistent with contracting motion

  11. Identifying the adaptive mechanism in globular proteins: Fluctuations in densely packed regions manipulate flexible parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Lutfu Safak; Atilgan, Ali Rana

    2000-09-01

    A low-resolution structural model based on the packing geometry of α-carbons is utilized to establish a connection between the flexible and rigid parts of a folded protein. The former commonly recognizes a complementing molecule for making a complex, while the latter manipulates the necessary conformational change for binding. We attempt analytically to distinguish this control architecture that intrinsically exists in globular proteins. First with two-dimensional simple models, then for a native protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, we explicitly demonstrate that inserting fluctuations in tertiary contacts supported by the stable core, one can regulate the displacement of residues on loop regions. The positional fluctuations of the flexible regions are annihilated by the rest of the protein in conformity with the Le Chatelier-Braun principle. The results indicate that the distortion of the principal nonbonded contacts between highly packed residues is accompanied by that of the slavery fluctuations that are widely distributed over the native structure. These positional arrangements do not appear in a reciprocal relation between a perturbation and the associated response; the effect of a movement of residue i on residue j is not equal to that of the same movement of residue j on residue i.

  12. Sampling bacterial biodiversity from a highly contaminated stream flowing through a densely populated urban area in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enam, S.F.; Qureshi, H.; Qureshi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to understand the complexity of microbial populations in Pakistan where infectious diseases are prevalent. This study was undertaken to assess bacterial biodiversity in Nehr-e-Khayyam a heavily polluted stream connected to the Arabian Gulf, which runs through a densely populated urban area in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: Employing a universal pair of oligonucleotides capable of amplifying species-specific segments of 16S rRNA gene from all Eubacteria, we generated a library of PCR products using total DNA purified from the collected sample, cloned the amplifers into pGEM-T-Easy and sequenced each recombinant clone. The obtained DNA sequences were subjected to bio-informatic analyses. Results: A total of 71 recombinant clones were obtained from the amplified 16S rDNA products and sequenced. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that 54 (out of 71) were unique sequences from which 42 shared >97% and 12 shared <97% homology to their database counterparts. One sequence originated from the plastid DNA of eukaryote Pyramimonas disomata. From the remaining 53 sequences, 45 were Proteo-bacteria and 8 Fermicute in origin. Among 71 sequences, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria species constituted 86% of Proteo-bacteria identified in the sample while only 13% were Fermicutes. Conclusions: The microbial niche in Nehr-e-Khayyam is occupied predominantly by heterotrophic Proteo-bacterial and Firmicute strains, some of which are known human pathogens. (author)

  13. Atomic population redistribution in a dense Ga vapour proceeding via energy pooling ionization induced by resonant laser-assisted collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, S; Bicchi, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report on the atomic population redistribution originating from the ionization that takes place in a dense Ga vapour kept in quartz cells and resonantly excited by laser radiation, in the collisions between two excited atoms. This ionization process is known as energy-pooling ionization (EPI). The electron/ion recombination that takes place in the low density plasma produced gives rise to population in the atomic Rydberg levels and from the latter via cascade transitions to lower lying ones. We have monitored the fluorescences relative to the radiative emissions from such levels, namely those corresponding to the nP → 5S 1/2 series, with 9 ≤ n ≤ 26, and the 4D → 4P 1/2,3/2 transitions. Their characteristics testify to their origin as being due to the EPI process. Further confirmation is obtained by performing a time-resolved analysis of such fluorescences, whose appearance and time evolution is strongly influenced by the dynamics of the process. The effect of the introduction of a few Torr of buffer gas inside the quartz cell, resulting in the quenching of all the fluorescences for n ≥ 12, is also discussed

  14. Design and testing of the high speed signal densely populated ATLAS calorimeter trigger board dedicate to jet identification

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira De Souza, Julio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract—The ATLAS experiment has planned a major upgrade in view of the enhanced luminosity of the beam delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2021. As part of this, the trigger at Level-1 based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit fine-granularity readout using a new system of Feature Extractors (three in total), which each uses different physics objects for the trigger selection. The contribution focusses on the jet Feature EXtractor (jFEX) prototype. Up to a data volume of 2 TB/s has to be processed to provide jet identification (including large area jets) and measurements of global variables within few hundred nanoseconds latency budget. Such requirements translate into the use of large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the largest number of Multi Gigabit Transceivers (MGTs) available on the market. The jFEX board prototype hosts four large FPGAs from the Xilinx Ultrascale family with 120 MGTs each, connected to 24 opto-electrical devices, resulting in a densely populated hi...

  15. Applications of Extensive Green-roof Systems in Contributing to Sustainable Development in Densely Populated Cities: a Hong Kong Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed cities such as Hong Kong are usually densely populated. Since the land is limited, high-rise buildings are constructed. When the building height becomes higher, air flow is reduced and heat is trapped among high-rise buildings. Air temperature will be greatly increased and air pollution becomes a serious problem. This creates a walled building problem. To reduce air temperature caused by the wall-effects, various methods have been developed in the previous studies. One typical method is the use of green roof systems. The application of extensive green roofs on the existing building rooftops has been recommended in Hong Kong since 2001. The advantage of this practice is that no additional floor area is required and it can also improve urban greenery. Although a green roof system has been introduced and adopted in Hong Kong since 2001, the emphasis is mainly given to the application of intensive green roofs for podium garden instead of extensive green roofs. It is considered valuable and necessary of the extensive green roofs for the buildings. This paper investigates the current practice of using extensive green roofs in Hong Kong. The constraints in applying extensive green roofs are investigated, which leads to studying the solutions for mitigating these constraints and improving the future development of the implementation.

  16. Design and testing of the high speed signal densely populated ATLAS calorimeter trigger board dedicate to jet identification

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira De Souza, Julio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has planned a major upgrade in view of the enhanced luminosity of the beam delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2021. As part of this, the trigger at Level-1 based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit fine-granularity readout using a new system of Feature Extractors (three in total), which each uses different physics objects for the trigger selection. The contribution focusses on the jet Feature EXtractor (jFEX) prototype. Up to a data volume of 2 TB/s has to be processed to provide jet identification (including large area jets) and measurements of global variables within few hundred nanoseconds latency budget. Such requirements translate into the use of large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the largest number of Multi Gigabit Transceivers (MGTs) available on the market. The jFEX board prototype hosts four large FPGAs from the Xilinx Ultrascale family with 120 MGTs each, connected to 24 opto-electrical devices, resulting in a densely populated high speed si...

  17. Natural hazards and decision-making in the most densely populated country in the American continent: a 20-year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Martínez, Celina; Cepeda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    With a population density of ~300 per km2, El Salvador is the most densely populated country in the American continent and the capital, San Salvador, is probably the city in the Americas most frequently hit by natural hazards, earthquakes in particular. As a consequence of a magnitude 5.4 earthquake in 1986, 1500 people were killed, with as many as one-third of these casualties associated to the collapse of engineered structures, a high rate compared to contemporary figures worldwide. Four years earlier, during a long precipitation period in September 1982, a debris flow was triggered from the summit of the San Salvador volcano and travelled ~4 km for about one hour before it killed up to 500 people in an area to the North-West of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS). This same area had been previously hit by a similar event 50 years earlier, but with no consequences at that time since it was uninhabited. These are only some examples of the main facts that motivated the creation of the Office for Urban Planning of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (OPAMSS) in 1990. This institution is an autonomous municipal organisation whose functions and attributes comprise the planning and control of urban development. After 20 years of the foundation of OPAMSS, this paper presents its history and evolution, the main achievements and challenges, focusing on how the institution has been shaped by some key milestones, such as the earthquake-triggered landslide at Las Colinas neighbourhood in January 2001, which killed ~600 people in the Western AMSS, and the widespread flooding in October 2005 after the urban drainage network collapsed during Hurricane Stan. The development of OPAMSS as a key organisation in land use management and decision-making is an example that illustrates how the integration of technical and legal aspects can be oriented towards the improvement of governance at the scale of metropolitan areas.

  18. Indoor External Radiation Risk in Densely Populated Regions of Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ife-Adediran, Oluwatobi O.; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B.

    2018-05-01

    It is known that certain types of building materials contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides; consequently, exposure to indoor background radiation is from the combined radioactivity from the soil as well as building materials; indoor exposures therefore have higher radiation hazard potentials than outdoor exposures in this regard and hence, need to be monitored. In this paper, an evaluation of background ionizing radiation from different buildings in Lagos and Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the exposure rate of the general public to indoor ionizing radiation. 630 in situ measurements from the different buildings were taken using a Geiger Muller counter (model GQ-320 Plus). The indoor dose rates (i.e., 50-120 nGy/h) were within the world average values while the Annual Effective Dose for most of the buildings were above the world average AED for indoor gamma exposure from building materials. The mean AED for Lagos and Ibadan due to indoor exposures were 0.37 and 0.39 mSv/y with Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk of 0.99E-3 and 1.05E-3, respectively.

  19. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    smoke clouds that extended over the Rosario area for several hours. The clouds were driven away from the fires by East-northeast and East-southeast winds. The minimum value of this index measured around noon allows to derive a maximum AOD(550)max = (3.65 ± 0.90) at 12:45 local time. Soot clouds extended over the Paraná river, transporting Burned Biomass Debris (BBD) that deposited on Rosario. In particular, burned leaves and small branches with dimensions of 1-20 cm were collected. The mean (BBD) particles deposited on the ground from 7:00 to 19:00 local time were (0.92 ± 0.20) BBD/(m2 h).The main purpose of the present work is to contribute to the understanding and quantification of the impact of very dense smoke clouds and BBD that directly and indirectly affected a densely populated area. All the events originated in a very particular and fragile region such as a river delta (with its specific native plants) were registered by using a multi-instrument approach (satellite as well as ground based devices).The analysis of these events, as detailed in this manuscript, was used as a scientific reference for the judicial claim made at the Supreme Court of Justice of Argentina by the National University of Rosario, against the authorities of the Entre Rios Province where the islands of the Paraná river are placed, in order to take the necessary measures for the suspension of the biomass burning in these islands.

  20. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho [KAERI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated.

  1. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated

  2. Higher education institutions, regional labour markets and population development

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2011-01-01

    An important motivation to establish and develop higher education institutions across regions is to improve and restructure the regional labour markets toward higher education jobs, contribute to maintain the regional settlement patterns of the population generally and to increase the numbers of higher educated labour especially. This paper introduces a short description of the Norwegian regional higher education institution system, followed by analyses of the impact of higher education insti...

  3. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  4. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  5. Migratory population movements in the Nitra region in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakova, G.

    2007-01-01

    One of the basic signs of settlement's structure is growth or decrease of settlements and it has relation with migration of population to towns or villages. The migration has two - way of moving of population, which has relation with immigration and emigration. Immigration is the act of relocating to another country or region. Emigration is the moving out from the some region. Migration is the most important movement of population, because it is result of changes in placement of inhabitants. The final result of migration is net migration. According to it we can identification growing types of settlements. Migration of population is one of significant indicators of economic and social development of the society. (author)

  6. Migration, urban population growth and regional disparity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Renard, Mary-Françoise; Xu, Zelai; Zhu, Nong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of city population growth in China during the 1990s', as well as the determinants of migrations towards cities, which constitutes the main source of urban population growth in this period. A second objective is to identify regional differences in the urban growth and migrations, that is, whether urban growth and migration patterns are different between coastal and inland provinces. Additionally, we are interested in the differences...

  7. Actual characteristics of nutrition of the population in Odessa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Kovalchuk

    2017-02-01

      Summary Study of hygiene and environmental problems in the Odessa region should be aimed at the preservation of public health by minimizing the negative impact of environmental factors. Nutrition is one of the most important factors. Actual direction of modern medical science is the study of dietary intake and nutritional status of specific population groups to establish correlation between nutrition and health.Odessaregion differs significantly from other regions ofUkraineon the national population structure. The features of the modern structure of nutrition of the local population is the lack of animal protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (in the face of excess animal fat intake, many vitamins, micro- and macronutrients, dietary fibers. Recently, in the region there is a problem of nutritional rationalizing for people coming into the territory of theOdessaregion from different geographical areas for long term. Scientific substantiation of preventive measures to optimize the nutrition of the population ofOdessaregion and establish the correlation with indicators of health status, disability, and the main components of lifestyle are important for the prevention of nutrition-caused diseases and improve the health of the population of theSouth Ukraine. Keywords: public health, structure of nutrition, dietary intake ,regional differences.

  8. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  9. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  10. Regionally isolated populations of an imperiled Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Miller, Margaret W; Hellberg, Michael E

    2005-04-01

    The movements of larvae between marine populations are difficult to follow directly and have been the subject of much controversy, especially in the Caribbean. The debate centres on the degree to which populations are demographically open, such that depleted populations can be replenished by recruitment from distant healthy populations, or demographically closed and thus in need of local management. Given the depressed state of many tropical reef populations, the understanding of these movements now bears critically on the number, placement, and size of marine reserves. Most genetic analyses assume that dispersal patterns have been stable for thousands of generations, thus they commonly reflect past colonization histories more than ongoing dispersal. Recently developed multilocus genotyping approaches, however, have the demonstrated ability to detect both migration and population isolation over far shorter timescales. Previously, we developed five microsatellite markers and demonstrated them to be both Mendelian and coral-specific. Using these markers and Bayesian analyses, we show here that populations of the imperiled reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and the eastern Caribbean. Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. As a consequence of this regional isolation, populations in the western and eastern Caribbean should have the potential to adapt to local conditions and will require population-specific management strategies.

  11. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN THE DENSE GAS HEATING AND COOLING IN M51 FROM HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, T. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Foyle, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Boquien, M.; Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cormier, D. [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karczewski, O. Ł. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Sauvage, M. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roussel, H. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Spinoglio, L., E-mail: parkintj@mcmaster.ca [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-20

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in M51, [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm). We compare the observed flux of these lines with the predicted flux from a photon-dominated region model to determine characteristics of the cold gas such as density, temperature, and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G{sub 0}, resolving details on physical scales of roughly 600 pc. We find an average [C II]/F{sub TIR} of 4 × 10{sup –3}, in agreement with previous studies of other galaxies. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of four distinct regions of M51 shows a radially decreasing trend in both the FUV radiation field, G{sub 0}, and the hydrogen density, n, peaking in the nucleus of the galaxy, and then falling off out to the arm and interarm regions. We see for the first time that the FUV flux and gas density are similar in the differing environments of the arm and interarm regions, suggesting that the inherent physical properties of the molecular clouds in both regions are essentially the same.

  12. Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Jimmy Z.; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Folseraas, Trine; Ellinghaus, Eva; Rushbrook, Simon M.; Doncheva, Nadezhda T.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Weismüller, Tobias J.; Eksteen, Bertus; Invernizzi, Pietro; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Pares, Albert; Ellinghaus, David; Shah, Tejas; Juran, Brian D.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Rust, Christian; Schramm, Christoph; Müller, Tobias; Srivastava, Brijesh; Dalekos, Georgios; Nöthen, Markus M.; Herms, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane; Mitrovic, Mitja; Braun, Felix; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Croucher, Peter J. P.; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Mason, Andrew L.; Saarela, Janna; Leppa, Virpi; Dorfman, Ruslan; Alvaro, Domenico; Floreani, Annarosa; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Næss, Sigrid; Thomsen, Ingo; Mayr, Gabriele; König, Inke R.; Hveem, Kristian; Cleynen, Isabelle; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; van Heel, David; Björnsson, Einar; Sandford, Richard N.; Durie, Peter R.; Melum, Espen; Vatn, Morten H.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Duerr, Richard H.; Padyukov, Leonid; Brand, Stephan; Sans, Miquel; Annese, Vito; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Chazouillères, Olivier; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Schrumpf, Erik; Vermeire, Severine; Albrecht, Mario; Rioux, John D.; Alexander, Graeme; Bergquist, Annika; Cho, Judy; Schreiber, Stefan; Manns, Michael P.; Färkkilä, Martti; Dale, Anders M.; Chapman, Roger W.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Franke, Andre; Anderson, Carl A.; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2013-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a severe liver disease of unknown etiology leading to fibrotic destruction of the bile ducts and ultimately to the need for liver transplantation. We compared 3,789 PSC cases of European ancestry to 25,079 population controls across 130,422 SNPs genotyped

  13. Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Jimmy Z.; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Folseraas, Trine; Ellinghaus, Eva; Rushbrook, Simon M.; Doncheva, Nadezhda T.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Weismueller, Tobias J.; Eksteen, Bertus; Invernizzi, Pietro; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Pares, Albert; Ellinghaus, David; Shah, Tejas; Juran, Brian D.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Rust, Christian; Schramm, Christoph; Mueller, Tobias; Srivastava, Brijesh; Dalekos, Georgios; Noethen, Markus M.; Herms, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane; Mitrovic, Mitja; Braun, Felix; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Croucher, Peter J. P.; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Mason, Andrew L.; Saarela, Janna; Leppa, Virpi; Dorfman, Ruslan; Alvaro, Domenico; Floreani, Annarosa; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Naess, Sigrid; Thomsen, Ingo; Mayr, Gabriele; Koenig, Inke R.; Hveem, Kristian; Cleynen, Isabelle; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Ricano-Ponce, Isis; van Heel, David; Bjoernsson, Einar; Sandford, Richard N.; Durie, Peter R.; Melum, Espen; Vatn, Morten H.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Duerr, Richard H.; Padyukov, Leonid; Brand, Stephan; Sans, Miquel; Annese, Vito; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Schrumpf, Erik; Vermeire, Severine; Albrecht, Mario; Rioux, John D.; Alexander, Graeme; Bergquist, Annika; Cho, Judy; Schreiber, Stefan; Manns, Michael P.; Farkkila, Martti; Dale, Anders M.; Chapman, Roger W.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Franke, Andre; Anderson, Carl A.; Karlsen, Tom H.

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a severe liver disease of unknown etiology leading to fibrotic destruction of the bile ducts and ultimately to the need for liver transplantation(1-3). We compared 3,789 PSC cases of European ancestry to 25,079 population controls across 130,422 SNPs genotyped

  14. Population as an element of regionalization of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojković Gordana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization is an exceptionally complex and contradictory matter, and at the same time becoming very challenging in the last few years in conditions of accelerated changes in the world. It is believed that regionalization today is an unavoidable strategic action of directing development processes on a territory. One of the aims of regionalization is to bring economic, demographic and social development processes into accord. Discordance of demographic transition courses with economic development caused prominent changes and complex development problems on the territory of Serbia, which indicate that appropriate attention should be devoted to demographic occurrences and processes in the approach to its regionalization. Proceeding from this fact, the goal of this paper was to identify the problems of regional differentiation of geoterritory and determine the place and role of demographic regionalization in the procedure of scientific knowledge, territory differentiation and organization of geoterritory; to set the general definition of regionalism from the demographic aspect, in the sense of theoretical concept based on empirical research, so as to obtain a scientific framework for research and functional approach to recognizing contemporary problems of development and organizing population; to decide on principles and elements, and point out to the content, purpose and goals of identifying demo geographic regions, in a way which would be adequate for planning regional development and organizing geoterritories. Such a set research goal required that the total problem of demo geographic regionalization is set on a wider theoretical, but analytical context, which is defined by mutual dependence of demo geographic with other regional systems, as well as with global questions of regionalism and integration ways. Demo geographic regionalization is carried out on the basis of numerous research findings and corresponding empirical results, with an

  15. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F Morrison

    Full Text Available The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  16. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S; Keogh, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  17. Spatial Ecology of the Critically Endangered Fijian Crested Iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an Extremely Dense Population: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F.; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs. PMID:24019902

  18. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: an emerging public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation transport in dense interstellar dust clouds. II. Infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the distribution of grain temperature (T/sub d/) and infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions (with embedded O: B stars). The effects of the following parameters on the temperature structure and the emergent spectrum are studied: grain type (graphite, silicate, and core-mantle grains), optical depth, density inhomogeneity, cloud size, anisotropic scattering, radiation field anisotropy, and characteristics of central heat source. T/sub d/ varies from approximately-greater-than100 K to approximately-less-than20 K throughout the major portion of a cloud, and dielectric grains attain lower temperatures. Due to an inward increase in T/sub d/, the radiation field is strongly forward-peaking, thereby producing a pronounced limb-darkening in the surface brightness. Important features of the computed emission spectra from typical models are compared with available observations, and the importance of beam dilution is emphasized. Theoretical surface brightnesses at selected infrared wavelengths are also presented. The outward radiation pressure on the dust grains is found to exceed the self-gravitational force of the gas over a large portion of a cloud, thus possibly causing the gas in the inner region to expand. Assumptions commonly used in the analysis of infrared observations are examined. Finally, observational methods of deriving the temperature structure (from color and brightness temperatures in the far-infrared), density distribution (from surface brightness at lambdaapproximately-greater-than1 mm), and optical depth (from multiaperture photometry) for the dust component in simple sources are discussed

  20. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  1. Molecular population genetics of inversion breakpoint regions in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andre G; Detweiler, Don; Schaeffer, Stephen W

    2013-07-08

    Paracentric inversions in populations can have a profound effect on the pattern and organization of nucleotide variability along a chromosome. Regions near inversion breakpoints are expected to have greater levels of differentiation because of reduced genetic exchange between different gene arrangements whereas central regions in the inverted segments are predicted to have lower levels of nucleotide differentiation due to greater levels of genetic flux among different karyotypes. We used the inversion polymorphism on the third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura to test these predictions with an analysis of nucleotide diversity of 18 genetic markers near and away from inversion breakpoints. We tested hypotheses about how the presence of different chromosomal arrangements affects the pattern and organization of nucleotide variation. Overall, markers in the distal segment of the chromosome had greater levels of nucleotide heterozygosity than markers within the proximal segment of the chromosome. In addition, our results rejected the hypothesis that the breakpoints of derived inversions will have lower levels of nucleotide variability than breakpoints of ancestral inversions, even when strains with gene conversion events were removed. High levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed within all 11 breakpoint regions as well as between the ends of most proximal and distal breakpoints. The central region of the chromosome had the greatest levels of linkage disequilibrium compared with the proximal and distal regions because this is the region that experiences the highest level of recombination suppression. These data do not fully support the idea that genetic exchange is the sole force that influences genetic variation on inverted chromosomes.

  2. Stellar population in star formation regions of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander S.; Shimanovskaya, Elena V.; Shatsky, Nikolai I.; Sakhibov, Firouz; Piskunov, Anatoly E.; Kharchenko, Nina V.

    2018-05-01

    We developed techniques for searching young unresolved star groupings (clusters, associations, and their complexes) and of estimating their physical parameters. Our study is based on spectroscopic, spectrophotometric, and UBVRI photometric observations of 19 spiral galaxies. In the studied galaxies, we found 1510 objects younger than 10 Myr and present their catalogue. Having combined photometric and spectroscopic data, we derived extinctions, chemical abundances, sizes, ages, and masses of these groupings. We discuss separately the specific cases, when the gas extinction does not agree with the interstellar one. We assume that this is due to spatial offset of Hii clouds with respect to the related stellar population.We developed a method to estimate age of stellar population of the studied complexes using their morphology and the relation with associated H emission region. In result we obtained the estimates of chemical abundances for 80, masses for 63, and ages for 57 young objects observed in seven galaxies.

  3. Population health and status of epidemiology: WHO European Region I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Pega, Frank; Andreeva, Tatiana; Ay, Pinar; Baburin, Aleksei; Bencko, Vladimír; Csépe, Péter; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Ondrusová, Martina; Ribak, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    This article of the International Epidemiological Association commissioned paper series stocktakes the population health and status of epidemiology in 21 of the 53 countries of the WHO European Region. By United Nations geographical classification, these countries belong to Eastern Europe, Western Asia and South-Central Asia. Published data were used to describe population health indicators and risk factors. Epidemiological training and research was assessed based on author knowledge, information searches and E-mail survey of experts. Bibliometric analyses determined epidemiological publication outputs. Between-country differences in life expectancy, amount and profile of disease burden and prevalence of risk factors are marked. Epidemiological training is affected by ongoing structural reforms of educational systems. Training is advanced in Israel and several Eastern European countries. Epidemiological research is mainly university-based in most countries, but predominantly conducted by governmental research institutes in several countries of the former Soviet Union. Funding is generally external and limited, partially due to competition from and prioritization of biomedical research. Multiple relevant professional societies exist, especially in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Few of the region's 39 epidemiological academic journals have international currency. The number of epidemiological publications per population is highest for Israel and lowest for South-Central Asian countries. Epidemiological capacity will continue to be heterogeneous across the region and depend more on countries' individual historical, social, political and economic conditions and contexts than their epidemiologists' successive efforts. National and international research funding, and within- and between-country collaborations should be enhanced, especially for South-Central Asian countries.

  4. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    have limited availability of effects-based data, an important consideration as expanding human activities impact water resources in less densely monitored regions.

  5. REGIONAL COMPONENTS OF GROWTH THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF THE POPULATION (FOR EXAMPLE, VORONEZH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebryakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of economy there is a transformation of main objectives of the state from ensuring growth of welfare of citizens to ensuring continuous growth of quality of life. Ensuring growth of quality of life of the population is carried out not only on state, but also on regional levels. At the state level key tasks are formed, the state assumes a considerable share of functions on achievement of the designated purpose. In the real research the attention to consideration of the program documents directed on improvement of quality of life of the population on the example of the Voronezh region is paid. The program documents of a social orientation existing in the region are for this purpose studied. It is revealed that in the region a number of the programs and subprogrammes aimed at improvement of a demographic situation, improvement of a regional budgetary and tax policy, social support of citizens in general works. As tools which use regional authorities, are noted: social standards, address social help, social contracts. It is established that introduction of system of social contracts allows to save budget funds and, at the same time, to motivate the persons which are in a difficult life situation on change of the situation to the best, joint efforts with social security authorities. It is noted that as the leading principles of rendering the social help paramount value has detailed definition of degree of need of the help and a condition of granting. The last often generate dependant moods which are important for leveling, using levers of social interaction. The analysis of the contents of the realized programs for improvement of quality of life of the population allowed to reveal advantages and defects in these programs, and also to define reserves of growth of quality of life. So, it is specified that program documents of regional level in the prevailing majority have a narrow focus on ensuring the help and

  6. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  7. Examination of health status of population from Uranium contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Pantelic, G.; Kovacevic, R.; Pavlovic, M.; Tanaskovic, I.

    2002-01-01

    malignant diseases and congenital malformations, and they develop after 5-20 years. Health surveillance of potentially exposed population from the contaminated regions, based on the Health program for occupationally exposed individuals and monitoring of biological parameters indicative of internal radioactive contamination, the disease may be anticipated and treated in time. Therefore, we proposed surveillance program targeted at population of contaminated regions of our country and the initial results of the research are presented in this paper

  8. Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escamilla Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera. Previous work in Bangladesh found that temporal patterns of cholera are positively related to satellite-derived environmental variables including ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC. Methods This paper investigates whether local socio-economic status (SES modifies the effect of regional environmental forces. The study area is Matlab, Bangladesh, an area of approximately 200,000 people with an active health and demographic surveillance system. Study data include (1 spatially-referenced demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population; (2 satellite-derived variables for sea surface temperature (SST, sea surface height (SSH, and OCC; and (3 laboratory confirmed cholera case data for the entire population. Relationships between cholera, the environmental variables, and SES are measured using generalized estimating equations with a logit link function. Additionally two separate seasonal models are built because there are two annual cholera epidemics, one pre-monsoon, and one post-monsoon. Results SES has a significant impact on cholera occurrence: the higher the SES score, the lower the occurrence of cholera. There is a significant negative association between cholera incidence and SSH during the pre-monsoon period but not for the post-monsoon period. OCC is positively associated with cholera during the pre-monsoon period but not for the post-monsoon period. SST is not related to cholera incidence. Conclusions Overall, it appears cholera is influenced by regional environmental variables during the pre-monsoon period and by local-level variables (e.g., water and sanitation during the post-monsoon period. In both pre- and post-monsoon seasons, SES significantly influences these patterns, likely because it is a proxy for poor water quality and sanitation in poorer households.

  9. Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinat, B.; Contini, T.; Finley, H.; Boogaard, L. A.; Guérou, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Carton, D.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Bacon, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, M.; Hamer, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnović, D.; Marino, R. A.; Richard, J.; Soucail, G.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 104 kpc2 gaseous structure detected in [O II]λλ3727, 3729 in an over-dense region of the COSMOS-Gr30 galaxy group at z 0.725 with deep MUSE Guaranteed Time Observations. We estimate the total amount of diffuse ionised gas to be of the order of ( 5 ± 3) × 1010 M⊙ and explore its physical properties to understand its origin and the source(s) of the ionisation. The MUSE data allow the identification of a dozen group members that are embedded in this structure through emission and absorption lines. We extracted spectra from small apertures defined for both the diffuse ionised gas and the galaxies. We investigated the kinematics and ionisation properties of the various galaxies and extended gas regions through line diagnostics (R23, O32, and [O III]/Hβ) that are available within the MUSE wavelength range. We compared these diagnostics to photo-ionisation models and shock models. The structure is divided into two kinematically distinct sub-structures. The most extended sub-structure of ionised gas is likely rotating around a massive galaxy and displays filamentary patterns that link some galaxies. The second sub-structure links another massive galaxy that hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to a low-mass galaxy, but it also extends orthogonally to the AGN host disc over 35 kpc. This extent is likely ionised by the AGN itself. The location of small diffuse regions in the R23 vs. O32 diagram is compatible with photo-ionisation. However, the location of three of these regions in this diagram (low O32, high R23) can also be explained by shocks, which is supported by their high velocity dispersions. One edge-on galaxy shares the same properties and may be a source of shocks. Regardless of the hypothesis, the extended gas seems to be non-primordial. We favour a scenario where the gas has been extracted from galaxies by tidal forces and AGN triggered by interactions between at least the two sub-structures. Based on observations made with

  10. THE DISK POPULATION OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed nearly all images of the Taurus star-forming region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm that were obtained during the cryogenic mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope (46 deg 2 ) and have measured photometry for all known members of the region that are within these data, corresponding to 348 sources, or 99% of the known stellar population. By combining these measurements with previous observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and other facilities, we have classified the members of Taurus according to whether they show evidence of circumstellar disks and envelopes (classes I, II, and III). Through these classifications, we find that the disk fraction in Taurus, N(II)/N(II+III), is ∼75% for solar-mass stars and declines to ∼45% for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (0.01-0.3 M sun ). This dependence on stellar mass is similar to that measured for Chamaeleon I, although the disk fraction in Taurus is slightly higher overall, probably because of its younger age (1 Myr versus 2-3 Myr). In comparison, the disk fraction for solar-mass stars is much lower (∼20%) in IC 348 and σ Ori, which are denser than Taurus and Chamaeleon I and are roughly coeval with the latter. These data indicate that disk lifetimes for solar-mass stars are longer in star-forming regions that have lower stellar densities. Through an analysis of multiple epochs of Spitzer photometry that are available for ∼200 Taurus members, we find that stars with disks exhibit significantly greater mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability than diskless stars, which agrees with the results of similar variability measurements for a smaller sample of stars in Chamaeleon I. The variability fraction for stars with disks is higher in Taurus than in Chamaeleon I, indicating that the IR variability of disks decreases with age. Finally, we have used our data in Taurus to refine the observational criteria for primordial, evolved, and transitional disks. The ratio of the number of evolved and

  11. The proportion of impervious surfaces at the landscape scale structures wild bee assemblages in a densely populated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Benoît; Le Féon, Violette; Folschweiller, Morgane; Flacher, Floriane; Carmignac, David; Motard, Eric; Perret, Samuel; Dajoz, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Given the predicted expansion of cities throughout the world, understanding the effect of urbanization on bee fauna is a major issue for the conservation of bees. The aim of this study was to understand how urbanization affects wild bee assemblages along a gradient of impervious surfaces and to determine the influence of landscape composition and floral resource availability on these assemblages. We chose 12 sites with a proportion of impervious surfaces (soil covered by parking, roads, and buildings) ranging from 0.06% to 64.31% within a 500 m radius. We collected using pan trapping and estimated the landscape composition of the sites within a 500 m radius and the species richness of plant assemblages within a 200 m radius. We collected 1104 bees from 74 species. The proportion of impervious surfaces at the landscape scale had a negative effect on wild bee abundance and species richness, whereas local flower composition had no effect. Ground-nesting bees were particularly sensitive to the urbanization gradient. This study provides new evidences of the impact of urbanization on bee assemblages and the proportion of impervious surfaces at the landscape scale emerged as a key factor that drives those assemblages.

