WorldWideScience

Sample records for dense otm bars

  1. Dense Cloud Formation and Star Formation in a Barred Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Nimori, M; Sorai, K; Watanabe, Y; Hirota, A; Namekata, D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2Mass data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr an isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than $10^4M_{\\odot}$ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the i...

  2. Effect of austempering parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of horizontal continuous casting ductile iron dense bars

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-jie Xu; Pan Dai; Zheng-yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, the orthogonal experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of different austempering process parameters (i.e. austenitizing temperature and time, and austempering temperature and time) on microstructure and mechanical properties of LZQT500-7 ductile iron dense bars with 172 mm in diameter which were produced by horizontal continuous casting (HCC). The results show that the major factors influencing the hardness of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are austeni...

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase in dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes of monkey kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, S; Hashimoto, T

    1995-07-01

    Localization of the B of L-alpha hydroxyacid oxidase (HOX-B) in monkey kidney peroxisomes was investigated by immunoelectron microscopic techniques. Kidneys of Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata, were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde + 0.25% glutaraldehyde and embedded in LR White resin. Thin sections were stained for HOX-B and catalase by the immunogold technique. HOX-B was localized in the marginal plates of normal peroxisomes and the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. Catalase was detected in the matrix of normal peroxisomes and in the terminal dilatations of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. There were no gold particles indicating presence of catalase associated with the marginal plates or with the dense bars. Immunoblot analysis of monkey kidney homogenate showed that HOX-B has a molecular mass of 42 kDa that was slightly larger than that of rat kidney HOX-B (39 kDa). The results show that the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes in monkey kidney is composed of at least HOX-B and is a variation of the marginal plates.

  4. Effect of austempering parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of horizontal continuous casting ductile iron dense bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-jie Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the orthogonal experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of different austempering process parameters (i.e. austenitizing temperature and time, and austempering temperature and time on microstructure and mechanical properties of LZQT500-7 ductile iron dense bars with 172 mm in diameter which were produced by horizontal continuous casting (HCC. The results show that the major factors influencing the hardness of austempered ductile iron (ADI are austenitizing temperature and austempering temperature. The fraction of retained austenite increases as the austenitizing and austempering temperatures increase. When austenitizing temperature is low, acicular ferrite and retained austenite can be efficiently obtained by appropriately extending the austenitizing time. The proper austmepering time could ensure enough stability of retained austenite and prevent high carbon austenite decomposition. The optimal mechanical properties of ADI can be achieved with the following process parameters: austenitizing temperature and time are 866 °C and 135 min, and austempering temperature and time are 279 °C and 135 min, respectively. The microstructure of ADI under the optimal austempering process consists of fine acicular ferrite and a small amount of retained austenite, and the hardness, tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and impact toughness of the bars are HBW 476, 1670 MPa, 1428 MPa, 2.93% and 25.7 J, respectively.

  5. A nutrient-dense, high fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-week trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake modulates disease risk, but little is known as to how components within food mixtures affect pathophysiology. Here, a low-calorie, high-fiber, fruit-based nutrient-dense bar of defined composition (e.g., vitamins/minerals, fruit polyphenolics, B-glucan, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) app...

  6. Compact 35μm fiber coupled diode laser module based on dense wavelength division multiplexing of NBA mini-bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Di Meo, A.; Hamann, M.; Rubel, D.; Hengesbach, S.; Hoffmann, D.

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact, modular and cross talk free approach for dense wavelength division multiplexing of high power diode lasers based on ultra-steep dielectric filters. The mini bars consist of 5 narrow stripe broad area emitters with a beam parameter product in the range of 2 mm mrad and a wavelength spacing of 2.5 nm between 2 adjacent emitters. Experimental results for fiber coupling (35 μm core diameter, NA < 0.2) of internally and externally stabilized diode lasers are presented. Optical losses are analyzed and alternative optical designs to overcome the current limitations of the setup are discussed.

  7. UGS, UGV, and MAV in the 2007 C4ISR OTM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    UGS, UGV, and MAV in the 2007 C4ISR OTM Experiment by Timothy G. Gregory, Jesse B. Kovach , Robert P. Winkler, and Christopher H. Winslow...20783-1197 ARL-TR-4419 April 2008 UGS, UGV, and MAV in the 2007 C4ISR OTM Experiment Timothy G. Gregory, Jesse B. Kovach , Robert P...AUTHOR(S) Timothy G. Gregory, Jesse B. Kovach , Robert P. Winkler, and Christopher H. Winslow 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  8. DOE-OTM Tribology Program; Quarterly progress report, January 1991--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. A.; Michaels, A. I. [eds.

    1991-07-01

    The OTM Tribology Program supports generic, long-term, high-risk applied research and exploratory development which private enterprise will not or cannot pursue, in areas pertaining to energy conservation in the transportation sector. This report presents work in the three areas of the tribology program: extreme environment lubrication, engineered tribological interfaces, and tribology by design.

  9. The Potential Use of Pharmacological Agents to Modulate Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouskoura, Thaleia; Katsaros, Christos; von Gunten, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    The biological processes that come into play during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) have been shown to be influenced by a variety of pharmacological agents. The effects of such agents are of particular relevance to the clinician as the rate of tooth movement can be accelerated or reduced as a result. This review aims to provide an overview of recent insights into drug-mediated effects and the potential use of drugs to influence the rate of tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. The limitations of current experimental models and the need for well-designed clinical and pre-clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:28228735

  10. BEIJING BARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cappuccino Bar Cappuccino Bar, at the intersection of Dongzhimenwai Dajie and Sanlitun Beijie, Beijing's most vibrant nightlife area, is a hot new destination for European food lovers. With its perfect combination of both energy and tranquility, and surrounded by diplomatic compounds, it is conveniently located near other Beijing destinations including Lady Street

  11. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF OTM SYNGAS PROCESS AND TESTING OF SYNGAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Ravi Prasad

    2001-10-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1 through September 15, 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1--materials development; Task 2--composite element development; Task 3--tube fabrication; Task 4--reactor design and process optimization; Task 5--catalyst development; Task 6--P-1 operation; Task 8--fuels and engine testing; and Task 10--project management. OTM benchmark material, LCM1, exceeds the commercial oxygen flux target and was determined to be sufficiently robust to carry on process development activities. Work will continue on second-generation OTM materials that will satisfy commercial life targets. Three fabrication techniques for composite elements were determined to be technically feasible. These techniques will be studied and a lead manufacturing process for both small and large-scale elements will be selected in the next Budget Period. Experiments in six P-0 reactors, the long tube tester (LTT) and the P-1 pilot plant were conducted. Significant progress in process optimization was made through both the experimental program and modeling studies of alternate reactor designs and process configurations. Three tailored catalyst candidates for use in OTM process reactors were identified. Fuels for the International diesel engine and Nuvera fuel cell tests were ordered and delivered. Fuels testing and engine development work is now underway.

  13. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  14. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  15. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  16. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  17. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  18. Dense topological spaces and dense continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwoah, Khaled A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several attempts to generalize (or "widen") the concept of topological space. This paper uses equivalence relations to generalize the concept of topological space via the concept of equivalence relations. By the generalization, we can introduce from particular topology on a nonempty set X many new topologies, we call anyone of these new topologies a dense topology. In addition, we formulate some simple properties of dense topologies and study suitable generalizations of the concepts of limit points, closeness and continuity, as well as Jackson, Nörlund and Hahn dense topologies.

  19. Observation of B0bar --> D0 K0bar and B0bar --> D0 K*0bar decays

    CERN Document Server

    Krokovnyi, P P

    2003-01-01

    We report on a search for B0bar --> D0 K(*)0bar decays based on 85 10^6 BBar events collected with the Belle detector at KEKB. The B0bar --> D0 K0bar and B0bar --> D0 K*0bar decays have been observed for the first time with the branching fractions Br(B0bar --> D0 K0bar) = (5.0^{+1.3}_{-1.2}+- 0.6) 10^{-5} and Br(B0bar --> D0 K*0bar) = (4.8^{+1.1}_{-1.0}+- 0.5) 10^{-5}. No significant signal has been found for the B0bar --> D*0 K(*)0bar and B0bar --> D(*)0bar K*0bar decay modes, and upper limits at 90% CL are presented.

  20. The four bars problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauroy, Alexandre; Taslakian, Perouz; Langerman, Stefan; Jungers, Raphaël

    2016-09-01

    A four-bar linkage is a mechanism consisting of four rigid bars which are joined by their endpoints in a polygonal chain and which can rotate freely at the joints (or vertices). We assume that the linkage lies in the 2-dimensional plane so that one of the bars is held horizontally fixed. In this paper we consider the problem of reconfiguring a four-bar linkage using an operation called a pop. Given a four-bar linkage, a pop reflects a vertex across the line defined by its two adjacent vertices along the polygonal chain. Our main result shows that for certain conditions on the lengths of the bars, the neighborhood of any configuration that can be reached by smooth motion can also be reached by pops. The proof relies on the fact that pops are described by a map on the circle with an irrational number of rotation.

  1. Bar and Theta Hyperoperations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vougiouklis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In questionnaires the replacement of the scale of Likert by a bar was suggested in 2008 by Vougiouklis & Vougiouklis. The use of the bar was rapidly accepted in social sciences. The bar is closely related with fuzzy theory and has several advantages during both the filling-in questionnaires and mainly in the research processing. In this paper we relate hyperstructure theory with questionnaires and we study the obtained hyperstructures which are used as an organising device of the problem.

  2. Dense with Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ingkanisorn, W. Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-09-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a low encoding strength phase-cycled meta-DENSE readout and a two fold SENSE acceleration ( R = 2) is described. This combination reduces total breath-hold times for increased patient comfort during cardiac regional myocardial contractility studies. Images from phantoms, normal volunteers, and a patient are provided to demonstrate the SENSE-DENSE combination of methods. The overall breath-hold time is halved while preserving strain map quality.

  3. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their winter

  4. Short Nuss bar procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Hans Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years...

  5. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  6. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  7. Adolescent Student Use of School-Based Salad Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; Harris, Diane M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school…

  8. Sports Season, Sports Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For foreigners in Beijing, the sports bar is a special place, a place to gather for watching matches and a place to feel the familiarity of home, while for some sports enthusiasts it serves as their second home.

  9. Short Nuss bar procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  10. HCN(1-0) enhancement in the bar of NGC 2903

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Lee, S W; Flaquer, B Ocana

    2008-01-01

    We have mapped the \\hcn emission from two spiral galaxies, NGC2903 and NGC3504 to study the gas properties in the bars. The HCN(1-0) emission is detected in the center and along the bar of NGC2903. The line ratio HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) ranges from 0.07 to 0.12 with the lowest value in the center. The enhancement of HCN(1-0) emission along the bar indicates a higher fraction of dense molecular gas in the bar than at the center. The mass of dense molecular gas in the center (2.2x 10^7 Msun) is about 6 times lower than that in the bar (1.2x 10^8 Msun). The total star formation rate (SFR) is estimated to be 1.4 Msun/yr, where the SFR at the center is 1.9 times higher than that in the bar. The time scale of consumption of the dense molecular gas in the center is about 3x 10^7 yr which is much shorter than that in the bar of about 2 to 10 x 10^8 yr. The dynamical time scale of inflow of the gas from the bar to the center is shorter than the consumption time scale in the bar, which suggests that the star formation (SF) ac...

  11. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness they are no......Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness...... they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  12. Error bars in experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Geoff; Fidler, Fiona; Vaux, David L

    2007-04-09

    Error bars commonly appear in figures in publications, but experimental biologists are often unsure how they should be used and interpreted. In this article we illustrate some basic features of error bars and explain how they can help communicate data and assist correct interpretation. Error bars may show confidence intervals, standard errors, standard deviations, or other quantities. Different types of error bars give quite different information, and so figure legends must make clear what error bars represent. We suggest eight simple rules to assist with effective use and interpretation of error bars.

  13. Gaseous Structures in Barred Galaxies: Effects of the Bar Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-01-01

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass fbar relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio. We derive expressions as functions of fbar and the aspect ratio for the bar strength Qb and the radius r(Qb) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have fbar=0.25-0.5 and n0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  14. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  15. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  16. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  17. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  18. Raising the bar (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we summarise and comment on the papers published in issue 11.2 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper analyses which regions in Europe were resilient to the great Recession and which ones were not. The second and the th

  19. Near Infrared Spectra of the Orion Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Marconi, A; Natta, A; Walmsley, C M; Spazio, D A S; Firenze, U; Arcetri, O A

    1997-01-01

    We have used the LONGSP spectrometer on the 1.5-m TIRGO telescope to obtain long slit spectra in the J, H, and K wavelength bands towards two positions along the Orion bar. These data have been supplemented with images made using the ARNICA camera mounted on TIRGO as well as with an ESO NTT observation carried out by Dr A. Moorwood. We detect a variety of transitions of hydrogen, helium, OI, FeII, FeIII, and H_2 . From our molecular hydrogen data, we conclude that densities are moderate (3-6 10^4 cm^-3) in the layer responsible for the molecular hydrogen emission and give no evidence for the presence of dense neutral clumps. We also find that the molecular hydrogen bar is likely to be tilted by ~10 degrees relative to the line of sight. We discuss the relative merits of several models of the structure of the bar and conclude that it may be split into two structures separated by 0.2-0.3 parsec along the line of sight. It also seems likely to us that in both structures, density increases along a line perpendicu...