  12. Urban domestic dog populations as a source of canine distemper virus for wild carnivores in the Coquimbo region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Chalmers, W S K; Cunningham, A A; Cleaveland, S; Handel, I G; Bronsvoort, B M deC

    2011-09-28

    Urban areas can support dog populations dense enough to maintain canine distemper virus (CDV) and can be a source of infection for rural dogs and free-ranging carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban and rural domestic dog and wild carnivore populations and their effects on the epidemiology of CDV to explain retrospectively a CD outbreak in wild foxes in 2003. From 2005 to 2007 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Coquimbo and Ovalle cities, in three towns and in rural sites along two transects from these cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region, Chile. Blood samples were collected from unvaccinated dogs at surveyed households and from free-ranging foxes in rural areas along the transects. The seroprevalence of CDV in domestic dogs was higher in urban than in rural areas and in the later was highest in dogs born before 2001-2002. The seroprevalence of CDV in foxes was higher in areas closer to human settlements. A high seroprevalence in dogs born before 2001-2002 further supports a link between CDV patterns in rural dog and fox populations. In our study area, urban dogs are proposed to be the source of CDV infection to wild carnivores. The large dog population size and density detected in Coquimbo and Ovalle provides optimal conditions for maintaining a large and dense susceptible population of dogs, which can act as a reservoir for highly infectious diseases and could have been the source of infection in the CD outbreak in wild foxes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong seismic wave scattering beneath Kanto region derived from dense K-NET/KiK-net strong motion network and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, S.; Yoshimoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    Observed seismograms, which consist of the high-frequency body waves through the low-velocity (LV) region at depth of 20-40 km beneath northwestern Chiba in Kanto, show strong peak delay and spindle shape of S waves. By analyzing dense seismic records from K-NET/KiK-net, such spindle-shape S waves are clearly observed in the frequency range of 1-8 Hz. In order to investigate a specific heterogeneous structure to generate such observations, we conduct 3-D finite-difference method (FDM) simulation using realistic heterogeneous models and compare the simulation results with dense strong motion array observations. Our 3-D simulation model is covering the zone 150 km by 64 km in horizontal directions and 75 km in vertical direction, which has been discretized with uniform grid size 0.05 km. We assume a layered background velocity structure, which includes basin structure, crust, mantle and subducting oceanic plate, base on the model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2008). In order to introduce the effect of seismic wave scattering, we assume a stochastic random velocity fluctuation in each layer. Random velocity fluctuations are characterized by exponential-type auto-correlation function (ACF) with correlation distance a = 3 km and rms value of fluctuation e = 0.05 in the upper crust, a = 3 km and e = 0.07 in the lower crust, a = 10 km and e = 0.02 in the mantle. In the subducting oceanic plate, we assume an anisotropic random velocity fluctuation characterized by exponential-type ACF with aH = 10 km in horizontal direction, aZ = 0.5 km in vertical direction and e = 0.02 (e.g., Furumura and Kennett, 2005). In addition, we assume a LV zone at northeastern part of Chiba with depth of 20-40 km (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2004). In the LV zone, random velocity fluctuation characterized by Gaussian-type ACF with a = 1 km and e = 0.07 is superposed on exponential-type ACF with a = 3 km and e = 0.07, in order to modulate the S-wave propagation in the dominant frequency range of

  14. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  15. POPULATION MOBILITY CHARACTERISTIC: NOTES FROM THE URBAN-URBAN INTERACTION IN SEMARANG METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDHOTILLAH Santi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of cities is characterized by the "pressure" in the form of increasingly dense urban areas, slums, traffic congestion, unemployment in the cities, and the number of illegal housing in the suburbs. This issue demonstrates the need for a balance between urban and rural areas. The balance is obtained through the interaction, and the interaction there is a process of "transfer" in the form of the human population, natural resources, and other supporting components. This view of the phenomenon makes many researchers conducting various studies in the context of the interaction between rural and urban. Furthermore, the study of the interaction of cities such as Salatiga and Semarang are in fact joined in the same region, KSN Kedungsepur. Semarang and surrounding developments as Semarang Metropolitan Region (SMR are the main attraction for the people who are around Semarang that caused an increase in the spatial interactions between Semarang and surrounding areas. From some areas belonging to KSN Kedungsepur, there are only two areas with the status of the city of Semarang city as a centre of KSN and Salatiga. This becomes interesting, unique conditions for studying the phenomenon under study is the interaction of the cities. The method used in this research was a quantitative method with descriptive analysis. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey technique primary by taking a random sample of migrants from Salatiga City and studied at the city of Semarang. The results of the study there were four mobility characteristics formed between Salatiga and Semarang, namely, commuting-boarding, boarding-commuting, boarding and boarding-permanent.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography in comparison to conventional full-field digital mammography in a population of women with dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miki; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Suzuki, Satoko; Daniels, Murasaki Ikeda; Watanabe, Chie; Hirose, Masanori; Nakamura, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography to compare clinical efficacy of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and conventional digital mammography (MMG) with histopathology as gold standard in dense breasts. A total of 143 breasts of 72 women who underwent CESM and MMG between 2011 and 2014 at Showa University Hospital were analyzed. 129 (90.2 %) of 143 breasts revealed dense breasts on MMG. 58 (40.6 %) of 143 breasts were diagnosed with breast cancer at histopathology. The remaining 85 breasts were diagnosed with benign findings after image assessments and/or core needle biopsy. CESM revealed 8 false-negative cases among 58 breast cancer cases (sensitivity 86.2 %) and 5 false-positive cases (specificity 94.1 %). Accuracy was 90.9 %. Conventional MMG was assessed true positive in 31 of 58 breast cancer cases (sensitivity 53.4 %) and false positive in 12 cases (specificity 85.9 %). Accuracy was 72.7 %. Sensitivity (p < 0.001), specificity (p = 0.016) and accuracy (p < 0.001) were significantly higher on CESM compared to MMG. MMG missed malignancy in 27 breasts. Of these, 25 were dense breasts. Of these 25, 20 (80.0 %) breasts were positive on CESM. These findings suggest that CESM offers superior clinical performance compared to MMG. Use of CESM may decrease false negatives especially for women with dense breasts.

  17. From Demographic Dividend to Demographic Burden? : Regional Trends of Population Aging in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in...

  18. Cytogenetic screening of population living in ecologically unfavourable region of Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundakbaeva, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Cytogenetic examination of groups of people from ecologically unfavourable region of 4 settlements located at different distance from the center of nuclear explosions was conducted. For purpose of conducting biological indication and dosimetry, the radio sensibility of cells peripheral blood was determined with the account for the sex and age of the individuals from examined groups of people. Correlation analysis of frequency of chromosome aberration (CA) was implement taking into account the sex, age and absorbed dose of radiation. It was established that the frequency of chromosome aberration in examined groups exceed the control level 3,5 times (1,63±0,26). It was shown that total frequency of CA from people constituted: the Dolon settlement (zone of extreme risk) - 6,16±1,23 per 100 analyzed metaphases; the Kononerka settlement (zone of maximum risk) - 4,4 ±0,84; the Ramadan settlement (zone of maximum risk) - 5,97±1,08. Frequency of radiation induction chromosome markets within the region constituted 0,41±0,16 per 100 cells as average, - this exceeds control level (0,67±0,002) 6 times. Considerable factions (0,5-17,7 %) of exit of chromosome aberrations were discovered among different individuals. It was established that the frequency of stable and unstable CA increases due to the age of the people examined. Using the method of biological dosimetry based of registration of frequency of stable and unstable CA it was established that the population of examined regions has probably absorbed the following doses: the Dolon settlement - 0,14 Gy, the Kanonerka settlement - 0,13 Gy, the Buras settlement - 0,06 Gy, the Ramadan - 0,095 Gy. (author)

  19. [The gene pool of the Belgorod region population: description of the "genetic landscape" of 22 district populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, I N; Churnosov, M I; Balanovskaia, E V

    2009-05-01

    Data on the frequencies of all (50 412) surnames in a total population of 849 399 people have been treated by various methods of multivariate statistics (cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, and factor analysis) to show that 22 district populations of the Central Chernozem region of Russia form a definite, ordered system of population groups. All raions (administrative districts) of Belgorod oblast (administrative region) have been grouped into four clusters corresponding to the actual geographic locations of the populations. Districts of the eastern cluster are characterized by very specific spectrum and frequencies of surnames; districts of the western cluster differ in a high proportion of Ukrainian surnames.

  20. Sanitary study of the population living in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Briggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The populations of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation affected by Chernobyl accident are anxious about the radiation effects on their healthy. The International Chernobyl Project has, in a great part, looked for the pathology increase and to assess its incidence on their healthy. This study does not prove that the Chernobyl accident would have important effects on population healthy of contaminated areas

  1. World population in transition : An integrated regional modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, Henricus Bernardus Maria

    2000-01-01

    The world’s population reached the milestone of 6 billion in 1999 and increases by around 150 persons each minute. In the last few decades, population growth seen in the light of limited natural and economic resources has become of growing concern. Now, at the beginning of a new millennium,

  2. MORTALITY PATTERNS OF ROMA POPULATION IN OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA PREDA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mortality is the only indicator that presents a series of aspects meant to emphasize both the demographic evolution of a population and its social determinants that confers it an increasing or decreasing tendency associated in most cases with a specific level of development.Mortality, through the manifestation of present variations is caused by a series of socio-economic factors such as the level of education with consequences on the attitude towards the health care, the population age, as well as by certain exogenous factors related to the geographic environment.The analysis of the general mortality among the Roma population intends to grasp a series of variables specific for this indicator; the values that the general mortality registers within the Roma population are in the trend of the values for this indicator measured for the overall population.

  3. Pakistan [Population education in countries of the region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The scope of formal population education in Pakistan covers the entire academic system, beginning from the primary level to the university and professional colleges. The government initiated action in 1980 to integrate population education in the formal and nonformal education sectors. General as well as specific behavioral objectives for population education were developed by the National Committee on Population Education. These objectives were further broken down for primary, middle, and lower and higher secondary school levels. The National Committee on Population Education prepared a curriculum for the training of primary, middle, and lower secondary school teachers which was used in training the master trainers. Textbooks in Pakistan were written in 1975 following the concepts and guidelines provided in the new curricula. Curriculum development specialists prepared model lessons on the integration of population education with social studies, Pakistan studies, Urdu, health and physical education, and nursing and general science for the guidance of textbook writers and teachers. The Allama Iqbal Open University has developed a 24-unit course to orientate primary school teachers in the philosophy and content of new curricula provided for in the new education policy of Pakistan. The Population Planning Division of Pakistan and the Family Planning Association of Pakistan periodically develop materials which serve as supplementary readers; an orientation program for teachers began on a limited scale following the inception of population education in Pakistan. Some research and evaluation projects have been undertaken periodically to study the effectiveness of some of the family planning programs. To ensure systematic and comprehensive coverage of population education through the existing formal and nonformal education programs the government is planning to undertake in collaboration with the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and other bilateral and

  4. Population crisis and desertification in the Sudano-Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, S

    1984-01-01

    People living in the area just south of the Sahara Desert in Africa face their 3rd major drought since 1900. This drought brings about famine. Drought and famine are only manifestations of more profound problems: soil erosion and degradation. They diminish land productivity which aggravates the population's poverty. Yet soil erosion and degradation occur due to an expanding population. Continued pressures on the land and soil degradation results in desertification. The UN Environment Programme's Assessment of the Status and Trend of Desertification shows that between 1978-84 desertification spread. Expanding deserts now endanger 35% of the world's land and 20% of the population. In the thorn bush savanna zone, most people are subsistence farmers or herdsmen and rely on the soils, forests, and rangelands. Even though the mean population density in the Sahel is low, it is overpopulated since people concentrate in areas where water is available. These areas tend to be cities where near or total deforestation has already occurred. Between 1959-84, the population in the Sahel doubled so farmers have extended cultivation into marginal areas which are vulnerable to desertification. The livestock populations have also grown tremendously resulting in overgrazing and deforestation. People must cook their food which involves cutting down trees for fuelwood. Mismanagement of the land is the key cause for desertification, but the growing poor populations have no choice but to eke out an existence on increasingly marginal lands. Long fallow periods would allow the land to regain its fertility, but with the ever-increasing population this is almost impossible. Humans caused desertification. We can improve land use and farming methods to stop it.

  5. Population genetic data of the NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han population from Zhejiang region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anju; Wu, Weiwei; Liu, Qiuling; Wu, Yeda; Lu, Dejian

    2013-03-01

    Genetic variations of the 17 NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han samples from the Zhejiang region were analyzed. The results show that the NGM SElect is a highly genetic informative system in Zhejiang Han, and this population shows quite different genetic data from other major populations in the world with the exception of the Fujian Han.

  6. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  7. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  8. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of high-Z ions in a cool dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Shevelko, A.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Spectra of multiply-charged ions with one and two electrons are investigated when a laser-produced plasma interacts with a solid obstacle. The level population densities of the Mg ions, recombining in the region of dense cool plasma near the obstacle, are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Values of the gain coefficient are calculated for the case of carbon ions. (orig.)

  9. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...... and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI >= 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI >= 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Conclusion: Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban...... residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation....

  10. The population of Indonesia : regional demographic scenarios using a multiregional method and multiple data sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhidin, Salahudin

    2002-01-01

    This study attempts to contribute on the understanding of regional population dynamics in Indonesia. It outlines a detailed analysis of the changes in regional demographic variables during the last three decades. It provides an assessment of the past population projections, as well as the advantages

  11. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  12. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  13. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  14. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  15. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Kevin J.; Jones, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal access to energy by the year 2030. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. Previous studies have examined these issues at global or at individual regional or national levels. Here we use a nine region model of the world with two per capita energy consumption scenarios to find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary in order to support population projections. Modelled interaction between the regions highlights the importance of examining energy and population concerns in a systemic manner, as each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. As non-renewable energy reserves decline globally, the transition to a renewable energy infrastructure will develop at different times in each region. - Highlights: • A 9-region model of energy, population, and development through 2100 is presented. • Developing >50% renewable energy is required in 8 regions, though not concurrently. • Population growth and development will compound energy scarcity issues. • Early and significant renewable energy investment is key to realizing development. • Each region will face unique, though interlacing, challenges this century.

  16. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction

  17. Population, Environment, and Climate in the Albertine Rift: Understanding Local Impacts of Regional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Diem, J.; Palace, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is of critical concern for conservation and to develop appropriate policies and responses, it is important not only to anticipate the nature of changes, but also how they are perceived, interpreted and adapted to by local people. The Albertine Rift in East Africa is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots due to dense settlement, extreme poverty, and land conversion. We synthesize ongoing NSF-CNH research, where Ugandan park landscapes are examined to understand the impacts of climate change on livelihoods. Kibale National Park, the main study site, exemplifies the challenges facing many parks because of its isolation within a densely populated agricultural landscape. Three separate household surveys (n=251, 130, 100) reveal that the most perceived benefits provided by Kibale were ecosystem services and farmers cite rainfall as one of the park's most important benefits, but are also concerned with variable precipitation. Analysis of 30+ years of daily rainfall station data shows total rainfall has not changed significantly, but timing and transitions of seasons and intra-seasonal distribution are highly variable, which may contribute to changes in farming schedules and threaten food security. Further, the contrast between land use/cover change over 25 years around the park and the stability of forest within the park underscores the need to understand this landscape for future sustainability planning and the inevitable population growth outside its boundaries. Understanding climate change impacts and feedbacks to and from socio-ecological systems are important to address the dual challenge of biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.

  18. Year 2000 estimated population dose for the Tennessee Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Strauch, S.; Siegel, G.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study has recently been completed of the potential regional radiological dose in the Tennessee and Cumberland river basins in the year 2000, resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities. This study, sponsored jointly by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority, was performed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (ATDL). This study considered the operation in the year 2000 of 33,000 MWe of nuclear capacity within the study area, and of 110,000 MWe in adjacent areas, together with supporting nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Air and water transport models used and methods for calculating nuclide concentrations on the ground are discussed

  19. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B Hawkins

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  20. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jared B; Jones, Mark T; Plassmann, Paul E; Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing) arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  1. Population and sustainable development in China: Population and household scenarios for two regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, L.

    1999-01-01

    China's notoriously bulging population has challenged the government's and the land's ability to provide sufficient food, employment, housing, education, and the like. The Chinese environment and resources have been further fatigued by rapid economic development and modernisation. This precarious

  2. Dense ion clouds of 0.1 − 2 keV ions inside the CPS-region observed by Astrid-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Norberg

    Full Text Available Data from the Astrid-2 satellite taken between April and July 1999 show several examples of dense ion clouds in the 0.1–2 keV energy range inside the inner mag-netosphere, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. These inner magnetospheric ion clouds are found predomi-nantly in the early morning sector, suggesting that they could have originated from substorm-related ion injections on the night side. However, their location and density show no cor-relation with Kp, and their energy-latitude dispersion is not easily reproduced by a simple particle drift model. There-fore, these ion clouds are not necessarily caused by substorm-related ion injections. Alternative explanations for the ion clouds are the direct solar wind injections and up-welling ions from the other hemisphere. These explanations do not, however, account for all of the observations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; storm and substorms

  3. POPULATION MOBILITY ACROSS REGIONS AND COUNTIES DURING DEMOCRACY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction to a more comprehensive study about internal migration determinants, this paper investigates on the main trends in the evolution of this phenomenon within Romanian borders for the last two decades, 1990-2010. For this, I compute indicators such as gross migration and net migration, and I display some illustrative graphic representations of the main patterns. Thus, my focus will be on: arrivals, departures and balances of migration, both numbers and rates; highest and lowest rates; intra-flows and inter-flows; and the favorite destinations to migrate from county to county. The main findings of this quantitative statistical analysis reveal low levels of migration, oscillatory flows and rates with sharp falls in 1991, two regions (Bucharest-Ilfov and West with exclusively positive balances and one (North-East with only negative balances, only 11 counties registered net inflows (especially from Centre and West, intra-migration strongly dominated inter-migration, inhabitants from almost one third of the counties have chosen the capital as their favourite destination, and almost half of the counties showed no temporal change in their preferences.

  4. PLATFORM ECONOMIC GROWTH QUALITY OF LIFE QUALITY OF THE POPULATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF REGIONS OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Volkovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the real research economic prerequisites of ensuring growth of quality of life of the population of the Central Chernozem region are considered. In our opinion, economic base determines the potential of development of the concrete territorial subject of the Russian Federation and ensuring growth of quality of life. It is established that economic prerequisites are characterized by complexity and versatility of influence. Treat priority indicators of economic development of the region: VRP per capita, structure of economy, investment activity and economic efficiency. The majority of the presented economic indicators had positive dynamics in the studied region, but, at the same time it is established that the steadiest trend of economic development is characteristic for the Belgorod and Lipetsk areas. A difficult situation with economic ensuring growth of quality of life of the population in the Oryol and Tambov areas. Low level of the majority of indicators of economic efficiency of development in these regions is considered the disturbing fact: the labor productivity index, a share of high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries of economy, number of high-performance workplaces decreases. The carried-out analysis allowed to reveal not only a number of problems in areas of the Central Chernozem region, but also to define possibilities of ensuring growth of economic indicators for ensuring improvement of quality of life of the population. Treat their number: the available consumer potential of areas, high level of expenses of budgets of subjects of TsChR on welfare actions, in particular, actively grow expenses of regional budgets on realization of social policy. Also it should be noted growth of investments into fixed capital. In the region it is important to develop for improvement of an economic situation at the level of regional administration actions and the social programs aimed at ensuring quality of life of the population of TsChR.

  5. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  6. Dense populations of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in feces of Penaeus vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome and pathways of their transmission to healthy shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Han, Jee Eun; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; White-Noble, Brenda; Schmidt, Margeaux M; Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Risdiana, Eris; Hanggono, Bambang

    2016-10-01

    White feces syndrome (WFS) is an emerging problem for penaeid shrimp farming industries in SE Asia countries, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, and in India. This occurrence of this syndrome is usually first evidenced by the appearance of white fecal strings floating on surface of the shrimp ponds. The gross signs of affected shrimp include the appearance of a whitish hindgut and loose carapace, and it is associated with reduced feeding and growth retardation. To investigate the nature of the white feces syndrome, samples of white feces and shrimp hepatopancreas tissue were collected from Penaeus vannamei in affected farms in Indonesia, and these were examined histologically. Within the white feces, we found densely packed spores of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (abbreviated as EHP) and relatively fewer numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. From WFS ponds, hepatopancreas samples form 30 individual shrimp were analyzed by histology and in situ hybridization. The results showed that all of the shrimp examined were infected with EHP accompanied by septic hepatopancreatic necrosis (SHPN). Midgut epithelial cells were also infected and this increased the number of tissue types being affected by EHP. By PCR, EHP was detected in all the samples analyzed from WFS-affected ponds, but not in those sampled from healthy shrimp ponds. To determine the modes of transmission for this parasite, we performed feeding and cohabitation bioassays, the results showed that EHP can be transmitted through per os feeding of EHP-infected hepatopancreas tissue to healthy shrimp and through cohabitation ofinfected and healthy shrimp. In addition, we found the use of Fumagillin-B, an antimicrobial agent, was ineffective in either reducing or eliminating EHP in infected shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingasia, Luicer A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p=0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; pKenya after introduction of the artemether-lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Social-psychological work with regional population concerning prophylaxis of radiophobia development and psychoemotional stress decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.; Matveenko, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the principles of the concept dealing with social-and-psychological contacts with the population of the radioactive contaminated territories elaborated by the Obninsk Research Centre Prognoz established by the regional branch of Soyuz-Chernobyl Society and based on the results of the control of social problems and psychological aspects of radiation risk perception of the population of the Kaluga region territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident

  9. Actuarial modeling of cost of voluntary pension insurance of the population of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova Svetlana Sergeevna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In article approach to determination of net value of the contract of pension insurance for the man's and female population, considering regional demographic features is offered. Results of actuarial calculation of the size pure net - rates of individual pension insurance are presented, "sensitivity" of cost of insurance is defined by methods of statistical modeling to key parameters of a pension product for the region population.

  10. New Regions of the Human Genome Linked to Skin Color Variation in Some African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first study of its kind, an international team of genomics researchers has identified new regions of the human genome that are associated with skin color variation in some African populations, opening new avenues for research on skin diseases and cancer in all populations.

  11. How did the population in the Copenhagen region change, 1960-2002?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Illeris

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available oncentrates first of all on the analysis of spatial differences in the sixty-year development of the population within the concentric zones: city centre, flanking region, old and new suburban circle and dispersed settlements. Indicators, which were subject of a spe-cial analysis were age, socio-economic and ethnical structure of the population.

  12. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  13. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  14. Simulation of dense colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear

  15. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  16. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  17. Diversity of dietary habits in the population as important factor of the regional radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.; Bruk, G.; Shutov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of the ways and regularities of internal dose formation in the population is impossible without the determination of food consumption habits for the population residing in contaminated areas. Food habits of peoples inhabiting the former Soviet Union differ both due to historical reasons and to religious traditions. Variation of food consumption is an important factor of radio-ecological sensitivity of the population. We try to show this on the example of south-west districts of the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In these regions, a set of countermeasures has been applied that strongly deformed traditional food consumption. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of region-of-influence methods for estimating high quantiles of precipitation in a dense dataset in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaál, Ladislav; Kyselý, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 11 (2009), s. 2203-2219 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : heavy precipitation * extreme value analysis * region-of-influence method * central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2009 http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/13/2203/2009/

  19. Imbalanced geodemographical structures in Târnave regional system. Case study: population ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-V. CONȚIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The demographic prospects of a regional system, the natural dynamics of the population, the potential of manpower resources, planning and forecast of its use, show a high degree of dependence on the demographical structure by age, the identified imbalances involving an increase in the vulnerability of the regional system and therefore an enhancement of geodemographical risks (acceleration of population ageing, decreasing population trend, disappearance of some rural settlements, socio-economic failures etc.. In this study, a special attention is paid to the analysis of ageing index and demographical dependency ratio, and the share of young and old people to the Târnave regional system, taking into account as milestones, the population censuses from 1910, 1992 2002 and 2011.

  20. Detectability of landscape effects on recolonization increases with regional population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Anna-Sara; Dalin, Peter; Björkman, Christer

    2015-07-01

    Variation in population size over time can influence our ability to identify landscape-moderated differences in community assembly. To date, however, most studies at the landscape scale only cover snapshots in time, thereby overlooking the temporal dynamics of populations and communities. In this paper, we present data that illustrate how temporal variation in population density at a regional scale can influence landscape-moderated variation in recolonization and population buildup in disturbed habitat patches. Four common insect species, two omnivores and two herbivores, were monitored over 8 years in 10 willow short-rotation coppice bio-energy stands with a four-year disturbance regime (coppice cycle). The population densities in these regularly disturbed stands were compared to densities in 17 undisturbed natural Salix cinerea (grey willow) stands in the same region. A time series approach was used, utilizing the natural variation between years to statistically model recolonization as a function of landscape composition under two different levels of regional density. Landscape composition, i.e. relative amount of forest vs. open agricultural habitats, largely determined the density of re-colonizing populations following willow coppicing in three of the four species. However, the impact of landscape composition was not detectable in years with low regional density. Our results illustrate that landscape-moderated recolonization can change over time and that considering the temporal dynamics of populations may be crucial when designing and evaluating studies at landscape level.

  1. A trans-national monarch butterfly population model and implications for regional conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhauser, Karen; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, James E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Ries, Leslie; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Brice

    2017-01-01

    1. The monarch has undergone considerable population declines over the past decade, and the governments of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have agreed to work together to conserve the species.2. Given limited resources, understanding where to focus conservation action is key for widespread species like monarchs. To support planning for continental-scale monarch habitat restoration, we address the question of where restoration efforts are likely to have the largest impacts on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus Linn.) population growth rates.3. We present a spatially explicit demographic model simulating the multi-generational annual cycle of the eastern monarch population, and use the model to examine management scenarios, some of which focus on particular regions of North America.4. Improving the monarch habitat in the north central or southern parts of the monarch range yields a slightly greater increase in the population growth rate than restoration in other regions. However, combining restoration efforts across multiple regions yields population growth rates above 1 with smaller simulated improvements in habitat per region than single-region strategies.5. Synthesis and applications: These findings suggest that conservation investment in projects across the full monarch range will be more effective than focusing on one or a few regions, and will require international cooperation across many land use categories.

  2. THE NATURAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of human development indicators during the past 15 years, Region North-West has undergone a series of negative processes, which are the most significant demographic decline due to negative natural growth and increased migration of people, especially those assets. Region North-West faces a negative demographic trend, with life expectancy of 71.38 years, the national average (72.22 years with high external migration, especially of highly qualified workforce. Analysis of employment trends of population in Region North-West shows a downward trend and projections for the development for years emphasized the decrease in employment. Estimates on the evolution of the population in Region North-West during 2005-2013 reveals a total population decreased by 4.2%.

  3. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  4. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Sophie M J M; Reijnders, Peter J H; Cremer, Jenny; Meesters, Erik; Kirkwood, Roger; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Jeβ, Armin; Galatius, Anders; Teilmann, Jonas; Aarts, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%), suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%). The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately 70% of all pups

  5. Life-history strategies associated with local population variability confer regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Stanislav; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2003-07-07

    A widely held ecological tenet is that, at the local scale, populations of K-selected species (i.e. low fecundity, long lifespan and large body size) will be less variable than populations of r-selected species (i.e. high fecundity, short lifespan and small body size). We examined the relationship between long-term population trends and life-history attributes for 185 bird species in the Czech Republic and found that, at regional spatial scales and over moderate temporal scales (100-120 years), K-selected bird species were more likely to show both large increases and decreases in population size than r-selected species. We conclude that life-history attributes commonly associated with variable populations at the local scale, confer stability at the regional scale.

  6. Regional heterogeneity and gene flow maintain variance in a quantitative trait within populations of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Sam; Jarvis, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation is of fundamental importance to biological evolution, yet we still know very little about how it is maintained in nature. Because many species inhabit heterogeneous environments and have pronounced local adaptations, gene flow between differently adapted populations may be a persistent source of genetic variation within populations. If this migration–selection balance is biologically important then there should be strong correlations between genetic variance within populations and the amount of heterogeneity in the environment surrounding them. Here, we use data from a long-term study of 142 populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) to compare levels of genetic variation in growth response with measures of climatic heterogeneity in the surrounding region. We find that regional heterogeneity explains at least 20% of the variation in genetic variance, suggesting that gene flow and heterogeneous selection may play an important role in maintaining the high levels of genetic variation found within natural populations. PMID:16769628

  7. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  8. Emission-line diagnostics of nearby H II regions including interacting binary populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2018-06-01

    We present numerical models of the nebular emission from H II regions around young stellar populations over a range of compositions and ages. The synthetic stellar populations include both single stars and interacting binary stars. We compare these models to the observed emission lines of 254 H II regions of 13 nearby spiral galaxies and 21 dwarf galaxies drawn from archival data. The models are created using the combination of the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code with the photoionization code CLOUDY to study the differences caused by the inclusion of interacting binary stars in the stellar population. We obtain agreement with the observed emission line ratios from the nearby star-forming regions and discuss the effect of binary-star evolution pathways on the nebular ionization of H II regions. We find that at population ages above 10 Myr, single-star models rapidly decrease in flux and ionization strength, while binary-star models still produce strong flux and high [O III]/H β ratios. Our models can reproduce the metallicity of H II regions from spiral galaxies, but we find higher metallicities than previously estimated for the H II regions from dwarf galaxies. Comparing the equivalent width of H β emission between models and observations, we find that accounting for ionizing photon leakage can affect age estimates for H II regions. When it is included, the typical age derived for H II regions is 5 Myr from single-star models, and up to 10 Myr with binary-star models. This is due to the existence of binary-star evolution pathways, which produce more hot Wolf-Rayet and helium stars at older ages. For future reference, we calculate new BPASS binary maximal starburst lines as a function of metallicity, and for the total model population, and present these in Appendix A.

  9. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  10. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P 5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  12. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  13. Examining Dense Data Usage near the Regions with Severe Storms in All-Sky Microwave Radiance Data Assimilation and Impacts on GEOS Hurricane Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Jin, Jianjun; McCarty, Will; El Akkraoui, Amal; Todling, Ricardo; Gelaro, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Many numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers assimilate radiances affected by clouds and precipitation from microwave sensors, with the expectation that these data can provide critical constraints on meteorological parameters in dynamically sensitive regions to make significant impacts on forecast accuracy for precipitation. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center assimilates all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave sensors such as all-sky GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) radiance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS), which includes the GEOS atmospheric model, the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) atmospheric analysis system, and the Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS). So far, most of NWP centers apply same large data thinning distances, that are used in clear-sky radiance data to avoid correlated observation errors, to all-sky microwave radiance data. For example, NASA GMAO is applying 145 km thinning distances for most of satellite radiance data including microwave radiance data in which all-sky approach is implemented. Even with these coarse observation data usage in all-sky assimilation approach, noticeable positive impacts from all-sky microwave data on hurricane track forecasts were identified in GEOS-5 system. The motivation of this study is based on the dynamic thinning distance method developed in our all-sky framework to use of denser data in cloudy and precipitating regions due to relatively small spatial correlations of observation errors. To investigate the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance on hurricane forecasts, several hurricane cases selected between 2016-2017 are examined. The dynamic thinning distance method is utilized in our all-sky approach to understand the sources and mechanisms to explain the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave radiance sensors like Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit

  14. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  15. Sequence polymorphism data of the hypervariable regions of mitochondrial DNA in the Yadav population of Haryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kapil; Sharma, Sapna; Sharma, Arun; Dalal, Jyoti; Bhardwaj, Tapeshwar

    2018-06-01

    Genetic variations among humans occur both within and among populations and range from single nucleotide changes to multiple-nucleotide variants. These multiple-nucleotide variants are useful for studying the relationships among individuals or various population groups. The study of human genetic variations can help scientists understand how different population groups are biologically related to one another. Sequence analysis of hypervariable regions of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been successfully used for the genetic characterization of different population groups for forensic purposes. It is well established that different ethnic or population groups differ significantly in their mtDNA distributions. In the last decade, very little research has been conducted on mtDNA variations in the Indian population, although such data would be useful for elucidating the history of human population expansion across the world. Moreover, forensic studies on mtDNA variations in the Indian subcontinent are also scarce, particularly in the northern part of India. In this report, variations in the hypervariable regions of mtDNA were analyzed in the Yadav population of Haryana. Different molecular diversity indices were computed. Further, the obtained haplotypes were classified into different haplogroups and the phylogenetic relationship between different haplogroups was inferred.

  16. Construction of a dense genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits of a doubled haploid population of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Long; Ji, Dehua; Chen, Changsheng; Zheng, Hongkun; Xie, Chaotian

    2015-09-21

    Pyropia haitanensis is one of the most economically important mariculture crops in China. A high-density genetic map has not been published yet and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has not been undertaken for P. haitanensis because of a lack of sufficient molecular markers. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was developed recently for large-scale, high resolution de novo marker discovery and genotyping. In this study, SLAF-seq was used to obtain mass length polymorphic markers to construct a high-density genetic map for P. haitanensis. In total, 120.33 Gb of data containing 75.21 M pair-end reads was obtained after sequencing. The average coverage for each SLAF marker was 75.50-fold in the male parent, 74.02-fold in the female parent, and 6.14-fold average in each double haploid individual. In total, 188,982 SLAFs were detected, of which 6731 were length polymorphic SLAFs that could be used to construct a genetic map. The final map included 4550 length polymorphic markers that were combined into 740 bins on five linkage groups, with a length of 874.33 cM and an average distance of 1.18 cM between adjacent bins. This map was used for QTL mapping to identify chromosomal regions associated with six economically important traits: frond length, width, thickness, fresh weight, growth rates of frond length and growth rates of fresh weight. Fifteen QTLs were identified for these traits. The value of phenotypic variance explained by an individual QTL ranged from 9.59 to 16.61 %, and the confidence interval of each QTL ranged from 0.97 cM to 16.51 cM. The first high-density genetic linkage map for P. haitanensis was constructed, and fifteen QTLs associated with six economically important traits were identified. The results of this study not only provide a platform for gene and QTL fine mapping, map-based gene isolation, and molecular breeding for P. haitanensis, but will also serve as a reference for positioning sequence scaffolds on a physical

  17. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  18. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population

    OpenAIRE

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A.; Amen, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individua...