  20. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new

  1. Error bars in experimental biology

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Error bars commonly appear in figures in publications, but experimental biologists are often unsure how they should be used and interpreted. In this article we illustrate some basic features of error bars and explain how they can help communicate data and assist correct interpretation. Error bars may show confidence intervals, standard errors, standard deviations, or other quantities. Different types of error bars give quite different information, and so figure legends must make clear what er...

  2. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, Volker

    2012-06-05

    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  3. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, net offshore bar migration is a common occurrence on many multiple-barred beaches. The first stage of the process involves the generation of a longshore bar close to the shoreline that oscillates about a mean position for some time, followed by a stage of net offshore migration across...

  4. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  5. Dark Matter Trapping by Stellar Bars: The Shadow Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Michael S; Katz, Neal

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of three over the naive dynamical friction prediction, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nat...

  6. Dark matter trapping by stellar bars: the shadow bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of 3 over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  7. The bar instability revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodi, Filippo; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated. The analysis therefore reveals the fundamental importance of the relaxation of sediment transport towards equilibrium as it it is responsible for the stabilisation of small wavelength modes. This dynamical mechanism is characterised by the saturation number, defined as the ratio of the saturation length to the water depth Lsat/H. This dimensionless number controls the transition from ripples (transverse patte...

  8. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  9. Breaking through the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

  10. Strained graphene Hall bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, S. P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of strain, induced by a Gaussian bump, on the magnetic field dependent transport properties of a graphene Hall bar are investigated. The numerical simulations are performed using both classical and quantum mechanical transport theory and we found that both approaches exhibit similar characteristic features. The effects of the Gaussian bump are manifested by a decrease of the bend resistance, R B, around zero-magnetic field and the occurrence of side-peaks in R B. These features are explained as a consequence of bump-assisted scattering of electrons towards different terminals of the Hall bar. Using these features we are able to give an estimate of the size of the bump. Additional oscillations in R B are found in the quantum description that are due to the population/depopulation of Landau levels. The bump has a minor influence on the Hall resistance even for very high values of the pseudo-magnetic field. When the bump is placed outside the center of the Hall bar valley polarized electrons can be collected in the leads.

  11. Environmental regulation of cloud and star formation in galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, F; Emsellem, E; Agertz, O; Athanassoula, E; Combes, F; Elmegreen, B; Kraljic, K; Motte, F; Teyssier, R

    2015-01-01

    The strong time-dependence of the dynamics of galactic bars yields a complex and rapidly evolving distribution of dense gas and star forming regions. Although bars mainly host regions void of any star formation activity, their extremities can gather the physical conditions for the formation of molecular complexes and mini-starbursts. Using a sub-parsec resolution hydrodynamical simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy, we probe these conditions to explore how and where bar (hydro-)dynamics favours the formation or destruction of molecular clouds and stars. The interplay between the kpc-scale dynamics (gas flows, shear) and the parsec-scale (turbulence) is key to this problem. We find a strong dichotomy between the leading and trailing sides of the bar, in term of cloud fragmentation and in the age distribution of the young stars. After orbiting along the bar edge, these young structures slow down at the extremities of the bar, where orbital crowding increases the probability of cloud-cloud collision. We find tha...

  12. Barred Galaxies: an Observer's Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri A

    2008-01-01

    I review both well established and more recent findings on the properties of bars, and their host galaxies, stemming from photometric and spectroscopic observations, and discuss how these findings can be understood in terms of a global picture of the formation and evolution of bars, keeping a connection with theoretical developments. In particular, I show the results of a detailed structural analysis of ~ 300 barred galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, providing physical quantities, such as bar length, ellipticity and boxyness, and bar-to-total luminosity ratio, that can either be used as a solid basis on which realistic models can be built, or be compared against more fundamental theoretical results. I also show correlations that indicate that bars grow longer, thinner and stronger with dynamical age, and that the growth of bars and bulges is connected. Finally, I briefly discuss open questions and possible directions for future research.

  13. Quark nuggets search using gravitational waves aluminum bar detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronga Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no evidence of supersymmetric WIMPS dark matter. This may suggests to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets. Nuclearites are an example of compact objects that could be constituent of the dark matter. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER is reported.

  14. Warm dense crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  15. Dense Suspension Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  16. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  17. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  18. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  19. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  20. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  1. The decays \\bar{B}->\\bar{K}D and \\bar{B}-> \\bar{K}\\bar{D} and final state interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin, A

    2001-01-01

    The decays \\bar{B}-> \\bar{K}D and \\bar{B}-> \\bar{K}\\bar{D} taking into account final state interactions are discussed. These decays are described by four strong phases \\delta_0,\\delta_1,\\bar{\\delta}_0,\\bar{\\delta}_1 (subscripts 0 and 1 refers to I=0 and I=1 final states), one weak phase \\gamma and four real amplitudes. It is argued that strong interaction dynamics implies \\bar{\\delta}_1=0,\\delta_0=-\\delta_1. Rescattering has significant effects on weak amplitudes. Taking into account, rescattering, we find that direct CP--violating asymmetry in these decays may lie in the range \\mp 0.023\\sin \\gamma \\leq \\QTR{cal}{A}_{1,2}\\leq \\mp 0.086\\sin \\gamma.

  2. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  3. Galactic Bar/Spiral Arm Interactions in NGC3627

    CERN Document Server

    Beuther, H; Schinnerer, E; Paladino, R; Leroy, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To gain insight into the expected gas dynamics at the interface of the Galactic bar and spiral arms in our own Milky Way galaxy, we examine as an extragalactic counterpart the evidence for multiple distinct velocity components in the cold, dense molecular gas populating a comparable region at the end of the bar in the nearby galaxy NGC3627. Methods: We assemble a high resolution view of molecular gas kinematics traced by CO(2-1) emission and extract line-of-sight velocity profiles from regions of high and low gas velocity dispersion. Results: The high velocity dispersions arise with often double-peaked or multiple line-profiles. We compare the centroids of the different velocity components to expectations based on orbital dynamics in the presence of bar and spiral potential perturbations. A model of the region as the interface of two gas-populated orbits families supporting the bar and the independently rotating spiral arms provides an overall good match to the data. An extent of the bar to the corotati...

  4. Star Formation Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun; Lee, Gwang-Ho; Park, Changbom; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2017-08-01

    We study the star formation activity of nearby galaxies with bars using a sample of late-type galaxies at 0.02≤slant z≤slant 0.05489 and {M}rmass and redshift distributions similar to barred galaxies. We find that the star formation activity of strongly barred galaxies probed by starburstiness, g-r, {NUV}-r, and mid-infrared [3.4]-[12] colors is, on average, lower than that of non-barred galaxies. However, weakly barred galaxies do not show such a difference between barred and non-barred galaxies. The amounts of atomic and molecular gas in strongly barred galaxies are smaller than those in non-barred galaxies, and the gas metallicity is higher in strongly barred galaxies than in non-barred galaxies. The gas properties of weakly barred galaxies again show no difference from those of non-barred galaxies. We stack the optical spectra of barred and non-barred galaxies in several mass bins and fit to the stacked spectra with a spectral fitting code, STARLIGHT. We find no significant difference in stellar populations between barred and non-barred galaxies for both strongly and weakly barred galaxies. Our results are consistent with the idea that the star formation activity of barred galaxies was enhanced in the past along with significant gas consumption, and is currently lower than or similar to that of non-barred galaxies. The past star formation enhancement depends on the strength of bars.

  5. Bars in Cuspy Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, John; Shlosman, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    We examine the bar instability in models with an exponential disk and a cuspy NFW-like dark matter (DM) halo inspired by cosmological simulations. Bar evolution is studied as a function of numerical resolution in a sequence of models spanning 10K to 100M DM particles - including a multi-mass model with an effective resolution of 10G. The goal is to find convergence in dynamical behaviour. We characterize the bar growth, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through resonant transfer of angular momentum, and possible destruction of the DM halo cusp. Overall, most characteristics converge in behaviour in detail for halos containing more than 10M particles. Notably, the formation of the bar does not destroy the density cusp in this case. These higher resolution simulations clearly illustrate the importance of discrete resonances in transporting angular momentum from the bar to the halo.

  6. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

  7. Conductive dense hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  8. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.

  9. Bar Coliseo, en Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This bar is situated inside the «Coliseo» building, which houses a cinema, as well as a number of commercial establishments. In order not to break the unity of the total project, no attempt has been made to alter the exterior aspect of the bar. No attempt was made, either, to make it into an intimate, club type of bar, now so much in fashion. Rather has it been given a diaphanous style, seeking the best possible use of the floor space. The windows of the building are elongated, and there is an intermediate floor level, whose detailed structure is metallic. A cleverly designed staircase, of folded sheet metal connects the ground floor, the intermediate floor level and the restaurant. Materials were carefully chosen in accordance with their function. The colour scheme has a sustained unity throughout the building, and care has been taken to avoid surprising or vivid chromatic patterns. Ceramic enamels by the painter Santiago del Campo provide a feature of decoration on the ground floor, and also serve to cover up the return air ducts. On the top floor, the restaurant is fitted with coloured tile facings, the work of the Seville painters Maria Josefa Sánchez, María Dolores Sánchez and Emilio García Ortiz. The bottom joints of the timber beams, in conjunction with the tile patterns, is reminiscent of the traditional Sevillian habit of placing ceramic units between the timber framework of buildings. The initial problem of the architect was to combine the optimum functional efficiency and aesthetic quality of the project, and the final solution is undoubtedly successful.El establecimiento está situado dentro del edificio «Coliseo», complejo formado por una sala de cine, y con la parte lateral destinada a locales comerciales. Formando un conjunto único no se pensó nunca en transformar los revestimientos y molduras de fachada. Tampoco presidió la idea de conseguir un establecimiento íntimo «tipo Club», tan en boga actualmente, sino un

  10. Heavy mesons in dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; LlanesEstrada, FJ; Pelaez,

    2011-01-01

    Charmed mesons in dense matter are studied within a unitary coupled-channel approach which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense medium, and discuss their implications on hidden c

  11. Repairing and strengthening a fractured Hader bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, D B

    1997-01-01

    Stresses from occlusion and metal fatigue over time can cause fracture of overdenture retention bars. Often failure of the bar necessitates the removal and remake of the bar. This may damage the abutment, especially if there are dowel posts involved. This article describes a method for reinforcing the existing bar without having to remove the bar or significantly alter the overdenture. The fractured bar can be prepared in the mouth to receive a reinforcing superstructure that will be cemented.

  12. Determining the type of orbits in the central regions of barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple dynamical model which consists of a harmonic oscillator and a spherical component, in order to investigate the regular or chaotic character of orbits in a barred galaxy with a central spherically symmetric nucleus. Our aim is to explore how the basic parameters of the galactic system influence the nature of orbits, by computing in each case the percentage of chaotic orbits, as well as the percentages of different types of regular orbits. We also give emphasis to the types of regular orbits that support either the formation of nuclear rings or the barred structure of the galaxy. We provide evidence that the traditional x1 orbital family does not always dominate in barred galaxy models since we found several other types of resonant orbits which can also support the barred structure. We also found that sparse enough nuclei, fast rotating bars and high energy models can support the galactic bars. On the other hand, weak bars, dense central nuclei, slowly rotating bars and low energy models favor t...

  13. Nanoporosity of Si (100) bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.; Minaev, V. S.; Goryunova, E. P.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    Si(100) samples cut from a typical bar (100 mm in diameter) prepared using industrial technology are studied. Measurements of the electron work function (EWF) show that the size effects in these samples (a reduction in thickness along with a sample's area and the EWF) detected earlier were due to nanostructure porosity that was buried by the technological treatment of a bar's surface. This hidden nanoporosity is assumed to be a manifestation of the secondary crystal structure.

  14. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kan; Wu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ tetraquark states and estimated their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states $cc\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$ and $bb\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ and the hidden exotic states $cc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, $cb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, and $bb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$. If a state around the estimated mass region could be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark is favored. The strong decay patterns shown here will be helpful to the experimental search for these exotic states.