  19. Analysis of changes of demographic parameters in different groups of Chernigiv region population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    To perform comparison of the changes in different social and age groups of the population of Chernigiv region, Kozeletsky district in particular, which was exposed to considerable radioactive contamination, during the recent 20 years (beginning from 1977). The Chernobyl accident together with social and other unfavorable factors caused negative demographic changes in the contaminated districts. Reduction in the number of different social groups of the population is expected

  20. [Collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of several regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybil, V B; Malyshkina, L P; Ageeva, O T; Kosolapova, E I; Mnozhina, E G; Groshenkova, E V; Krivtsov, N V; Gurianova, N I; Daltsaeva, M K; Fomina, N S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to estimate the collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of 8 regions and republics of Russia. The rates of the collective immunity against poliomyelitis allow the polio vaccination quality to be estimated and the population protection rate to be simultaneously demonstrated. A total of 8 regions (2138 people) were tested. The antibodies to the polioviruses of 1-3 types were determined against the vaccine Sabin strains in the neutralization test in the RD cell line. As a result, we found that vaccination against poliomyelitis in all observed regions was maintained at the required high level. Thus, the number of people with antibodies to the polio in most regions and age groups approximates or reaches 100%, while GMT is also high. This work demonstrated the necessity of the continuation of vaccination against poliomyelitis and control over collective immunity.

  1. Changes of population by age and gender structure of Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Hamiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS INCIDENCE IN THE CHILD POPULATION OF THE GRODNO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokha R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objective. To estimate a geographical variation of the indicator of the incidence of atopic dermatitis among the child population of the Grodno region. Material and methods. The data of the official statistical reports of the Grodno Regional Department of Statistics, the annual report forms «Form 1 – children» of the medical statistics office of the Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital for the period of 1999-2016 years were analyzed. Territorial differentiation of the indicator of disease incidence was carried out by the method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering. Results. The geographical characteristic of the indicator of the incidence of atopic dermatitis among the child population of the Grodno region aged 0–14 years during 1999-2016 years has been given. Low, below the average, above the average, average and high values of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence have been established. The cartogram of territorial distribution of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence among the child population has been made. Conclusion. The established features, various intensity of the degree of a geographical variation of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence reflect the influence of a set of various factors determining an indicator of diseases incidence in various territories of the region and confirm the need to analyze the cause-and-effect relationships in the system «medium-indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence among the child population».

  3. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  4. Geographic stratification of linkage disequilibrium: a worldwide population study in a region of chromosome 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Neira Anna

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies of haplotype diversity in a number of genomic regions have suggested that long stretches of DNA are preserved in the same chromosome, with little evidence of recombination events. The knowledge of the extent and strength of these haplotypes could become a powerful tool for future genetic analysis of complex traits. Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD have been found when comparing individuals of African and European descent, but there is scarce knowledge about the worldwide population stratification. Thus, the study of haplotype composition and the pattern of LD from a global perspective are relevant for elucidating their geographical stratification, as it may have implications in the future analysis of complex traits. We have typed 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a chromosome 22 region--previously described as having high LD levels in European populations -- in 39 different world populations. Haplotype structure has a clear continental structure with marked heterogeneity within some continents (Africa, America. The pattern of LD among neighbouring markers exhibits a strong clustering of all East Asian populations on the one hand and of Western Eurasian populations (including Europe on the other, revealing only two major LD patterns, but with some very specific outliers due to specific demographic histories. Moreover, it should be taken into account that African populations are highly heterogeneous. The present results support the existence of a wide (but not total communality in LD patterns in human populations from different continental regions, despite differences in their demographic histories, as population factors seem to be less relevant compared with genomic forces in shaping the patterns of LD.

  5. Effects of white-nose syndrome on regional population patterns of 3 hibernating bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2016-10-01

    Hibernating bats have undergone severe recent declines across the eastern United States, but the cause of these regional-scale declines has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the influence of white-nose syndrome (an emerging bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, formerly Geomyces destructans) on large-scale, long-term population patterns in the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), and the tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus). We modeled population trajectories for each species on the basis of an extensive data set of winter hibernacula counts of more than 1 million individual bats from a 4-state region over 13 years and with data on locations of hibernacula and first detections of white-nose syndrome at each hibernaculum. We used generalized additive mixed models to determine population change relative to expectations, that is, how population trajectories differed with a colony's infection status, how trajectories differed with distance from the point of introduction of white-nose syndrome, and whether declines were concordant with first local observation of the disease. Population trajectories in all species met at least one of the 3 expectations, but none met all 3. Our results suggest, therefore, that white-nose syndrome has affected regional populations differently than was previously understood and has not been the sole cause of declines. Specifically, our results suggest that in some areas and species, threats other than white-nose syndrome are also contributing to population declines, declines linked to white-nose syndrome have spread across large geographic areas with unexpected speed, and the disease or other threats led to declines in bat populations for years prior to disease detection. Effective conservation will require further research to mitigate impacts of white-nose syndrome, renewed attention to other threats to bats, and improved surveillance efforts to ensure

  6. The health status of population in the regions boarding to Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmukhanov, S.B.; Raisova, G.K.; Balmukhanov, T.S.; Voronin, A.M.; Sandybaev, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    It is performed the detailed investigation the health status of Semipalatinsk region population affected by constant radioactive irradiation during 40 years. The special attention attached to such pathologies as cancer, congenial defects of development and pathologies of cardio-vascular and nervous systems. It is also characterized the children health status. (author)

  7. Recurrent bacteraemia: A 10-year regional population-based study of clinical and microbiological risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, U.S.; Knudsen, J.D.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Background: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted in order to characterize patient factors and microbial species associated with recurrent bacteraemia. Methods: All patients with bacteraemia in a Danish region during 1996-2006 were investigated. Recurrence was defined based o...

  8. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  9. The ecological condition and diseases malignant new formation at the population of north region Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishev, A.K.; Rakhimbekov, M.O.; Zhakipbaev, K.A.; Malaniya, Z.Sh.; Zhagiparov, M.K.; Kusainov, K.Z.

    2003-01-01

    Growing diseases malignant formation by many countries of the world, including Kazakhstan, relatedness with deterioration ecological state. Broadly geological researches, development of pits (coal, gold-bearing, and uranium ore) in north region of the Republic renders negative influence on the picture of population health, that bring increasing level of diseases mortality

  10. Dense ceramic articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockbain, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)

  11. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  12. The planetary nebulae population in the nuclear regions of M31: the SAURON view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, Nicola; Sarzi, Marc; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Mamon, Gary A.; Bacon, Roland; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    2013-04-01

    The study of extragalactic planetary nebulae (PNe) in the optical regions of galaxies, where the properties of their stellar population can be best characterized, is a promising ground to better understand the late evolution of stars across different galactic environments. Following a first study of the central regions of M32 that illustrated the power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) in detecting and measuring the [O III] λ5007 emission of PNe against a strong stellar background, we turn to the very nuclear PN population of M31, within ˜80 pc of its centre. We show that PNe can also be found in the presence of emission from diffuse gas, as commonly observed in early-type galaxies and in the bulge of spirals, and further illustrate the excellent sensitivity of IFS in detecting extragalactic PNe through a comparison with narrow-band images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Contrary to the case of the central regions of M32, the nuclear PNe population of M31 is only marginally consistent with the generally adopted form of the PNe luminosity function (PNLF). In particular, this is due to a lack of PNe with absolute magnitude M5007 brighter than -3, which would only result from a rather unfortunate draw from such a model PNLF. The nuclear stellar population of M31 is quite different from that of the central regions of M32, which is characterized in particular by a larger metallicity and a remarkable ultraviolet (UV) upturn. We suggest that the observed lack of bright PNe in the nuclear regions of M31 is due to a horizontal-branch population that is more tilted towards less massive and hotter He-burning stars, so that its progeny consists mostly of UV-bright stars that fail to climb back up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and only a few, if any, bright PNe powered by central post-AGB stars. These results are also consistent with recent reports on a dearth of bright post-AGB stars towards the nucleus of M31, and lend further support to the idea that the

  13. Regional differences, socio-demographics, and hidden population of HIV/AIDS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Suar, Damodar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in different regions of India, their socio-demographic indicators, and the presence of hidden population infected with HIV. Secondary data analyzed were obtained from national and international agencies. Considering the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in India, the low-prevalence regions in the last decade have shown a steady increase in recent years. Productive age, urbanization, male gender, lower level of education, minority religions, low income, and mobile occupations are associated with HIV pandemic. The hidden population vulnerable to HIV/AIDS are: street children, homeless population, and refugees. These observations can help map the high-risk behavior groups and formulate targeted strategies to curb the HIV menace.

  14. MICB gene diversity and balancing selection on its promoter region in Yao population in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xuexiang; Wei, Xiaomou; Meng, Yuming; Liu, Limin; Qin, Shini; Liu, Yanyu; Dai, Shengming

    2016-12-01

    To comprehensively examine the MICB gene polymorphism and identify its differences in Chinese Yao population from other ethnic groups, we investigated the polymorphism in the 5'-upstream regulation region (5'-URR), coding region (exons 2-4), and the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of MICB gene by using PCR-SBT method in 125 healthy unrelated Yao individuals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Higher polymorphism was observed in the 5'-URR, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a two base pairs deletion at position -139/-138 were found in our study. Only five different variation sites, however, were detected in exons 2-4 and three were observed in the 3'-UTR. The minor allele frequencies of all variants were greater than 5%, except for rs3828916, rs3131639, rs45627734, rs113620316, rs779737471, and the variation at position +11803 in the 3'-UTR. The first nine SNPs of 5'-URR and rs1065075, rs1051788 of the coding region showed significant linkage disequilibrium with each other. Ten different MICB extended haplotypes (EH) encompassing the 5'-URR, exons 2-4, and 3'-UTR were found in this population, and the most frequent was EH1 (23.2%). We provided several evidences for balancing selection effect on the 5'-URR of MICB gene in Yao population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic structure of Proclossiana eunomia populations at the regional scale (Lepidoptera, nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nève, G; Barascud, B; Descimon, H; Baguette, M

    2000-06-01

    Populations of Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) occur in middle Europe in patchy habitats of hay meadows along valleys or peat bogs. Samples of P. eunomia populations from the Ardennes region (northern France and southern Belgium) were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis. Patches isolated by more than 2 km of mature forests proved genetically distinct from their neighbouring populations. Mantel tests and regression analysis showed that the degree of genetic differentiation between the 26 studied populations is related to the geographical distances between them. Autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I ) showed that allele frequencies are positively correlated for populations up to 13 km apart and that the genetic neighbourhood of individuals is in the range of 0.9 km, which is in accordance with movement studies in this species conducted in the same area. Analysis using Wright's F-statistics revealed that the highest differentiation occurs between populations of the same subregion, whereas the whole Ardennes region is not genetically partitioned into subregions. This is probably because the connectivity of the network of suitable habitats has significantly weakened only since the 1950s, and thus subregional differentiation has not yet occurred.

  16. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  17. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  18. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Paprocki

    Full Text Available Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1 and 7.74 km yr(-1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally

  19. 137Cs content in the ration of rural population of regions with increased nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the ration of rural population of arctic regions and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. The peculiarity of the nitrition structure of the population in the North is a relatively large contribution of deer meat in the ration. The main amount of 137 Cs contribution with other food stuffs and drinking water in the ration of population of this area does not exceed 10 %. The main supplier of 137 Cs in the ration of population of woodlands is milk which constitutes 70 %. The second place is taken by potatoes. The role and significance of separate food stuffs as 137 Cs suppliers in the ration in the zones with increased migration can be different; the leading role in this process is played by natural factors

  20. Specific Midgut Region Controlling the Symbiont Population in an Insect-Microbe Gut Symbiotic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Kim, Na Hyang; Jang, Ho Am; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kim, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Many insects possess symbiotic bacteria that affect the biology of the host. The level of the symbiont population in the host is a pivotal factor that modulates the biological outcome of the symbiotic association. Hence, the symbiont population should be maintained at a proper level by the host's control mechanisms. Several mechanisms for controlling intracellular symbionts of insects have been reported, while mechanisms for controlling extracellular gut symbionts of insects are poorly understood. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a betaproteobacterial extracellular symbiont of the genus Burkholderia in the midgut symbiotic organ designated the M4 region. We found that the M4B region, which is directly connected to the M4 region, also harbors Burkholderia symbiont cells, but the symbionts therein are mostly dead. A series of experiments demonstrated that the M4B region exhibits antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial activity is specifically potent against the Burkholderia symbiont but not the cultured Burkholderia and other bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the M4B region was detected in symbiotic host insects, reaching its highest point at the fifth instar, but not in aposymbiotic host insects, which suggests the possibility of symbiont-mediated induction of the antimicrobial activity. This antimicrobial activity was not associated with upregulation of antimicrobial peptides of the host. Based on these results, we propose that the M4B region is a specialized gut region of R. pedestris that plays a critical role in controlling the population of the Burkholderia gut symbiont. The molecular basis of the antimicrobial activity is of great interest and deserves future study. PMID:24038695

  1. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  2. Hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-01

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This

  3. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkey, Fallon M; Matthews, Jennifer; Ryser, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2013-11-01

    Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.

  5. Regional Distribution of Longevity Population and Elements in Drinking Water in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Yuan, Yuyang; Luo, Kunli

    2017-10-25

    In order to determine the spatial variation of longevity population and elements contained in the drinking water of longevity region in Jiangjin and investigate the relationship between the elements in drinking water and longevity, population censuses on township level and 98 drinking water samples from Jiangjin District, Chongqing City in West China were collected and analyzed. Population statistics on township level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC), centenarity index (CI), and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65-year-old subjects (UC) present obvious geographic distribution properties, generally Central region > Northern region > Southern region (Kruskal-Wallis test, p water (150 mg/L water from longevity township (OC > 7.5) in Jiangjin District, whereas soft water (75 mg/L strontium (Sr) (0.73 mg/L) in drinking water from the longevity township was apparently higher than that of non-longevity township (0.44 mg/L) (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.019 water from longevity township were also higher than those of non-longevity township (Mann-Whitney U test, p water might be good for the health and prolong people's life.

  6. Evidence based practice in population health: a regional survey to inform workforce development and organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adily, A; Ward, J

    2004-06-01

    To assess current capacity to implement evidence based practice (EBP) in population health. Postal survey of a regional population health workforce in Sydney, Australia. Division of Population Health, South Western Sydney Area Health Service. 104 population health staff (response rate: 73%). In the sample of regional population health practitioners, views about the current promotion of EBP were positive. Non-medical respondents with less that Masters degree were more likely to report "high self assessed need" to increase their capacity in EBP (p = 0.022). Confidence in understanding of EBP terminology was not associated with seniority but with highest level of education reached (pskills" or "need to increase their capacity in EBP" in their current position. The proportion of participants "strongly" supporting implementation of a colorectal cancer screening programme whose benefit was expressed as relative risk reduction was greater than that so supporting a programme whose benefit was expressed as number needed to screen (p = 0.008). Most respondents referred to their immediate managers when seeking support for EBP. The findings provide a quantitative baseline for capacity building through workplace programmes. Managerial commitment has been increased and performance development is now underway.

  7. Population resources of an endangered species Salix lapponum L. in Polesie Lubelskie Region (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, carried out in the years 2011–2013, aimed to evaluate Salix lapponum stands in the peat bogs of Polesie Lubelskie Region as well as to determine the condition of the population and the changes that have taken place since the 1950’s. An inventory carried out in 25 stands of S. lapponum known from the literature shows that the number of its stands has decreased by 80% in Polesie Lubelskie Region. In all the confirmed locations, a decrease in population numbers was also found in relation to the data known from the literature since the 1950’s. In the majority of the population locations that were considered to be extinct, there were no significant changes in habitat conditions, and ecological succession and changes in hydrological conditions could have been the cause of habitat changes only at a few sites. In the light of the study, the preservation of the S. lapponum population in Polesie Lubelskie seems to be impossible if appropriate active conservation measures are not taken immediately. Because area-based conservation, which covers most of the habitats of the studied species, does not bring the expected results, the possibility of ex situ conservation and enlargement of the populations existing in the natural environment in peat bog ecosystems in Polesie should be explored.

  8. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE MOSCOW REGION IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Analysis of the cancer incidence and mortality in the population is of major importance for planning of measures aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to cancer patients, ensuring high quality and availability of this type of medical care.Aim: To evaluate cancer-related incidence and mortality rates and structure among the population of the Moscow Region depending on patient gender and tumor localization.Materials and methods: The estimation and analysis of incidence and mortality rates was performed based on the Reporting Form of the Federal Statistic Surveillance #7 “Information on disorders related to malignant tumors” in the Moscow Region in 2014. For mortality analysis, including that among pediatric patients, we used data from the State Statistics Service of the Moscow Region.Results: In 2014, there were 25 600 new cases of malignancies diagnosed in the Moscow Region, that corresponded to the incidence rate of 363.2 per 100,000 of the population. The leading types of newly diagnosed tumors in men were prostate cancer, as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers (54.2 and 47.0 per 100,000 of male population, respectively. In women, the highest incidence rates were found for breast and skin cancers (86.0 and 58.9 per 100,000 of female population, respectively. According to the data from Rosstat, in 2014, the overall cancer mortality rate in the Moscow Region was 228.1 per 100,000 of the population. Among the causes of cancer mortality in men, the leading one was tracheal, bronchial and lung cancer (22.2%, followed by stomach cancer (13.3% and prostate cancer (8.1%. In women, the leading cause of cancer mortality was breast cancer (16.6%, followed by ovarian, uterine and cervical cancers (14.1% and stomach cancer (11.4%.Conclusion: Based on the results of medical and statistical analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates, the main direction of improvement of medical care to cancer patients and the ways

  10. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  11. WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (∼30-70 K), extended (radius of ∼2400 AU), dense (a few times 10 5 cm -3 ) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

  12. Neuropsychological state of the population living in the Aral Sea region (zone of ecological crisis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiev, Kanat; Battakova, Sharbanu; Namazbaeva, Zulkiya; Ibrayeva, Lyazat; Otarbayeva, Maral; Sabirov, Zhanbol

    2017-04-01

    Background The Aral Sea crisis has led to harmful effects on human habitat. In recent years, mild cognitive impairment is a growing problem. Objectives This article provides the results of studying the neuropsychological state of residents living in the crisis zone of the Aral Sea region in the case of Shalkar city. We have provided an assessment of the neuropsychological state of examined population and determined the leading pathology in this region. Methods The survey sample included 344 persons of reproductive age from 21 to 45 years. We have obtained results in biochemical studies, indicating perturbations of proteometabolism and lipid metabolism. Results A correlation analysis showed dependence between a decrease of albumin and high-density lipoproteins, an increase of low-density lipoproteins and parameters of cognitive function. Conclusions The research suggests a high prevalence of cerebrovascular pathology among the population, changes in cognitive function parameters, long-term and short-term memory problems and high levels of depression.

  13. EPSTEIN–BARR VIRUS IN THE POPULATION OF TWO GEOGRAPHICALLY DIFFERENT REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Senyuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV being widely spread in the human population is also the etiologic agent for a number of malignancies. A notable feature of tumors associated with EBV is their different incidence in various geographical regions, that, as suggested, related with mutational events in multiple loci of the EBV genome and its oncogene, the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, associated with the transforming potential of the virus. Given the multi-ethnic composition of Russian population and the diversity of geographical areas and conditions of their residence, it was relevant to examine the representatives of different geographical regions for the nature of their relationship with EBV. To solve this task the antibody response to locally circulating EBV strains, determined by indirect immunofluorescence, was studied in residents of the Central, North Caucasus and Far Eastern Federal Districts, represented by healthy individuals and patients with various head and neck tumors. The levels of antibody titers obtained were compared with the incidence rates of nasopharyngeal tumors (NPT in population of above Districts. In order to determine possible structural modifications in LMP1 gene of EBV strains persisting in selected geographic regions, samples of the gene have been amplified from a biological material collected by “nested” PCR and sequenced. The results obtained have shown that levels of antibody response to EBV among representatives of the regions included in the study vary significantly. It was found that in residents of the Dagestan and the Chechen Republics, the inhabitants of the North Caucasus Federal District, the correlation between enhanced humoral response to EBV and increased incidence of NPT was detected. Since among NPT the EBV-associated form of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPCEBV is dominated, the findings allow us to suggest that the population of these Republics have genetic

  14. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.V. regional and populational characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    The region with high level of background radiation studied in our project is described. In the total, 8.572 couples and 43.930 pregnancy terminations were analyzed. The populational distribution of the 'relaive time of exposure to radiation' (coefficient R) is presented. The distributions of ethnic groups, alien ancestrals, mortality, morbidity, sex ratio, conditions of the household, instruction of the mother, and mean coefficients of inbreeding are also given, all the distributions are given comparatively for control and irradiated groups [pt

  15. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. V. regional and populational characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-12-01

    The region with high level of background radiation studied in our project is described. In the total, 8.572 couples and 43.930 pregnancy terminations were analyzed. The populational distribution of the 'relaive time of exposure to radiation' (coefficient R) is presented. The distributions of ethnic groups, alien ancestrals, mortality, morbidity, sex ratio, conditions of the household, instruction of the mother, and mean coefficients of inbreeding are also given, all the distributions are given comparatively for control and irradiated groups.

  16. Hygienic assessment of ambient air quality and health risks to population of Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Goryaev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study fulfills the hygienic assessment of ambient air quality in the populated areas of the Krasnoyarsk Region. It is shown that the total number of emission sources in the region is more than 23 600 units, what is higher than in previous years. Around 90.7 % out of them correspond to the set standards of permissible emissions. Air monitoring was carried by the establishments of Roshydromet, Rospotrebnadzor and by other organizations at 94 observation posts in eight urban districts and 2 municipal districts of the region. The status of the ambient air in a sequence of the populated areas of Krasnoyarsk region, namely in the cities Achinsk, Kansk, Krasnoyarsk, Lesosibirsk, Minusinsk, Norilsk, is characterized by the presence of certain pollutants, the level of which exceeds the hygienic standards. Prioritized pollutants are benzo(apyrene, suspended solids, nitrogen, and sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and others. In the settlements the economic entities violate the legal requirements in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population. The probability of the population’s health deterioration grows along with the growth of risk factors. The risks of respiratory diseases, immune system, blood and blood-forming organs and the additional mortality are assessed as unacceptable. Ensuring air quality of the urban residential areas and municipal districts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory requires the introducing the complex measures to improve it. The established levels of human health risk associated with exposure to polluted air are an additional criterion for selection of the priority objects when planning the implementation of risk-based model for supervisory activities in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population.

  17. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkey, Fallon M.; Matthews, Jennifer; Ryser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. - Highlights: ► Metal resistance in trees from an industrially contaminated region was investigated. ► Both red maple and white birch have developed some degree of resistance. ► There is indication of a cost for resistance. ► Populations from non-contaminated regions show variation in response to contamination. - Adaptive metal resistance can also develop in trees with long generation times, but the degree of resistance is lower than for herbaceous species from the same region.

  18. The analysis of the population economic activity and unemployment in the South Moravian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Hudečková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with analysis of the South Moravian region population economic activity and unemployment state and development. The analysis of the population economic activity and unemployment is a part of the demographic, social and economic population analysis. The unemployment is considered to be an unfavourable effect, but its low rate is a natural part of the market economy. The unemployment was from the general and registered unemployment rate in years 1995–2003 point of view evaluated. Some indicators of the South Moravian region were with the whole Czech Republic compared. The unemployment in the South Moravian region marked a negative development in mentioned period and in the year 2003 achieved value of 11.45%. The trend of the unemployment development was defined and also the seasonal character with the seasonal indexes was analysed. The highest unemployment was proved in winter months (January–March and least in May and June. There was proved the high dependency rate among the number of vacancies, the number of applicants for one vacancy and unemployment rate.

  19. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  20. High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the 3′ hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL TENSION RISK PREDICTING ALGORITHM IN THE POPULATION OF CERTAIN REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was development of approaches to predict the risk of social tension for population of the Russian Federation regions.Methods. Theoretical studies based on the analysis of cartographic material from the National Atlas of Russia. The use of geo-information technologies has provided modeling of environmental load in the territory of certain regions of Russia. Experimental studies were performed using standard methods of psycho-physiological testing involving 336 persons 18-23 years old of both sexes.Results. As a fundamental biologically significant factor of the environment, differentiating the Russian Federation territory to areas with discrete actual physical effects, total solar radiation was determined. The subsequent allocation of model regions (Republic of Crimea, Rostov and Saratov regions based on the principle of minimizing regional differences associated factors of environmental pressure per person. Experimental studies have revealed persistent systemic relationships of phenotypic characteristics and tendency of person to neuropsychic tension. The risk of social tension for the study area population is predicted on the condition of finding more than two thirds of the representatives of sample within the borders of a high level of general non-specific reactivity of an organism.Main conclusions. The expediency of using the northern latitude as an integral index of differentiation of areas on the specifics of the severity of the physical factors of environmental impact on human activity is justified. The possibility of the application for the level of general nonspecific reactivity of an organism as a phenotypic trait marker of social tension risk is identified. An algorithm for predicting the risk of social tension among the population, compactly living in certain territories of the Russian Federation is designed. 

  2. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region.

  3. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  4. Age-Sex Structure of the Population and Demographic Processes in Environmentally Challenged Mining Region (on the example of Kemerovo region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, Timofey; Brel, Olga; Zaytseva, Anna; Kaizer, Philipp; Makarov, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of the article is to show the influence of the age-sex structure of the population on the basic demographic processes in the Kemerovo region. During research the authors have established correlation links between the sex-age structure of the population and the main demographic indicators (birth and mortality rate, morbidity rate, migration and others) based on the analysis of official statistical data. The direct influence of internal and external factors on the age-sex structure of the population is revealed. Conclusions about the impact of demographic processes on the sex-age structure of the population of the Kemerovo region are drawn.

  5. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  6. Stellar populations in the Carina region. The Galactic plane at l = 291°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Lera, J. A.; Baume, G.; Gamen, R.; Costa, E.; Carraro, G.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Previous studies of the Carina region have revealed its complexity and richness as well as a significant number of early-type stars. However, in many cases, these studies only concentrated on the central region (Trumpler 14/16) or were not homogeneous. This latter aspect, in particular, is crucial because very different ages and distances for key clusters have been claimed in recent years. Aims: The aim of this work is to study in detail an area of the Galactic plane in Carina, eastward η Carina. We analyze the properties of different stellar populations and focus on a sample of open clusters and their population of young stellar objects and highly reddened early stars. We also studied the stellar mass distribution in these clusters and the possible scenario of their formation. Finally, we outline the Galactic spiral structure in this direction. Methods: We obtained deep and homogeneous photometric data (UBVIKC) for six young open clusters: NGC 3752, Trumpler 18, NGC 3590, Hogg 10, 11, and 12, located in Carina at l ~ 291°, and their adjacent stellar fields, which we complemented with spectroscopic observations of a few selected targets. We also culled additional information from the literature, which includes stellar spectral classifications and near-infrared photometry from 2MASS. We finally developed a numerical code that allowed us to perform a homogeneous and systematic analysis of the data. Our results provide more reliable estimates of distances, color excesses, masses, and ages of the stellar populations in this direction. Results: We estimate the basic parameters of the studied clusters and find that they identify two overdensities of young stellar populations located at about 1.8 kpc and 2.8 kpc, with EB - V ~ 0.1 - 0.6. We find evidence of pre-main-sequence populations inside them, with an apparent coeval stellar formation in the most conspicuous clusters. We also discuss apparent age and distance gradients in the direction NW-SE. We study the

  7. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  8. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  9. Genetic association of FTO/IRX region with obesity and overweight in the Polish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sobalska-Kwapis

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many loci associated with body mass index (BMI in many different populations. Variants in the FTO locus are reported to be one of the strongest genetic predictors of obesity. Recent publications pointed also to a topologically associated domain (TAD which is identified as a novel region affecting BMI. The TAD area encompasses the IRXB cluster (IRX3, IRX5, IRX6, FTO and RPGRIP1L genes.In this study, we investigated the relationship between variation of the FTO and IRX genes and obesity in Poles. We presented a case-control association analysis (normal versus overweight and/or obesity group of Polish adult individuals (N = 5418. We determined whether or not the chromosomal region 16:53 500 000-55 500 000 contains polymorphic variants which are correlated with BMI in Polish population, including sex and age stratified analysis.The obtained results showed that the problem of weight-height abnormalities differently affects populations of Polish women and men (χ2 = 187.1; p0.98, r2>0.80. We confirmed presence of the genetic susceptibility loci located in intron 1 of the FTO gene, which were correlated with BMI in our study group. For the first time, our analyses revealed strong association of FTO intronic variants (block 8 with overweight in group of men only. We have also identified association of the IRX region with overweight and/or obesity in Polish individuals.Our study demonstrated how tested SNPs make differential contributions to obesity and overweight risk. We revealed sex dependent differences in the distribution of tested loci which are associated with BMI in the population of Poles.

  10. Differential tolerance of two Gammarus pulex populations transplanted from different metallogenic regions to a polymetal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R; Irving, Jennifer R; Bury, Nicolas R; Hogstrand, Christer

    2011-03-01

    The River Hayle, Cornwall, UK exhibits pronounced Cu and Zn concentration gradients which were used to compare the metal handling abilities of two populations of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda). One population was native to the Hayle region (Drym) and presumably has been historically impacted by elevated Cu and Zn levels, whilst naïve gammarids were collected from the River Cray, Kent, UK. Both populations were subject to a 32 day in situ exposure at four R. Hayle sites (Drym, Godolphin, Relubbus and St. Erth). Mortality (LT50), Cu and Zn accumulation and sub-cellular distribution, and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde production) increased with the expected Cu and Zn bioavailabilities at the four sites (i.e. Godolphin>Relubbus>St. Erth>Drym). The naïve population experienced greater metal induced effects in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation, oxidative stress responses and lower LT50s. Analysis of Cu and Zn sub-cellular distribution, however, revealed no significant differences in metal handling. In both populations each metal was localised predominantly to the sub-cellular fraction containing metal bound to metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) or that holding both metal-rich granules (MRG) and exoskeleton, MTLP and MRG binding being indicative of metal detoxification. However, a greater capacity for detoxified metal storage is not a mechanism implicated in the perceived tolerance of the historically impacted gammarids. Instead our results suggest that the historically impacted population was adapted for lower uptake of Cu and Zn leading to lower bioaccumulation, stress response and ultimately mortality. These results demonstrate not only the usefulness of the in situ methodology, but also that differences in population exposure history can cause significant differences in metal responses during exposure at higher concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. First regional evaluation of nuclear genetic diversity and population structure in northeastern coyotes (Canis latrans [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2y3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monzón

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes (Canis latrans are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A region-wide analysis of population structure revealed three primary genetic populations, but these do not correspond to the same three subdivisions inferred in a previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. More focused geographic analyses of population structure indicated that ample genetic structure occurs in coyotes from an intermediate contact zone where two range expansion fronts meet. These results demonstrate that genotyping several highly heterozygous SNPs in a large, geographically dense sample is an effective way to detect cryptic population genetic structure. The importance of SNPs in studies of population and wildlife genomics is rapidly increasing; this study adds to the growing body of recent literature that demonstrates the utility of SNPs ascertained from a model organism for evolutionary inference in closely related species.

  12. Toward compression of small cell population: harnessing stress in passive regions of dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Alexandre; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2014-03-01

    We present a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) for in vitro analysis of mm2 biological samples under periodic compressive stress. Understanding how mechanical stimuli affect cell functions could lead to significant advances in diseases diagnosis and drugs development. We previously reported an array of 72 micro-DEAs on a chip to apply a periodic stretch to cells. To diversify our cell mechanotransduction toolkit we have developed an actuator for periodic compression of small cell populations. The device is based on a novel design which exploits the effects of non-equibiaxial pre-stretch and takes advantage of the stress induced in passive regions of DEAs. The device consists of two active regions separated by a 2mm x 2mm passive area. When connected to an AC high-voltage source, the two active regions periodically compress the passive region. Due to the non-equibiaxial pre-stretch it induces uniaxial compressive strain greater than 10%. Cells adsorbed on top of this passive gap would experience the same uniaxial compressive stain. The electrodes configuration confines the electric field and prevents it from reaching the biological sample. A thin layer of silicone is casted on top of the device to ensure a biocompatible environment. This design provides several advantages over alternative technologies such as high optical transparency of the area of interest (passive region under compression) and its potential for miniaturization and parallelization.