  15. Bar Dissolution in Prolate Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Ideta, M; Ideta, Makoto; Hozumi, Shunsuke

    2000-01-01

    The time evolution of barred structures is examined under the influence of the external forces exerted by a spherical halo and by prolate halos. In particular, galaxy disks are placed in the plane including the major axis of prolate halos, whose configuration is often found in cosmological simulations. N-body disks in fixed external halo fields are simulated, so that bars are formed via dynamical instability. In the subsequent evolution, the bars in prolate halos dissolve gradually with time, while the bar pattern in a spherical halo remains almost unchanged to the end of the simulation. The decay times of the bars suggest that they can be destroyed in a time smaller than a Hubble time. Our results indicate that this dissolution process could occur in real barred galaxies, if they are surrounded by massive dark prolate halos, and the configuration adopted here is not unusual from the viewpoint of galaxy formation. For a prolate halo model, an additional simulation that is restricted to two-dimensional in-plan...

  16. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .1. Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Novel densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes were obtained by using functional branched prepolymers. Two types of soluble prepolymers were prepared from di- and trifunctional alkoxysilane monomers via cohydrolysis/condensation and for both final crosslinking occurred via hydrosilylation. The prepoly

  17. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian;

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  18. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than glog (M∗/M⊙) processing, reflected in the significant changes in the physical properties of the host galaxies.

  19. Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Best, D S; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, Yu K; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di, E; Marco; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the decays B0bar --> D(*)0 K(*)0bar using a sample of 226 million Y(4S) --> B Bbar decays collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e-collider at SLAC. We report evidence for the decay of B0 and B0bar mesons to the D*0 K0s final state with an average branching fraction BF(B0-tilde --> D*0 K0bar) := [ BF(B0bar --> D*0 K0bar) + BF(B0 --> D*0 K0) ]/2 = (3.6 +- 1.2 +- 0.3) x 10^-5. Similarly, we measure BF(B0-tilde --> D0 K0bar) := [ BF(B0bar --> D0 K0bar) + BF(B0 --> D0 K0) ]/2 = (5.3 +- 0.7 +- 0.3) x 10^-5 forthe D0 K0s final state. We measure BF(B0bar --> D0 K*0bar) =^(4.0 +- 0.7 +- 0.3) x 10^-5 and set a 90% confidence level upper limit BF(B0bar --> D0bar K*0bar) D0bar K*0bar)/A(B0bar --> D0 K*0bar)| to be less than 0.4 at the 90% confidence level.

  20. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Jackson, AL. Jackson Bar, a sand bar, is located on the left descending bank upstream of a railroad bridge. Located in a bend in the BWT at Jackson, AL...foot-pounds force 1.355818 joules gallons (U.S. liquid ) 3.785412 E-03 cubic meters inches 0.0254 meters miles (nautical) 1,852 meters miles (U.S...left descending bank southwest of Jackson, AL, and upstream of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge (Figure 1). The railroad bridge is located in the

  1. Signaling behind bars: a role for bar domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kreuk, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe several novel components of growth factor receptor and RhoGTPase activation and signaling. We have demonstrated that the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is an important regulator of Rac1 output and, as a consequence, cell spreading and migration. This study further established the i

  2. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR-FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL AND BAR REGIONS OF NGC 6946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kuno, Nario [Division of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Hirota, Akihiko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kaneko, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hapan@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  3. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  4. Bars in the Barkor Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In daytime,the Barkor Street is bustling with tourists,pious pilgrims and merchants crowded together.Only when darkness falls does the street become tranquil.Nevertheless,the area surrounding the Barkor Street(from Tibetan Hospital compound extending to east Beijing Road)is then revived by various kinds of bars.

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  6. Constructing dense genetic linkage maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Jong, de A.G.; Ooijen, van J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a novel combination of techniques for the construction of dense genetic linkage maps. The construction of such maps is hampered by the occurrence of even small proportions of typing errors. Simulated annealing is used to obtain the best map according to the optimality criterion:

  7. Method for dense packing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  8. Unconditional Continuous Variable Dense Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which unconditional dense coding can be achieved using continuous variable entanglement. We consider the effect of entanglement impurity and detector efficiency and discuss experimental verification. We conclude that the requirements for a strong demonstration are not as stringent as previously thought and are within the reach of present technology.

  9. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  10. While in Shanghai,Enjoy Unigue Bars!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Today, bars are nothingnew for people who live inmajor cities. Bars have becomeso common that they have toseek a revolution for survival.It seems the only way tosurvive the fierce market competitionis to take the lead in being special. Asa result, some bars are attractingcustomers with unique features.Among them are:

  11. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities

  12. TEEPEE DINING & BAR -TELTTARAVINTOLAN PERUSTAMINEN

    OpenAIRE

    Meronen, Pirita

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyönä tein manuaalin Teepee Dining & Bar -telttaravintolan perustamisesta Suomen Teemaravintolat Oy:lle. Seurasin toimeksiantajani etenemistä ravintolan perustamisprosessissa ja raportoin kaikki ravintolan perustamiseen liittyvät vaiheet manuaaliin. Lisäksi kirjasin manuaaliin kaikki tarvittavat yhteyshenkilöt ja luvat, joita tarvitaan ravintolatoiminnan aloittamiseen. Aloitin opinnäytetyöni pohjatyön tiedon keräämisellä ja haastattelin toimeksiantajaani sekä tutustuin ravintola...

  13. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt -lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter...Total 1 McMaster-CARR 5911k16 1" Dia, 6" long anodized aluminum shaft $15.38 8 $123.04 2 McMaster-CARR 6359k37 Cast iron base-mounted babbitt

  14. Development and Validation of a Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready to Eat (RTE) Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    as a loss in lean muscle. This was demonstrated on Italian soldiers in a body composition and physical exercise study (Malavolti et al. 2008). It...fically tailo riority for t ble 3-1). Th (MPP), rem parameters final recomm nutritional al specifica ed, ready fo ents ready for u lt, sugar, an...MILK PROTEIN PRECIPITATE (MPP) Introduction Ricotta is a classic Italian style cheese traditionally manufactured from whey. Its unique

  15. Structural Transitions in Dense Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lambiotte, R; Bhat, U; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an evolving network model in which a new node attaches to a randomly selected target node and also to each of its neighbors with probability $p$. The resulting network is sparse for $p<\\frac{1}{2}$ and dense (average degree increasing with number of nodes $N$) for $p\\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. In the dense regime, individual networks realizations built by this copying mechanism are disparate and not self-averaging. Further, there is an infinite sequence of structural anomalies at $p=\\frac{2}{3}$, $\\frac{3}{4}$, $\\frac{4}{5}$, etc., where the dependences on $N$ of the number of triangles (3-cliques), 4-cliques, undergo phase transitions. When linking to second neighbors of the target can occur, the probability that the resulting graph is complete---where all nodes are connected---is non-zero as $N\\to\\infty$.

  16. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2014-01-01

    describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space.

  17. Radiative properties of dense nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Fedorov, Andrei G; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang

    2012-09-01

    The radiative properties of dense nanofluids are investigated. For nanofluids, scattering and absorbing of electromagnetic waves by nanoparticles, as well as light absorption by the matrix/fluid in which the nanoparticles are suspended, should be considered. We compare five models for predicting apparent radiative properties of nanoparticulate media and evaluate their applicability. Using spectral absorption and scattering coefficients predicted by different models, we compute the apparent transmittance of a nanofluid layer, including multiple reflecting interfaces bounding the layer, and compare the model predictions with experimental results from the literature. Finally, we propose a new method to calculate the spectral radiative properties of dense nanofluids that shows quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Dilatons for Dense Hadronic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the explicit breaking of scale invariance by the trace anomaly of QCD can be rephrased as a spontaneous breaking has been recently exploited to capture the low-energy strong interaction dynamics of dense (and also hot) matter in terms of two dilaton fields, the "soft" (chi_s) and the "hard" (chi_h) fields, in the frame work of the hidden local gauge symmetry. In the Freund-Nambu model, the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale symmetry is induced by an explicitly breaking term, while the spontaneous symmetry breaking is possible in the flat potential model which is scale symmetric. We discuss the interplay of the soft and hard dilatons using the spontaneously broken scale symmetry schemes and uncover a novel structure of dense matter hitherto unexplored.

  19. Application of photon Doppler velocimetry to direct impact Hopkinson pressure bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Lewis J; Jardine, Andrew P

    2016-02-01

    Direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar systems offer many potential advantages over split Hopkinson pressure bars, including access to higher strain rates, higher strains for equivalent striker velocity and system length, lower dispersion, and faster achievement of force equilibrium. Currently, these advantages are gained at the expense of all information about the striker impacted specimen face, preventing the experimental determination of force equilibrium, and requiring approximations to be made on the sample deformation history. In this paper, we discuss an experimental method and complementary data analysis for using photon Doppler velocimetry to measure surface velocities of the striker and output bars in a direct impact bar experiment, allowing similar data to be recorded as in a split bar system. We discuss extracting velocity and force measurements, and the precision of measurements. Results obtained using the technique are compared to equivalent split bar tests, showing improved stress measurements for the lowest and highest strains in fully dense metals, and improvement for all strains in slow and non-equilibrating materials.

  20. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  1. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. VIII. Barred Disk Galaxies in the Core of the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, Irina; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C; Hammer, Derek; Brok, Mark den; Graham, Alister W; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Peletier, Reynier F; Peng, Eric; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2012-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We use high resolution (~0.1") F814W ACS images from the HST ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z~0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), and in dwarf galaxies in the Coma core. Our study helps constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. (1) We characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M_V 10^9.5 M_sun) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. Measuring the S0 bar fraction must be handled carefully, as the results depend on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50%+/-11%, 65%+/-11%, and 60%+/-11% for three methods of bar detection: strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (Coma core, A901/902, Virgo). We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 ...

  2. New Constraints on the Galactic Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Minchev, I; Quillen, A C

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has related the Galactic Bar to structure in the local stellar velocity distribution. Here we show that the Bar also influences the spatial gradients of the velocity vector via the Oort constants. By numerical integration of test-particles we simulate measurements of the Oort C value in a gravitational potential including the Galactic Bar. We account for the observed trend that C is increasingly negative for stars with higher velocity dispersion. By comparing measurements of C with our simulations we improve on previous models of the Bar, estimating that the Bar pattern speed is Omega_b/Omega_0=1.87\\pm0.04, where Omega_0 is the local circular frequency, and the Bar angle lies within 20Bar affects measurements of the Oort constants A and B less than ~2 km/s/kpc for the hot stars.

  3. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  4. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%).

  5. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  6. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Subedi, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; De Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X -C; Zhu, L; 10.1126/science.1156675

    2009-01-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, where a proton is knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in 12C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  7. Dilatons in Dense Baryonic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the role of dilaton, which is supposed to be representing a special feature of scale symmetry of QCD, trace anomaly, in dense baryonic matter. The idea that the scale symmetry breaking of QCD is responsible for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is presented along the similar spirit of Freund-Nambu model. The incorporation of dilaton field in the hidden local symmetric parity doublet model is briefly sketched with the possible role of dilaton at high density baryonic matter, the emergence of linear sigma model in dilaton limit.

  8. Measurement of $\\pi^{+/-}, K^{+/-}, p$ and $\\bar{p}$ production in $Z^0 \\to q\\bar{q}, Z^{0} \\to b\\bar{b}$ and $Z^{0} \\to u\\bar{u}, d\\bar{d}, s\\bar{s}$ (Particle Identification with the DELPHI Barrel Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter)

    CERN Document Server

    Schyns, Emile

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of $\\pi^{+/-}, K^{+/-}, p$ and $\\bar{p}$ production in $Z^0 \\to q\\bar{q}, Z^{0} \\to b\\bar{b}$ and $Z^{0} \\to u\\bar{u}, d\\bar{d}, s\\bar{s}$ (Particle Identification with the DELPHI Barrel Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter)

  9. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  11. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (i), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i) or as a barlens structure (at low i). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  12. P{bar P} collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1992-04-01

    A brief introduction to {bar p}p collider physics is given. Selected results from the collider experiments at the CERN S{bar p}pS and the Tevatron collider are described. The emphasis is on experimental aspects of {bar p}p collisions. Minimum bias physics and the production of jets, Intermediate Vector Bosons and heavy flavors is reviewed. The outlook for physics at hadron colliders for the near future is briefly discussed.

  13. Installation of Shimming Bars for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Yin-long; WANG; Zhen-hui; ZHONG; Jun-qing; LIU; Geng-shou

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 MeV high intensity proton cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, is the most critical equipment of the BRIF project at CIAE. The shimming bars are used to get the isochronous magnetic field. In the process of magnetic mapping and shimming, the bars should be repeated the installed and disassembly for about 10 times. Each time the installation precision must be ensured. The bars installation schedule and quality are directly related to the BRIF project progress.

  14. Periodic body-and-bar frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S; Tanigawa, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstractions of crystalline materials known as periodic body-and-bar frameworks are made of rigid bodies connected by fixed-length bars and subject to the action of a group of translations. In this paper, we give a Maxwell-Laman characterization for generic minimally rigid periodic body-and-bar frameworks. As a consequence we obtain efficient polynomial time algorithms for their recognition based on matroid partition and pebble games.

  15. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  16. Chiral Perturbation Theory and the $\\bar B \\bar B$ Strong Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the potentials of the heavy (charmed or bottomed) pseudoscalar mesons up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$ with the heavy meson chiral perturbation theory. We take into account the contributions from the football, triangle, box, and crossed diagrams with the 2$\\phi$ exchange and one-loop corrections to the contact terms. We notice that the total 2$\\phi$-exchange potential alone is attractive in the small momentum region in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=1}$, ${\\bar B_s \\bar B_s}^{I=0}$, or ${\\bar B \\bar B_s}^{I=1/2}$, while repulsive in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=0}$. Hopefully the analytical chiral structures of the potentials may be useful in the extrapolation of the heavy meson interaction from lattice QCD simulation.

  17. submitter Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    CERN Document Server

    Föhl, K; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  18. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Context The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas (~500–1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 105 cm−3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+ J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH+ J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. Results The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd

  19. Barred Galaxies in the Abell 901/2 Supercluster with STAGES

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, I; Heiderman, A; Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Barden, M; Wolf, C; Peng, C Y; Bacon, D; Balogh, M; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of bar and host disk evolution in a dense cluster environment, based on a sample of ~800 bright (MV <= -18) galaxies in the Abell 901/2 supercluster at z~0.165. We use HST ACS F606W imaging from the STAGES survey, and data from Spitzer, XMM-Newton, and COMBO-17. We identify and characterize bars through ellipse-fitting, and other morphological features through visual classification. (1) We explore three commonly used methods for selecting disk galaxies. We find 625, 485, and 353 disk galaxies, respectively, via visual classification, a single component S'ersic cut (n <= 2.5), and a blue-cloud cut. In cluster environments, the latter two methods miss 31% and 51%, respectively, of visually-identified disks. (2) For moderately inclined disks, the three methods of disk selection yield a similar global optical bar fraction (f_bar-opt) of 34% +10%/-3%, 31% +10%/-3%, and 30% +10%/-3%, respectively. (3) f_bar-opt rises in brighter galaxies and those which appear to have no significant bulge c...

  20. Viscoelastic behavior of dense microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; D'arrigo, G.; Tartaglia, P.; Rouch, J.; Chen, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    We have performed extensive measurements of shear viscosity, ultrasonic absorption, and sound velocity in a ternary system consisting of water-decane-sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfo- succinate(AOT), in the one-phase region where it forms a water-in-oil microemulsion. We observe a rapid increase of the static shear viscosity in the dense microemulsion region. Correspondingly the sound absorption shows unambiguous evidence of a viscoelastic behavior. The absorption data for various volume fractions and temperatures can be reduced to a universal curve by scaling both the absorption and the frequency by the measured static shear viscosity. The sound absorption can be interpreted as coming from the high-frequency tail of the viscoelastic relaxation, describable by a Cole-Cole relaxation formula with unusually small elastic moduli.

  1. Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.

  2. DPIS for warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  3. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies. I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Amorin, A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kalinova, V.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Backsmann, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; del Olmo, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The bar pattern speed (Ωb) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring Ωb. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine & Weinberg (1984, ApJ, 282, L5; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the mo

  4. A study of B0bar --> D(*)0 K(*)bar decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Band, H R; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the decays B0bar --> D(*)0 K(*)0bar using a sample of 124 million Upsilon(4S) --> B0bar B0 decays collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at SLAC. We report evidence for the decay of B0 and B0bar mesons to the D*0 K_S final state with an average branching fraction BF(B --> D*0 K0bar) = (4.5 +/- 1.9 +/- 0.5) x 10^-5. Similarly, we measure BF(B --> D0 K0bar) = (6.2 +/- 1.2 +/- 0.4) x 10^-5 for the D0 K_S final state. We also measure BF(B0bar --> D0 K*0bar) = (6.2 +/- 1.4 +/- 0.6) x 10^-5 and set a 90% C.L. upper limit BF(B0bar --> D0bar K*0bar) < 4.1 x 10^-5. All results presented in this paper are preliminary.

  5. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  6. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan...... functional and study the relationship of our variant of Bar Recursion with others....

  7. Sensory properties of meal replacement bars and beverages made from whey and soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, J L; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2007-08-01

    Whey and soy proteins have a variety of applications. Previous work has documented flavors of rehydrated whey and soy proteins. It is necessary to understand what flavors whey and soy proteins contribute to product applications to optimize protein performance in desired applications. This research was conducted to characterize sensory properties of meal replacement products containing whey and soy proteins. Flavor and texture lexicons were developed for meal replacement bars and beverages. Commercial peanut butter-flavored meal replacement bars and vanilla meal replacement shakes were evaluated by an experienced, trained descriptive panel (n= 9). Prototypes of bars and beverages were developed with 3 levels of whey and soy protein and subsequently evaluated. Consumer acceptance testing (n= 85) was conducted on the prototype bars and beverages. Protein type as well as product-specific formulation contributed differences in flavor and texture of commercial bars and beverages (P whey protein were characterized by sweet aromatic and vanillin flavor notes while the texture was characterized by adhesiveness and cohesiveness. Prototype bars made with soy protein were characterized by nutty flavor while the texture was characterized by tooth-pack and denseness. Whey protein contributed to sweet aromatic and vanillin flavors in prototype beverages while soy protein contributed cereal/grainy flavors. Consumer acceptance scores were higher for prototype bars and beverages containing whey protein or a mixture of whey/soy protein than for products made with soy protein alone (P < 0.05). These results will aid researchers and product developers in optimizing sensory quality in meal replacement products.

  8. 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter wavecommunication technologies, the 5G ultra-dense cellular network is proposed to deploy in overall cellular scenarios. Moreover, a distribution network architecture is presented for 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. Furthermore, the backhaul ...

  9. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges ...... simply react to an identified interference problem. As an example, we propose two algorithms to apply time domain and frequency domain small cell interference coordination in a DenseNet....

  10. HOW GOOD IS A DENSE SHOP SCHEDULE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礴; 俞文(鱼此)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of simple and easy-to-construct shop schedules, known as dense schedules. We present tight bounds on the maximum deviation in makespan of dense flow-shop and job-shop schedules from their optimal ones. For dense open-shop schedules, we do the same for the special case of four machines and thus add a stronger supporting case for proving a standing conjecture.

  11. The molecular gas associated with the Orion bright bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodaka, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Telsuo; Hayashi, Saeko S.

    1994-07-01

    Detailed studies of the shocked region associated with the Orion bright bar are presented. The millimeter wave spectral lines of (12)CO (J = 1-0), (13)CO (J = 1-0), CS (J = 2-1), HCO(+) (J = 1-0), and H51 alpha have been observed across the bright bar. The intensity of all the molecular species shows a rapid increase close to the ionization front and a significant falloff at a distance of approximately 50 sec farther out from it. This suggests the existence of a layer of dense molecular gas just outside the ionization front. This layer has a velocity redshifted by 1-2 km s-1 relative to the ambient molecular cloud, which can be due to acceleration by thermal and kinetic pressure from the H II region or due to a passage of a shock. The high-density molecular layer associated with the bar is probably a shock-compressed layer driven by the ionization front of M42. A multitransitional anaylsis of the CS emission shows that the H2 volume density of the molecular gas is larger than that of the ambient gas by a factor of 3. The apparent density enhancement of a factor of 3 in the shocked gas is too small for a radiative shock in a homogeneous medium; density inhomgeneities or clumpiness in the pre- and postshocked layer may account for this apparently small compression ratio. This layer is exposed to intense UV radiation from the Trapezium stars and a photodissocited region is formed between neutral layer and the ionization front. The similarity in distribution of the thermally excited H2 emissions arising from shock fronts and or dense phtotodissociation regions and the millimeter-wave molecular line emissions originating from cooled shock-compressed regions also supports the idea of homogeneity or clumpiness is the shocked cloud. The gas temperature of this shocked layer is about 100 K and is very high compared with other molecular clouds without an embedded heat source. Both shock heating and radiative heating may contribute to maintain this high temperature.

  12. Adventures of a tidally induced bar

    CERN Document Server

    Lokas, E L; Debattista, V P; Valluri, M; del Pino, A; Semczuk, M; Gajda, G; Kowalczyk, K

    2014-01-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The dwarf is initially composed of a disk embedded in a dark matter halo and we follow its evolution on a typical orbit for 10 Gyr. It undergoes an evolution typical of tidally stirred dwarf galaxies: it loses mass, the stellar component transforms from a disk to a spheroid and the rotation of the stars is partially replaced by random motions. A tidally induced bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution. Fourier decomposition of the distribution of stars reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density ...

  13. Tubular stabilizer bars – calculations and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the calculation methods for tubular stabilizer bars. Modern technological and structural solutions in contemporary cars are reflected also in the construction, selection and manufacturing of tubular stabilizer bars. A proper construction and the selection of parameters influence the strength properties, the weight, durability and reliability as well as the selection of an appropriate production method.

  14. Stabilizer bars: Part 1. Calculations and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the calculation methods for stabilizer bars. Modern technological and structural solutions in contemporary cars are reflected also in the construction and manufacturing of stabilizer bars. A proper construction and the selection of parameters influence the strength properties, the weight, durability and reliability as well as the selection of an appropriate production method.

  15. Constraints from microlensing on the COBE bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. S.

    Since the first review of converging evidences for a bar in the center of the Galaxy by de Zeeuw (1992) at the IAU Sym. 153 in Gent five years ago, the Galactic bar idea has been put on a solid footing by an influx of new data (COBE/DIRBE maps, star count data of bulge red clump giants, microlensing optical depth, and bulge stellar proper motions, etc.) and a burst of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models (triaxial luminosity models of Dwek et al. 1994, and Binney, Gerhard & Spergel 1997, steady state stellar bar dynamical model of Zhao 1996, combined luminosity, microlensing and gas kinematics models of Zhao, Rich & Spergel 1996, and Bissantz et al. 1997, etc.), which fit new data and improve upon earlier simple bulge/bar models (Kent 1992, Binney et al. 1991, Blitz & Spergel 1991). While research in this field shifts more and more to constraining the exact phase space and parameter space of the bar, both the non-uniqueness of and the mismatches among bars from different datasets start to show up. I compare the bar from microlensing data with the COBE bar and point out the effects the non-uniqueness.

  16. Stabilizer bars: Part 3. Production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the methods of stabilizer bar production as well as selected issues concerning the theory of cold roll forming. A proper construction and the selection of parameters are fundamental factors influencing the selection of a suitable production process. The selection of the manufacturing process has a fundamental impact on the quality and durability of the stabilizer bars.

  17. Stabilizer bars: Part 3. Production methods

    OpenAIRE

    Adam-Markus WITTEK; Hans-Christian RICHTER; Bogusław ŁAZARZ

    2011-01-01

    The article outlines the methods of stabilizer bar production as well as selected issues concerning the theory of cold roll forming. A proper construction and the selection of parameters are fundamental factors influencing the selection of a suitable production process. The selection of the manufacturing process has a fundamental impact on the quality and durability of the stabilizer bars.

  18. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  19. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  20. Dynamical evolution of two associated galactic bars

    CERN Document Server

    Garzon, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamical interactions of mass systems in equilibrium under their own gravity that mutually exert and experience gravitational forces. The method we employ is to model the dynamical evolution of two isolated bars, hosted within the same galactic system, under their mutual gravitational interaction. In this study we present an analytical treatment of the secular evolution of two bars that oscillate with respect one another. Two cases of interaction, with and without geometrical deformation, are discussed. In the latter case, the bars are described as modified Jacobi ellipsoids. These triaxial systems are formed by a rotating fluid mass in gravitational equilibrium with its own rotational velocity and the gravitational field of the other bar. The governing equation for the variation of their relative angular separation is then numerically integrated, which also provides the time evolution of the geometrical parameters of the bodies. The case of rigid, non-deformable, bars produces in some cases an ...

  1. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  2. Characterization of Bars Induced by Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Martinez-Valpuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the formation of bars is triggered by interactions or by internal processes has been discussed for many decades. In this work, we study differences between both mechanisms by means of numerical simulations. We relate our analysis to fly-by interactions in different mass groups or clusters according to the velocity of the encounters. We find that once the bar is created, the interaction does not much affect its evolution. We also find that bars can be triggered purely by a slow interaction. Those bars affected or triggered by interaction stay for a longer time in the slow regime, i.e., the corotation radius is more than 1.4 times the bar radius.