  13. Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Patients and Relatives with SHOX Region Anomalies in the French Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Julie; Baptiste, Amandine; Benabbad, Imane; Thierry, Gaëlle; Costa, Jean-Marc; Amouyal, Mélanie; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Leheup, Bruno; Touraine, Renaud; Schmitt, Sébastien; Lebrun, Marine; Cormier Daire, Valérie; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; de Roux, Nicolas; Elie, Caroline; Rosilio, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe a large population with anomalies involving the SHOX region, responsible for idiopathic short stature and Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and to identify a possible genotype/phenotype correlation. We performed a retrospective multicenter study on French subjects with a SHOX region anomaly diagnosed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or Sanger sequencing. Phenotypes were collected in each of the 7 genetic laboratories practicing this technique for SHOX analysis. Among 205 index cases and 100 related cases, 91.3% had LWD. For index cases, median age at evaluation was 11.7 (9.0; 15.9) years and mean height standard deviation score was -2.3 ± 1.1. A deletion of either SHOX or PAR1 or both was found in 74% of patients. Duplications and point mutations/indels affected 8 and 18% of the population, respectively. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed that deletions were more frequently associated with Madelung deformity and mesomelic shortening in girls, as well as with presence of radiologic anomalies, than duplications. Our results highlight genotype-phenotype relationships in the French population with a SHOX defect and provide new information showing that clinical expression is milder in cases of duplication compared to deletions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The epidemiology of malaria in Rondonia (Western Amazon region, Brazil): study of a riverine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L M; Noronha, E; Salcedo, J M; Dutra, A P; Krieger, H; Pereira da Silva, L H; Camargo, E P

    1999-01-15

    We report on a longitudinal study concerning the incidence of malaria in a riverine population (Portuchuelo) settled on the riverbanks of Rio Madeira, in the State of Rondonia, Brazil. We found the incidence of malaria to be seasonal, prevailing in the dry months of June and July. The Annual Parasite Index (API) was 292/1000 inhabitants, almost three times that of the state of Rondonia for the same period. In contrast with other studied Rondonian populations, malaria in Portuchuelo was more prevalent in youngsters Amazon region where most of its members were born. Due to the permanent presence of malaria among riverine populations, we are proposing that they may act as perennial reserves of malaria and, therefore, as sources of infection for migrants or eventual settlers at their vicinity. To date, the opposite view has been generally held. Anopheles darlingi, the main vector species in the area, is essentially sylvatic, which contributes to make the control of malaria highly problematic. The only hopes for control rest on permanent surveillance and the prompt treatment of patients, which are also problematic considering the vastness of the Amazon region and the remoteness of some of its riverine settlements.

  15. Variation in heterozygosity predicts variation in human substitution rates between populations, individuals and genomic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Amos

    Full Text Available The "heterozygote instability" (HI hypothesis suggests that gene conversion events focused on heterozygous sites during meiosis locally increase the mutation rate, but this hypothesis remains largely untested. As humans left Africa they lost variability, which, if HI operates, should have reduced the mutation rate in non-Africans. Relative substitution rates were quantified in diverse humans using aligned whole genome sequences from the 1,000 genomes project. Substitution rate is consistently greater in Africans than in non-Africans, but only in diploid regions of the genome, consistent with a role for heterozygosity. Analysing the same data partitioned into a series of non-overlapping 2 Mb windows reveals a strong, non-linear correlation between the amount of heterozygosity lost "out of Africa" and the difference in substitution rate between Africans and non-Africans. Putative recent mutations, derived variants that occur only once among the 80 human chromosomes sampled, occur preferentially at the centre of 2 Kb windows that have elevated heterozygosity compared both with the same region in a closely related population and with an immediately adjacent region in the same population. More than half of all substitutions appear attributable to variation in heterozygosity. This observation provides strong support for HI with implications for many branches of evolutionary biology.

  16. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  17. ABO blood group and risk of pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Huseyin; Bilir, Cemil; Üstün, Hasan; Gökmen, Ayla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. The median age of patients were 56 (± 16) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.

  18. The effect of churn on "community viral load" in a well-defined regional population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Hartmut B; Gill, M John

    2013-10-01

    The concept of community viral load (CVL) was introduced to quantify the pool of transmissible HIV within a community and to monitor the potential impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on reducing new infections. The implications of churn (patient movement in/out of care in a community) on CVL have not been studied. The annual CVL was determined in the entire geographic HIV population receiving care in southern Alberta from 2001 to 2010; the CVL for specific subpopulations was analyzed for 2009. CVL was determined for patients under continuous care, newly diagnosed, new to the region, moved away, returned, and lost to follow-up (LTFU). Viral loads (VLs) churn significantly limited CVL use as a measure for evaluating the impact of HAART in reducing HIV transmissions in our population.

  19. Mississippian subadults from the Middle Cumberland and Eastern regions of Tennessee: Biological indicators of population interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopa Kelso, Rebecca

    2018-02-23

    Human subadult skeletal remains can provide a unique perspective into biosocial aspects of Mississippian period population interactions within and between the Middle Cumberland (MCR) and Eastern Tennessee Regions (ETR). The majority of previous studies have concentrated on adult skeletal remains, leaving out a large and extremely important population segment. Skeletal indicators of disease, growth, body proportions, and metabolic stress were collected from subadult remains from five archaeological sites over several temporal periods. Crucial to overcoming limitations associated with the osteological paradox, the biological results were placed into an archaeological context based on prior studies as well as paleoclimatological data. Results reveal homogeneity both within and between regions for most skeletal indicators. However, MCR individuals exhibit a higher frequency of pathology than those from ETC, while stature is significantly lower in younger subadults from the MCR. Within the ETR, there is no evidence for biological differences between Early Dallas and subsequent Late Dallas and Mouse Creek cultural phases. Despite presumed signs of increased conflict at the Dallas site, frequencies and types of skeletal pathology and growth disruptions are comparable to other regional sites. These findings suggest that despite cultural differences between the ETR and MCR, there was no large-scale intrusion from an outside population into the ETR during the Late Mississippian Period, or if one occurred, it is biologically invisible. Combined with climatic and archaeobotanical data, results suggest the MCR subadults were under increased stress in their earlier years. This may have been associated with increased interpersonal violence and dependence on few food sources occurring with greater scarcity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  1. Genetic health and population monitoring of two small black bear (Ursus americanus populations in Alabama, with a regional perspective of genetic diversity and exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Draper

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin. Recently a second population has naturally re-established itself in northeastern Alabama. We sought to determine size, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity for these two populations in relation to other regional populations. Both populations of black bears in Alabama had small population sizes and had moderate to low genetic diversity, but showed different levels of connectivity to surrounding populations of bears. The Mobile River Basin population had a small population size at only 86 individuals (76-124, 95% C.I., the lowest genetic diversity of compared populations (richness = 2.33, Ho and He = 0.33, and showed near complete genetic isolation from surrounding populations across multiple tests. The newly recolonizing population in northeastern Alabama had a small but growing population doubling in 3 years (34 individuals 26-43, 95% C.I., relatively moderate genetic diversity compared to surrounding populations (richness = 3.32, Ho = 0.53, He = 0.65, and showed a high level of genetic connectivity with surrounding populations.

  2. Genetic health and population monitoring of two small black bear (Ursus americanus) populations in Alabama, with a regional perspective of genetic diversity and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John P; Waits, Lisette P; Adams, Jennifer R; Seals, Christopher L; Steury, Todd D

    2017-01-01

    One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin. Recently a second population has naturally re-established itself in northeastern Alabama. We sought to determine size, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity for these two populations in relation to other regional populations. Both populations of black bears in Alabama had small population sizes and had moderate to low genetic diversity, but showed different levels of connectivity to surrounding populations of bears. The Mobile River Basin population had a small population size at only 86 individuals (76-124, 95% C.I.), the lowest genetic diversity of compared populations (richness = 2.33, Ho and He = 0.33), and showed near complete genetic isolation from surrounding populations across multiple tests. The newly recolonizing population in northeastern Alabama had a small but growing population doubling in 3 years (34 individuals 26-43, 95% C.I.), relatively moderate genetic diversity compared to surrounding populations (richness = 3.32, Ho = 0.53, He = 0.65), and showed a high level of genetic connectivity with surrounding populations.

  3. Study of Y Chromosome Microdeletion in AZF Region in Infertile Males of Isfahan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motovali-Bashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: One of the main genetic factors of infertility is the deletions in the chromosome Y. Accordingly this study was conducted to determine the frequency of microdeletion of AZF region in infertile men of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, 100 infertile men referred to the Infertility Center of Isfahan and 100 fertile men as controls were randomly selected. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood and amplified by sequence tagged sites-polymerase chain reaction (STS-PCR method. The presence of microdeletion in AZF locus was diagnosed. Results: No AZFa, AZFb or AZFc deletions were found in the control group. Microdeletions were observed in one patient in AZFb region, eight patients in AZFc region and two patients in AZFa region. Conclusion: The incidence of Yq microdeletions in Iranian population is similar to the international frequency. Our data agree with other studies regarding microdeletions of AZFc, but for microdeletions of AZFa (2% our results show smaller frequency and differ significantly with many studies. Key words: Infertility, Y chromosome, Microdeletion

  4. THE MAIN TRENDS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF LENINGRAD REGION IN THE FIELD OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gorbanev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the main interaction trends of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in the Leningrad Region and the Government of Leningrad Region regarding issues of regional radiation protection. It reports on comprehensive measures devoted to the limitation of the population exposure from natural irradiation sources, monitoring of territories which suffered from Chernobyl NPP accident and monitoring of the environmental impact of unauthorized dumps and solid municipal waste sites in the Leningrad Region. It presents the basic issues of medical exposure limitation in the Leningrad Region and measures for their solving.

  5. FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage.

  6. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  7. Transport properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Naoki; Mitake, Shinichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    Transport coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities in particular, are essential physical quantities for the theories of stellar structure. Since the discoveries of pulsars and X-ray stars, an accurate evaluation of the transport coefficients in the dense matter has become indispensable to the quantitative understanding of the observed neutron stars. The authors present improved calculations of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the dense matter in the liquid metal phase, appropriate to white dwarfs and neutron stars. (Auth.)

  8. New aspects in distribution of population dose loads in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Pivovarov, S.; Rukhin, A.; Seredavina, T.; Sushkova, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The question on dose loads of Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) region population is not fully solved till now. There is rather different estimations of doses, received by people of nearest to SNTS settlements. It may be explain by absence of individual dosimeters during and after nuclear weapon tests and also many various ways of radiation exposure receiving. During last some years we have done a people dose loads estimations by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) tooth enamel dosimetry method - one of the best and reliable for retrospective dosimetry. It was studied tooth enamel people from settlements Dolon, Bodene, Cheremushki, Mostik, which was irradiated mainly by the first atomic explosion 1949, settlement Sarjal, irradiated by the first thermonuclear explosion in 1953, and control settlement Maysk, which is sited close to SNTS, but there was no any radioactive traces due to east wind. The results display a not expected rather surprising picture: in all settlements, including control one Maysk, the dose loads distribution was rather similar, it has ex fast bimodal form with rather high doses in the second one. The possible reasons of such situation is discussed. The results obtained is compared with last estimations of Semipalatinsk region dose loads of population, which were specially attentively discussed at International Symposiums in Hiroshima (Japan, 2005) and Bethesda (MD, USA, 2006). (author)

  9. The Effect of High Ambient Temperature on the Elderly Population in Three Regions of Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2010-06-01

    apparent in the two more northerly situated regions. The effects of warm temperatures on the elderly population in Sweden are rather strong and consistent across different regions after adjustment for mortality displacement. The impact of relative humidity appears to be different in regions, and may be a more important predictor of mortality in some areas.

  10. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS): Stony Asteroids Abundant in the Background and Family Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2016-10-01

    The Hungaria region represents a "purgatory" for the closest, preserved samples of the material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. The Hungaria region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background of predominantly S-complex asteroids. Deciphering their surface composition may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We hypothesize that planetesimals in the inner part of the primordial asteroid belt experienced partial- to full-melting and differentiation, the Hungaria region should retain any petrologically-evolved material that formed there.We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) spectra to characterize taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. We used NIR instruments at two ground-based facilities (NASA IRTF; TNG). Our data set includes spectra of 82 Hungaria asteroids (61 background; 21 family), 65 were observed during HARTSS. We compare S-complex background asteroids to calibrations developed via laboratory analyses of ordinary chondrites, and to our analyses (EPMA, XRD, VIS+NIR spectra) of 11 primitive achondrite (acapulcoite-lodranite clan) meteorites.We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (~80%). Background objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity, when quantified by spectral band parameter measurements, translates to a variety of surface compositions. Two main meteorite groups are represented within the Hungaria background: unmelted, nebular L chondrites (and/or L chondrites), and partially-melted primitive achondrites. H-chondrite mineralogies appear to be absent from the Hungaria background. Xe-type Hungaria family members exhibit spectral homogeneity, consistent with the hypothesis that the family was derived from the disruption of a parent body analogous to an enstatite

  11. Results of the of wintering bird populations monitoring in the region of Nizhnee Prisurye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Preobrazhenskaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of wintering bird populations in the region of Nizhnee Prisurie on the territory of Chuvash Republic was carried out in 1989–1990. From 2000 censuses were conducted on the territory of the nature reserve "Prisurskiy" and the National Park "Chavash Varmane". These regular censuses were called project "Parus" by the Menzbir Ornithological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The last ten years they were also included in the overall-Russian campaign "Euro-Asian Christmas Bird Counts" project from the Russian Birds Conservation Union. During these 20 years there were 44 bird species registered in the studied area. Eleven of them are marked by single or rare. Four species - Regulus regulus, Aegithalos caudatus, Spinus spinus and Carduelis carduelis – increased their abundance from 1990 till the middle 2000-s and then – decreased. Dendrocopos minor showed the opposite trend. The abundance of 13 species in the 1990-s was higher, sometimes significantly, than in the 2000s and 2010s. The reason may be searched in the differences between the censuses areas in 1990s and 2000s. However, the decreasing of the population densities is typical for other forest species, not only in Nizhnee Prisurie, but also in other model territories. In general, during the last 25 years we can see negative trends in the population dynamics of wintering bird species within the East European plain.

  12. Level of Immunological Protection against Diphtheria in the Population of Dnipropetrovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Revenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diphtheria — an infectious disease, the spread of which is limited by population post-vaccination immunity. In the system of epidemiological surveillance of diphtheria, for objective assessment and prediction of epidemic situation in low intensity of epidemic process of this infection, the serological control of immunity is crucial. The objective: prognosis of epidemic situation in terms of the risk of diphtheria outbreaks in Ukraine by the detection of population post-vaccination immunity against diphtheria in Dnipropetrovsk region and evaluation of the effectiveness of widespread vaccination. Materials and methods. 483 people aged 0 to 78 years were examined in total in 2015 (children — 234, adults — 249 persons. Evaluation of specific immunity against diphtheria was carried on with the following criteria: those with levels of antibodies 0.015–0.06 IU/mL should be considered as relatively protected; 0.1–0.5 IU/ml — with average level of protection; > 1.0 IU/ml — with high level of protection. Protective antibody titer should be considered the concentration of not less than 0.1 IU/ml. Results. It was established that the level of protective immunity against diphtheria was 69.5 %. Reliable level of immunological protection of children was 70.9 %, among adults — 68.3 %. None age group had sufficient threshold level of antitoxic immunity required to stop the transmission of diphtheria pathogen. Percentage of protected persons decreased with increasing age of people (both in children and adults. This situation may create conditions for outbreaks of diphtheria in Dnipropetrovsk region. Conclusions. The presented results indicate the importance of maintaining protective antibody levels through widespread immunization of children, as well as booster vaccination among adolescents and adults that will exclude the category of susceptible layer of the population.

  13. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  14. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  15. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km 2 regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: ► We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. ► We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. ► We examine exposure determinants and detect vulnerable population. ► The largest

  16. Anatomic study on mental canal and incisive nerve canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Suo, Ning; Tian, Xiufen; Li, Fei; Zhong, Guangxin; Liu, Xiaoran; Bao, Yongxing; Song, Tao; Tian, Hua

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to detect the positions of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population to supply the reference data of the surgical safe zone in chin for clinicians. A total of 80 formalin-fixed semi-mandibles of Chinese adult cadavers were dissected, the positions and courses of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region were measured. The mental foramina were present in all cases (100 %), and most of them were located below 2nd premolar (58.75 %). Accessory mental foramina were observed in 5 %. The anterior end of mandibular canal, extending along the course of 7.37 ± 1.10 mm above the lower border of mandible to interforaminal region about 3.54 ± 0.70 mm medial to the mental foramen, most often ended below between the two premolars (73.75 %), where it continued as the incisive nerve canal (100 %) and the mental canal (96.25 %). Mental canal, with the wall formed by compact bone, being 2.60 ± 0.60 mm in diameter and 4.01 ± 1.20 mm in length, opened into mental foramen. Incisive nerve canal, with the wall formed by thin compact bone and/or partly or completely by spongy bone, being 1.76 ± 0.27 mm in diameter and 24.87 ± 2.23 mm in length, extended to the incisor region along the course of 9.53 ± 1.43 mm above the lower border of mandible, and most often ended below the lateral incisor (70.00 %). This research recommended for chin operations in Chinese population: the surgical safe zone could be set in the region about over 4 mm anterior to the mental foramen, and over 12 mm above inferior border of mandible for anterior alveolar surgery, or within 9 mm above inferior border of mandible for genioplasty.

  17. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  18. Experience of measuring the level of victimization of the population of Nizhniy Novgorod region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Glukhova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the data from empirical sociological study to identify the level of latency and victimization of the population of Nizhny Novgorod region. Methods general scientific analysis systemicstructural approach to the analysis of object of research comparativelegal as well as logical methods and specific scientific method survey ndash questionnaires and interviews. nbsp Results qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed of the overall situation referring to unrecorded crime latent crime committed on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod city and Nizhny Novgorod oblast as well as comparative analysis of the level of latent crime in the city and region by the types and trends of criminal activities the main reasons are identified for refusal the victims to appeal to police in Nizhny Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod oblast recommendations and proposals are elaborated of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of data obtained during a sociological survey the crime situation on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod region is discussed revealing the actual level of latent delinquency and proposals and practical recommendations are formulated for the adjustment of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Practical significance basing on the research the recommendations are to improve the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime.

  19. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10 -4 millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references

  20. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  1. Extensive reduction of surface UV radiation since 1750 in world's populated regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kvalevåg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human activity influences a wide range of components that affect the surface UV radiation levels, among them ozone at high latitudes. We calculate the effect of human-induced changes in the surface erythemally weighted ultra-violet radiation (UV-E since 1750. We compare results from a radiative transfer model to surface UV-E radiation for year 2000 derived by satellite observations (from Total Ozone Mapping Spectroradiometer and to ground based measurements at 14 sites. The model correlates well with the observations; the correlation coefficients are 0.97 and 0.98 for satellite and ground based measurements, respectively. In addition to the effect of changes in ozone, we also investigate the effect of changes in SO2, NO2, the direct and indirect effects of aerosols, albedo changes and aviation-induced contrails and cirrus. The results show an increase of surface UV-E in polar regions, most strongly in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, our study also shows an extensive surface UV-E reduction over most land areas; a reduction up to 20% since 1750 is found in some industrialized regions. This reduction in UV-E over the industrial period is particularly large in highly populated regions.

  2. A case study of population health improvement at a Midwest regional hospital employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D Adam; Sheehan, Paula

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews the population health improvement initiative of a Midwest regional hospital employer. Services included health risk assessments, health education, and motivational health coaching conducted telephonically. Outcomes categories for this program evaluation comprised participation rates, participant satisfaction, health status and behavior change, productivity change, health care claims savings, and return on investment. Participation rates varied widely with incentive structure, although retention of participants in coaching programs averaged 89%. The participant satisfaction rate for the last 14 months of interventions was 96%. Four years of population health status and behavior trending showed significant improvements in smoking status, dietary fat and fiber intake, exercise, mental health (ie, stress, effects depressive symptoms in the past year, life satisfaction), readiness to change (ie, diet, exercise, stress, smoking, body weight), perceptions of overall health, an index of good health habits, sum of lifestyle health risks, and sum of risks and chronic conditions. Body mass index showed nonsignificant improvements during the years of greatest participation (years 2 to 4). Indicators of productivity demonstrated improvements as well. These gains were noted for employees across all health risk statuses, which suggests population health improvement strategies can influence productivity even for healthy employees. Program year 3 was evaluated for health care claims savings using a 2-stage multivariate regression approach. Stage 1 was a computation of propensity-to-participate scores. Stage 2 was an estimation of per member per month (PMPM) claims savings for participant cohorts using a propensity score-weighted linear regression analysis. Participants averaged $40.65 PMPM savings over the control population. Program return on investment, including incentive costs and vendor fees, was 2.87:1.

  3. Interaction of Interstellar Shocks with Dense Obstacles: Formation of ``Bullets''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The so-called cumulative effect take place in converging conical shock waves arising behind dense obstacles overtaken by incident interstellar shock. A significant part of energy of converging flow of matter swept-up by a radiative conical shock can be transferred to a dense jet-like ejection (``bullet'') directed along the cone axis. Possible applications of this effect for star-forming regions (e.g., OMC-1) and supernova remnants (e.g., Vela SNR) are discussed.

  4. Hungaria asteroid region telescopic spectral survey (HARTSS) I: Stony asteroids abundant in the Hungaria background population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-07-01

    The Hungaria asteroids remain as survivors of late giant planet migration that destabilized a now extinct inner portion of the primordial asteroid belt and left in its wake the current resonance structure of the Main Belt. In this scenario, the Hungaria region represents a ;purgatory; for the closest, preserved samples of the asteroidal material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. Deciphering the surface composition of these unique samples may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra in order to characterize their taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. The overall objective of HARTSS is to evaluate the compositional diversity of asteroids located throughout the Hungaria region. This region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background (i.e., non-family) of predominantly S-complex asteroids. In order to assess the compositional diversity of the Hungaria region, we have targeted background objects during Phase I of HARTSS. Collisional family members likely reflect the composition of one original homogeneous parent body, so we have largely avoided them in this phase. We have employed NIR instruments at two ground-based telescope facilities: the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), and the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our data set includes the NIR spectra of 42 Hungaria asteroids (36 background; 6 family). We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (29/36 objects; ∼80%). C-complex asteroids are uncommon (2/42; ∼5%) within the Hungaria region. Background S-complex objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity as band parameter measurements of diagnostic absorption features near 1- and 2-μm indicate that several

  5. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven...

  6. Radiation dozes reconstruction of Semipalatinsk region Beskaragai area's population by the method of biological measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.; Kundakbaeva, G.; Bigalieva, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The study of radiation situation (on the position of May 1989) in Beskaragai area of Semipalatinsk region showed that the level of γ-radiation on it's territory reached 13-20 μR/hour, which was determined by the traces of long living radionuclides. In the inhabited regions of Dolon, Kanonerka, Buras, Ramadan villages the effect of deepening was noticed, α-particle's density level has reached maximum on the depth of approximately 10 cm, and further it decreases up to the 30 cm depth, This circumstance witnesses about the fact that we are talking about radioactive traces of many years ago happening with a time going to the depth from the upper coverage of soil. We've made the evaluation of radiation influence's genetic effects on the man's population. Cytogenetic analysis (with the use of G-method of chromosome's coloring) at whole in Beskaragai region shows that the frequency of aberrations for the cell among the inhabitants of the region is obviously higher 3.3 times at average in the region than among the population of the controlled area. During the study of the cytogenetic effects of increased radiation level's influence it is important first of all to determine the frequency of chromosome type aberrations - dicentric chromosomes, centric circles, acentric pair fragments. As it is known, the level of chromosome type aberrations is sufficiently well correlated with the doze, We have determined accumulative doze of radiation using the formula (D.C. Lloyd at all. 1992) for the calculation of dicentrics under the chronical influence of the small dozes of ionized radiation. According to the made calculations the oriented reconstruction of radiation dozes in Beskaragai region made 11 ber = 0.11 Sv, for the Dolon village - 14 ber, Kanonerka village - 13 ber, Buras village - 6 ber, Ramadan - 9.5 ber. Presented data allows to ask the question about the more spread use of cytogenetic method of research among the different population's categories living at

  7. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  8. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  9. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification.

  10. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  11. Chagas Disease in Ecuador: Evidence for Disease Transmission in an Indigenous Population in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chico H Martha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two well-defined synthetic peptides TcD and PEP2 were used in a sero-epidemiological study for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in an indigenous group in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Of the 18 communities studied along the Río Napo, province of Napo, 15 (83.3% were found to be positive for T. cruzi infection. Of the 1,011 individuals examined 61 (6.03% resulted positive. A prevalence of infection of 4.8% was found in children aged 1-5 years. The prevalence of infection increased with age, with adults 50 years or older showing a maximum prevalence of 18.8%. Autochthonous transmission of T. cruzi is present among this isolated indigenous population

  12. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  13. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  14. Frequency Distribution of Blood Groups ABO, MN and Rh Factor in Philippine Cosmopolitan, Regional and the National Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Marian S. Guzman; Ricardo Noel R. Gervasio; Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla; Ernelea P. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. Blood groups include the ABO, Rh and the MN red cell antigens. The frequency distribution of these three blood groups were obtained and assessed for differences from three populations: (1) a regional population from the town of Cabagan located in Isabela province; (2) a cosmopolitan population from the University of the Philippines’ r...

  15. Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements

  16. Spectrum of hemoglobin variants in the population of northern region of West Bengal: An ethnogenetic proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Krishna Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The birth of transfusion-dependent states of hemoglobinopathies including thalassemias is preventable by population screening and genetic counseling. Magnitude is not addressed in the Northern Region of West Bengal where many ethnic variants inhabit. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to find out the burden of different entities of hemoglobinopathies, their correlation with ethnicity and the "at risk" groups. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from the Hematology Unit of North Bengal Medical College over 1 year on the subjects underwent screening for hemoglobinopathies for detection of abnormal hemoglobin (Hb variants by "cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography" principle along with other relevant tests. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by frequency distribution and Chi-square test assuming P value as 95% of the level of significance using the SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Result: Abnormal Hb variant was 47.5% among 1872. Hb E trait (34.4% was most common followed by Hb E disease (25.3% and others. Hb E disorders (92.7% were observed mostly among Rajbangsi population while E-β-thalassemias (40% in the Muslims and a heterogeneous pattern noted among tribal and mongoloid. Conclusion: Hb E hemoglobinopathies was high among Rajbangsi and Muslims with identification of some other hemoglobinopathies involving tribal and mongoloid.

  17. Qualification of Food Intake by the Roma Population in the Region of South Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sedova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a correlation study, aimed at quantifying the food intake of the Roma population in the South Bohemian Region. To achieve the goal, we applied the method of one-day dietary recall and frequency food analysis (non-standardized. The quantification was carried out by analysis in the Nutridan program. The study involved 302 Roma persons and 298 persons in the control group. Both groups had the same representation of males and females (50:50. The age categories of both sets differed; the average age of the Roma was lower (39.2 years (p < 0.001. The probands from the Roma population were chosen with the help of the snowball method through known respondents. The statistical analysis shows differences in nutritional estimate between the Roma population and the control sample. The Roma differ in their energy intake. Both groups showed lower intake of sugars, below 50% total energy intake (TEI and higher intake of fats, above 30% TEI. The respondents from both groups consume little fruits and vegetables, which may be connected with their low dietary fiber intake. In addition to the differences in the nutritional estimates, we recorded statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.001, in age (p < 0.001, regular alimentation (p = 0 and demanding physical activities (p = 0. In spite of the fact our groups differed in age (the Roma are younger, it can be assumed that the obesity of the Roma may be caused by unbalanced alimentation and lack of physical activities.

  18. Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments

  19. Immunogenetic markers of Crohn's disease in adults population of the Moscow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavtsev D.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study immunogenetic markers of predisposition to the development and protection for Crohn's disease in adults population of the Moscow region. Material and methods. The study included 53 samples of peripheral blood of patients with Crohn's disease in the Moscow region. The control group was represented by 1,700 samples of umbilical cord blood is healthy newborns. Revealing HLA antigens at low level performed by SSO method on DynalRELI 48 processor. The results received with ambiguous interpretation was using PCR-SSP method (Ivitrogen. Results. Were found the positive and negative associations of groups of HLA alleles with clinical form, the course of Crohn's disease and response to steroid treatment, in particular revealed that, predisposition to the development for Crohn's disease in women and with sensitivity to steroid treatment in this disease associated allele group C*12, to the characteristic restricting markers such as Crohn's disease include the В 38 and A*11 markers nonrestricting, nonpenetrating noninflammatory type groups are alleles B*56 and C*14 and C*14 is also associated with the risk of Crohn's disease in men, characteristic markers of protection to the development of the disease crown with chronic relapsing and severe clinical course are DQB1*02 and DQB1*03, respectively. Conclusion. These results demonstrate the need for studies of gene polymorphism HLA-system, not only in relation to the disease in general, but in selected patients with clinical groups.

  20. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Arrebola, J.P.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E.; Aragones, N.; Llorca, J.; Perez-Gomez, B.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point

  1. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: mafero@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Aragones, N. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Llorca, J. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Perez-Gomez, B. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and

  2. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82 % sensitivity, 69 % specificity, and 81

  3. Population - A Critical Factor in the Formation of the Regional System of the Land of the Moţi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN NICOLAE BOŢAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Land of the Moţi” is a regional geographical entity where the impact of the anthropic component is essential. If, for a long period, the population has been a cohesion factor in the birth of this regional system, at present, by means of the negative features of the demographical indicators, the population stands out by inducing several elements of high risk. The massive emigration of the population, especially from the areas of high altitude, the gentrification process, the low degree of economic development, are all serious problems which must be on the agenda of the decision-making political factors.

  4. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudeville, Julien, E-mail: Julien.CAUDEVILLE@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Joint research unit UMR 6599, Heudiasyc (Heuristic and Diagnoses of Complex Systems), University of Technology of Compiegne and CNRS, Rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiegne (France); Bonnard, Roseline, E-mail: Roseline.BONNARD@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Boudet, Celine, E-mail: Celine.BOUDET@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Denys, Sebastien, E-mail: Sebastien.DENYS@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Govaert, Gerard, E-mail: gerard.govaert@utc.fr [Joint research unit UMR 6599, Heudiasyc (Heuristic and Diagnoses of Complex Systems), University of Technology of Compiegne and CNRS, Rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiegne (France); Cicolella, Andre, E-mail: Andre.CICOLELLA@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km{sup 2} regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We

  5. Dynamics of dense particle disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references

  6. MORBIDITY RATE OF RETARDEDNESS AND CNS ORGANIC DISEASES AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE BRYANSK REGION BORN AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dynamics of morbidity rate of oligophrenia and CNS organic diseases for the population born in the Bryansk region after the Chernobyl accident. Two regions were taken for the detailed analysis: contaminated - Novozybkov and not contaminated - Zhukov. 518 patient medical records were analyzed in the contaminated region and 359 ones in not contaminated. It is revealed that morbidity indicators for the radioactive contaminated territories are significantly higher than for the not contaminated territories.

  7. Migration and the Transformation of Multiethnic Population Structure in the Kaliningrad Region of the Post-Soviet Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimovina E. P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the migration processes and their influence on the transformation of multiethnic population structure in the Kaliningrad region. The author uses official statistics (current statistics and census data, as well as interviews with the representatives of ethnic cultural associations as information sources. Special attention is paid to the migration features associated with different ethnic groups. The author identifies major reasons behind the incoming and outgoing movement of population. In the post-Soviet period the Kaliningrad region has experienced positive net migration. This active migration into the region has contributed to the development of “migration networks” and established a new basis for further population increase through migration. The article describes changes in the regional multiethnic population structure and identifies key factors behind them. It is concluded that migration has played the decisive role in the process of multiethnic population structure transformation in the Kaliningrad region in the post-Soviet period. The author views migration as a serious test for both the migrants and the receiving society. On the one hand, migrants have to adapt to a different national, cultural, and linguistic environment and look for the ways of successful integration into the receiving society. On the other hand, the receiving society also faces a serious transformation as a result of the changing population size and structure, the emergence of new elements in culture, rules of behaviour, and the development of new attitudes.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  9. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  10. The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  11. Region-wide and ecotype-specific differences in demographic histories of threespine stickleback populations, estimated from whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenglin; Hansen, Michael M; Jacobsen, Magnus W

    2016-10-01

    We analysed 81 whole genome sequences of threespine sticklebacks from Pacific North America, Greenland and Northern Europe, representing 16 populations. Principal component analysis of nuclear SNPs grouped populations according to geographical location, with Pacific populations being more divergent from each other relative to European and Greenlandic populations. Analysis of mitogenome sequences showed Northern European populations to represent a single phylogeographical lineage, whereas Greenlandic and particularly Pacific populations showed admixture between lineages. We estimated demographic history using a genomewide coalescence with recombination approach. The Pacific populations showed gradual population expansion starting >100 Kya, possibly reflecting persistence in cryptic refuges near the present distributional range, although we do not rule out possible influence of ancient admixture. Sharp population declines ca. 14-15 Kya were suggested to reflect founding of freshwater populations by marine ancestors. In Greenland and Northern Europe, demographic expansion started ca. 20-25 Kya coinciding with the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. In both regions, marine and freshwater populations started to show different demographic trajectories ca. 8-9 Kya, suggesting that this was the time of recolonization. In Northern Europe, this estimate was surprisingly late, but found support in subfossil evidence for presence of several freshwater fish species but not sticklebacks 12 Kya. The results demonstrate distinctly different demographic histories across geographical regions with potential consequences for adaptive processes. They also provide empirical support for previous assumptions about freshwater populations being founded independently from large, coherent marine populations, a key element in the Transporter Hypothesis invoked to explain the widespread occurrence of parallel evolution across freshwater stickleback populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase one involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase two involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that no individual above 60 years of age in the studied population was diagnosed as a case of dementia. Thereby, pointing out at some unknown factors, which are responsible for prevention of dementia. Discussion: The differences between the prevalence rate in this study and other studies in India appear to be a function of a valid regional difference. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors may contribute to regional and racial variations in dementia. Societies living in isolated hilly and tribal areas seem less predisposed to dementia, particularly age related neurodegenerative and vascular dementia, which are the most common causes for dementia in elderly. This may be because some environmental risk factors are much less prevalent in these settings.

  13. Forecasting the Optimal Factors of Formation of the Population Savings as the Basis for Investment Resources of the Regional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odintsova Tetiana M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the optimal factors of formation of the population savings as the basis for investment resources of the regional economy. A factorial (nonlinear correlative-regression analysis of the formation of savings of the population of Ukraine was completed. On its basis a forecast of the optimal structure and volumes of formation of the population incomes was carried out taking into consideration impact of fundamental factors on these incomes. Such approach provides to identify the marginal volumes of tax burden, population savings, and capital investments, directed to economic growth.

  14. Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stüvel, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in

  15. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Seed population dynamics on abandoned slopes in the hill and gully Loess Plateau region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weijie; Jiao, Juying

    2017-04-01

    Recovery of natural vegetation is an effective but slow approach to control the soil erosion in the Chinese hill and gully Loess Plateau region. As seed stage is particularly vulnerable to environmental conditions, characteristics of seed population should be needed to study for determining whether the recovery of natural vegetation is limited during this stage on the abandoned slopes in this region. The study was performed on three abandoned slopes in a watershed with an area of 8.27 km2in the Shaanxi province of China. The differences in soil seed banks were investigated in two different points in time, late March2011 and early April 2013. Main factors of seed population dynamics, such as seed yield of dominant species, seed inputs by seed rain as well as seed outputs through seed loss by overland flow and seedling emergence, were monitored from late March 2011 to early April 2013. In this study, seed rain densities of the main later successional species, i.e., Lespedeza davurica, Stipa bungeana and Artemisia gmelinii accounted for 51.5-71.6% of their own seed yields. The soil seed bank density in early April 2013 was larger than that in late March 2011. The density of seed inputs by seed rain was 10186 seeds•m-2, and the total seed bank, including seed rain and seeds present in the soil seed bank in late March 2011, reached a density of 15018 seeds•m-2 during the study period. Seed densities of loss due to overland flow and seedling emergence were 79 seeds•m-2 from 20 species and 938 seedlings•m-2 that belonged to 38 species during a study period, and the seed output through them accounted for 0.5% and 6.3% of the total seed bank, respectively. The study concluded that overland flow could not result in large numbers of seeds loss and seeds were accumulating in the soil seed bank due to seed rain, and vegetation succession might be limited by curbed spatial seed dispersal and seedling establishment.

  17. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  18. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Delphine; Rouzier, Roman

    2017-01-01

    In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France. The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed) and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income) were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation. We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage rates.

  19. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Héquet

    Full Text Available In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France.The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression.In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation.We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage

  20. A microsatellite study for determination of allelic variation of Kurdish population-Kurdistan region-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Media J.; Amin, Bushra K.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was detecting genetic variations for the Kurdish population in Kurdistan region-Iraq, using fifteen autosomal STR loci. Buccal swabs were collected and depositing on Nucleic Card (Copan, Italia Spa) from 302 healthy unrelated Iraqi Kurds in five provinces of Kurdistan region-Iraq. Fifteen autosomal STR loci are D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, FGA and Amelogenin included in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler® Direct PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). No significant departure from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) expectations were observed in 10 from 15 STR loci analyzed (a 5% significance level was taken). The exceptions were the CSF1PO, D3S1358, D13S317, D16S539 and D2S1338 loci. Statistical parameters of forensic efficiencies were estimated for the loci, based on allelic frequencies. The mean of observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and PIC values across the 15 loci were 0.762, 0.797 and 0.768 respectively, indicating high gene diversity. The combined probability of exclusion, power of discrimination, probability of matching value for all the 15 STR loci were 0.9999968; 0.9999999 and 4.966×10-17, respectively. These parameters indicated the importance of the loci for forensic genetic purposes and paternity testing.

  1. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: - identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and - reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km(2) regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Molla, Michael T; Truman, Benedict I; Athar, Heba; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yoon, Paula W

    2015-09-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) varies among demographic segments of the US population and by geography. To quantify that variation, we estimated the national and regional HLE for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region in 2008. National HLEs were calculated using the published 2008 life table and the self-reported health status data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Regional HLEs were calculated using the combined 2007-09 mortality, population and NHIS health status data. In 2008, HLE in the USA varied significantly by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions. At 25 years of age, HLE for females was 47.3 years and ∼2.9 years greater than that for males at 44.4 years. HLE for non-Hispanic white adults was 2.6 years greater than that for Hispanic adults and 7.8 years greater than that for non-Hispanic black adults. By region, the Northeast had the longest HLE and the South had the shortest. The HLE estimates in this report can be used to monitor trends in the health of populations, compare estimates across populations and identify health inequalities that require attention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. [Improve the accessibility of essential drugs for the populations of one medical region in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Nitièma, Abdoulaye P; Dadjoari, Moussa

    2005-01-01

    Despite the formulation of the Bamako initiative in 1992 in Burkina Faso, not until 2001 and the launching of a project by a nongovernmental organization was the policy really implemented in a region of the country. One of the goals of this policy is to improve access to health care by using generic essential drugs. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of the evaluation of the project's ability to improve the population's access to drugs. The project lasted three years (2001-2003) and the interventions took place in 41 basic health centres of three districts. According to WHO, improving access to drugs requires consideration of four essential factors: rational use, affordable prices, financial viability, and effectiveness of the distribution. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription sheet (n = 1061) was 2.4; 93% of the drugs were prescribed by their generic name (international non-proprietary names); 44% of infant diarrheas were treated with oral rehydration salt. National drug prices were respected but not the directives aiming at exempting from payment or subsidizing certain population sub-groups (children, indigents). The average annual cash flow of the basic health centres was 1.2 million F CFA and it increased by 854% compared to the beginning of the project. The cost-recovery scheme for administrative expenses was 106%. The average annual availability of the 10 essential drugs was 89%. Utilization rates increased (0.13 in 1999 to 0.21 in 2003) but not significantly differently than in other basic health centres of the area not supported by the project (p = 0.084). The project succeeded in improving access to these drugs for the overall population but not for the worst-off. The drugs are now geographically available for all and financially accessible for those who can afford to pay. The intervention strategy supported the sustainability of the project's activities but much remains to be done to provide the poorest with

  4. THE ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITES POPULATION (‘OSNOVNOY’ QUARRY, DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtirts А. D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the successional recovery processes of quarry-spoiled systems soil-living oribatide mites, who are one of the pioneer groups inhabiting anthropogenically transformed areas, play a significant role. The aim of our study was to research composition and characteristics of oribatide mites ecological community structure of the ‘Osnovnoy’ quarry (PJSC ‘HeidelbergCement Ukraine’ in Amvrosievsky district of Donetsk region. The material was collected in 2012. In total, 37 standard soil samples of 250 cm3 were collected, from which 1086 adult specimen, who belong to 61 species, were extracted in April. The collection of soil samples and forcing of oribatides in thermoelectors was conducted by the conventional method of E. M. Bulanovа-Zahvatkinа. To analyze the communities domination structure the gradations of dominance by the means of G. Engelmann scale was used. The analysis of the oribatides morpho-ecological types distribution was held in accordance to the work of D. A. Krivolutsky. To assess the ecological diversity of oribatides communities the indices of Shannon, Pielou, Simpson and Margalef were used. On the territory of the «Osnovnoy» quarry, a specific complex with a unique oribatid species composition was detected (two new species were found for the fauna of Ukraine noted earlier for the steppes of Mongolia: Ghilarovus khentiicus Bayartogtokh, Smelyansky, 2007 and Hemileius humeralis Perez-Inigo, 1990. During the analysis of the oribatide communities ecological structure low rates of average population density (7280-11410 ind./m2 were observed with high species wealth (61 species found. The maximum figure made up in spring, the minimum – in summer. The ecological diversity indexes are quite high, thus the maximum for Shannon index in spring is 2.89, which is comparable to that of the conserved areas. The quarry dominant species are Multioppia glabra, Protoribates capucinus, Tectocepheus velatus, Scheloribates laevigatus, and

  5. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  6. Chronic Respiratory Diseases in the Regions of Northern Russia: Epidemiological Distinctions in the Results of a National Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, Marine H; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Deev, Alexander D; Drapkina, Oxana M

    2017-07-26

    The aim of the study is to investigate the epidemiological situation regarding chronic respiratory diseases in populations that inhabit different climatic-geographical regions of Russia, and to develop targeted programs for prevention of these diseases. (1) a comparative analysis of the standardized mortality data in Russia and other selected regions of the Russian North using the European standard for respiratory diseases, in a population aged 25-64; and (2) data from a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study, with subjects from three different climatic-geographical regions of Russia. (1) the respiratory disease-related mortality rates in the majority of Russian Northern regions were much higher compared to the national average. Although death rates from chronic lower respiratory diseases were higher among the Northern regions and in the whole of Russia relative to the countries of European Union (EU), the cause of death in the populations of the Northern regions tend to be lower respiratory infections and pneumonia; and (2) despite the absence of any significant differences in the prevalence of smoking, the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (COPD) is significantly higher in Far North Yakutsk compared to the other two regions in this study-Chelyabinsk and Vologda. The status of hyperborean had the highest chance of a significant contribution to COPD and cardiorespiratory pathology among all other risk factors. The results revealed a need for effective targeted strategies for primary and secondary prevention of chronic respiratory diseases for the populations of the Northern regions of Russia. The revealed regional distinctions regarding the prevalence of, and mortality from, chronic respiratory diseases should be taken into consideration when designing integrated programs for chronic non-communicable disease prevention in these regions.

  7. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION OF THE POPULATION IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanova F. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated pace of change, modernization and innovative development of society require huge resources. Human potential, and above all, the potential of youth is, in our opinion, the central of them. In the article on the material of sociological research «The Continuing Education and the Social Well-being» conducted by the Department of social problems IEIE RAS SB, studied educational behavior, value assessment and motivation of continuing education among the economically active population of the region, compares the educational and professional potential of different groups of urban and rural population in two generations «youth - non-youth». «Youth» refers to the population aged 16-30 years, «non-youth» - a population of 31 to 45 years. The research problem that directed this research, is the lack of informed knowledge about the role of continuing education in the formation of human development of young people in different socio-territorial conditions. Amid quite a mass we of equipment for both urban and rural youth, the factor of computer and digital devices plays a role in the inclusion of young adults in continuing education. It was found a direct link of dissatisfaction about continuing education with lack of access to information technology (laptop, home Internet, digital office equipment, etc. and with low material wellbeing of the family. Along with the importance of information technology in continuing education, young adults still considers the most preferred forms of supplementary professional education (hereinafter SPE activities in organized courses with qualified teachers and methods. Differences in attitudes to supplementary professional education (SPE between urban and rural youth are identified, first, by less involvement in the real educational activity (in particular, in formal education, compensated, however, by large intentions plans to engage in continuing education. Secondly, by different structure of types

  8. Population aging from 1950 to 2010 in seventeen transitional countries in the wider region of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Population aging has profoundly reshaped demographic landscapes in all South Eastern European (SEE countries. The aim of this study was to provide a thorough comparative inter-country assessment on the speed of population aging in the entire SEE region for the period 1950-2010. Methods: Descriptive observational analysis of long-term trends on core primary and composite indicators of population aging across seventeen countries of the wider SEE region, with panel data sets at a national level. Results: During the past six decades, the entire SEE region has experienced a rapid increase in the median age (from 25.2 years in 1950 to 37.9 years in 2010, with a simultaneous fall of fertility rates for two children per woman (from 3.55 children per each childbearing woman in 1950 to 1.49 in 2010, coupled with significant rise in the population of elderly citizens. The speed of population aging has vastly accelerated (with a 2.5 fold increase over the past three decades. The percentage of individuals over 65 years has doubled from 7% in 1950 to 14% in 2010. Conclusion: Complex national strategies are needed to cope with the shrinking labour force coupled with the growing proportion of the older population. With all likelihood, population aging will further accelerate in the near future. This profound long-term demographic transition will threaten financial sustainability of current health systems in all SEE countries.

  9. Possible Prevention of Neonatal Death: A Regional Population-Based Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Shigeki; Yanagi, Takahide; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    The neonatal mortality rate in Japan has currently been at the lowest level in the world. However, it is unclear whether there are still some potentially preventable neonatal deaths. We, therefore, aimed to examine the backgrounds of neonatal death and the possibilities of prevention in a region of Japan. This is a population-based study of neonatal death in Shiga Prefecture of Japan. The 103 neonatal deaths in our prefecture between 2007 and 2011 were included. After reviewing by a peer-review team, we classified the backgrounds of these neonatal deaths and analyzed end-of-life care approaches associated with prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, we evaluated the possibilities of preventable neonatal death, suggesting specific recommendations for its prevention. We analyzed 102 (99%) of the neonatal deaths. Congenital malformations and extreme prematurity were the first and the second most common causes of death, respectively. More than half of the congenital abnormalities (59%) including malformations and chromosome abnormality had been diagnosed before births. We had 22 neonates with non-intensive care including eighteen cases with congenital abnormality and four with extreme prematurity. Twenty three cases were judged to have had some possibility of prevention with one having had a strong possibility of prevention. Among specific recommendations of preventable neonatal death, more than half of them were for obstetricians. There is room to reduce neonatal deaths in Japan. Prevention of neonatal death requires grater prenatal care by obstetricians before birth rather than improved neonatal care by neonatologists after birth.

  10. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the fragility fracture population of a region of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Moretti, L; Laviola, L; Moretti, B

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. This study aims to increase the data which are available regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients affected by fragility fracture in Italy. We retrospectively studied Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) in the Apulian database for the period 2006–2010 to identify a fragility fracture diagnosis in males over 65 years of age and in females over 50. The database was then checked for drug prescriptions to identify those persons who had taken at least one osteoporosis drug. Within this latter group, thanks to hospital admission and prescription records, the subjects affected with diabetes mellitus were identified. Between 2006 and 2010 in Apulia 177,639 patients were hospitalized and diagnosed as having fragility fracture. The greatest number of those fragility fractures were found to be in the 70 to 79 age range (64,917 total; females 56,994, males 7,923). The prevalence of diabetes subjects in Apulia in this period was estimated at 6.5%. In the same region and period 21.1% of subjects affected by diabetes experienced a fragility fracture; in particular, this number was 27% for males and for 20.5% females. This is the first study providing data on the prevalence of fragility fractures and diabetes in the Apulian population. The data confirm that diabetes is a risk factor which influences bone density and risk of fractures and therefore the need of osteoporosis screening and treatment in diabetic patients.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  12. Pioneer study of population genetics of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from the central coastand southern Andean regions of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacís, Anita G; Marcet, Paula L; Yumiseva, César A; Dotson, Ellen M; Tibayrenc, Michel; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Grijalva, Mario J

    2017-09-01

    Effective control of Chagas disease vector populations requires a good understanding of the epidemiological components, including a reliable analysis of the genetic structure of vector populations. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the most widespread vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador, occupying domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats. It is widely distributed in the central coast and southern highlands regions of Ecuador, two very different regions in terms of bio-geographical characteristics. To evaluate the genetic relationship among R. ecuadoriensis populations in these two regions, we analyzed genetic variability at two microsatellite loci for 326 specimens (n=122 in Manabí and n=204 in Loja) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) sequences for 174 individuals collected in the two provinces (n=73 and=101 in Manabí and Loja respectively). The individual samples were grouped in populations according to their community of origin. A few populations presented positive F IS, possible due to Wahlund effect. Significant pairwise differentiation was detected between populations within each province for both genetic markers, and the isolation by distance model was significant for these populations. Microsatellite markers showed significant genetic differentiation between the populations of the two provinces. The partial sequences of the Cyt b gene (578bp) identified a total of 34 haplotypes among 174 specimens sequenced, which translated into high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.929). The haplotype distribution differed among provinces (significant Fisher's exact test). Overall, the genetic differentiation of R. ecuadoriensis between provinces detected in this study is consistent with the biological and phenotypic differences previously observed between Manabí and Loja populations. The current phylogenetic analysis evidenced the monophyly of the populations of R. ecuadoriensis within the R. pallescens species complex; R. pallescens and R. colombiensis were more

  13. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  14. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  15. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space

  16. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  17. ECONOMIC MECHANISMS OF POPULATION PROTECTION AGAINST PENSION RISKS AS A TOOL FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov V. Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding effective economic instruments for socio-economic development of the regions has recently become of increasing relevance. Strengthening the regional differentiation, highlighting the leading and lagging regions, the lack of own resources in the regions has forced regional authorities to use new instruments of territorial development, in particular, economic mechanisms of protection against pension risks. The use of these mechanisms has a dual effect (economic and social, due to the attraction of the regions with additional financial resources in the form of “long money” and increasing the protection of citizens against pension risks (the increase in the level of pension payments. The analysis of the current use of economic mechanisms of protection against pension risks in the regions of the Southern Federal District helped to articulate key issues of their use, in particular, low pension literacy of the population, distrust towards specialized financial institutions, the investment policy of the regions does not take into account the possibility of attracting private pension funds into regional projects, and there is no mechanism to support regional National Pension Fund. Territorial analysis revealed the potential application of economic mechanisms to protect against pension risks in the regions of the Southern Federal District as a tool for socio-economic development, which is based on the existence of regional pension funds and insurance companies (providing services for pension insurance, as well as participation in private pension provision. The Krasnodar, Rostov and Volgograd regions have the highest potential among the regions of the Southern Federal District, as there already exist regional National Pension Fund, and the participation in private pension insurance is confirmed by the statistics of the contributions paid. The study of existing economic mechanisms to protect against pension risks will provide the

  18. Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina A; Wozniak, Marcin; Dambueva, Irina; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta; Zakharov, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in northwestern Russia: an update from Russian-EU/Latvian border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Mokrousov

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pskov oblast in northwestern Russia, to view it in the geographical context, to compare drug resistance properties across major genetic families. Ninety M. tuberculosis strains from tuberculosis (TB patients, permanent residents in Pskov oblast were subjected to LAM-specific IS6110-PCR and spoligotyping, followed by comparison with SITVITWEB and MIRU-VNTRplus databases. The Beijing genotype (n = 40 was found the most prevalent followed by LAM (n = 18, T (n = 13, Haarlem (n = 10, Ural (n = 5, and Manu2 (n = 1; the family status remained unknown for 3 isolates. The high rate of Beijing genotype and prevalence of LAM family are similar to those in the other Russian settings. A feature specific for M. tuberculosis population in Pskov is a relatively higher rate of Haarlem and T types. Beijing strains were further typed with 12-MIRU (followed by comparison with proprietary global database and 3 hypervariable loci QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, VNTR-4120. The 12-MIRU typing differentiated 40 Beijing strains into 14 types (HGI = 0.82 while two largest types were M2 (223325153533 prevalent throughout former USSR and M11 (223325173533 prevalent in Russia and East Asia. The use of 3 hypervariable loci increased a discrimination of the Beijing strains (18 profiles, HGI = 0.89. Both major families Beijing and LAM had similar rate of MDR strains (62.5 and 55.6%, respectively that was significantly higher than in other strains (21.9%; P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively. The rpoB531 mutations were more frequently found in Beijing strains while LAM drug resistant strains mainly harbored rpoB516 and inhA -15 mutations. Taken together with a high rate of multidrug resistance among Beijing strains from new TB cases (79.3% versus 44.4% in LAM, these findings suggest the critical impact of the Beijing genotype on the current situation with MDR-TB in the

  20. Population dynamics, delta vulnerability and environmental change: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges–Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, S.; Brondizio, E.; Renaud, F.G.; Hetrick, S.; Nicholls, R.; Matthews, Z.; Tessler, Z; Tejedor, A; Sebesvari, Z; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; da Costa, S; Dearing, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions are at risk of multiple threats including relative sea level rise and human alterations, making them more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, salinity intrusion, and other hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. Given the environmental vulnerability of tropical deltas, understanding the interlinkages between population dynamics and environmental change in these regions is crucial for ensuring efficient pol...

  1. Role of youth of city Ozyorsk in creation of positive image of nuclear energy at the population of Chelyabinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostareva, T.; Teslov, A.

    2001-01-01

    At present Atomic Energy was confronted with the great problem of the negative attitude of population to its development. Consequently it is necessary to reorient public opinion in the side of the valid attitude to Atomic Energy as it is the basis of the further economic growth of the region. The young specialists of the modern factory of the Atomic Industry PA 'Mayak' should carry out the active work for creation positive image of Nuclear Energy in the Chelyabinsk region. (authors)

  2. Dilute and dense axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.

  3. [Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II regions in the Deng populations from Tibet in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I (HVR I) and HVR II in the Deng population in Linzhi area of Tibet. mtDNAs obtained from 119 unrelated individuals were amplified and directly sequenced. One hundred and ten variable sites were identified, including nucleotide transitions, transversions, and insertions. In the HVR I region (nt16024-nt16365), 68 polymorphic sites and 119 haplotypes were observed, the genetic diversity was 0.9916. In the HVR II (nt73-nt340) region, 42 polymorphic sites and 113 haplotypes were observed, and the genetic diversity was 0.9907. The random match probability of the HVR I and HVR II regions were 0.0084 and 0.0093, respectively. When combining the HVR I and HVR II regions, 119 different haplotypes were found. The combined match probability of two unrelated persons having the same sequence was 0.0084. There are some unique polymorphic loci in the Deng population. There are different genetic structures between Chinese and other Asian populations in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. Sequence polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II can be used as a genetic marker for forensic individual identification and genetic analysis.

  4. Changing population dynamics and uneven temperature emergence combine to exacerbate regional exposure to heat extremes under 1.5 °C and 2 °C of warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Otto, Friederike E. L.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding how continuing increases in global mean temperature will exacerbate societal exposure to extreme weather events is a question of profound importance. However, determining population exposure to the impacts of heat extremes at 1.5 °C and 2 °C of global mean warming requires not only (1) a robust understanding of the physical climate system response, but also consideration of (2) projected changes to overall population size, as well as (3) changes to where people will live in the future. This analysis introduces a new framework, adapted from studies of probabilistic event attribution, to disentangle the relative importance of regional climate emergence and changing population dynamics in the exposure to future heat extremes across multiple densely populated regions in Southern Asia and Eastern Africa (SAEA). Our results reveal that, when population is kept at 2015 levels, exposure to heat considered severe in the present decade across SAEA will increase by a factor of 4.1 (2.4-9.6) and 15.8 (5.0-135) under a 1.5°- and 2.0°-warmer world, respectively. Furthermore, projected population changes by the end of the century under an SSP1 and SSP2 scenario can further exacerbate these changes by a factor of 1.2 (1.0-1.3) and 1.5 (1.3-1.7), respectively. However, a large fraction of this additional risk increase is not related to absolute increases in population, but instead attributed to changes in which regions exhibit continued population growth into the future. Further, this added impact of population redistribution will be twice as significant after 2.0 °C of warming, relative to stabilisation at 1.5 °C, due to the non-linearity of increases in heat exposure. Irrespective of the population scenario considered, continued African population expansion will place more people in locations where emergent changes to future heat extremes are exceptionally severe.

  5. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2018-01-18

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  7. Improved analysis of long-term monitoring data demonstrates marked regional declines of bat populations in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Ingersoll; Brent J. Sewall; Sybill K. Amelon

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by...

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a ...

  10. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  11. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  12. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  13. [Hygienic assessment of living conditions and morbidity of the population in the port cities of the Sakhalin region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbayeva, L A; Kim, A V; Iakubova, Sh; Ok, Im En; Darizhapov, B B

    The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive hygienic assessment of environmental conditions in the port cities of the Sakhalin region to identify priority risk factors affecting on population health and management decisions for the optimization of living conditions. As a result of the assessment of risk and damages for public health from the effects of air pollution on the dose-response, effects were found to excess of impact on the target organs by 10 times. The main ecotoxicant was determined to be manganese oxide, which is associated with a priority manganese content in soil samples ofport cities. The positive dynamics of the gain in the accumulation of soil heavy metals according to the total index indicates to the existence of problems for soil contamination. Analysis of demographic variables shows that the population of the Sakhalin region in general and the port cities in particular relates to a regressive type. The main causes of the population decline are mortality and migration outflow of able-bodied population in other regions of Russia. However, in the port cities there is an increase in the number of work places, contributing to an increase in the labor force. The primary and general morbidity of the population ofport cities is characterized by higher levels compared with the average for the Sakhalin Region and the Far Eastern Federal District. Among all the classes of diseases as priority ones there are marked “neoplasm”, “diseases of the nervous system”, “respiratory diseases”, “diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue”. Port cities occupy the top ranking places on the incidence of malignant tumors among the cities of the Sakhalin region.

  14. Whole genome population genetics analysis of Sudanese goats identifies regions harboring genes associated with major traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Siham A; Arends, Danny; Reissmann, Monika; Said Ahmed, Ammar; Wimmers, Klaus; Reyer, Henry; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2017-10-23

    Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped. More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) did not differ from zero. F st coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high F st values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system. The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high F st values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the

  15. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  16. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  17. Mobile population dynamics and malaria vulnerability: a modelling study in the China-Myanmar border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Mu; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Luo, Chun-Hai; Zeng, Xu-Can; Guo, Xiang-Rui; Lin, Zu-Rui; Zhou, Hong-Ning; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2018-04-29

    The China-Myanmar border region presents a great challenge in malaria elimination in China, and it is essential to understand the relationship between malaria vulnerability and population mobility in this region. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in five villages of Yingjiang county during September 2016. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to identify asymptomatic infections, and imported cases were identified in each village (between January 2013 and September 2016). A stochastic simulation model (SSM) was used to test the relationship between population mobility and malaria vulnerability, according to the mechanisms of malaria importation. Thirty-two imported cases were identified in the five villages, with a 4-year average of 1 case/year (range: 0-5 cases/year). No parasites were detected in the 353 blood samples from 2016. The median density of malaria vulnerability was 0.012 (range: 0.000-0.033). The average proportion of mobile members of the study population was 32.56% (range: 28.38-71.95%). Most mobile individuals lived indoors at night with mosquito protection. The SSM model fit the investigated data (χ 2  = 0.487, P = 0.485). The average probability of infection in the members of the population that moved to Myanmar was 0.011 (range: 0.0048-0.1585). The values for simulated vulnerability increased with greater population mobility in each village. A high proportion of population mobility was associated with greater malaria vulnerability in the China-Myanmar border region. Mobile population-specific measures should be used to decrease the risk of malaria re-establishment in China.

  18. Screening in dense ionic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    There has been great progress in recent years in determining and understanding the structure of molten salts. I focus on molten alkali halides and discuss two main points concerning their liquid structure and its relationship with static electrical response in these dense ionic conductors. These are (i) the nature of screening and the related definitions and properties of the screening length and of the dielectric function, and (ii) developments in integral equations techniques for the evaluation of molten salt structure and static screening from given pair potentials. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles moucheti in the equatorial forest region of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenille Didier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles moucheti is a major malaria vector in forested areas of Africa. However, despite its important epidemiological role, it remains poorly known and insufficiently studied. Here, levels of genetic differentiation were estimated between different A. moucheti populations sampled throughout its distribution range in Central Africa. Methods Polymorphism at ten microsatellite markers was compared in mosquitoes sampled in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and an island on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Microsatellite data were used to estimate genetic diversity within populations, their relative long-term effective population size, and the level of genetic differentiation between them. Results All specimens collected in Tsakalakuku (Democratic Republic of Congo were identified as A. m. bervoetsi while other samples consisted of A. m. moucheti. Successful amplification was obtained at all microsatellite loci within all A. m. moucheti samples while only six loci amplified in A. m. bervoetsi. Allelic richness and heterozygosity were high for all populations except the island population of Uganda and A. m. bervoetsi. High levels of genetic differentiation were recorded between A. m. bervoetsi and each A. m. moucheti sample as well as between the island population of A. m. moucheti and mainland populations. Significant isolation by distance was evidenced between mainland populations. Conclusion High levels of genetic differentiation supports complete speciation of A. m. bervoetsi which should henceforth be recognized as a full species and named A. bervoetsi. Isolation by distance is the main force driving differentiation between mainland populations of A. m. moucheti. Genetically and geographically isolated populations exist on Lake Victoria islands, which might serve as relevant field sites for evaluation of innovative vector control strategies.

  20. Glaciations and dense interstellar clouds; and reply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, W H [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK); Dennison, B; Mansfield, V N

    1976-09-16

    Reference is made to Dennison and Mansfield (Nature 261:32 (1976)) who offered comments on a previous paper by the author (Nature 255:607 (1975)), in which he suggested that a possible cause of an ice age on the Earth was the passage of the solar system through an interstellar matter compression region bordering a spiral arm of the Galaxy. Dennison and Mansfield criticised this suggestion because it led them to expect to find a dense cloud of interstellar matter still very close to the Earth, whereas no such cloud is known. It is stated here that this criticism ignores the structure of the Galaxy, that provided the basis of the suggestion. A reply by Dennison and Mansfield is appended.

  1. Equation of state of dense baryonic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous investigation we treated nuclear matter as well as neutron matter at zero and finite temperatures in the frame of different relativistic field theoretical models, but with the restriction to nucleons as the only present baryons. This approach is extended by including a larger fraction of baryons and mesons, necessary for a description of baryon matter under extreme conditions. The equation of state (EOS) is calculated in both the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations for dense nuclear as well as neutron matter. Self-interactions of the σ field up to fourth order have been taken into account. For the treatment of many-baryon matter in the HF approach the parameters of the theory had to be readjusted. A phase transition of both many-baryon systems (neutron as well as nuclear matter) in the high-pressure and high-energy-density region has been found. (author)

  2. A comprehensive profile of DNA copy number variations in a Korean population: identification of copy number invariant regions among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae Pil; Shim, Sung Mi; Jung, Jong Sun; Nam, Hye Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Oh, Berm Seok; Kim, Kuchan; Kim, Hyung Lae; Han, Bok Ghee

    2009-09-30

    To examine copy number variations among the Korean population, we compared individual genomes with the Korean reference genome assembly using the publicly available Korean HapMap SNP 50 k chip data from 90 individuals. Korean individuals exhibited 123 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) covering 27.2 mb, equivalent to 1.0% of the genome in the copy number variation (CNV) analysis using the combined criteria of P value (Por= 0.25) among study subjects. In contrast, when compared to the Affymetrix reference genome assembly from multiple ethnic groups, considerably more CNVRs (n=643) were detected in larger proportions (5.0%) of the genome covering 135.1 mb even by more stringent criteria (Por=0.25), reflecting ethnic diversity of structural variations between Korean and other populations. Some CNVRs were validated by the quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragment (QMPSF) method, and then copy number invariant regions were detected among the study subjects. These copy number invariant regions would be used as good internal controls for further CNV studies. Lastly, we demonstrated that the CNV information could stratify even a single ethnic population with a proper reference genome assembly from multiple heterogeneous populations.