  3. A COMPLETE THREE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE BAR-BAR TENSILE IMPACT APPARATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万华培; 汪洋; 夏源明

    2003-01-01

    A complete three-dimensional FEM model of the Bar-Bar Tensile Impact Apparatus (BTIA) is constructed, in which the slots in the bars and the glue layers between the bars and the flat-shaped specimen are included. For elastic-plastic specimen material, Ly12cz aluminum alloy, the process of tensile impact experiments is simulated and the matching relation between the specimen geometry and the bars is investigated. Based on the FEM analysis, an iterative method is proposed to design a reasonable specimen geometry for obtaining the true dynamic stress-strain relation for a certain specimen material.

  4. Optimal probabilistic dense coding schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Roger A.; Neves, Leonardo

    2017-04-01

    Dense coding with non-maximally entangled states has been investigated in many different scenarios. We revisit this problem for protocols adopting the standard encoding scheme. In this case, the set of possible classical messages cannot be perfectly distinguished due to the non-orthogonality of the quantum states carrying them. So far, the decoding process has been approached in two ways: (i) The message is always inferred, but with an associated (minimum) error; (ii) the message is inferred without error, but only sometimes; in case of failure, nothing else is done. Here, we generalize on these approaches and propose novel optimal probabilistic decoding schemes. The first uses quantum-state separation to increase the distinguishability of the messages with an optimal success probability. This scheme is shown to include (i) and (ii) as special cases and continuously interpolate between them, which enables the decoder to trade-off between the level of confidence desired to identify the received messages and the success probability for doing so. The second scheme, called multistage decoding, applies only for qudits ( d-level quantum systems with d>2) and consists of further attempts in the state identification process in case of failure in the first one. We show that this scheme is advantageous over (ii) as it increases the mutual information between the sender and receiver.

  5. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  6. Star formation in dense clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion, and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star IMF from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosi...

  7. Recent CKM and CP Results from BaBar

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We present recent results of B and charm decays from the BaBar experiment. These results include searches for rare or forbidden charm decays, measurements of $|V_{ub}|$ from inclusive ${\\bar B} \\rightarrow X_u l {\\bar \

  8. Thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Holst, Bastian; Desjarlais, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    We study the thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen using quantum molecular dynamics simulations. New results are presented for the pair distribution functions, the equation of state, the Hugoniot curve, and the reflectivity. We compare with available experimental data and predictions of the chemical picture. Especially, we discuss the nonmetal-to-metal transition which occurs at about 40 GPa in the dense fluid.

  9. Heavy meson production in hot dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Nieves, JM; Oset, E; Vacas, MJV

    2010-01-01

    The properties of charmed mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary coupled-channel approach in the nuclear medium which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense nuclear env

  10. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based mode...

  11. Cam-controlled boring bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  12. Physicochemical Evaluation of Flaxseed-Date Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimuna Sultana Mohd. Ateequddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a flaxseed-date-bar fortified high level of dietary fibre by using functional ingredients. Formulations were developed containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 grams of flaxseed flour. Flaxseed- date bar were evaluated for their, Physic-chemical properties. In the physical evaluation of bar it was found that flaxseed flour increase the hardness from 1076.82g to 1403.12g.The results revealed that the bar containing nuts and oilseeds shows maximum protein content (10.09 percent, dietary fibre content (9.89 percent, and ash content(2.90 percent was found in flaxseed-date bar. The gross energy of the flaxseed-date bar was in the range of 353.75 kcal to 377.08 kcal .The maximum gross energy was recorded by following sample A4were as the minimum was obtained by A0. The result revealed that flaxseed-dates along with nuts can be useful to prepare flaxseed-date bars of good sensory and nutritional value which provide substantial amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary fibre.

  13. Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R J; Elmegreen, B G; Salo, H; Laurikainen, E; Elmegreen, D M; Puerari, I; Block, D L

    2009-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared K_s-band AAT IRIS2 observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0- to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is a only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their ...

  14. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  15. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  16. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR

    CERN Document Server

    Parikka, A; Bernard-Salas, J; Goicoechea, J R; Abergel, A; Pilleri, P; Dartois, E; Joblin, C; Gerin, M; Godard, B

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of CH+ and OH and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas (~500-1000 K) in PDRs with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (>10^5 cm-3) followed by nonreactive collisions. Previous observations suggest that the CH+ and OH correlate with dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. We examine the spatial distribution of the CH+ and OH emission in the Orion Bar to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+ J=3-2 transition at 119.8 {\\mu}m and the OH {\\Lambda}-doublet at 84 {\\mu}m in the Orion Bar over an area of 110"x110" with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas. We assess the spatial variation of CH+ J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile observed with Herschel (HIFI). The...

  17. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  18. Development of an effective pinch bar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Length (m) Total Mass (kg) Mass (kg) for clamped length (2,6m) Deflection (25kg load @ clamped length) (mm) Bending / Breaking load (kg) Lightweight (extruded tube) 3.5 2.6 4 3.3 930 35 Manufactured Fibreglass tube 3.2 2.6 8.5 7.1 205... the stiffness of the XDM pinch bar with the extruded fibreglass tube bar is lower than that of the steel pinch bar the bending/braking strength is the same as the mode of failure for both is the bending of the steel tips. 14 3.4 Design review During...

  19. Possible $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ Molecular states in a chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, M T; Dong, Y B; Zhang, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the bound state problem of $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ systems by using effective interaction in our chiral quark model. Our results show that both the interactions of $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ states are attractive, which consequently result in $I^G(J^{PC})=0^+(0^{++})$ $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ bound states.

  20. Arrangement to control the roof bar depending on a sliding bar. Einrichtung zur Steuerung einer Hangendkappe in Abhaengigkeit einer Schiebekappe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.; Dettmers, M.

    1984-04-12

    The invention is concerned with an arrangement to control an underground powered support unit the roof bar of which is furnished with a regulating bar. The regulating cylinder of the regulating bar is hydraulically coupled with the sliding cylinder of the sliding bar in such a way that on pulling of the sliding bar the pressing pressure of the roof bar to the roof is reduced automatically to a level which can be preset. (orig.).

  1. Multi-Wavelength Properties of Barred Galaxies in the Local Universe: Environment and evolution across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Lea; Moore, Ben; Saintonge, Amelie

    2011-01-01

    We investigate possible environmental and morphological trends in the $z\\sim0$ bar fraction using two carefully selected samples representative of a low-density environment (the isolated galaxies from the AMIGA sample) and of a dense environment (galaxies in the Virgo cluster). Galaxies span a stellar mass range from $10^8$ to $10^{12}$M$_{\\odot}$ and are visually classified using both high-resolution NIR (H-band) imaging and optical \\texttt{rgb} images. We find that the bar fraction in disk galaxies is independent of environment suggesting that bar formation may occur prior to the formation of galaxy clusters. The bar fraction in early type spirals ($Sa-Sb$) is $\\sim$50%, which is twice as high as the late type spirals ($Sbc-Sm$). The higher bar fraction in early type spirals may be due to the fact that a significant fraction of their bulges are pseudo-bulges which form via the buckling instability of a bar. i.e. a large part of the Hubble sequence is due to secular processes which move disc galaxies from la...

  2. Measurement of the B0bar Lifetime and the B0B0bar Oscillation Frequency Using Partially Reconstructed B0bar --> D*+ ell- nu-bar Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bomben, M; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cristinziani, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cunha, A; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, D BrownC L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, N; Cavallo, G; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dickopp, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, F; Fabozzi, C; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Graugès-Pous, E; Graziani, G; Green, M G; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Koeneke, K; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Levesque, J A; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Li, X; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; Lo Secco, C P; Jessop, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lü, C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Messner, R; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Nd, 14 40; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, I M; Peruzzi, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Ryd, A; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schröder, H; Schröder, T; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Tan, P; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Vazquez, W P; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Viaud, B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H

    2006-01-01

    We present a simultaneous measurement of the B0bar lifetime tau_B0 and B0B0bar oscillation frequency Delta_md. We use a sample of about 50000 partially reconstructed B0bar --> D*+ ell- nu-bar decays identified with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e- storage ring at SLAC. The flavor of the other B meson in the event is determined from the charge of another high-momentum lepton. The results are tau_B0 = (1.504 +/- 0.013 (stat) {+0.018}/{-0.013} (syst)) ps, Delta_md = (0.511 +/- 0.007 (stat) {+0.007}/{-0.006} (syst)) ps-1

  3. How Different are Normal and Barred Spirals?

    CERN Document Server

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2011-01-01

    No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a - ab - b - bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a - ab - b - bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E - Sa - Sb -Sc and E - SBa - SBb - SBc sequences.

  4. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...... and sediment fluxes were obtained from electromagnetic current meters and optical backscatter sensors. These process measurements showed that a divergence in sediment transport occurred at the location of the developing trough, and observed gradients in cross-shore net sediment flux were consistent...... with the morphological development. The main cause for the flux gradients were cross-shore gradients in offshore-directed mean current (undertow) speed which depended upon local relative wave height and local bed slope....

  5. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  6. Barring intervention? Lesbian and gay bars as an underutilized venue for tobacco interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibel, Katherine; Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah M

    2011-07-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities are at high risk for tobacco use. While LGBT communities have historically considered bars to be safe places to socialize and congregate, these spaces are often tobacco-friendly environments and may have potential as sites for much needed intervention. Only a few public health interventions have attempted to work through bars and clubs to decrease tobacco use in the LGBT populations. Evidence from HIV prevention suggests some potential interventions in bars, and the tobacco industry has worked extensively (and successfully) to utilize bars in marketing efforts. Lesbian and gay bars are underutilized in tobacco control, suggesting missed avenues for chronic disease prevention programs. Researchers and communities should continue to recognize the importance of clean indoor air laws covering bars and develop additional strategies for reaching LGBT populations with disparities.

  7. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  8. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  9. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies. I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Amorin, A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kalinova, V.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Backsmann, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; del Olmo, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The bar pattern speed (Ωb) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring Ωb. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine & Weinberg (1984, ApJ, 282, L5; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. Aims: We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of Ωb on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. Methods: We measured Ωb using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problems that long-slit data present when applying the TW method, resulting in the determination of more accurate Ωb. In addition, we have also derived the ratio ℛ of the corotation radius to the bar length of the galaxies. According to this parameter, bars can be classified as fast (ℛ 1.4). Results: For all the galaxies, ℛ is compatible within the errors with fast bars. We cannot rule out (at 95% level) the fast bar solution for any galaxy. We have not observed any significant trend between ℛ and the galaxy morphological type. Conclusions: Our results indicate that independent of the Hubble type, bars have been formed and then evolve as fast rotators. This observational result will constrain the scenarios of formation and evolution of bars proposed by numerical simulations.

  10. Visualizing expanding warm dense matter heated by laser-generated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    This PowerPoint presentation concluded with the following. We calculated the expected heating per atom and temperatures of various target materials using a Monte Carlo simulation code and SESAME EOS tables. We used aluminum ion beams to heat gold and diamond uniformly and isochorically. A streak camera imaged the expansion of warm dense gold (5.5 eV) and diamond (1.7 eV). GXI-X recorded all 16 x-ray images of the unheated gold bar targets proving that it could image the motion of the gold/diamond interface of the proposed target.

  11. Pattern discovery for semi-structured web pages using bar-tree representation

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, Z

    2011-01-01

    Many websites with an underlying database containing structured data provide the richest and most dense source of information relevant for topical data integration. The real data integration requires sustainable and reliable pattern discovery to enable accurate content retrieval and to recognize pattern changes from time to time; yet, extracting the structured data from web documents is still lacking from its accuracy. This paper proposes the bar-tree representation to describe the whole pattern of web pages in an efficient way based on the reverse algorithm. While previous algorithms always trace the pattern and extract the region of interest from \\textit{top root}, the reverse algorithm recognizes the pattern from the region of interest to both top and bottom roots simultaneously. The attributes are then extracted and labeled reversely from the region of interest of targeted contents. Since using conventional representations for the algorithm should require more computational power, the bar-tree method is d...

  12. Dark Matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: quark nuggets and newtorites

    CERN Document Server

    Bassan, M; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G.V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 $\\rm m^2$ sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than $10^{-5}$ g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another examp...