  3. Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control region sequence data and influence on population genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene regions are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average influence on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with control region DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Asian populations in the Western Pacific Region: what we know and don't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Siew Pheng; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Go, Ruby T; Lee, Kok-Onn; Ma, Ronald Ching-Wan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Barter, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 77 million persons with diabetes reside in the Western Pacific Region. This number is estimated to rise to 113 million in 2030 with increasing burden of cardio-renal disease, affecting an increasingly young population. Randomized clinical trials have confirmed the benefits of using statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians, although similar data are lacking in Asia. Experts from the Western Pacific Region met and reviewed evidence regarding risk association of diabetic dyslipidaemia with cardio-renal disease, effects of lipid lowering, recommended guidelines and clinical practices in Asian populations. There is strong evidence supporting the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia in cardio-renal disease and the benefits of lipid lowering in these populations. The high rate of diabetic kidney disease, its close links with CVD, and the benefits of lipid lowering on renal function are particularly relevant to this population. While most national guidelines use criteria similar to the West in management of diabetic dyslipidaemia, there are consistently low rates of use of lipid-lowering drugs and attaining treatment goals in the region. The group recommends conducting randomized studies, strengthening of the health care system to promote early detection, and intervention of diabetic dyslipidaemia to prevent end organ damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A mosaic genetic structure of the human population living in the South Baltic region during the Iron Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Ireneusz; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Marcinkowska-Swojak, Malgorzata; Philips, Anna; Zenczak, Michal; Dębski, Artur; Kóčka-Krenz, Hanna; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2018-02-06

    Despite the increase in our knowledge about the factors that shaped the genetic structure of the human population in Europe, the demographic processes that occurred during and after the Early Bronze Age (EBA) in Central-East Europe remain unclear. To fill the gap, we isolated and sequenced DNAs of 60 individuals from Kowalewko, a bi-ritual cemetery of the Iron Age (IA) Wielbark culture, located between the Oder and Vistula rivers (Kow-OVIA population). The collected data revealed high genetic diversity of Kow-OVIA, suggesting that it was not a small isolated population. Analyses of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and genetic distances performed for Kow-OVIA and other ancient European populations showed that Kow-OVIA was most closely linked to the Jutland Iron Age (JIA) population. However, the relationship of both populations to the preceding Late Neolithic (LN) and EBA populations were different. We found that this phenomenon is most likely the consequence of the distinct genetic history observed for Kow-OVIA women and men. Females were related to the Early-Middle Neolithic farmers, whereas males were related to JIA and LN Bell Beakers. In general, our findings disclose the mechanisms that could underlie the formation of the local genetic substructures in the South Baltic region during the IA.

  6. Residential and service-population exposure to multiple natural hazards in the Mount Hood region of Clackamas County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Amy M.; Wood, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to document residential and service-population exposure to natural hazards in the rural communities of Clackamas County, Oregon, near Mount Hood. The Mount Hood region of Clackamas County has a long history of natural events that have impacted its small, tourism-based communities. To support preparedness and emergency-management planning in the region, a geospatial analysis of population exposure was used to determine the number and type of residents and service populations in flood-, wildfire-, and volcano-related hazard zones. Service populations are a mix of residents and tourists temporarily benefitting from local services, such as retail, education, or recreation. In this study, service population includes day-use visitors at recreational sites, overnight visitors at hotels and resorts, children at schools, and community-center visitors. Although the heavily-forested, rural landscape suggests few people are in the area, there are seasonal peaks of thousands of visitors to the region. “Intelligent” dasymetric mapping efforts using 30-meter resolution land-cover imagery and U.S. Census Bureau data proved ineffective at adequately capturing either the spatial distribution or magnitude of population at risk. Consequently, an address-point-based hybrid dasymetric methodology of assigning population to the physical location of buildings mapped with a global positioning system was employed. The resulting maps of the population (1) provide more precise spatial distributions for hazard-vulnerability assessments, (2) depict appropriate clustering due to higher density structures, such as apartment complexes and multi-unit commercial buildings, and (3) provide new information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of people utilizing services within the study area. Estimates of population exposure to flooding, wildfire, and volcanic hazards were determined by using overlay analysis in a geographic information system

  7. Habitat degradation and loss as key drivers of regional population extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat quality is a fundamental driver of species distributions and population outcomes but is often difficult to measure. Further, habitat quality can be abstract, multi-faceted and challenging to compare alongside measures of habitat amount and fragmentation. Consequently, hab...

  8. Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... have played important roles in creating isolated populations by cutting ... marginal seas separate Asia from the Pacific, straddling the world's largest ... from the Pacific. Ocean by the NE–SW-extending Ryukyu Islands Arc. The.

  9. [Results of a cytogenetic study of populations with different radiation risks in the Semipalatinsk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviatova, G S; Abil'dinova, G Z; Berezina, G M

    2002-03-01

    A cytogenetic study was conducted for the first time on human populations neighboring the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) and exposed to ionizing radiation for a long period of time. In populations with the extreme and maximum radiation risks, high frequencies of radiation-induced chromosomal markers, including acentric fragments (1.99 +/- 0.10 per 100 cells), dicentrics (0.23 +/- 0.01), ring chromosomes (0.38 +/- 0.14), and stable chromosomal aberrations (1.17 +/- 0.02), were found. These frequencies significantly exceeded those in control populations. The spectrum of chromosomal aberrations and the frequencies of the aberrations of different types in persons living in the areas with the highest radionuclide contamination confirmed the mutagenic effect of radiation on chromosomes in the human populations studied.

  10. A tale of three regions : influence of highway investments on population and traffic growth in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    To what extent may highway investments shape population growth and land development? To answer this question, three decades of data were examined in the Virginia locations of Fairfax County, Spotsylvania County, and Newport News. In each location, a ...

  11. Survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets: use of 51Cr-or 111In-labeled platelets to measure survival of least dense and most dense platelets concurrently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.L.; Packham, M.A.; Mustard, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The origin of the density heterogeneity of platelets was studied by measuring the survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets separated by discontinuous Stractan density gradient centrifugation. When a total population of 51 Cr-labelled platelets was injected into recipient rabbits, the relative specific radioactivity of the most dense platelets decreased rapidly. In contrast, that of the least dense platelets had not changed 24 hr after injection, and then decreased slowly. To distinguish between the possibilities that most dense platelets are cleared from the circulation more quickly than least dense platelets or that platelets decrease in density as they age in the circulation, the concurrent survival of least dense and most dense platelets, labelled with either 51 Cr or 111 In-labelled total platelet populations, determined concurrently in the same rabbits, are identical, calculated from 1 hr values as 100%. However, the 1-hr recovery of 111 In-labelled platelets was slightly but significantly less than that of 51 Cr-labelled platelets. Therefore, researchers studied the survival of 51 Cr-labelled least dense and 111 In-labelled most dense platelets as well as that of 111 In-labelled least dense and 51 Cr-labelled most dense platelets. Mean 1-hr recovery of least dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (78% +/- 7%, SD) was similar to that of most dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (77% +/- 8%; SD). Mean survival of least dense platelets was 47.3 +/- 18.7 hr (SD), which was significantly less than that of most dense platelets (76.1 +/- 21.6 hr; SD) (p less than 0.0025). These results indicate that platelets decrease in buoyant density as they age in the circulation and that most dense platelets are enriched in young platelets, and least dense in old

  12. A population-level analysis of birth weight indices in Peel Region, Ontario: the impact of ethnic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramuscak, Nancy L; Jiang, Depeng; Dooling, Kathleen L; Mowat, David L

    2012-07-18

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the elevated rate of low birth weight (LBW) in the Region of Peel, Ontario can be attributed to the high proportion of immigrants in the population. In addition, we examined how the infant birth weight distribution in Peel differs by maternal region of birth. Provincial live birth registration data were used to compare rates of LBW, preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in Peel and Ontario for the years 2002 through 2006 by maternal region of birth. Birth weight for gestational age curves were developed for singletons and were specific for infant sex and maternal region of birth using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Quantile regression was used to examine whether the median birth weight at term (37 to 42 weeks) differed by maternal region of birth. The rate of LBW was higher in Peel than in Ontario (6.8% and 6.0%, respectively). This is the result of a higher SGA rate and not due to differences in rates of preterm birth. Infants of immigrant mothers had significantly lower median birth weights at all gestations, showing that the birth weight distribution among infants of immigrant mothers is shifted towards lower birth weights. At the population level, the shifted birth weight distribution among singleton infants of immigrant mothers has significant impact on the LBW rate observed in Peel.

  13. Population Health in Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Inhabitants of several Kazakhstan regions were contaminated in different years by radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site...

  14. Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Upton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35 because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns, ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

  15. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne V. Moore; Michael L. Pace; John R. Mather; [and others; [Editor’s note: Patricia A. Flebbe is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous freshwater ecosystems, dense concentrations of humans along the eastern seaboard, extensive forests, and a history of intensive land use distinguish the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region. Human population densities are forecast to increase in portions of the region at the same time that climate is expected to be changing. Consequently, the effects of humans and...

  16. Young stellar population and star formation history ofW4 HII region/Cluster Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam

    2018-04-01

    The HII region/cluster complex has been a subject of numerous investigations to study the feedback effect of massive stars on their surroundings. Massive stars not only alter the morphology of the parental molecular clouds, but also influence star formation, circumstellar disks and the mass function of low-mass stars in their vicinity. However, most of the studies of low-mass stellar content of the HII regions are limited only to the nearby regions. We study the star formation in the W4 HII region using deep optical observations obtained with the archival data from Canada - France - Hawaii Telescope, Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and Chandra. We investigate the spatial distribution of young stellar objects in the region, their association with the remnant molecular clouds, and search for the clustering to establish the sites of recent star formation. Our analysis suggests that the influence of massive stars on circumstellar disks is significant only to thei! r immediate neighborhood. The spatial correlation of the young stars with the distribution of gas and dust of the complex indicate that the clusters would have formed in a large filamentary cloud. The observing facilities at the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), providing high-resolution spectral and imaging capabilities, will fulfill the major objectives in the study of HII regions.

  17. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment, characteristic of dementia, is measured objectively by standard neuropsychological (cognitive tests. Given the diversity of culture and language in India, it is difficult to use a single modified version of MMSE uniformly to Indian population. In this article, we report methods on the development of a cognitive screening instrument suitable for the tribal (Bharmour elderly (60 years and above population of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: We used a systematic, item-by-item, process for development of a modified version of MMSE suitable for elderly tribal population. Results: The modifications made in the English version of MMSE and the pretesting and pilot testing thereof resulted in the development of Bharmouri version of cognitive scale. Discussion: The study shows that effective modifications can be made to existing tests that require reading and writing; and that culturally sensitive modifications can be made to render the test meaningful and relevant, while still tapping the appropriate cognitive domains.

  18. Marginal/peripheral populations of forest tree species and their conservation status: report for Atlantic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin T. Kelleher

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of information from the national reports, prepared as part of the COST Action FP1202 Strengthening conservation: a key issue for adaptation of marginal/peripheral populations of forest trees to climate change in Europe (MaPFGR. The individual national reports can be found as part of the supplemental data to the COST action. The data compiled in this report indicate that the Atlantic area has sufficient resources in terms of knowledge and capacity to assess the potential impact of climate change on marginal and peripheral (MaP sites within the area. Maps of vegetation, soil, climate and climatic predictions are publicly available for most countries and often are of high quality and resolution. These can be utilized to help identify MaP sites and populations in the Atlantic area. In addition, some species have been characterized genetically and the genetic data can also be utilized to identify and characterize sites. However, genetic data is not universally available and in particular may be absent for peripheral sites. There are many data sources for phenotypic traits, such as data from provenance trials but these have not been assessed for MaP populations. There may not be sufficient legislative capacity for the conservation of MaP populations in comparison to, for example, annex habitats of the EU Habitats Directive. Although some of the MaP sites lie within Natura 2000 boundaries, many are not in protected areas. If MaP populations are not characterized and conserved there is a risk of losing traits that may be of potential in adaptation to climate change. A detailed spatial analysis incorporating all of the data is needed to give a comprehensive assessment of the potential threats to MaP populations in this area.

  19. Comparisons of metabolic syndrome definitions in four populations of the Asia-Pacific region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C.M.; Huxley, R.R.; Woodward, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by four MetS definitions in four Asia-Pacific populations, and to compare the prevalence of individual metabolic components. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional studies from Australia, Japan, Korea, and Samoa were used...... for EGIR. There were marked differences in the prevalence of MetS between the sexes, with no systematic pattern, and between the prevalences of individual metabolic components. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the prevalence of MetS and its components, using the various definitions, both within and between...

  20. Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengjun; Cohen, Scott M.; Sun Yuqing; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank D and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension D is studied both in the deterministic case where at most L d messages can be transmitted with perfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds (probability τ x ) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message x, and when it fails (probability 1-τ x ) he knows it has failed. Alice is allowed any single-shot (one use) encoding procedure, and Bob any single-shot measurement. For D≤D a bound is obtained for L d in terms of the largest Schmidt coefficient of the entangled state, and is compared with published results by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A71, 012311 (2005)]. For D>D it is shown that L d is strictly less than D 2 unless D is an integer multiple of D, in which case uniform (maximal) entanglement is not needed to achieve the optimal protocol. The unambiguous case is studied for D≤D, assuming τ x >0 for a set of DD messages, and a bound is obtained for the average . A bound on the average requires an additional assumption of encoding by isometries (unitaries when D=D) that are orthogonal for different messages. Both bounds are saturated when τ x is a constant independent of x, by a protocol based on one-shot entanglement concentration. For D>D it is shown that (at least) D 2 messages can be sent unambiguously. Whether unitary (isometric) encoding suffices for optimal protocols remains a major unanswered question, both for our work and for previous studies of dense coding using partially-entangled states, including noisy (mixed) states

  1. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  2. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Kaleida, Catherine C. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, Michael A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, Donald N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J., E-mail: hwihyun.kim@asu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of {approx}15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  3. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H.; Calzetti, Daniela; O’Connell, Robert W.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of approximately 15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones.We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations ofWolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  4. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of ∼15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  5. Comparative Population Biology of Critically Endangered Dracocephalum austriacum (Lamiaceae) in Two Distant Regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2013), s. 75-93 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0706; GA MŠk 2B06178 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : life table response experiments * population dynamics * rare species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  6. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Laudien, Jü rgen; Jantzen, Carin; Hä ussermann, Verena; Fö rsterra, Gü nter

    2013-01-01

    -57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass

  7. Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Baardsen, Roald; Helseth, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    it with previous Norwegian studies. METHODS: All head injured patients referred to Stavanger University Hospital during a one-year period (2003) were registered in a partly prospective and partly retrospective study. The catchment area for the hospital is strictly defined to a local population of 283...

  8. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2009-01-01

    , it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...

  9. Phenotypic variability of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations at the Ecuadorian central and southern Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacís, Anita G; Grijalva, Mario J; Catalá, Silvia S

    2010-11-01

    Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is an important vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador. Whereas only sylvatic and peridomestic populations are common in Manabi province, this species occupies domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic habitats in Loja province where high reinfestation of houses was observed. To explore the existence of phenetic changes linked to the domiciliation of the species, this study set out to analyze the wing and antennal phenotypes of R. ecuadoriensis in these two provinces where the vector presents different affinity for domestic habitats. The antennal phenotype and the wing size and shape distinguish the two geographical populations of R. ecuadoriensis. In Manabí, sylvatic and peridomestic specimens were very similar. In Loja, sylvatic and nonsylvatic (domestic and peridomestic) populations showed distinctive characteristics. Remarkable sexual dimorphism of wing and antenna, exclusive of domestic specimens, and high metric disparity in the wing shape of the domestic females point out the existence of a particular situation in this habitat. The results of this phenotypic analysis and previous evidence of behavioral differences support the hypothesis of disruptive selection acting upon R. ecuadoriensis populations.

  10. Alcohol consumption in the rural population of Misungwi subdistrict in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, T; Velema, JP; Dijkstra, R

    Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption in four villages on the southern shores of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Method: Study participants were 148 men and 162 women selected by cluster sampling from the population (N = 9,243) of four

  11. Association analysis between genetic variants in interleukin genes among different populations with hyperuricemia in Xinjiang Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sun, Yuping; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Tingting; Xia, He; Li, Changgui; Liu, Shiguo; Yao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether functional variants of five interleukin genes (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-8, IL-18 and IL-18RAP) are associated with susceptibility to hyperuricemia among different nationalities (including Uygur, Kazak and Han populations) in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. A total of 884 hyperuricemia patients and 1316 matched controls were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi. After genotyping of rs4073 in IL-8, rs16944 in IL-1, rs187238 in IL-18, rs1800871 in IL-10 and rs13015714 in IL-18RAP by TaqMan allele discrimination assays, an association analysis was performed using the χ2 test as well as a genotype-phenotype analysis. For the Uygur population, IL-8 rs4073, IL-18 rs187238 and IL-18RAP rs130154 polymorphisms were all associated with hyperuricemia (P<0.001 by genotype and P=0.008, OR 0.802 by allele for IL-8; P=0.01 by genotype and P=0.006, OR 1.332 by allele for IL-18 rs187238; P=0.007 by genotype and P=0.005, OR 1.27 by allele for IL-18RAP rs130154). For the Kazak population, only IL-18 rs187238 showed statistical significance with hyperuricemia (P=0.002 by genotype and P=0.007, OR 1.823 by allele). However, no differences were found between the five SNPs and hyperuricemia among the Han population. This study demonstrated genetic polymorphisms of different interleukin genes related to hyperuricemia vary in different nationalities in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region because of different geographical environments. IL-8, IL-1RL1 and IL-18 might be involved in the development of hyperuricemia in the Uygur population, whereas only IL-18 might be involved in the Kazak population. PMID:26722554

  12. Are Proplyds the Low-Energy Counterpart of Clouds Populating the AGNs Broad Line Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, H.

    2000-11-01

    The stability of the clouds producing the broadening of permitted lines in A GNs is a challenge for the persistence of these features during the galactic nucleus active fase lifetime. The formation of succesive generations of clouds in this very agressive enviroment, seems not to be the more adequated scenarion to explain this phenomenon. Why should new clouds be formed in regions where the UV radiation is so intense as to destroy the previously existing ones? The discovery of proplyds in Orion and NGC3603, as well as in 30Dor, shows that the formation of stars with protostars with surrounding disk is a common phenomenon in HII regions with very different radiation fields. We discuss that as a mechanism to explain the persistence of the clouds in the AGNs broad line regions.

  13. Association of regional racial/cultural context and socioeconomic status with arthritis in the population: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares, Mayilee; Power, J Denise; Perruccio, Anthony V; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2008-03-15

    To examine the extent to which differences in individual- and regional-level socioeconomic status and racial/cultural origin account for geographic variations in the prevalence of self-reported arthritis, and to determine whether regional characteristics modify the effect of individual characteristics associated with reporting arthritis. Analyses were based on the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (>15 years, n = 127,513). Arthritis was self-reported as a long-term condition diagnosed by a health professional. A 2-level logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of reporting arthritis. Individual-level variables included age, sex, income, education, immigration status, racial/cultural origin, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index. Regional-level variables included the proportion of low-income families, low education, unemployment, recent immigrants, Aboriginals, and Asians. At the individual level, age, sex, low income, low education, Aboriginal origin, current smoking, and overweight/obesity were positively associated with reporting arthritis; recent immigration and Asian origin were negatively associated with reporting arthritis. At the regional level, percentages of low-income families and the Aboriginal population were independently associated with reporting arthritis. Regional income and racial/cultural origin moderated the effects of individual income and racial/cultural origin; low-income individuals residing in regions with a higher proportion of low-income families reported arthritis more than low-income individuals living in better-income regions. Both individual and regional factors were found to contribute to variations in the prevalence of arthritis, although significant unexplained variation remained. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms that underlie these regional effects and to identify other contributing factors to the remaining variation.

  14. Hugoniot measurements of double-shocked precompressed dense xenon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Chen, Q. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.

    2012-12-01

    The current partially ionized plasmas models for xenon show substantial differences since the description of pressure and thermal ionization region becomes a formidable task, prompting the need for an improved understanding of dense xenon plasmas behavior at above 100 GPa. We performed double-shock compression experiments on dense xenon to determine accurately the Hugoniot up to 172 GPa using a time-resolved optical radiation method. The planar strong shock wave was produced using a flyer plate impactor accelerated up to ˜6 km/s with a two-stage light-gas gun. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were acquired by using a multiwavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Shock velocity was measured and mass velocity was determined by the impedance-matching methods. The experimental equation of state of dense xenon plasmas are compared with the self-consistent fluid variational calculations of dense xenon in the region of partial ionization over a wide range of pressures and temperatures.

  15. COMPETITION AS A FORM OF ORGANIZING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES OF THE KRASNOYARSK REGION POPULATION IN THE 1960-1980S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanovna Lobyneva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the socialist completion as demonstration of huge enthusiasm and creative initiative of the Krasnoyarsk region population in the 1960s. There were more than twenty shock Komsomol construction sites, which became an effective form of youth participating in the economy development.The aim of the work is to find out in what way socialist completion influences on developing different personal features, like abilities, knowledge, erudition, skills, experience, needs, call of duty, responsibility, etc.The methods of historical approach and objectivism are used in the article.The results of work are to considerate problems concerning with organization of the socialist competition in the Krasnoyarsk region. New materials and some documents of local archives are introduced during the research.The study of the socialist competition in the Krasnoyarsk region enables to make a conclusion that the socialist competition is a form of organizing cultural activities of the Krasnoyarsk region population in the 1960s.

  16. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  17. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  18. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Aguirre Laura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct

  19. A Decade of Economic Change and Population Shifts in U.S. Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, William G.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1990, the United States experienced one of its longest periods of economic expansion since the Second World War. The 1983-95 period has been a time of fundamental economic change, with wide variations by state and region caused by industrial restructuring, worker migration, and immigration. (JOW)

  20. Historical variety of population's migration of central-chernozem region in 1861-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Н Курцев

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the foundations of an innovative conception on an integral characteristic of the whole variety of people's transference during 1861-1917. By the example of Central-Chernozem region the complex of labour migrations, military and educational, religious and repressive migrations, refugees' Exodus after the World War I have been revealed.

  1. Radon exposure of school population in Friuli Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale survey was carried out, comprising over than 5000 measurements with passive track detectors LR115 or CR39 in every school of the region. The main conclusions are as follows: (i) The average concentration in Friuli Venezia Giulia schools results is 100 Bq/m3; (ii) Building characteristics of dwellings and schools are quite similar in Friuli Venezia Giulia region: the same radon concentration mean values were observed in the two kinds of buildings apart from kindergartens that are usually developed only at the ground floor level; (iii) About 4 % schools shows include at least one room exceeding the Italian reference level of 500 Bq/m3. The same results has been found for dwelling s during the regional part of a National survey: 4 % dwellings exceeded the European recommended levels of 400 Bq/m3. (iv) The fact that soil is the main source of indoor radon in the region has been confirmed. Radon concentration distribution maps of various kinds could be constructed: in any case areas with higher radon indoor concentrations as compared to the average could be identified. The estimated mean effective doses for students and workers are about 0.5 mSv/y, although values up to 4 mSv/year are not uncommon in some schools. (P.A.)

  2. The effect of new business creation on employment growth in regions facing population decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfmann, Heike; Koster, Sierdjan

    Particularly in declining regions, new businesses creation is seen as a means to secure (future) employment opportunities. However, the way in which new business creation exerts its influence on employment is not evident. Do start-ups in these areas influencing employment change as they do in growth

  3. Effects of white-nose syndrome on regional population patterns of 3 hibernating bat species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Ingersoll; Brent J. Sewall; Sybill K. Amelon

    2016-01-01

    Hibernating bats have undergone severe recent declines across the eastern United States, but the cause of these regional-scale declines has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the influence of white-nose syndrome (an emerging bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, formerly Geomyces destructans...

  4. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star

  5. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    for decisions concerning road lay-out and mitigation measures. As model species was chosen the Moor frog (Rana arvalis). Populations of Moor frogs are assumed to follow a pattern of metapopulation dynamics, with colonisation, extinction and recolonisation of suitable habitat patches. Thus, road constructions...... to be constructed and analysed. The first scenario should be a map of the area as it is before the planned road construction (scenario 0). This analysis measures the ecological performance of the original landscape and is a reference against which other scenarios are to be compared. The second map (scenario 1......) should show the landscape as it is expected to be after the road constructions. In combination, the analyses of scenario 0 and scenario 1 make it possible to assess the effect of road construction on connectivity and population persistence. The analyses also constitute the basis for planning...

  6. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Zago, M A

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the beta-globin cluster haplotypes for 80 Indians from four Brazilian Amazon tribes: Kayapó, Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, and Arára. The results are analyzed together with 20 Yanomámi previously studied. From 2 to 4 different haplotypes were identified for each tribe, and 7 of the possible 32 haplotypes were found in a sample of 172 chromosomes for which the beta haplotypes were directly determined or derived from family studies. The haplotype distribution does not differ significantly among the five populations. The two most common haplotypes in all tribes were haplotypes 2 and 6, with average frequencies of 0.843 and 0.122, respectively. The genetic affinities between Brazilian Indians and other human populations were evaluated by estimates of genetic distance based on haplotype data. The lowest values were observed in relation to Asians, especially Chinese, Polynesians, and Micronesians.

  7. Two Distinct Yersinia pestis Populations Causing Plague among Humans in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Yockey, Brook M; Acayo, Sarah; Kaggwa, John; Apangu, Titus; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Schriefer, Martin E; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Since the 1990s, Africa has accounted for the majority of reported human cases. In Uganda, plague cases occur in the West Nile region, near the border with Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the ongoing risk of contracting plague in this region, little is known about Y. pestis genotypes causing human disease. During January 2004-December 2012, 1,092 suspect human plague cases were recorded in the West Nile region of Uganda. Sixty-one cases were culture-confirmed. Recovered Y. pestis isolates were analyzed using three typing methods, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and subpopulations analyzed in the context of associated geographic, temporal, and clinical data for source patients. All three methods separated the 61 isolates into two distinct 1.ANT lineages, which persisted throughout the 9 year period and were associated with differences in elevation and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that human cases of plague in the West Nile region of Uganda are caused by two distinct 1.ANT genetic subpopulations. Notably, all three typing methods used, SNPs, PFGE, and MLVA, identified the two genetic subpopulations, despite recognizing different mutation types in the Y. pestis genome. The geographic and elevation differences between the two subpopulations is suggestive of their maintenance in highly localized enzootic cycles, potentially with differing vector-host community composition. This improved understanding of Y. pestis subpopulations in the West Nile region will be useful for identifying ecologic and environmental factors associated with elevated plague risk.

  8. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  9. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  10. Animal Ownership Among Vulnerable Populations in Regional South Australia: Implications for Natural Disaster Preparedness and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Trigg, Joshua; Smith, Bradley

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014. Respondents were asked about animal ownership, their bushfire risk perception, and household survival planning. Descriptive statistics are presented for 5 groups considered likely to contribute to increased risk of harm for households: linguistically diverse, older adults, families with young children, physically frail, and self-identifying disabled, as well as individuals with mental health considerations. An opt-in purposively targeted sample of anonymous South Australians living in high fire-risk locations. Adult South Australian animal owners threatened or directly impacted by bushfire events, including individuals matching 1 of the 5 vulnerable groups. Self-reported details of animal ownership, perceived fire risk, survival planning, and vulnerability characteristics. Animal ownership was found to be more prevalent in these 5 populations than in the wider South Australian population. Perceived risk to pets was low to moderately low in these individuals. Variation was observed in the role of animals generally and pets specifically as motivators for preparing bushfire survival plans. Emergency services and associated agencies need to consider how the unique needs of vulnerable populations that keep animals, and their potential differences in risk perception, relate to their bushfire survival planning and preparedness requirements.

  11. Regional variation in Argentinean populations of Bromus catharticus (Poaceae as measured by morphological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturi, Miguel J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one populations of Bromus catharticus Vahl., collected from the Pampean Dominion (Argentina, were classified using twenty four highly heritable traits by numerical taxonomic methods. After implementing a stepwise discriminant analysis, 18 traits were chosen as classificatory variables. Eight population groups were classified in two main clusters. Different morphotypes, primarily associated with panicle architecture and micro floral traits, were found. The patterns in the morphological variation seem to correspond to a gradient of humidity and temperature that diminishes from the NE to the SW. This pattern of classification reflects the geographical origin for most of the sampled populations, although there was some noise. Our results fit the patchy variation model, where populations are genetically selected for macro and micro environmental conditions.Treinta y una poblaciones de Bromus catharticus Vahl., recolectadas en el dominio Pampeano (Argentina, fueron clasificadas utilizando 24 caracteres altamente heredables por métodos de taxonomía numérica. Tras implementar el análisis discriminante del paso a paso (Stepwise, 18 variables fueron seleccionadas como variables clasificatorias. Ocho grupos de poblaciones fueron clasificadas en dos clusters principales. Diferentes morfotipos, principalmente asociados a la arquitectura de las panojas y a variables microflorales, fueron encontrados. El patrón de variación morfológico parece responder a un gradiente de humedad y temperatura que disminuye desde el NE al SW. Además, dicho patrón de clasificación refleja un origen geográfico para la mayoría de las poblaciones, aunque hubo algo de ruido. Nuestros resultados se ajustan a un modelo de variación en parches, donde las poblaciones están genéticamente seleccionadas por condiciones micro y macro ambientales.

  12. Contribution of inorganic arsenic sources to population exposure risk on a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Chun; Chen, Jein-Wen; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the human population is associated with various internal cancers and other adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to estimate a population-scale exposure risk attributable to iAs consumptions by linking a stochastic physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and biomonitoring data of iAs in urine. The urinary As concentrations were obtained from a total of 1,043 subjects living in an industrial area of Taiwan. The results showed that the study subjects had an iAs exposure risk of 27 % (the daily iAs intake for 27 % study subjects exceeded the WHO-recommended value, 2.1 μg iAs day(-1) kg(-1) body weight). Moreover, drinking water and cooked rice contributed to the iAs exposure risk by 10 and 41 %, respectively. The predicted risks in the current study were 4.82, 27.21, 34.69, and 64.17 %, respectively, among the mid-range of Mexico, Taiwan (this study), Korea, and Bangladesh reported in the literature. In conclusion, we developed a population-scale-based risk model that covered the broad range of iAS exposure by integrating stochastic PBPK modeling and reverse dosimetry to generate probabilistic distribution of As intake corresponding to urinary As measured from the cohort study. The model can also be updated as new urinary As information becomes available.

  13. Integration of population mobility in the evaluation of air quality measures on local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, S.; Beckx, C.; Degraeuwe, B.; Lefebvre, W.; Kochan, B.; Bellemans, T.; Int Panis, L.; Macharis, C.; Putman, K.

    2012-11-01

    By focussing on air pollutant concentration levels only, the variation in population mobility is not taken into account when assessing the exposure. Transportation policies have an impact on both concentration levels and mobility patterns. The impact of a fuel price increase policy on population exposure to elemental carbon (EC) was evaluated and compared to the base scenario (current situation), taking into account time-activity patterns - including time in commute. We assessed the effect on exposure of both the change in concentrations and whereabouts. The decrease in exposure due to the fuel price increase using residential information only was limited to areas near highways and urban centres. Integrating population movement, exposures to EC were higher and the decrease in exposure was no longer limited to areas near traffic hotspots. For inhabitants of urban areas, the exposure integrating time-activity patterns was more similar to the residential exposure, as they spent more time in their own neighbourhood. For people living further away from traffic hotspots, the estimated impact of the policy was higher than expected for residential exposure. These people profited both from the higher decrease in concentrations at their work/shop/leisure destinations in more urban areas and, as they have to travel longer, also had a larger gain from the high decrease in concentrations during transport. Therefore, the impact of changing concentrations is underestimated when using residential exposure only. These results show the importance of taking into activity-travel patterns when planning future actions.

  14. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  15. The Hawkesbury-Nepean region: has the optimum population size been exceeded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Pearson, B

    1995-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government has not included population size as an intersectoral component of the environmentally sustainable development process. The aim of this article is to show how water quality is a key indicator of environmental degradation and of declines in the quality of life. This study is an analysis of the environmental impacts of population on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System and of the costs involved in change. Environmental degradation is viewed as the result of population size, per capita consumption, the quality of technology, and the organization of space and technology. The quantity and quality of freshwater systems are considered to be useful indicators of environmental degradation over large spatial areas because the impacts are associated with both land and water environments. The catchment area of this river system covers about 231,730 sq. km (68% bushland, 5% urban, 25% agricultural, and 0.1% industrial). About 45% of the land area is protected due to six dams, which provide 98% of water used in Sydney, Illawarra, and the Blue Mountains. Estimated population usage is 600,000-700,000 people. River flows are modified by dams, sewage discharges, water abstractions, and urban run-off from development. River use includes tourism, fishing, and recreation. The system suffers from severe eutrophication, bacterial contamination, toxic pollution, and hypoxia. The conclusion was reached after many years of concern that large-scale development should be deferred. However, housing plans continue for a 70% population increase by 2008. Sewage treatment improvements are costly. Alternatives are re-use of effluents ($2.5-3.5 billion for nonpotable use and $4-4.5 billion for potable use), diversion to the ocean ($3 billion), zero river discharge ($8400 per property for installation and $700 per annum maintenance), or inland disposal ($19 billion). Environmental protection efforts are also costly: $45 million worth of water for flushing away an algal

  16. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoikhet, Y N; Kiselev, V I; Zaitsev, E V; Kolyado, I B; Konovalov, B Y; Bauer, S; Grosche, B; Burkart, W

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues.

  17. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu.; Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W.

    1999-01-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  18. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  19. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras)

    OpenAIRE

    Gambino, Valeria; Micangeli, Andrea; Naso, Vincenzo; Michelangeli, Emanuele; Mario, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of env...

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne particulate metals and metalloids in a populated arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri; Sorooshian, Armin; Toffol, Emily; Arellano, Avelino F.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-08-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network of aerosol samplers has been used to study the spatial and temporal concentration trends in airborne particulate metals and metalloids for southern Arizona. The study region is a rapidly growing area in southwestern North America characterized by high fine soil concentrations (among the highest in the United States), anthropogenic emissions from an area within the fastest growing region in the United States, and a high density of active and abandoned mining sites. Crustal tracers in the region are most abundant in the summer (April-June) followed by fall (October-November) as a result of dry meteorological conditions which favor dust emissions from natural and anthropogenic activity. A distinct day-of-week cycle is evident for crustal tracer mass concentrations, with the greatest amplitude evident in urban areas. There have been significant reductions since 1988 in the concentrations of toxic species that are typically associated with smelting and mining. Periods with high fine soil concentrations coincide with higher concentrations of metals and metalloids in the atmosphere, with the enhancement being higher at urban sites.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA regionalism and historical demography in the extant populations of Chirocephalus kerkyrensis (Branchiopoda: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketmaier, Valerio; Marrone, Federico; Alfonso, Giuseppe; Paulus, Kirsten; Wiemann, Annika; Tiedemann, Ralph; Mura, Graziella

    2012-01-01

    Mediterranean temporary water bodies are important reservoirs of biodiversity and host a unique assemblage of diapausing aquatic invertebrates. These environments are currently vanishing because of increasing human pressure. Chirocephalus kerkyrensis is a fairy shrimp typical of temporary water bodies in Mediterranean plain forests and has undergone a substantial decline in number of populations in recent years due to habitat loss. We assessed patterns of genetic connectivity and phylogeographic history in the seven extant populations of the species from Albania, Corfu Is. (Greece), Southern and Central Italy. We analyzed sequence variation at two mitochondrial DNA genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16s rRNA) in all the known populations of C. kerkyrensis. We used multiple phylogenetic, phylogeographic and coalescence-based approaches to assess connectivity and historical demography across the whole distribution range of the species. C. kerkyrensis is genetically subdivided into three main mitochondrial lineages; two of them are geographically localized (Corfu Is. and Central Italy) and one encompasses a wide geographic area (Albania and Southern Italy). Most of the detected genetic variation (≈81%) is apportioned among the aforementioned lineages. Multiple analyses of mismatch distributions consistently supported both past demographic and spatial expansions with the former predating the latter; demographic expansions were consistently placed during interglacial warm phases of the Pleistocene while spatial expansions were restricted to cold periods. Coalescence methods revealed a scenario of past isolation with low levels of gene flow in line with what is already known for other co-distributed fairy shrimps and suggest drift as the prevailing force in promoting local divergence. We recommend that these evolutionary trajectories should be taken in proper consideration in any effort aimed at protecting Mediterranean temporary water bodies.

  2. Meteorite Source Regions as Revealed by the Near-Earth Object Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Burt, Brian J.; Polishook, David; Burbine, Thomas H.; Bus, Schelte J.; Tokunaga, Alan; Birlan, Mirel

    2014-11-01

    Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1], [2], [3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We determine their taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5] [6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral analysis (e.g. [7],[8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the inner main-belt. V-types are relatively equally balanced between nu6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. B- and C-types show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. A Jupiter family comet source predominates for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying these "asteroidal" bodies may be extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless "X-type" category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference. Finally the Xe-class near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites seen in the Hungaria region[11], show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and nu6 resonance pathways. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Lazzarin, M. et al. (2004), Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 5, 21. [2] Thomas, C. A. et al. (2014), Icarus 228, 217. [3] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [4] Hasselmann, P. H., Carvano, J. M., Lazzaro, D. (2011) NASA PDS, EAR-A-I0035-5-SDSSTAX-V1.0. [5] Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. (2002). Icarus 158, 146. [6] DeMeo, F.E. et al. (2009), Icarus

  3. Forecasting electric demand of distribution system planing in rural and sparsely populated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, H.L.; Buri, M.J. [ABB Automated Distribution Div., Raleigh, NC (United States); Finley, L.A. [Snohomish County PUD, Everett, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Modern computerized distribution load forecasting methods, although accurate when applied to urban areas, give somewhat less satisfactory results when forecasting load growth in sparsely populated rural areas. This paper examines the differences between rural and urban load growth histories, identifying a major difference in the observed behavior of load growth. This difference is exploited in a new simulation forecasting algorithm. Tests show the new method is as accurate in forecasting rural load growth and as useful for analyzing DSM impacts than past methods, while requiring considerably lower computer resources and data than other simulation methods of comparable accuracy.

  4. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  5. Population genetical investigation of the level of mutagenesis and teratological events frequency in ecologically different regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaganova, Zh.A.; Zhapbasov, R.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.; Karimbaeva, K.S.; Mamyrbaeva, A.N.; Altaeva, N.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Kazakhstan territory is unique including regions with radioactive pollution of Semipalatinsk nuclear test territory and storage of radioactive waste of uranium mines and metallurgy enterprises, and regions of drying Aral sea. These technogenic factors may cause some types of chromosome aberrations and developmental anomalies in mammals. The level of mutagenesis was estimated basing on chromosome aberrations and genomic mutation frequencies in bone marrow cells of natural rodents populations (Allactaga major Kern, Allactaga saltator Eversman, Cytellus eritrogenus Br.) and domestic animals (sheep, cattle, horse), which inhabit these regions. Sheep populations which are bred in the regions with different climatic conditions were used for teratological investigations. Different generations are met in the populations of mice family rodents caught in the nature. So studying the animals of different ages separately we can estimate the frequency of mutations in the animals of different age inhabiting the same radiation polluted regions. The frequency of chromosome abe rations in mice family rodents from such territories was twice as high as from the clear territories. In some animals chromosome aberration types characteristic for radiation mutagenesis (dicentrics, double acentric fragments) were found. High level of cytogenetical instability in somatic cells of agricultural animals which were bred on the pastures within former nuclear test territories for several generations may be caused by chronic radiation in low doses. The analysis of the spectrum of recorder chromosome aberrations in somatic cells and their dynamics in different animal species inhabiting for several generations these territories being chronically irradiated, allows us to investigate the direction of genetical evolution of mammals genofond structure induced by ecological factors. Comparative analysis of the frequencies of spontaneous abortuses, deadborn and newborn animals with innate

  6. Antigenic evidence of bluetongue virus from small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaswati Subhadarsini Pany

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to carry out antigenic detection of bluetongue virus (BTV among the small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha (coastal and central using recombinant VP7 (r-VP-7 based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s-ELISA. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (n=274 were collected from two different geographical pockets of Odisha, which covered mostly the coastal and central regions. Of the total samples under study 185 were from goat and 89 were from sheep. The blood samples were tested for the presence of BTV antigen by r-VP7 based s-ELISA. Results: r-VP-7 s-ELISA detected BTV antigen in 52.43% and 44.94% of the goat and sheep population under study, respectively. This study highlights the antigenic persistence of BTV in the state for the 1st time. Conclusion: This high antigenic presence in both sheep and goat population suggests an alarming BTV infection in field conditions which warrants more systematic study directed toward isolation and characterization studies as well as the implementation of control strategy for BT in Odisha.

  7. To the Issue of Application of L. Ron Hubbard Detoxication Method Under the Program of Semipalatinsk Region Population Rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apusheva, B.K.; Nurumbetova, R.M.; Tuleubaev, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    The detoxification is one of the most acute problems of the population rehabilitation program of Semipalatinsk region suffered from the nuclear tests in 1949 - 1989. It is known that a Humanitarian Detoxification Service is success-fully functioning in Russia and facilitates the creation of improving centers for the removal of toxic chemical deposits, radiation decay products, and drugs out of the human organism. A method, which permits the successful removal of chemical deposits from the organism, consists of a number of procedures including the intake of a balanced amount of vitamins and minerals, physical exercises and sauna. It is based on the developments of an American scientist L. Ron Hubbard and analytical results of different biologists, physicians and pharmacologists. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed with the numerous clinical tests and examination of over 20,000 patients. The positive results were also obtained during the application of method to the people suffered from the Chernobyl accident. It is proposed to establish such detoxification centre in Kurchatov in order to perform similar investigations among the population of Semipalatinsk region affected by the nuclear testing. It will be created under the auspices of the Kazakh Detoxification Centre and the Pavlodar Centre of the Dianetika International Public Movement. The stable and successive functioning of the Centre is entirely dependent on the financing from the different funds and contract works. This paper proposes the ways of practical solution of man detoxification problem and the introduction of the method into the existing system of population rehabilitation

  8. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kevin; Jones, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.4 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Currently, 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal global access to energy by the year 2030. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to 50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a energy demand in 2100 will be more than double that of today; of this demand, 82% will need to be derived from renewable sources. More renewable energy production will be required in 2100 than the 2014 total global energy production. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the energy demand and to limit warming to 2.5-3°C by 2100.

  9. Population-specific left ventricular hypertrophy in three groups from the northeastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P K; Hazarika, N C; Biswas, D; Kalita, H C; Mahanta, J

    2010-01-01

    People living in the hills are continuously exposed to strenuous physical activity for their day-to-day work. Besides hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy in different populations may be related to continuous physical activity. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure and sociodemographic information of 12 252 subjects > or = 30 years of age from three different population groups living in Mizoram (hilly) and Assam (plain) were recorded. Of them, 8058 were from Mizoram and 3180 and 1014 were Indigenous Assamese and tea garden workers of Assam. Among the subjects from Mizoram the percentage of smokers (41.9%), mean (SD) BMI (21.9 [3.8]) and waist-hip ratio (0.87 [0.02]) were significantly higher than in those from other groups. Tea garden workers had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (145.2 [25.7]) and diastolic blood pressure (87.6 [13.6]). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was highest among tea garden workers (16.5%) followed by people from Mizoram (3.7%) and the indigenous Assamese (2%) people. In spite of a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the indigenous Assamese community than among those from Mizoram, left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be lower in the former. High prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among tea garden workers was possibly related to a higher prevalence of hypertension but the higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among people from Mizoram might be related to more physical activity.

  10. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  11. Acute management of traumatic spinal cord injury in a Greek and a Swedish region: a prospective, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divanoglou, A; Seiger, A; Levi, R

    2010-06-01

    Prospective, population-based study. This paper is part of the Stockholm Thessaloniki Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Study (STATSCIS). To characterize patient populations and to compare acute management after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). The Greater Thessaloniki region in Greece and the Greater Stockholm region in Sweden. Inception cohorts with acute TSCI that were hospitalized during the study period, that is September 2006 to October 2007, were identified. Overall, 81 out of 87 cases consented to inclusion in Thessaloniki and 47 out of 49 in Stockholm. Data from Thessaloniki were collected through physical examinations, medical record reviews and communication with TSCI cases and medical teams. Data from Stockholm were retrieved from the Nordic Spinal Cord Injury Registry. There were no significant differences between study groups with regard to core clinical characteristics. In contrast, there were significant differences in (1) transfer logistics from the scene of trauma to a tertiary-level hospital (number of intermediate admissions, modes of transportation and duration of transfer) and (2) acute key therapeutic interventions, that is, the use of mechanical ventilation (49% in Thessaloniki versus 20% in Stockholm), and performance of tracheostomy (36% in Thessaloniki versus 15% in Stockholm); spinal surgery was performed significantly more often and earlier in Stockholm than in Thessaloniki. Despite largely similar core clinical characteristics, Stockholm and Thessaloniki cases underwent significantly different acute management, most probably to be attributed to adaptations to the differing regional approaches of care one following a systematic approach of SCI care and the other not.

  12. Pent-up demand for surgery in the Manaus metropolitan region: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Priscila Gusmão da Silva; Galvao, Tais Freire; Silva, Marcus Tolentino

    2017-08-01

    Waiting lines in healthcare reflect an imbalance between the availability and the demand for medical services. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region.We performed a population-based cross-sectional study in 2015. Pent-up demand was based on self-report by the participants; those who reported waiting were contacted by phone to clarify the nature and reasons for the experienced delay.We interviewed 4001 adults in their households. The pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region was 14% (95% confidence interval: 13-15%). The surgical specialties with the highest demand included orthopedics (18.1%), gynecology (17.0%), ophthalmology (12.4%), neurosurgery (10.8%), and general surgery (10.2%). The main reason for not accessing services was their lack of availability in the public health system, leading some patients to pay for procedures in private facilities. The populations most affected by pent-up demand included elderly individuals, women, and housewives.Pent-up demand for surgical procedures is a common problem in the Manaus metropolitan region and thus requires coordinated actions to optimize access to and capacity of the healthcare system.

  13. On the spatial distributions of dense cores in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    We quantify the spatial distributions of dense cores in three spatially distinct areas of the Orion B star-forming region. For L1622, NGC 2068/NGC 2071, and NGC 2023/NGC 2024, we measure the amount of spatial substructure using the Q-parameter and find all three regions to be spatially substructured (Q Orion B, the mass segregation cannot be dynamical. Our results are also inconsistent with simulations in which the most massive stars form via competitive accretion, and instead hint that magnetic fields may be important in influencing the primordial spatial distributions of gas and stars in star-forming regions.

  14. Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

  15. Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

    2012-12-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1-7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (H(e)), respectively. There was an increase in H(e) from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and H(e), and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. F(ST) (0.004-0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian-French lineage in northern Spain

  16. A Study of THT Cold Cores Population in the Star-Forming Region in Serpens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellino, Eleonora

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to produce the Core Mass Function (CMF) of the Serpens star-forming region and confront it with the Initial Mass Function (IMF), the statistical distribution of initial star mass. As Testi & Sergent (1998) discovered, the power-law index of the slope of the CMF is very close to the one of the Salpeter's IMF (Salpeter, 1955): dN/dM / M2.35. This strongly suggests that the stellar IMF results from the fragmentation process in turbulent cloud cores rather than from stellar accretion mechanisms and gives a huge contribute to undestanding the star formation. For this work, we started from the data delivered by the European satellite Herschel and produced the maps of the Serpens with Unimap code (Piazzo et al, 2015). Hence we obtained a core catalogue with two different softwares getsources (Men'shchikov et al, 2012) and CuTEx (Molinari et al, 2011) and we eliminated from it any source that is not a core. A full discussion of the cores physical propreties as well as the whole region is under preparation.

  17. Regional Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in Germany: Results From Two Population-Based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Aumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Due to the increasing prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD, kidney dysfunction becomes a major public health problem. We investigated the CKD prevalence and determined to what extent the variation of risk factors explains the different CKD prevalence in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data from 6,054 participants, aged 31 to 82 years, from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 in Northeast Germany and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 Study in Southern Germany. Regional differences in selected percentiles corresponding to the cutpoints for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, ≥30 mg/g were tested using quantile regression models that adjusted for CKD risk factors. Results: The prevalence of decreased eGFRcreatinine-cystatinC (5.9 vs. 3.1 %, p creatinine-cystatinC and high ACR. Conclusions: The CKD prevalence is higher in Northeast than in Southern Germany. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors partly explain the higher disease burden of CKD in Northeast than in Southern Germany.

  18. Calculation of population doses with RADTRAN for route segments that have an unpopulated near-field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, F.L.; Neuhauser, S.; Sprung, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The RADTRAN code (Neuhauser and Kanipe, 1994) models the radiological consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials, both the exposures that will occur if the transport occurs without incident, and the exposures that may occur should the transport vehicle be involved in an accident while en route. Because accidents might occur at any point along a transportation route, RADTRAN divides the route into segments (links) and uses a uniform population density and constant meteorological conditions (wind speed and atmospheric stability) to represent the population and weather characteristics of each route segment. A way to perform RADTRAN calculations, that allows an unpopulated near-field region along a transportation link to be approximately modeled, is described, validated, and then illustratively applied to a coastal sailing route

  19. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  20. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  1. Stone Tools Continuity of the Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Population of the Lower Kama River Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viskalin Aleksandr V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A widespread thesis concerning population continuity in the Lower Kama region during the Late Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic is challenged in the article. The thesis in question has been based upon the similarity of the stone tools complex of the earliest Neolithic cultures in the region – those of the Stroke-ornamented and Combed Ware and the preceding Mesolithic monuments. It is argued that the similarity of the stone tools referring to the Mesolithic and the Neolithic results from mechanical admixture of Mesolithic flint in the Neolithic layers, which had produced the leveling of cultural differences. This view is supported by the presence of individual Neolithic monuments, where the stone tools corpus is practically lacking archaic features connected with the local Mesolithic.

  2. Co-morbidity in a cystic fibrosis population attending a regional clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, F

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains the major cause of morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, of 115 patients attending a regional CF clinic we noted 16 cases (14%) with co-morbid conditions. Of this group, 4 of 115 patients (3.5%) had renal problems including both structural and functional defects and 4 (3.5%) had neurological disorders, 3 of which were types of epilepsy. Notably, 3 of 115 patients (2.6%) had different forms of neoplasia, all of which required significant surgical and\\/or chemotherapeutic intervention. There is now increasing evidence of the association between digestive tract malignancy and CF, which further complicates management of these already complex cases.

  3. European Union Enlargement, European Spatial Development Perspective and Regional Policy: Lessons from Population Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Faíña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aplica el concepto del potencial de población al estudio de la estructura territorial del Espacio Económico Europeo (UE-15 y sus principales cambios a causa de la ampliación a los países del Centro y Este Europeo. El análisis muestra un reforzamiento de las áreas centrales y una ampliación y deslocalización a las zonas del Este de las áreas medias en el patrón espacial europeo. Además la idea de potencial de población permite destacar algunas orientaciones de política para la Perspectiva Europea de Ordenación del Territorio y para el futuro de la Política Regional Europea

  4. EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION CONTROL IN POPULATION OF VOLOGDA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Popugaev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study results of registration, calculation and evaluation of quality of arterial hypertension (HT control (HT Register in Vologda Region (VR.Material and methods. HT Register system is developed and legislatively introduced in the VR. Blood pressure registration in every visitor of out-patient clinics is the basic principle of HT Register. The algorithm of HT diagnosis in primary medical care of rural public health services was developed. Analysis of results of HT Register implementation in VR during 2004-2007 is presented.Results. Patients with HT stage 1 seek medical help more often in cities while patients with HT stage 3 seek medical help more often in villages. Patients with HT in villages take antihypertensive drugs more often, but they have more risk factors and associate conditions.Conclusion. Improvement of HT pharmacotherapy was observed in urban and rural districts of VR. At the same time non pharmacologic HT control has to be developed.

  5. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Chander, Jagadish; Mutreja, Ankur; Rashid, Mamoon; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Ali, Shahjahan; Naeem, Raeece; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Dougan, Gordon; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  6. The population structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Abd El Ghany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA identified 16 distinct clusters.The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  7. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2014-07-24

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  8. Reference range for T lymphocytes populations in blood donors from two different regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.L. Torres

    Full Text Available This study defined the normal variation range for different subsets of T-lymphocyte cells count in two different Brazilian regions. We analysed the T-lymphocytes subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in blood donors of two Brazilian cities, located in North (Belem, capital state of Para, indian background and Northeast (Salvador, capital state od Bahia, African background regions of Brazil. Results were compared according to gender, stress level (sleep time lower than 8 hours/day, smoking, and alcohol intake. Lymphocytes subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Five hundred twenty-six blood donors from two Brazilians cities participated in the study: 450 samples from Bahia and 76 samples from Pará. Most (60% were men, 59% reported alcohol intake, 12% were smokers, and 80% slept at least 8 h/day. Donors from Bahia presented with significantly higher counts for all parameters, compared with Para. Women had higher lymphocytes levels, in both states, but only CD4+ cells count was significantly higher than men's values. Smokers had higher CD4+ counts, but sleep time had effect on lymphocytes levels only for Para's donors (higher CD3+ and CD4+ counts. That state had also, a higher proportion of donors reporting sleep time <8 h/day. The values for CD3, CD4 and CD8+ cells count were significantly higher in blood donors from Bahia than among those from Pará. Female gender, alcohol intake, stress level, and smoking were associated with higher lymphocyte counts. The use of a single reference range for normal lymphocytes count is not appropriate for a country with such diversity, like Brazil is.

  9. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Gambino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of environmental, technical, social and economic sustainability to propose a shared model, reproducible by the beneficiaries living in different kinds of Mosquitian ecosystems. Increased building efficiency is obtained through optimization of construction techniques and improvement of materials’ performances. The main material of the proposed dwelling is wood, coherently with the “Miskita” tradition; the increase of its durability, which is obtained by proper seasoning and protection from atmospheric agents and parasites, contributes to the optimization of the use of this natural resource and to reducing the impact on deforestation, which threatens forest biodiversity. The data collection campaign, conducted before developing the housing model design and which has aimed at obtaining information on technical and social aspects related to residences’ welfare and health conditions, has highlighted the great importance of improving the construction model. Despite the advance in sanitary conditions and the economic level, the data collection campaign revealed that even the most developed communities amongst those visited have been perpetrating substantial construction errors, which reduce the resilience of structures to extreme natural phenomena, such as tropical storms and hurricanes, which frequently affect the Mosquitia region. This unexpected discovery increased the importance of housing model design in order to correct these improper construction

  10. Isotopologues of dense gas tracers in NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junzhi; Qiu, Jianjie [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, 200030, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Shi, Yong [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Zhang, Jiangshui [Center For Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, 510006, GuangZhou (China); Fang, Min, E-mail: jzwang@shao.ac.cn [ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munich (Germany)

    2014-11-20

    We present observations of isotopic lines of dense gas tracers toward the nuclear region of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. We detected four isotopic lines (H{sup 13}CN 1-0, H{sup 13}CO{sup +} 1-0, HN{sup 13}C 1-0, and HC{sup 18}O{sup +} 1-0) at the 3 mm band with the IRAM 30 m telescope and obtained upper limits of other lines. We calculated optical depths of dense gas tracers with the detected isotopic lines of HCN 1-0, HCO{sup +} 1-0, and HNC 1-0. We find that the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N abundance ratio is greater than 420 if we adopt the upper limit of HC{sup 15}N(1-0) emission. Combining this with fluxes of 1-0 lines from IRAM 30 m observations and the upper limit of 3-2 lines from APEX 12 m observations, we also estimated the excitation condition of molecular gas in the nuclear region of NGC 1068, which is less dense than that in the extreme starburst regions of galaxies.

  11. Sustainability assessment of one industrial region: A combined method of emergy analysis and IPAT (Human Impact Population Affluence Technology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Yong; Dong, Huijuan; Ulgiati, Sergio; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Zuoxi; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Sun, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Resource over-exploitation and resource depletion have received increasing attentions, especially for industrial regions. In this paper an innovative method that combines emergy analysis and an IPAT (Human Impact Population Affluence Technology) equation is developed in order to create an integrated framework for uncovering the driving forces on resource consumption in one industrial region. Liaoning province, one of the old heavy industrial bases in China, is selected as the case study region. The main results show that total emergy of Liaoning province increased from 9.25E + 23 sej in 2002 to 1.92E + 24 sej in 2012, with 165% growth on non-renewable emergy and 250% growth on imported emergy. Regional emergy/RMB ratio was higher than other developed regions and the average value of China, indicating that this province consumed more local free non-renewable resources to support its own development. The lower ESI (emergy sustainability index) indicates that Liaoning province's sustainability is still weak and far away from sustainable development. IPAT analysis further identifies that rapid economic growth was the main driving force to increase its total emergy use, while technology innovation offset the increase of total emergy use. Policy insights suggest that industrial regions should improve their energy efficiency and optimize their economic and energy structure by applying economic instruments and capacity building efforts. - Highlights: • Emergy analysis and IPAT are combined to evaluate the sustainability of Liaoning. • Total emergy of Liaoning increased from 2002 to 2011 and then decreased in 2012. • Economic scale is the key driving force to induce higher emergy consumption. • Valuable policy insights are proposed in order to promote sustainable development.

  12. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  13. Interruption and defaulting of multidrug therapy against leprosy: population-based study in Brazil's Savannah Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Heukelbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low adherence to multidrug therapy against leprosy (MDT is still an important obstacle of disease control, and may lead to remaining sources of infection, incomplete cure, irreversible complications, and multidrug resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We performed a population-based study in 78 municipalities in Tocantins State, central Brazil, and applied structured questionnaires on leprosy-affected individuals. We used two outcomes for assessment of risk factors: defaulting (not presenting to health care center for supervised treatment for >12 months; and interruption of MDT. In total, 28/936 (3.0% patients defaulted, and 147/806 (18.2% interrupted MDT. Defaulting was significantly associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 3.43; 0.98-9.69; p = 0.03; moving to another residence after diagnosis (OR = 2.90; 0.95-5.28; p = 0.04; and low family income (OR = 2.42; 1.02-5.63: p = 0.04. Interruption of treatment was associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 1.95; 0.98-3.70; p = 0.04; difficulty in swallowing MDT drugs (OR = 1.66; 1.03-2.63; p = 0.02; temporal non-availability of MDT at the health center (OR = 1.67; 1.11-2.46; p = 0.01; and moving to another residence (OR = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.40; p = 0.03. Logistic regression identified temporal non-availability of MDT as an independent risk factor for treatment interruption (adjusted OR = 1.56; 1.05-2.33; p = 0.03, and residence size as a protective factor (adjusted OR = 0.89 per additional number of rooms; 0.80-0.99; p = 0.03. Residence size was also independently associated with defaulting (adjusted OR = 0.67; 0.52-0.88; p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Defaulting and interruption of MDT are associated with some poverty-related variables such as family income, household size, and migration. Intermittent problems of drug supply need to be resolved, mainly on the municipality level. MDT producers should consider oral drug formulations that may

  14. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  15. Population study of the Hawksbill Turtle eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae) in the southern pacific region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobon Lopez, Alexander; Amorocho Llanos, Diego Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) found in the southern Colombian Pacific Department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals) on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL) showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the Department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007). Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values.

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population of District of Tetovo in the Northwest Region of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Rexhepi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its separate components in the adult population of the district of Tetovo. Methods: Total of 630 subjects aged over 18 years were selected at random, from the primary healthcare register, to constitute a representative sample of a population in the district of Tetovo, adjusted for age and sex. MetS is defined according to the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATPIII. Results: The prevalence of MetS in the district of Tetovo was 28.25%. It was significantly higher in women than in men (34.06% versus 22.26%, p=0.004. The largest number of people with MetS living in rural areas (31.32% versus 23.60%, p=0.002. Of the particular components of MetS, 52.06% of the population had increased arterial blood pressure, 46.35% reduced values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and 43.17% abdominal adiposity (AA. In women population, more dominated was abdominal adiposity (59.38% and 26.54%, p=0.000, in men more dominated was increased arterial blood pressure (53.44% and 50.65%, p=0.48. Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS in our population is high, particularly in women. The prevalence rates for arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity are among the highest reported for the region. Advice on diet and change in lifestyles, in addition to the pharmacological treatment of this category, would contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and complications from these diseases.

  17. Populations and identification of fungi causing postharvest molds, on pineapple peduncles in two regions in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanny Castro Chinchilla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple peduncle mold is an important postharvest problem in Costa Rica and it causes fruit rejection. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the most important fungi in different postharvest phases. Monthly samplings were performed during one production year in 2 regions of Costa Rica. The main genera of fungi were identified and characterized at the molecular level. The colony forming units (CFU were determined in disinfection water, wax, cooling rooms air and in the peel and peduncle of fruits before (NP and after (P processing with the common postharvest treatments of the farms. Fruits were stored in cooling rooms during 22 days and at the end incidence and severity of peduncle molds were evaluated. During the year, changes in fungi populations were observed in all postharvest phases and in the fruits, with higher populations in wax than in disinfection water. Fungi population and molds were higher in the peduncle of NP fruits as compared with P fruits, coincident with larger mold populations at the end of storage. Fungi recovered in the cooling rooms air could also be a source for peduncle molds development. Penicillium purpureogenum, P. diversum and Penicllium sp., were the main fungi identified, with an in vitro high sporulation rate and growing in the peduncle. Moreover, different commercial practices, such as waxing and cooling, where spores were captured, can enhance the peduncle molds development, so it is considered important the cleaning of cooling rooms, as well as developing mechanisms to avoid accumulation in wax of important populations of microorganisms.

  18. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  19. A morphometric anatomical and comparative study of the foramen magnum region in a Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, K; Piagkou, M; Skotsimara, G; Piagkos, G; Skandalakis, P

    2013-12-01

    The foramen magnum (FM), a complex area in craniocervical surgery, poses a challenge for neurosurgeons. The knowledge of the detailed anatomy of the FM, occipital condyles (OC) and variations of the region is crucial for the safety of vital structures. This study focuses on the FM and OC morphometry, highlights anatomical variability and investigates correlations between the parameters studied. One hundred and forty-three Greek adult dry skulls were examined using a digital sliding calliper (accuracy, 0.01 mm). Mean FM width and length were found 30.31 ± 2.79 and 35.53 ± 3.06 mm, respectively. The commonest FM shape was two semicircles (25.9 %), whereas the most unusual was irregular (0.7 %). The OC minimum width, maximum width and length were 5.71 ± 1.61, 13.09 ± 1.99 and 25.60 ± 2.91 mm on the right, and 6.25 ± 1.76, 13.01 ± 1.98 and 25.60 ± 2.70 mm on the left side. The commonest OC shape was S-like and the most unusual was ring, bilaterally. The mean anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 19.30 ± 3.25 and 51.61 ± 5.01 mm, respectively. The OC protruded into the FM in 86.7 % of the skulls. Variations such as a third OC existed in 5.6 % and basilar processes in 2.8 %. Posterior condylar foramina were present in 75.5 %. The gender was correlated with FM width and length, OC length, bilaterally, anterior intercondylar distance (AID) and posterior intercondylar distance (PID). The OC protrusion and existence of posterior condylar foramina were correlated. Bilateral asymmetry for OC shape was statistically significant. Our results provide useful information that will enable effective and reliable surgical intervention in the FM region with the maximum safety and widest possible exposure.

  20. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subjects. For DM patients, disease duration, glycemic control, and DM long-term complications were also examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders. The mean (SD) age for DM patients and non-diabetic controls were 53.3 (12.9) and 50.0 (13.1) years; 64.0 and 64.7 % of DM patients and controls were females, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of bursitis/tendonitis was higher in DM patients than among non-diabetics (59.0 % vs. 29.4 %, pdiabetics. Specifically, DM patients had a higher frequency of flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, and anserine bursitis than non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05). Among DM patients, multivariate analyses showed that those with bursitis/tendonitis were more likely to be female [OR (95 % CI) 4.55 (1.42, 14.55)] and have peripheral vascular disease [OR (95 % CI) 8.48 (1.71, 41.93)]. In conclusion, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were common in this population of Hispanics with DM. Among DM patients, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were more frequent in women and those with long-term complications such as peripheral vascular disease. PMID:24522480

  1. Cardiovascular health among two ethnic groups living in the same region: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderly, Michal; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Gillon-Keren, Michal; Rogowski, Ori; Sela, Ben-Ami; Kanety, Hannah; Harats, Dror; Atamna, Ahmed; Alpert, Gershon; Goldbourt, Uri; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-02-01

    Poor cardiovascular health (CVH) among ethnic/racial minorities, studied primarily in the USA, may reflect lower access to healthcare. We examined factors associated with minority CVH in a setting of universal access to healthcare. CVH behaviors and factors were evaluated in a random population sample (551 Arabs, 553 Jews) stratified by sex, ethnicity and age. More Jews (10%) than Arabs (3%) had 3 ideal health behaviors. Only one participant had all four. Although ideal diet was rare (≤1.5%) across groups, Arabs were more likely to meet intake recommendations for whole grains, but less likely to meet intake recommendations for fruits/vegetables and fish. Arabs had lower odds of attaining ideal levels for body mass index and physical activity. Smoking prevalence was 57% among Arab men and 6% among Arab women. Having four ideal health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, smoking) was observed in 2% and 8% of Arab and Jewish men, respectively, and 13% of Arab and Jewish women. Higher prevalence of ideal total-cholesterol corresponded to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Arabs. No participant met ideal levels for all 7 metrics and only 1.8% presented with 6. Accounting for age and lower socioeconomic status, Arabs were less likely to meet a greater number of metric goals (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.62 (0.42-0.92) for men, and 0.73 (0.48-1.12) for women). Ideal CVH, rare altogether, was less prevalent among the Arab minority albeit universal access to healthcare. Health behaviors were the main contributors to the CVH disparity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Travel time and participation in breast cancer screening in a region with high population dispersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Alfredo; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Blasco, Teresa; García-Gómez, Francisco J; de Andrés, Fuencisla

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the association between travel time and participation in a breast cancer screening program adjusted for contextual variables in the province of Segovia (Spain). We performed an ecological study using the following data sources: the Breast Cancer Early Detection Program of the Primary Care Management of Segovia, the Population and Housing Census for 2001 and the municipal register for 2006-2007. The study period comprised January 2006 to December 2007. Dependent variables consisted of the municipal participation rate and the desired level of municipal participation (greater than or equal to 70%). The key independent variable was travel time from the municipality to the mammography unit. Covariables consisted of the municipalities' demographic and socioeconomic factors. We performed univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses of the participation rate, and logistic regression of the desired participation level. The sample was composed of 178 municipalities. The mean participation rate was 75.2%. The desired level of participation (≥ 70%) was achieved in 119 municipalities (67%). In the multivariate Poisson and logistic regression analyses, longer travel time was associated with a lower participation rate and with lower participation after adjustment was made for geographic density, age, socioeconomic status and dependency ratio, with a relative risk index of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.81-0.96) and an odds ratio of 0.22 (95% CI: 0.1-0.47), respectively. Travel time to the mammography unit may help to explain participation in breast cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of the Altai region population exposure resulting from the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djachenko, V.I.; Gabbasov, M.N.; Laborev, V.M.; Markovtsev, A.S.; Sudakov, V.V.; Volobuyev, N.M.; Zelenov, V.I.; Lagutin, A.A.; Shoikher, J.N.