  13. Hot Disks And Delayed Bar Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheth, Kartik; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Athanassoula, E; Weiner, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the inhibition of bar formation in dispersion-dominated (dynamically hot) galaxies by studying the relationship between galactic structure and host galaxy kinematics in a sample of 257 galaxies between 0.1 $<$ z $\\leq$ 0.84 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) and the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) survey. We find that bars are preferentially found in galaxies that are massive and dynamically cold (rotation-dominated) and on the stellar Tully-Fisher relationship, as is the case for barred spirals in the local Universe. The data provide at least one explanation for the steep ($\\times$3) decline in the overall bar fraction from z=0 to z=0.84 in L$^*$ and brighter disks seen in previous studies. The decline in the bar fraction at high redshift is almost exclusively in the lower mass (10 $<$ log M$_{*}$(\\Msun)$<$ 11), later-type and bluer galaxies. A proposed explanation for this "downsizing" of the bar formation ...

  14. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  15. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Nochera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar, test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis, was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  16. Possible Signatures of New Physics in e+e- and bar bar{p}p Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1998-12-01

    A preon model with preonic charge predicts many unique new particles. Among them, several are expected to be relatively light, including the fermion lS, which is a stable WIMP, bosons U0 and U+ and the lepto-quark fermion q'. The production of these particles in e+e- and bar{p}p collisions is discussed, focusing on e+e- --> UlS(e) and bar{p}p --> bar{q}'q' + X. A signature of the latter is dilepton + 2 charm jets + missing energy. A discussion on reported unusual events in the dilepton + jets sample is made based on bar{q}'q' production.

  17. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamu, Yusupujiang [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Ji, Chueng -Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  18. Dynamical Calculations of bar K and MULTI-bar K Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    We report on our recent calculations of bar K and multi-bar K nuclei. Calculations were performed fully self-consistently across the periodic table using the relativistic mean-field approach. We aimed at detailed analysis of dynamical processes and various thresholds that determine the K- absorption width. Further, we studied the behavior of the nuclear medium under the influence of increasing strangeness in order to search for bar K condensation precursor phenomena. Last, we explored possibly self-bound strange hadronic configurations consisting of neutrons and bar K0 mesons and studied their properties.

  19. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  20. Branching fractions for chi_cJ -> p p-bar pi^0, p p-bar eta, and p p-bar omega

    CERN Document Server

    Onyisi, P U E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hunt, J M; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Adams, S; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Tarbert, C M; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Xavier, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Xiao, T; Tomaradze, A; Brisbane, S; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Spradlin, P; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Randrianarivony, K; Robichaud, A N; Tatishvili, G; White, E J; Briere, R A; Vogel, H

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 25.9 million psi(2S) decays acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e^+e^- collider, we report branching fractions for the decays chi_cJ -> p p-bar pi^0, p p-bar eta, and p p-bar omega, with J=0,1,2. Our results for B(chi_cJ-> p p-bar pi^0) and B(chi_cJ-> p p-bar eta) are consistent with, but more precise than, previous measurements. Furthermore, we include the first measurement of B(chi_cJ-> p p-bar omega).

  1. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded.

  2. Evidence for the existence of $u d \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ and the non-existence of $s s \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ and $c c \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ tetraquarks from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Peters, Antje; Wagenbach, Björn; Wagner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We combine lattice QCD results for the potential of two static antiquarks in the presence of two quarks $q q$ of finite mass and quark model techniques to study possibly existing $q q \\bar{b} \\bar{b}$ tetraquarks. While there is strong indication for a bound four-quark state for $q q = (ud-du) / \\sqrt{2}$, i.e. isospin $I=0$, we find clear evidence against the existence of corresponding tetraquarks with $q q \\in \\{ uu , (ud+du) / \\sqrt{2} , dd \\}$, i.e. isospin $I=1$, $q q = s s$ and $q q = c c$.

  3. Central Mass Concentration and Bar Dissolution in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Vogel, S N; Regan, M W; Sheth, K; Harris, A I; Jefferys, W H; Das, Mousumi; Teuben, Peter J.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Regan, Michael W.; Sheth, Kartik; Harris, Andrew I.; Jefferys, William H.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG) to investigate the relationship between ellipticity and central mass concentration in barred spirals. Existing simulations predict that bar ellipticity decreases as inflowing mass driven by the bar accumulates in the central regions, ultimately destroying the bar. Using the ratio of the bulge mass to the mass within the bar radius as an estimate of the central mass concentration, we obtain dynamical mass estimates from SONG CO 1-0 rotation curve data. We find an inverse correlation between bar ellipticity and central mass concentration, consistent with simulations of bar dissolution.

  4. The Chemical Anatomy of Nuclei of Nearby Barred Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D. S.; Turner, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    We present images of the millimeter lines of eight molecules---C2H, C34S, N2H+, CH3OH, HNCO, HNC, HC3N, and SO---in the nuclei of the nearby barred spiral galaxies, IC 342 and Maffei 2, made with the OVRO and BIMA arrays. These maps are compared to obtain a picture of changes in chemistry on sizescales of individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a nucleus and between nuclei of similar morphological type. Emission from all species except SO are detected in both galaxies. Marked differences in morphology between the observed species are seen in both galaxies. A principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to quantify differences among the images. In IC 342, the PCA reveals that while all molecules are zeroth order correlated, that is, trace dense GMCs, there are three distinct groups of molecules distinguished by the location of their emission within the nucleus. N2H+ and HNC are widespread and bright, tracing all of the GMCs. C2H and C34S, tracers of photo-dissociation region chemistry, originate exclusively from the central ˜ 5'' ring illuminated by the 60 Myr, massive central cluster. CH3OH (and HNCO), a typical tracer of grain processing, correlates well with the expected locations of bar-induced orbital shocks. In Maffei 2, the PCA demonstrates that its chemistry is quite similar to IC 342, with the molecules tending to couple together in the same groups and with the same structural components of the nucleus. C2H dominates from the central starburst region, but is significantly more extended than IC 342 because its star formation is more extended. The correlation between HNCO and CH3OH in Maffei 2 is even strongly than in IC 342, being entirely dominated by the bar ends and orbit intersections. This provides strong evidence that HNCO is formed by the same processes as CH3OH. Funding for this research is provided by the Laboratory for Astronomical Imaging at the University of Illinois through the NSF grant AST-0228953, and by NSF grants AST-0071276 and

  5. The Vertical Stellar Kinematics in Face-On Barred Galaxies: Estimating the Ages of Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, D A; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Souza, Ronaldo E. de

    2005-01-01

    In order to perform a detailed study of the stellar kinematics in the vertical axis of bars, we obtained high signal-to-noise spectra along the major and minor axes of the bars in a sample of 14 face-on galaxies, and used them to determine the line of sight stellar velocity distribution, parameterized as Gauss-Hermite series. With these data, we developed a diagnostic tool that allows one to distinguish between recently formed and evolved bars, as well as estimate their ages, assuming that bars form in vertically thin disks, recognizable by low values for the vertical velocity dispersion sigma_z. Through N-body realizations of bar unstable disk galaxies we could also check the time scales involved in the processes which give bars an important vertical structure. We show that sigma_z in evolved bars is roughly around 100 Km/s, which translates to a height scale of about 1.4 Kpc, giving support to scenarios in which bulges form through disk material. Furthermore, the bars in our numerical simulations have value...

  6. A Fokker-Planck Study of Dense Rotating Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girash, John

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of dense stellar systems is simulated using a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck method, with the goal of providing a model for the formation of supermassive stars which could serve as seed objects for the supermassive black holes of quasars. This work follows and expands on earlier 1-D studies of spherical clusters of main-sequence stars. The 2-D approach allows for the study of rotating systems, as would be expected due to cosmological tidal torquing; other physical effects included are collisional mergers of stars and a bulk stellar bar perturbation in the gravitational potential. The 3 Myr main-sequence lifetime for large stars provides an upper limit on simulation times. Two general classes of initial systems are studied: Plummer spheres, which represent stellar clusters, and \\gamma=0 spheres, which model galactic spheroids. At the initial densities of the modeled systems, mass segregation and runaway stellar collisions alone are insufficient to induce core collapse within the lifetime...

  7. Developing fruit-based nutritious snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Edson P; Siqueira, Heloisa H; do Lago, Rafael Carvalho; Rosell, Cristina M; Vilas Boas, Eduardo V de Barros

    2014-01-15

    Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart) is a typical savannah fruit that is very nutritious and highly appreciated. However, its consumption has been limited to fresh fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of marolo flour in the production of healthy snack bars to valorise this fruit and provide an alternative ready-to-eat nutritious product. Snack bars containing increasing amounts of marolo flour (5 g 100 g(-1), 10 g 100 g(-1), 15 g 100 g(-1), 20 g 100 g(-1), expressed in w/w) were produced and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were determined. Levels up to 20% marolo flour can be incorporated in snack bars with some minor changes in pH and moisture content but with an increase of 2.4-fold in dietary fibre content and also 1.3-fold of vitamin C, minerals and antioxidant activity. In addition, up to 10% marolo flour improves significantly the sensory properties of the snack bars, namely appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptance. Marolo flour can be considered an alternative flour for obtaining healthy snack bars, with increased nutritional and sensory quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Stellar diffusion in barred spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Maura; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We characterize empirically the radial diffusion of stars in the plane of a typical barred disk galaxy by calculating the local spatial diffusion coefficient and diffusion time-scale for bulge-disk-halo N-body self-consistent systems which initially differ in the Safronov-Toomre-Q_T parameter. We find different diffusion scenarios that depend on the bar strength and on the degree of instability of the disk. Marginally stable disks, with Q_T \\sim 1, have two families of bar orbits with different values of angular momentum and energy, which determine a large diffusion in the corotation region. In hot disks, Q_T> 1, stellar diffusion is reduced with respect to the case of marginally stable disks. In cold models, we find that spatial diffusion is not constant in time and strongly depends on the activity of the bar, which can move stars all over the disk recurrently. We conclude that to realistically study the impact of radial migration on the chemical evolution modeling of the Milky Way the role of the bar has to...

  9. $NDK$, $\\bar{K} DN$ and $ND\\bar{D}$ molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, C W; Oset, E

    2011-01-01

    We investigate theoretically baryon systems made of three hadrons which contain one nucleon and one D meson, and in addition another meson, $\\bar{D}, K$ or $\\bar{K}$. The systems are studied using the Fixed Center Approximation to the Faddeev equations. The study is made assuming scattering of a $K$ or a $\\bar{K}$ on a $DN$ cluster, which is known to generate the $\\Lambda_c(2595)$, or the scattering of a nucleon on the $D\\bar{D}$ cluster, which has been shown to generate a hidden charm resonance named X(3700). We also investigate the configuration of scattering of $N$ on the $KD$ cluster, which is known to generate the $D_{s0}^*(2317)$. In all cases we find bound states, with the $NDK$ system, of exotic nature, more bound than the $\\bar{K} DN$.

  10. (120) and (122-bar) monazite deformation twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R.S

    2003-10-20

    Unusual features of (120) and (122-bar) deformation twins in monazite (monoclinic LaPO{sub 4}) are described and analyzed. These features are kinks and other irregularities in (120) twins, and V-shaped indentations on (120) and (122-bar) twin planes. Twinning shear analysis suggests that the kinks are a type II deformation twin mode with shear direction ({eta}{sub 1}) of [21-bar0]. This complements previous analysis based on atom shuffling considerations. Shear strain compatibility requires extensive plastic deformation in the kink. The V-shaped indentations may be analogous to similar structures in b.c.c metal deformation twins. Deformation mechanisms that may be associated with these structures are discussed.

  11. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, David C. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shah, Amisha J. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  12. BAR FREGOLI [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ANTES LOS MOSTRADORES ERAN DE MADERA, HASTA QUE EN 1998 HIZO UNA REFORMA Y LOS CAMBIÓ POR LOS ACTUALES HECHO DE CORIAN. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX BAR DE REDUCIDAS DIMENSIONES. PLANTA RECTANGULAR. BARA EN FORMA DE "L", HECHA EN CORIAN. POSEE UN PEQUEÑO BAÑO, UNA PLANCHA Y UNA CAFETERA. BIENES MUEBLES ASOCIADOS: POSEE TODAVÍA UNA MÁQUINA DE CAFÉ A GAS, MARCA "FAEMA" QUE TIENE DESDE QUE ABRIÓ EL BAR EN 1977 Y QUE TODAVÍA ES LA QUE USA. Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO Clasifi...

  13. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  14. BAR-MOM Code and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    BAR-MOM [1,2] code to calculate the height of the fission barrier Bf, the energy of the ground state, the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum(the spin value) Lmax at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number and angular momentum L for 19BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z≥102[3] by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission

  15. Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Galen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what apercentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems.This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson - the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages

  16. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  17. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  18. M33: THE EXISTENCE OF A BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández-López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A signi cant fraction of galaxies in the Local Universe classi ed as unbarred in the RC3 turn out to be barred in optical and NIR wavelengths. In the Local Group the Milky Way and M31 have shown to be barred as well, this also could be the case of M33. In this paper we present the results of the Ellipse tting and bidimensional Fourier Analysis, on the R and I bands, deprojected and non-deprojected, images of M33 obtained from DSS2 and Spitzer-IRAC.

  19. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  20. Newtorites in bar detectors of gravitational wave

    CERN Document Server

    Ronga, F

    2016-01-01

    The detection of particles with only gravitational interactions (Newtorites) in gravitational bar detectors was studied in 1984 by Bernard, De Rujula and Lautrup. The negative results of dark matter searches suggest to look to exotic possibilities like Newtorites. The limits obtained with the Nautilus bar detector will be presented and the possible improvements will be discussed. Since the gravitational coupling is very weak, the possible limits are very far from what is needed for dark matter, but for large masses are the best limits obtained on the Earth. An update of limits for MACRO particles will be given.

  1. Four Experiments on the Perception of Bar Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Justin; Setlur, Vidya; Anand, Anushka

    2014-12-01

    Bar charts are one of the most common visualization types. In a classic graphical perception paper, Cleveland & McGill studied how different bar chart designs impact the accuracy with which viewers can complete simple perceptual tasks. They found that people perform substantially worse on stacked bar charts than on aligned bar charts, and that comparisons between adjacent bars are more accurate than between widely separated bars. However, the study did not explore why these differences occur. In this paper, we describe a series of follow-up experiments to further explore and explain their results. While our results generally confirm Cleveland & McGill's ranking of various bar chart configurations, we provide additional insight into the bar chart reading task and the sources of participants' errors. We use our results to propose new hypotheses on the perception of bar charts.

  2. Observation of B+ --> K0bar K+ and B0 --> K0 K0bar

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del, P; Amo Sanchez; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del, L; Buono; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We report observations of the b --> d penguin-dominated decays B+ --> K0bar K+ and B0 --> K0 K0bar in approximately 350 million Upsilon(4S) --> BBbar decays collected with the BaBar detector. We measure the branching fractions B(B+ --> K0bar K+) = (1.61 +/- 0.44 +/- 0.09) * 10^-6 and B(B0 --> K0 K0bar) = (1.08 +/- 0.28 +/- 0.11) * 10^-6, and the CP-violating charge asymmetry A_{CP}(K0bar K+) = 0.10 +/- 0.26 +/- 0.03. Using a vertexing technique previously employed in several analyses of all-neutral final states containing kaons, we report the first measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in B0 --> K0 K0bar, obtaining S = -1.28 +0.80/-0.73 +0.11/-0.16 and C = -0.40 +/- 0.41 +/- 0.06. We also report improved measurements of the branching fraction B(B0 --> K0 pi+) = (23.9 +/- 1.1 +/- 1.0) * 10^-6 and CP-violating charge asymmetry A_{CP}(K0 pi+) = -0.029 +/- 0.039 +/- 0.010.

  3. Injection of photoelectrons into dense argon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesani, A F

    2010-01-01

    The injection of photoelectrons in a gaseous or liquid sample is a widespread technique to produce a cold plasma in a weakly--ionized system in order to study the transport properties of electrons in a dense gas or liquid. We report here the experimental results of photoelectron injection into dense argon gas at the temperatureT=142.6 K as a function of the externally applied electric field and gas density. We show that the experimental data can be interpreted in terms of the so called Young-Bradbury model only if multiple scattering effects due to the dense environment are taken into account when computing the scattering properties and the energetics of the electrons.

  4. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. IV. NGC 1097 and NGC 1365

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R; Shukurov, A; Snodin, A; Sokoloff, D D; Ehle, M; Moss, D; Shoutenkov, V

    2005-01-01

    We present 3.5cm and 6.2cm radio continuum maps in total and polarized intensity of the barred galaxies NGC 1097 and NGC 1365. Both galaxies exhibit radio ridges roughly overlapping with the massive dust lanes in the bar region. The contrast in total intensity across the radio ridges is compatible with compression and shear of an isotropic random magnetic field. The contrast in polarized intensity is significantly smaller than that expected from compression and shearing of the regular magnetic field; this could be the result of decoupling of the regular field from the dense molecular clouds. The regular field in the ridge is probably strong enough to reduce significantly shear in the diffuse gas (to which it is coupled) and hence to reduce magnetic field amplification by shearing. This contributes to the misalignment of the observed field orientation with respect to the velocity vectors of the dense gas. Our observations, for the first time, indicate that magnetic forces can control the flow of the diffuse in...

  5. Test of bar window with internal bars free from the glass surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    A sealed glazing unit with 3 horisontal and 3 vertical bars and a reference glazing without bars have been tested in a guarded hotbox. The difference in measured heat loss coefficient between the two test objects is a measure of the thermal influence of the bars. The difference in heat loss coeff...... coefficent was found to 1.9 and 1.5 W/(m2 K) respectively. The difference was larger than expected. Opening of the sealed glazing unit showed that the gap distance only was 1/3 of the expected....

  6. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production in $p \\bar{p}$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Agnew, James P; Alexeev, Guennadi D; Alkhazov, Georgiy D; Alton, Andrew K; Askew, Andrew Warren; Atkins, Scott; Augsten, Kamil; Avila, Carlos A; Badaud, Frederique; Bagby, Linda F; Baldin, Boris; Bandurin, Dmitry V; Banerjee, Sunanda; Barberis, Emanuela; Baringer, Philip S; Bartlett, JFrederick; Bassler, Ursula Rita; Bazterra, Victor; Bean, Alice L; Begalli, Marcia; Bellantoni, Leo; Beri, Suman B; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bertram, Iain A; Besancon, Marc; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bhatia, Sudeep; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Blazey, Gerald Charles; Blessing, Susan K; Bloom, Kenneth A; Boehnlein, Amber S; Boline, Daniel Dooley; Boos, Edward E; Borissov, Guennadi; Borysova, Maryna; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Oleg; Brock, Raymond L; Bross, Alan D; Brown, Duncan Paul; Bu, Xue-Bing; Buehler, Marc; Buescher, Volker; Bunichev, Viacheslav Yevgenyevich; Burdin, Sergey; Buszello, Claus Peter; Camacho-Perez, Enrique; Casey, Brendan Cameron Kieran; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; Caughron, Seth Aaron; Chakrabarti, Subhendu; Chan, Kwok Ming Leo; Chandra, Avdhesh; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Guo; Cho, Sung-Woong; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cihangir, Selcuk; Claes, Daniel R; Clutter, Justace Randall; Cooke, Michael P; Cooper, William Edward; Corcoran, Marjorie D; Couderc, Fabrice; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Cuth, Jakub; Cutts, David; Das, Amitabha; Davies, Gavin John; de Jong, Sijbrand Jan; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Deliot, Frederic; Demina, Regina; Denisov, Dmitri S; Denisov, Sergei P; Desai, Satish Vijay; Deterre, Cecile; DeVaughan, Kayle Otis; Diehl, HThomas; Diesburg, Michael; Ding, Pengfei; Dominguez, DAaron M; Dubey, Abhinav Kumar; Dudko, Lev V; Duperrin, Arnaud; Dutt, Suneel; Eads, Michael T; Edmunds, Daniel L; Ellison, John A; Elvira, VDaniel; Enari, Yuji; Evans, Harold G; Evdokimov, Anatoly V; Evdokimov, Valeri N; Faure, Alexandre; Feng, Lei; Ferbel, Thomas; Fiedler, Frank; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fisk, HEugene; Fortner, Michael R; Fox, Harald; Franc, Jiri; Fuess, Stuart C; Garbincius, Peter H; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Andres; Gavrilov, Vladimir B; Geng, Weigang; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Gershtein, Yuri S; Ginther, George E; Gogota, Olga; Golovanov, Georgy Anatolievich; Grannis, Paul D; Greder, Sebastien; Greenlee, Herbert B; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Phillipe Luc; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gruenendahl, Stefan; Gruenewald, Martin Werner; Guillemin, Thibault; Gutierrez, Gaston R; Gutierrez, Phillip; Haley, Joseph Glenn Biddle; Han, Liang; Harder, Kristian; Harel, Amnon; Hauptman, John Michael; Hays, Jonathan M; Head, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedin, David R; Hegab, Hatim; Heinson, Ann; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Herner, Kenneth Richard; Hesketh, Gavin G; Hildreth, Michael D; Hirosky, Robert James; Hoang, Trang; Hobbs, John D; Hoeneisen, Bruce; Hogan, Julie; Hohlfeld, Mark; Holzbauer, Jenny Lyn; Howley, Ian James; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hynek, Vlastislav; Iashvili, Ia; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Illingworth, Robert A; Ito, Albert S; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jaffre, Michel J; Jayasinghe, Ayesh; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jesik, Richard L; Jiang, Peng; Johns, Kenneth Arthur; Johnson, Emily; Johnson, Marvin E; Jonckheere, Alan M; Jonsson, Per Martin; Joshi, Jyoti; Jung, Andreas Werner; Juste, Aurelio; Kajfasz, Eric; Karmanov, Dmitriy Y; Katsanos, Ioannis; Kaur, Manbir; Kehoe, Robert Leo Patrick; Kermiche, Smain; Khalatyan, Norayr; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchilava, Avto; Kharzheev, Yuri N; Kiselevich, Ivan Lvovich; Kohli, Jatinder M; Kozelov, Alexander V; Kraus, James Alexander; Kumar, Ashish; Kupco, Alexander; Kurca, Tibor; Kuzmin, Valentin Alexandrovich; Lammers, Sabine Wedam; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Lee, Seh-Wook; Lee, William M; Lei, Xiaowen; Lellouch, Jeremie; Li, Dikai; Li, Hengne; Li, Liang; Li, Qi-Zhong; Lim, Jeong Ku; Lincoln, Donald W; Linnemann, James Thomas; Lipaev, Vladimir V; Lipton, Ronald J; Liu, Huanzhao; Liu, Yanwen; Lobodenko, Alexandre; Lokajicek, Milos; Lopes de Sa, Rafael; Luna-Garcia, Rene; Lyon, Adam Leonard; Maciel, Arthur KA; Madar, Romain; Magana-Villalba, Ricardo; Malik, Sudhir; Malyshev, Vladimir L; Mansour, Jason; Martinez-Ortega, Jorge; McCarthy, Robert L; Mcgivern, Carrie Lynne; Meijer, Melvin M; Melnitchouk, Alexander S; Menezes, Diego D; Mercadante, Pedro Galli; Merkin, Mikhail M; Meyer, Arnd; Meyer, Jorg Manfred; Miconi, Florian; Mondal, Naba K; Mulhearn, Michael James; Nagy, Elemer; Narain, Meenakshi; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer A; Negret, Juan Pablo; Neustroev, Petr V; Nguyen, Huong Thi; Nunnemann, Thomas P; Hernandez Orduna, Jose de Jesus; Osman, Nicolas Ahmed; Osta, Jyotsna; Pal, Arnab; Parashar, Neeti; Parihar, Vivek; Park, Sung Keun; Partridge, Richard A; Parua, Nirmalya; Patwa, Abid; Penning, Bjoern; Perfilov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Peters, Reinhild Yvonne Fatima; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Petroff, Pierre; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Podstavkov, Vladimir M; Popov, Alexey V; Prewitt, Michelle; Price, Darren; Prokopenko, Nikolay N; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quinn, Gene Breese; Ratoff, Peter N; Razumov, Ivan A; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen; Ross, Anthony; Royon, Christophe; Rubinov, Paul Michael; Ruchti, Randal C; Sajot, Gerard; Sanchez-Hernandez, Alberto; Sanders, Michiel P; Santos, Angelo Souza; Savage, David G; Savitskyi, Mykola; Sawyer, HLee; Scanlon, Timothy P; Schamberger, RDean; Scheglov, Yury A; Schellman, Heidi M; Schott, Matthias; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwienhorst, Reinhard H; Sekaric, Jadranka; Severini, Horst; Shabalina, Elizaveta K; Shary, Viacheslav V; Shaw, Savanna; Shchukin, Andrey A; Simak, Vladislav J; Skubic, Patrick Louis; Slattery, Paul F; Smirnov, Dmitri V; Snow, Gregory R; Snow, Joel Mark; Snyder, Scott Stuart; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Sonnenschein, Lars; Soustruznik, Karel; Stark, Jan; Stoyanova, Dina A; Strauss, Michael G; Suter, Louise; Svoisky, Peter V; Titov, Maxim; Tokmenin, Valeriy V; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuchming, Boris; Tully, Christopher George T; Uvarov, Lev; Uvarov, Sergey L; Uzunyan, Sergey A; Van Kooten, Richard J; van Leeuwen, Willem M; Varelas, Nikos; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, Igor A; Verkheev, Alexander Yurievich; Vertogradov, Leonid S; Verzocchi, Marco; Vesterinen, Mika; Vilanova, Didier; Vokac, Petr; Wahl, Horst D; Wang, Michael HLS; Warchol, Jadwiga; Watts, Gordon Thomas; Wayne, Mitchell R; Weichert, Jonas; Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; Williams, Mark Richard James; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wobisch, Markus; Wood, Darien Robert; Wyatt, Terence R; Xie, Yunhe; Yamada, Ryuji; Yang, Siqi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Yatsunenko, Yuriy A; Ye, Wanyu; Ye, Zhenyu; Yin, Hang; Yip, Kin; Youn, Sungwoo; Yu, Jiaming; Zennamo, Joseph; Zhao, Tianqi Gilbert; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zielinski, Marek; Zieminska, Daria; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    We study $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetries in $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, and $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. We find an excess of $\\Lambda$'s ($\\bar{\\Lambda}$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.