    1998-01-01

    The historical roots of reconstruction of doses received by populations from nuclear tests date back to the 60''s, when the world faced a problem of growing radioactive contamination by radioactive fallout resulting from atmospheric nuclear tests. Since then, only one aspect of this problem has been properly developed, namely: public-exposure doses resulting from the global radioactive fallout have been estimated. Local fallout, which occurred mainly in the territories of the test sites and regions adjacent to their boundaries, was considered and studied as an internal affair of the states. The first steps in creating the above-mentioned methodological basis were taken in Russia, where, by now, the methodology of dose estimation in regions of local radioactive fallout has been determined and acknowledged nationwide as a standard document (Federal Committee on Sanitay Epidemiological Control of RF, 1994). It was this methodology that was used for calculations and dose estimation of the exposure of the Altai population from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). (orig./GL)

  4. Source Population and Acceleration Location of Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filwett, R. J.; Desai, M. I. [University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dayeh, M. A.; Broiles, T. W. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We have analyzed the ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} suprathermal (ST) heavy ion abundances in 41 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) observed by the Wind spacecraft from 1995 January to 2008 December. Our results are: (1) the CIR Fe/CNO and NeS/CNO ratios vary with the sunspot number, with values being closer to average solar energetic particle event values during solar maxima and lower than nominal solar wind values during solar minima. The physical mechanism responsible for the depleted abundances during solar minimum remains an open question. (2) The Fe/CNO increases with energy in the 6 events that occurred during solar maximum, while no such trends are observed for the 35 events during solar minimum. (3) The Fe/CNO shows no correlation with the average solar wind speed. (4) The Fe/CNO is well correlated with the corresponding upstream ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO and not with the solar wind Fe/O measured by ACE in 31 events. Using the correlations between the upstream ∼20–40 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO and the ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO in CIRs, we estimate that, on average, the ST particles traveled ∼2 au along the nominal Parker spiral field line, which corresponds to upper limits for the radial distance of the source or acceleration location of ∼1 au beyond Earth orbit. Our results are consistent with those obtained from recent surveys, and confirm that CIR ST heavy ions are accelerated more locally, and are at odds with the traditional viewpoint that CIR ions seen at 1 au are bulk solar wind ions accelerated between 3 and 5 au.

  5. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  6. A Meta-analysis of Multiple Myeloma Risk Regions in African and European Ancestry Populations Identifies Putatively Functional Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kristin A; Song, Chi; Dean, Eric; Serie, Daniel J; Curtin, Karen; Sheng, Xin; Hu, Donglei; Huff, Carol Ann; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Tomasson, Michael H; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Singhal, Seema; Pawlish, Karen; Peters, Edward S; Bock, Cathryn H; Stram, Alex; Van Den Berg, David J; Edlund, Christopher K; Conti, David V; Zimmerman, Todd; Hwang, Amie E; Huntsman, Scott; Graff, John; Nooka, Ajay; Kong, Yinfei; Pregja, Silvana L; Berndt, Sonja I; Blot, William J; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chu, Lisa; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Lieber, Michael R; Goodman, Phyllis J; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hsing, Ann W; Mehta, Jayesh; Kittles, Rick A; Kolb, Suzanne; Klein, Eric A; Leske, Cristina; Murphy, Adam B; Nemesure, Barbara; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Strom, Sara S; Vij, Ravi; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Stanford, Janet L; Signorello, Lisa B; Witte, John S; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bhatti, Parveen; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah J; Bandera, Elisa V; Birmann, Brenda M; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Atanackovic, Djordje; Glenn, Martha J; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Jones, Brandt; Tricot, Guido; Martin, Thomas G; Kumar, Shaji K; Wolf, Jeffrey L; Deming Halverson, Sandra L; Rothman, Nathaniel; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chanock, Stephen J; Slager, Susan L; Severson, Richard K; Janakiraman, Nalini; Terebelo, Howard R; Brown, Elizabeth E; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Mohrbacher, Ann F; Colditz, Graham A; Giles, Graham G; Spinelli, John J; Chiu, Brian C; Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C; Levy, Joan; Zonder, Jeffrey A; Orlowski, Robert Z; Lonial, Sagar; Camp, Nicola J; Vachon, Celine M; Ziv, Elad; Stram, Daniel O; Hazelett, Dennis J; Haiman, Christopher A; Cozen, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European populations have identified genetic risk variants associated with multiple myeloma. We performed association testing of common variation in eight regions in 1,318 patients with multiple myeloma and 1,480 controls of European ancestry and 1,305 patients with multiple myeloma and 7,078 controls of African ancestry and conducted a meta-analysis to localize the signals, with epigenetic annotation used to predict functionality. We found that variants in 7p15.3, 17p11.2, 22q13.1 were statistically significantly (P ancestry and persons of European ancestry, and the variant in 3p22.1 was associated in European ancestry only. In a combined African ancestry-European ancestry meta-analysis, variation in five regions (2p23.3, 3p22.1, 7p15.3, 17p11.2, 22q13.1) was statistically significantly associated with multiple myeloma risk. In 3p22.1, the correlated variants clustered within the gene body of ULK4 Correlated variants in 7p15.3 clustered around an enhancer at the 3' end of the CDCA7L transcription termination site. A missense variant at 17p11.2 (rs34562254, Pro251Leu, OR, 1.32; P = 2.93 × 10 -7 ) in TNFRSF13B encodes a lymphocyte-specific protein in the TNF receptor family that interacts with the NF-κB pathway. SNPs correlated with the index signal in 22q13.1 cluster around the promoter and enhancer regions of CBX7 CONCLUSIONS: We found that reported multiple myeloma susceptibility regions contain risk variants important across populations, supporting the use of multiple racial/ethnic groups with different underlying genetic architecture to enhance the localization and identification of putatively functional alleles. A subset of reported risk loci for multiple myeloma has consistent effects across populations and is likely to be functional. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1609-18. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Bactericidal activity of M protein conserved region antibodies against group A streptococcal isolates from the Northern Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruksachatkunakorn Chulabhorn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most group A streptococcal (GAS vaccine strategies have focused on the surface M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. The amino-terminus of the M protein elicits antibodies, that are both opsonic and protective, but which are type specific. J14, a chimeric peptide that contains 14 amino acids from the M protein conserved C-region at the carboxy-terminus, offers the possibility of a vaccine which will elicit protective opsonic antibodies against multiple different GAS strains. In this study, we searched for J14 and J14-like sequences and the number of their repeats in the C-region of the M protein from GAS strains isolated from the Northern Thai population. Then, we examined the bactericidal activity of J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2 antisera against multiple Thai GAS strains. Results The emm genes of GAS isolates were sequenced and grouped as 14 different J14-types. The most diversity of J14-types was found in the C1-repeat. The J14.1 type was the major sequence in the C2 and C3-repeats. We have shown that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region peptides, J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2, commonly found in GAS isolates from the Northern Thai population, are able to kill GAS of multiple different emm types derived from an endemic area. The mean percent of bactericidal activities for all J14 and J14-like peptide antisera against GAS isolates were more than 70%. The mean percent of bactericidal activity was highest for J14 antisera followed by J14-R2, J14.1 and J14-R1 antisera. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region are able to kill multiple different strains of GAS isolated from the Northern Thai population. Therefore, the four conserved "J14" peptides have the potential to be used as GAS vaccine candidates to prevent streptococcal infections in an endemic area.

  8. Survey of awareness of diabetes mellitus among the Arar population, Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Aseel Menwer; Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah Mohamed; Alotaibi, Hanan Khalid; Alanazi, Khalid Ayed; Alotaibi, Banan Khalid; Alshammari, Sultan Majed; Alanazi, Saud Rteamy; Alhazmi, Meshari Dalaf; Alshammari, Yousef Talal; Alshammari, Zaid Qati

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of the Arar population with various aspects of diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Arar city, the capital of the Northern Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was carried out on Saudi nationals from different age groups that were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected by means of personal interview with the participants using a pre-designed questionnaire which was administered by the medical students for each diabetic patient. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15, using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. A total of 702 participants were interviewed, among them 201 (28.6%) males and 501 (71.4%) females, and most of them (77.8%) had high educational level, 10.4% were diabetics, 78.9% did not have regular checkup visits to the doctor and 58.5% did not perform any regular exercises, including walking, 60% thought that DM was due to partial or total decrease in insulin secretion and 12.4% thought that it was due to excess sweet eating. Additionally, 48.7% of the respondents thought that lack of exercise and obesity were the major risk factors of DM, 33.2% thought that it was a genetic disease. The majority (86.3) of the participants believed that the treatment of DM was a combination of healthy diet, exercise and medication and more than half (63.1%) said that weight loss and modification of life style were the most important preventive measures of DM. Regarding participants' knowledge about DM complications, 24.5% knew about retinopathy and loss of vision, 8.3% knew about retinopathy, loss of vision, low sensation and numbness in

  9. Images of the "Other" with "Alien" Ethnicity in the Conscience of Russian Population Living in Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Daria A.; Maximova, Svetlana G.; Noyanzina, Oksana E.; Maximov, Maxim B.; Avdeeva, Galina S.

    2016-01-01

    In the age of dense international relations, heightened by intensive migration flows and local ethnic identity strengthening, the study of social representations of ethnic "others" in public consciousness permit to fulfill the evaluation of the current interethnic situation in the country, explore the latent unconscious groundings for…

  10. The foot-health of people with diabetes in a regional Australian population: a prospective clinical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Byron M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited understanding of the foot-health of people with diabetes in Australian regional areas. The aim of this study was to document the foot-health of people with diabetes who attend publically funded podiatric services in a regional Australian population. Methods A three month prospective clinical audit was undertaken by the publically-funded podiatric services of a large regional area of Victoria, Australia. The primary variables of interest were the University of Texas (UT diabetic foot risk classification of each patient and the incidence of new foot ulceration during the study period. Age, gender, diabetes type, duration of diabetes and the podiatric service the patients attended were the other variables of interest. Results Five hundred and seventy six patients were seen during the three month period. Over 49% had a UT risk classification at a level at least peripheral neuropathy or more serious diabetes-related foot morbidity. Higher risk at baseline was associated with longer duration of diabetes (F = 31.7, p χ2 = 40.3, p 0.001 and type 1 diabetes (χ2 = 37.3, p 0.001. A prior history of foot pathology was the overwhelming predictor for incident ulceration during the time period (OR 8.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 18.2, p Conclusions The publically funded podiatric services of this large regional area of Australia deal with a disproportionally large number of people with diabetes at high risk of future diabetes-related foot complications. These findings may be useful in ensuring appropriate allocation of resources for future public health services involved in diabetic foot health service delivery in regional areas.

  11. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Echodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  12. Patient refusal for regional anesthesia in elderly orthopedic population: A cross-sectional survey at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Asma Abdus; Afshan, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in pain management techniques in the last decade have had a major impact on the practice of orthopedic surgeries, for example, total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Although there are a number of treatment options for postoperative pain, a gold standard has not been established. In our institution, both general anesthesia and regional anesthesia (RA), are being offered to the elderly orthopedic population but RA is not frequently accepted by elderly population. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of various reasons for refusal of RA in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries. A prospective study conducted over a period of 1 year, had 549 patients with ages above 60 years who underwent different types of elective orthopedic procedures 182 patients who refused RA were interviewed according to a structured questionnaire designed to assess the reasons of refusal. Most common reason for the refusal of RA was surgeon's choice (38.5%), whereas 20.3% of the patients were unaware about the RA. There was a significant association between female gender and refusing RA due to backache (17.2%) and fear of being awake during the operation (24.1%) respectively. This survey showed that the main reasons among elderly female population were the fear of remaining awake and backache. However, overall it was the surgeon's choice which made patients refuse RA, and the anesthesiologists were the main source of information.

  13. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  14. Examination of the health status of populations from depleted-uranium-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, Snezana; Petrovic, Dragana; Jovicic, Dubravka; Kovacevic, Radomir; Simic, Jadranko

    2004-01-01

    During the NATO air strikes on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in 1999, depleted-uranium ammunition was used on 112 locations, mainly Kosovo, in the south of Serbia, and one location in Montenegro. Blood samples of residents from depleted-uranium-contaminated areas were gathered and blood cell and chromosomal aberrations were analyzed. During the last 3 years blood samples from 21 residents of Kosovo (Strpce), from 29 residents from the south of Serbia (the Vranje and Bujanovac regions), and from 19 technical television workers from the site of Pljackovica, in the vicinity of Vranje, were collected. Blood samples from 33 residents of central Serbia and 46 occupational workers exposed to X-rays were used as controls. All subjects studied were without any clinical symptoms of disease. The examinations included general clinical assessment; urine samples for α-and γ-spectrometry analysis; complete blood counts; ratio-percentages of blood cells in stained (Giemsa) capillary smears, individual leukocyte line elements; morphological changes observed under a microscope; the presence of immature forms or blasts; and leukocyte enzyme activity [alkaline phosphatase leukocyte (APL)]. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in 200 peripheral blood lymphocytes in mitosis. An increased incidence of rogue cells and chromosomal aberrations was found in the blood of the residents of Vranje and Bujanovac, but this was below the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing irradiation. Blast cells were not found. Blood counts were decreased in only a few samples, while morphological changes of both nuclei and cytoplasm were marked in individuals in south and central Serbia. Enzymatic activity (as measured by the APL score) was decreased in samples with chromosomal aberrations and cyto-morphological changes in subjects from the south of Serbia. The contamination level measured by this examination was low. Because of

  15. Factors associated with non-attendance in a general practice super clinic population in regional Australia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan; Bradbury, Joanne; Avila, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Non-attendance at medical appointments is associated with increased patient morbidity and is a significant drain on health service resources. Australian studies have focused on secondary healthcare settings, screening, and interventions to reduce non-attendance. To explore factors associated with non-attendance in a regional primary care setting. A retrospective cohort of all patients with a scheduled appointment between October 2011 and October 2013 at a regional, primary care clinic providing medical and allied health services in a region of New South Wales (NSW) serving a large Aboriginal population (10.7 per cent). Using multivariate logistic regression, non-attendance was regressed on a range of covariates, including number of appointments per person, gender and ethnicity, and day of the week. The overall proportion of missed appointments was 7.6 per cent. Risk factors for non-attendance were day of the week [Mondays (8.1 per cent), Fridays (8.0 per cent), and Thursdays (7.9 per cent), (χ2(4)= 20.208, pattend (FTA) (95% CI: 11-28%)]; Aboriginality (OR=4.022, 95% CI: 3.263, 4.956), and female gender (OR=1.077; 95% CI 1.024, 1.132). There was a trend toward an interaction between gender and Aboriginality, with Aboriginal females being the group most likely to miss appointments (OR=1.272, 95% CI: 0.949, 1.705). This is the largest study of non-attendance in an Australian primary healthcare setting. While not a typical setting, the study had the advantage of a large, mixed population. The suggested high rates of non-attendance by Aboriginal females have potentially important policy implications.

  16. The Prevalence and Regional Variation of Major Depressive Disorder Among Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, Jesse A; Stone, David H; Goodney, Philip P; Nolan, Brian W; Stableford, Jennifer A; Brooke, Benjamin S; Powell, Richard J; Finn, Christine T

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence suggests an association between coronary artery disease and major depressive disorder (MDD). Data to support a similar association between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and MDD are more limited. This study examines the prevalence and regional variation of both PAD and MDD in a large contemporary patient sample. All Medicare claims, part A and B, from January 2009 until December 2011 were queried using diagnosis codes specific for a previously validated clinical algorithm for PAD and major depression. Codes for PAD included those specific to cerebrovascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and peripheral vascular disease. Peripheral arterial disease prevalence, major depression prevalence, and coprevalence rates were determined, respectively. Regional variation of both conditions was determined using zip code data to identify potential endemic areas of disease intensity for both diagnoses. Over the study interval, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of PAD remained relatively constant (3.0%-3.7%, n = 0.85-1.06 million in part A and 17.4%-17.5%, n = 4.82-4.93 million in part B), and MDD showed a similar trend (1.6%-2.7%, n = 0.46-0.79 million in part A and 6.1%-6.7%, n = 1.69-1.90 million in part B). The observed rate of MDD in those with an established diagnosis of PAD was 5-fold higher than those without PAD in part A claims (1.8-fold in part B claims). Moreover, there was a significant linear geographic correlation among patients with PAD and MDD (r = .54, P ≤ .01). This study documents a correlation between PAD and MDD and may, therefore, identify an at-risk population susceptible to inferior clinical outcomes. Significant regional variation exists in the prevalence of PAD and MDD, though there appear to be specific endemic regions notable for both disorders. Accordingly, health-care resource allocation toward endemic regions may help improve population health among this at-risk cohort. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. [Inversion polymorphism of the nonbiting midges Camptochironomus pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of the Lower Volga region and Central Caucasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polukonova, N V; Karmokov, M Kh; Shaternikov, A N

    2015-02-01

    The karyotype of Camptochironomus pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from five populations of the Lower Volga region and Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope) has been studied. In populations of S. pallidivittatus from the Central Caucasus, 11 banding sequences (BS) were found; one sequence, pal B10, was new to the species. In the Saratov population, 11 BS were also found, three of which were new for the species-pal A3, pal B11, and pal B12. The banding sequences detected for the first time have not yet been found in other parts of the habitat of this species and may be endemic to these regions. In the studied populations ofS. pallidivittatus, banding sequences were found that were nonstandard but fixed in the karyotype. This is indicative of some degree of chromosomal divergence. These banding sequences include pal A2.2 in arm A and pal B10.10 in arm B in the Central Caucasus region, as well as pal B2.2 and pal G2.2 in the Lower Volga region. Arms A, B, D, and G in the Central Caucasian populations and A, B, and D in the Saratov oblast were polymorphic. The composition of heterozygous sequences between populations from different regions coincided only in arm D (pal D 1.2). In arms A and B, the set of heterozygous BS was different: pal A1.2 and pal B1.10 sequences were found in the Central Caucasian populations, and pal A1.3 and B11.12 were found in Saratov oblast. The number of genotypic combinations of S. pallidivittatus was higher in the Central Caucasus region, whereas the number of zygotic combinations was higher in the Saratov population. The percentage of heterozygous larvae in the Central Caucasian populations varied from 20 to 80, whereas all individuals in the Saratov population had heterozygous inversions. Zygotic combinations of larvae in all the studied populations were different.

  18. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  19. Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-Esch, Emma M; Kadimpeul, Julbert; Sarr, Boubacar; Sane, Awa; Badji, Souleymane; Laye, Mass; Sillah, Ansumana; Burr, Sarah E; MacLeod, David; Last, Anna R; Holland, Martin J; Mabey, David C; Bailey, Robin L

    2017-07-26

    Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence of ≥10% in 1-9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1-9 year-olds falls 1% in all districts. With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.

  20. [Implementing population-based integrated care for a region: a work-in-progress report on the project "Gesundes Kinzigtal"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Helmut; Schmitt, Gwendolyn; Roth, Monika; Stunder, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    The regional integrated care model "Gesundes Kinzigtal" pursues the idea of integrated health care with special focus on increasing the health gain of the served population. Physicians (general practitioners) and psychotherapists, physiotherapists, hospitals, nursing services, non-profit associations, fitness centers, and health insurance companies work closely together with a regional management company and its programs on prevention and care coordination and enhancement. The 10 year-project is run by a company that was founded by the physician network "MQNK" and "OptiMedis AG", a corporation with public health background specialising in integrated health care. The aim of this project is to enhance prevention and quality of health care for a whole region in a sustainable way, and to decrease costs of care. The article describes the special funding model of the project, the engagement of patients, and the different health and prevention programmes. The programmes and projects are developed, implemented, and evaluated by multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M. Harding-Esch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF prevalence of ≥10% in 1–9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1–9 year-olds falls 1% in all districts. Conclusion With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.

  2. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is .... A typical Gaussian laser pulse of 100 fs dura- .... J range) – and finally it is compressed back to its .... bond-hardening, molecular orientation and reori-.

  3. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  4. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    and dense deployment in Tokyo are compared. Evolution to DenseNets offers new opportunities for further development of downlink interference cooperation techniques. Various mechanisms in LTE and LTE-Advanced are revisited. Some techniques try to anticipate the future in a proactive way, whereas others......The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges...... as an old acquaintance with new significance. As a matter of fact, the interference conditions and the role of aggressor and victim depend to a large extent on the density and the scenario. To illustrate this, downlink interference statistics for different 3GPP simulation scenarios and a more irregular...

  5. Skyrmions, dense matter and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    A simple introduction to a number of properties of Skyrme's chiral soliton model of baryons is given. Some implications of the model for dense matter and for nuclear interactions are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of the media coverage characteristics on radiation safety issues of the Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad region population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the quantity and quality of publications on radiation safety of the population in the media on the example of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region for the period of the first three-quarters of 2016. An analysis of publications in the media is an essential part of the work on the formation of an adequate perception of the radiation risk by the population. The Information and Analytical Centre of Rospotrebnadzor on radiation safety of the population developed a pilot computer-assisted system for the media publication analysis. The study was performed by this system as a development and improvement of the Center’s works applicable to the registration, storage, and analysis of qualitative and quantitative information contained in the publications. The author selected 27 mass-media sources for analysis: 8 newspapers (2 of them are located in Sosnoviy Bor; 8 TV-channels (4 – federal, 2 – regional, 2 – local in Sosnoviy Bor; 10 online media and the web-site of the Sosnoviy Bor administration. During the analyzed period, 1075 informational materials on issues of radiation safety were collected and added to the database. The largest number of publications were in the second quarter of 2016. The peak of publication activity on issues of radiation safety was registered in April. This fact is related to the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A significant part (over 50% of the publications were neutral in all media and in different types of media. A significant part of the publications is a brief informational note with the neutral nature of the character of the information. The number of materials with negative character of information among the publications on the subject of “radioactive waste” is more than 2 times larger than that for the publications on the subject of “nuclear energy”. The majority of publications belongs to the information genre. Analytical materials are a minor part

  7. Dynamic conductivity and partial ionization in dense fluid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghoo, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical description for optical conduction experiments in dense fluid hydrogen is presented. Different quantum statistical approaches are used to describe the mechanism of electronic transport in hydrogen's high-temperature dense phase. We show that at the onset of the metallic transition, optical conduction could be described by a strong rise in atomic polarizability, due to increased ionization, whereas in the highly degenerate limit, the Ziman weak scattering model better accounts for the observed saturation of reflectance. The inclusion of effects of partial ionization in the highly degenerate region provides great agreement with experimental results. Hydrogen's fluid metallic state is revealed to be a partially ionized free-electron plasma. Our results provide some of the first theoretical transport models that are experimentally benchmarked, as well as an important guide for future studies.

  8. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded

  9. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG THE WORKING POPULATION OF RYAZAN REGION (ACCORDING TO THE STUDY MERIDIAN-RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the levels of PA and its relationship with other risk factors among the working population of the Ryazan Region. Material and methods. The MERIDIAN­RO study was conducted as a prospective cohort with cross­sectional and retrospective study in­ cluded a sample of biochemical, ECG and a survey using a standardized questionnaire. The level of physical activity was assessed by ques­ tionnaire CINDI and then was revised by questionnaire IPAQ. In a study from 2011 it included 1,622 people (in 1220 – a city, 402 – village aged 25–64 years (mean age – 43,4 ± 11,4 years, of which 42.6 % were male, 53.8 % – female. Results. The level of low PA in the Ryazan Region, measured by questionnaire IPAQ was 22.9 % (24.3 % in urban and 18.4 % in rural areas, p = 0.014. With multinomial logistic regression were established association between the PA and the low presence of higher education (OR 3.63; 95 % CI 2,26–5,85, p = 0.0001, Wald 28.172, smoking (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1,01–1,72, p = 0.045, Wald 4,031 and elevated levels of Lp (a more than 30 mg/dl (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1,04–1,83, p = 0.024, Wald 5.119. It was also revealed a high demand for advice on improving the PA (74.5 %. Conclusion. The low level of PA in the Ryazan Region, as measured by the IPAQ questionnaire was 22.9 % (24.3 % in urban and 18.4 % in rural areas, p = 0.014, which is lower than Russian average. High demand for advice on improving the FA and created conditions for in­ creasing its level in the region indicate the need to intensify work among the population in this area. 

  10. Memory-efficient analysis of dense functional connectomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Loewe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software are compared with regard to their computational efficiency in terms of memory requirements and computation time. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements thus enabling

  11. Memory-Efficient Analysis of Dense Functional Connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Kristian; Donohue, Sarah E; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Kruse, Rudolf; Borgelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software) are compared with regard to their computational efficiency. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements, thus enabling analyses that would be otherwise infeasible to conduct due to

  12. Predictors of childhood severe malaria in a densely populated area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coma, convulsions and unconsciousness were more indicative of cerebral malaria. Hemoglobin and blood glucose levels decreased significantly in severe malaria patients compared with uncomplicated malaria patients or controls (P < 0.001). On the contrary, blood transaminases and CRP levels increased significantly in ...

  13. Distributions of soil phosphorus in China's densely populated village landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaguo Jiao; Erle C. Ellis; Ian Yesilonis; Junxi Wu; Hongqing Wang; Huixin Li; Linzhang. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Village landscapes, which integrate small-scale agriculture with housing, forestry and a host of other land use practices, cover more than 2x106 km2 across China. Village lands tend to be managed at very fine spatial scales (≤30 m), with managers altering soil fertility and even terrain by terracing,...

  14. going children in a densely populated township in Lilongwe, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetened beverages among children in a Lilongwe township 55 ... help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. Aim ... of the key factors associated with overweight and obesity. ... caregivers had given verbal consent to participate in the study ..... Impaired parent-reported health-related quality of life of.

  15. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R.P.; Blom, M.J.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC).

  16. Railway station structures designed for densely populated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vákár, L.I.; Snijder, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the interest in public transit increased because of its contribution in solving the problem in mobility. This resulted in a worldwide need for building new railway stations and expanding existing ones. A railway station forms no longer a building on its own, but part of a larger complex.

  17. Regional target program «Veteran’ eyesight» as a component of native system of social protection for population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Rozhko

    2014-06-01

    System of social protection for population in Ukraine is focused on provision of wide facilities for participation of the most vulnerable people, in particular, invalids, in social-economical and political life of society, realization of their intellectual and physical potential, creation of conditions for their normal vital activity. By this reason, public and local government authorities work out correspondent social protection programs. Program «Veteran’ Eyesight» is considered to be a novel one by its nature among such programs, during period of independence. Public authorities’ initiative was realized at the regional level for the first time in Ukraine; it dealt with conduction of address examination, diagnostics, and provision of invalids and veterans of the Great Patriotic War with remedies for eyesight correction by financial support from state budget. Principles of public administration were applied during «Veteran’ Eyesight» program realization for maximization of social effect.

  18. 16. Hot dense plasma atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Dappen; Totsuji, H.; Nishii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers 13 articles whose common feature is to deal with atomic processes in hot plasmas. Density functional molecular dynamics method is applied to the hydrogen plasma in the domain of liquid metallic hydrogen. The effects of the density gradient are taken into account in both the electronic kinetic energy and the exchange energy and it is shown that they almost cancel with each other, extending the applicability of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation to the cases where the density gradient is not negligible. Another article reports about space and time resolved M-shell X-ray measurements of a laser-produced gas jet xenon plasma. Plasma parameters have been measured by ion acoustic and electron plasma waves Thomson scattering. Photo-ionization becomes a dominant atomic process when the density and the temperature of plasmas are relatively low and when the plasma is submitted to intense external radiation. It is shown that 2 plasmas which have a very different density but have the same ionization parameters, are found in a similar ionization state. Most radiation hydrodynamics codes use radiative opacity data from available libraries of atomic data. Several articles are focused on the determination of one group Rosseland and Planck mean analytical formulas for several single elements used in inertial fusion targets. In another paper the plasma density effect on population densities, effective ionization, recombination rate coefficients and on emission lines from carbon and Al ions in hot dense plasma, is studied. The last article is devoted to a new atomic model in plasmas that considers the occupation probability of the bound state and free state density in the presence of the plasma micro-field. (A.C.)

  19. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-10

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  20. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  1. Temporal Fluctuation in North East Baltic Sea Region Cattle Population Revealed by Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Harjula, Janne; Nyström Edmark, Veronica; Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Sajantila, Antti; Lidén, Kerstin; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies. Results Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples), Medieval (14), and Post-Medieval (26) periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes) genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples) with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples) revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples) was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples). Conclusions The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle. PMID:25992976

  2. Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conn Jan E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. Methods This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure is a useful tool to guide malaria control programmes. Analyses were based on mtDNA COI gene sequences and four microsatellite loci of individuals collected in eight populations from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia. Results Two distinctive groups were consistently detected corresponding to COI haplotypes from each region. A star-shaped statistical parsimony network, significant and unimodal mismatch distribution, and significant negative neutrality tests together suggest a past demographic expansion or a selective sweep in An. albimanus from the Caribbean coast approximately 21,994 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Overall moderate to low genetic differentiation was observed between populations within each region. However, a significant level of differentiation among the populations closer to Buenaventura in the Pacific region was observed. The isolation by distance model best explained genetic differentiation among the Caribbean region localities: Los Achiotes, Santa Rosa de Lima and Moñitos, but it could not explain the genetic differentiation observed between Turbo (Magdalena providence, and the Pacific region localities (Nuquí, Buenaventura, Tumaco. The patterns of differentiation in the populations from the different biogeographic provinces could not be entirely attributed to isolation by distance. Conclusion The data provide evidence for limited past gene flow between the Caribbean and the Pacific regions, as estimated by mtDNA sequences and current gene

  3. Detection of selection signatures of population-specific genomic regions selected during domestication process in Jinhua pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengcao; Chen, Jiucheng; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun; Wang, Qishan; Xu, Ningying; Wang, Zhengguang

    2016-12-01

    Chinese pigs have been undergoing both natural and artificial selection for thousands of years. Jinhua pigs are of great importance, as they can be a valuable model for exploring the genetic mechanisms linked to meat quality and other traits such as disease resistance, reproduction and production. The purpose of this study was to identify distinctive footprints of selection between Jinhua pigs and other breeds utilizing genome-wide SNP data. Genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing was implemented in order to perform cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity to reveal strong signatures of selection for those economically important traits. This work was performed at a 2% genome level, which comprised 152 006 SNPs genotyped in a total of 517 individuals. Population-specific footprints of selective sweeps were searched for in the genome of Jinhua pigs using six native breeds and three European breeds as reference groups. Several candidate genes associated with meat quality, health and reproduction, such as GH1, CRHR2, TRAF4 and CCK, were found to be overlapping with the significantly positive outliers. Additionally, the results revealed that some genomic regions associated with meat quality, immune response and reproduction in Jinhua pigs have evolved directionally under domestication and subsequent selections. The identified genes and biological pathways in Jinhua pigs showed different selection patterns in comparison with the Chinese and European breeds. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection among urban, jungle, and rural populations in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C G; Phillips, I A; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W F; Hyams, K C; Wu, S J; Watts, D M

    1996-10-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic, environmental, and medical history factors were collected from volunteers in an urban sector of Iquitos, in a rural area on the outskirts of Iquitos, and in three nearby jungle communities. A follow-up blood specimen was obtained approximately one year later from a sample of subjects. Sera were tested for dengue IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and specificity was verified using a plaque-reduction neutralization test. Dengue antibody prevalence was 66% in the urban population, 26% in the rural population, and 32-67% in the three jungle areas. A significant association was found between age and antibody prevalence, with a steady increase in prevalence from 18% among subjects less than five years of age to greater than 90% for subjects more than 50 years old. Increased antibody prevalence also was associated with urban and jungle residence and with a piped source of household drinking water. Seroconversions were documented in four of five surveyed communities. These results indicate that dengue virus transmission continues in and around Iquitos and suggest that transmission also occurred prior to the 1990 epidemic.

  5. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  6. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  7. Changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.

    2017-11-01

    Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective ava