  7. Possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks from $\\Sigma_c^{(*)}\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Xi^{(',*)}_c\\bar{D}^*$ interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In a one-boson-exchange model with one-pion and one-eta exchanges, we investigate possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks produced from the $\\Lambda_c\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$, $\\Xi_c\\bar{D}^*$, $\\Xi_c'\\bar{D}^*$, and $\\Xi_c^*\\bar{D}^*$ interactions with the S-D wave mixing. The Lagrangians with chiral symmetry, heavy quark symmetry, and/or hidden local symmetry are adopted to describe the interactions. With such Lagrangians, it is found that the $\\Lambda_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Xi_c\\bar{D}^*$ interactions are forbidden. For the $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ and $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$ systems where the one-pion exchange is forbidden and only one-eta exchange survives, there exist three molecular candidates at cutoffs about 3 GeV, i.e., a $\\Sigma_c\\bar{D}_s^*$ state with quantum number $I(J^P)=1(\\frac{3}{2}^-)$ and $\\Sigma_c^*\\bar{D}_s^*$ states with $1(\\frac{1}{2}^-)$ and $1(\\frac{3}{2}^-)$. For the $\\Xi_c'\\bar{D}^*$ and $\\Xi_c^*\\bar{D}^*$ systems where the one-pion exchange is allow...

  8. Experiment for detecting metallic-bars in concrete using new 1.5 GHz antenna; Shingata no 1.5 GHz antena wo mochiita konkureto nai no tekkin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabayashi, Yuko; Toshioka, Tetsuma; Goebuchi, Toru [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    In recent years, maintenance was increasingly needed with the aging of the concrete structures. It has been paid attention to the underground radar detection as a non-destructive detection methods in order to confirm the bar arrangement situation inside concrete. However, in the metallic bar detection using the common underground radar, it was difficult to identify the metallic bar position and concrete cover thickness when an interval of metallic bars was dense or arrangement of metallic bars was overlapped, in a case of which the metallic bars were buried in extremely shallow areas such as metallic bar concrete wall. In the application experiments of this time, it was confirmed by using the new and high frequency antenna with central frequency of 1.5 GHz that the metallic bar position and concrete cover thickness could be identified which position and concrete cover thickness were difficultly identified by the common methods by the underground radar detection in arrangement of metallic bars. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Interactions of the Galactic bar and spiral arm in NGC 3627

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, H.; Meidt, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Paladino, R.; Leroy, A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To gain insight into the expected gas dynamics at the interface of the Galactic bar and spiral arms in our own Milky Way galaxy, we examine as an extragalactic counterpart the evidence of multiple distinct velocity components in the cold dense molecular gas that populates a similar region at the end of the bar in the nearby galaxy NGC 3627. Methods: We assembled a high-resolution view of molecular gas kinematics traced by CO(2-1) emission and extracted line-of-sight velocity profiles from regions of high and low gas velocity dispersion. Results: The high velocity dispersions arise with often double-peaked or multiple line-profiles. We compare the centroids of the different velocity components to expectations based on orbital dynamics in the presence of bar and spiral potential perturbations. A model of the region as the interface of two gas-populated orbits families supporting the bar and the independently rotating spiral arms provides an overall good match to the data. An extent of the bar to the corotation radius of the galaxy is favored. Conclusions: Using NGC 3627 as an extragalactic example, we expect situations like this to favor strong star formation events such as are observed in our own Milky Way since gas can pile up where the orbit families cross. The relative motions of the material following these orbits is most likely even more important for the build-up of high density in the region. The surface densities in NGC 3627 are also so high that shear at the bar end is unlikely to significantly weaken the star formation activity. We speculate that scenarios in which the bar and spiral rotate at two different pattern speeds may be the most favorable for intense star formation at such interfaces. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM PdBI and 30 m telescope.The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597

  10. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  11. Bar instability in disk-halo systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A

    2016-01-01

    We show that the exponential growth rate of a bar in a stellar disk is substantially greater when the disk is embedded in a live halo than in a rigid one having the same mass distribution. We also find that the vigor of the instability in disk-halo systems varies with the shape of the halo velocity ellipsoid. Disks in rigid halos that are massive enough to be stable by the usual criteria, quickly form bars in isotropic halos and much greater halo mass is needed to avoid a strong bar; thus stability criteria derived for disks in rigid halos do not apply when the halo is responsive. The study presented here is of an idealized family of models with near uniform central rotation and that lack an extended halo; we present more realistic models with extended halos in a companion paper. The puzzle presented by the absence of strong bars in some galaxies having gently rising inner rotation curves is compounded by the results presented here.

  12. Should an infected Nuss bar be removed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Renterghem, KM; von Bismarck, S; Bax, NMA; Fleer, A; Hollwarth, ME

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive procedure for correction of pectus excavatum. It involves insertion of a substernal metal bar. A feared complication of any implanted device is infection, which often necessitates removal. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' e

  13. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  14. Trichomoniasis in the Hawaiian barred dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Banko, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two barred doves found in the south Kona district of the island of Hawaii were diagnosed as having trichomoniasis on the basis of gross and microscopic lesions. This brings the confirmed list of columbid species susceptible to natural trichomoniasis to four and is the first report of the disease from columbids in the Hawaiian Islands.

  15. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  16. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  17. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zmzhou@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  18. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Y; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côte, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martínez-Vidal, F; Azzolini, V; Banerjee, S; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We present a search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to a K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million BBbar events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e+e- collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is B(B0 --> K*0bar K0) + B(B0 --> K*0 K0bar) = (0.2+0.9-0.8+0.1-0.3)x 10-6. We obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: B(B0 --> K*0bar K0) + B(B0 --> K*0 K0bar) phi K0 from sin(2beta).

  19. Study of psi(2S) Decays to gamma p bar{p}, pi^0 p bar{p} and eta p bar{p} and Search for p bar{p} Threshold Enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J P; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Adams, S; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Tarbert, C M; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Xavier, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Brisbane, S; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Spradlin, P; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L

    2010-01-01

    The decays of psi(2S) into gamma p bar{p}, pi^0 p bar{p} and eta p bar{p} have been studied with the CLEO-c detector using a sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) events obtained from e^+e^- annihilations at sqrt{s} = 3686 MeV. The data show evidence for the excitation of several N^* resonances in p pi^0 and p eta channels in pi^0 p bar{p} and eta p bar{p} decays, and f_2 states in gamma p bar{p} decay. Branching fractions for decays of psi(2S) to gamma p bar{p}, pi^0 p bar{p} and eta p bar{p} have been determined. No evidence for p bar{p} threshold enhancements was found in the reactions psi(2S)-> X p bar{p}, where X = gamma, pi^0, eta. We do, however, find confirming evidence for a p bar{p} threshold enhancement in J/psi-> gamma p bar{p} as previously reported by BES.

  20. The Morphology of Collisionless Galactic Rings Exterior to Evolving Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Bagley, Micaela; Quillen, Alice C

    2008-01-01

    The morphology of the outer rings of early-type spiral galaxies is compared to integrations of massless collisionless particles initially in nearly circular orbits. Particles are perturbed by a quadrupolar gravitational potential corresponding to a growing and secularly evolving bar. We find that outer rings with R1R2 morphology and pseudorings are exhibited by the simulations even though they lack gaseous dissipation. Simulations with stronger bars form pseudorings earlier and more quickly than those with weaker bars. We find that the R1 ring, perpendicular to the bar, is fragile and dissolves after a few bar rotation periods if the bar pattern speed increases by more than ~ 8%, bar strength increases (by >~ 140%) after bar growth, or the bar is too strong (Q_T>0.3). If the bar slows down after formation, pseudoring morphology persists and the R2 ring perpendicular to the bar is populated due to resonance capture. The R2 ring remains misaligned with the bar and increases in ellipticity as the bar slows down....

  1. Some Comments on the Branching Ratios for n-bar p Annihilation into pipi, KK-bar , and pieta Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, A. E.

    2000-11-01

    We give some remarks on the $\\bar n p$-partial branching ratios in flight at low momenta of antineutron, measured by OBELIX collaboration. The comparison is made to the known branching ratios from the $p \\bar p$-atomic states. The branching ratio for the reaction $\\bar n p \\to \\pi^+\\pi^0$ is found to be suppressed in comparison to what follows from the $ p \\bar p$-data. It is also shown, that there is no so called dynamic I=0-amplitude suppression for the process $N\\bar N \\to K\\bar K$.

  2. Compression and ablation of the photo-irradiated cloud the Orion Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, Javier R; Cuadrado, S; Cernicharo, J; Chapillon, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Joblin, C; Marcelino, N; Pilleri, P

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Bar is the archetypal edge-on molecular cloud surface illuminated by strong ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars. Owing to the close distance to Orion (about 1,350 light-year), the effects of stellar feedback on the parental cloud can be studied in detail. Visible-light observations of the Bar(1) show that the transition between the hot ionised gas and the warm neutral atomic gas (the ionisation front) is spatially well separated from the transition from atomic to molecular gas (the dissociation front): about 15 arcseconds or 6,200 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Static equilibrium models(2,3) used to interpret previous far-infrared and radio observations of the neutral gas in the Bar(4,5,6) (typically at 10-20 arcsecond resolution) predict an inhomogeneous cloud structure consisting of dense clumps embedded in a lower density extended gas component. Here we report one-arcsecond-resolution millimetre-wave images that allow us to resolve the molecular ...

  3. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (pdance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers.

  4. X(5568) as a {su}\\bar{d}\\bar{b} tetraquark in a simple quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Fl

    2016-10-01

    The S-wave eigenstates of tetraquarks of type {su}\\bar{d}\\bar{b} with J P = 0+, 1+ and 2+ are studied within a simple quark model with chromomagnetic interaction and effective quark masses extracted from meson and baryon spectra. It is tempting to see if this spectrum can accommodate the new narrow structure X(5568), observed by the DØ Collaboration, but not confirmed by the LHCb Collaboration. If it exists, such a tetraquark is a system with four different flavors and its study can improve our understanding of multiquark systems. The presently calculated mass of X(5568) agrees quite well with the experimental value of the DØ Collaboration. Predictions are also made for the spectrum of the charmed partner {su}\\bar{d}\\bar{c}. However we are aware of the difficulty of extracting effective quark masses, from mesons and baryons, to be used in multiquark systems.

  5. Nucleon strange $s\\bar s$ asymmetry to the $\\Lambda/\\bar\\Lambda$ fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, Yujie; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The difference between the $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar \\Lambda$ longitudinal spin transfers in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering process is intensively studied. The study is performed in the current fragmentation region, by considering the intermediate hyperon decay processes and sea quark fragmentation processes, while the strange sea $s\\bar s$ asymmetry in the nucleon is taken into account. The calculation in the light-cone quark-diquark model shows that the strange sea asymmetry gives a proper trend to the difference between the $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar \\Lambda$ longitudinal spin transfers. When considering the nonzero final hadron transverse momentum, our results can explain the COMPASS data reasonably. The nonzero final hadron transverse momentum is interpreted as a natural constraint to the final hadron $z$ range where the longitudinal spin transfer is more sensitive to the strange sea $s\\bar s$ asymmetry.

  6. DNS of turbulent flows of dense gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacovelli, L.; Cinnella, P.; Gloerfelt, X.; Grasso, F.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of dense gas effects on compressible turbulence is investigated by means of numerical simulations of the decay of compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence (CHIT) and of supersonic turbulent flows through a plane channel (TCF). For both configurations, a parametric study on the Mach and Reynolds numbers is carried out. The dense gas considered in these parametric studies is PP11, a heavy fluorocarbon. The results are systematically compared to those obtained for a diatomic perfect gas (air). In our computations, the thermodynamic behaviour of the dense gases is modelled by means of the Martin-Hou equation of state. For CHIT cases, initial turbulent Mach numbers up to 1 are analyzed using mesh resolutions up to 5123. For TCF, bulk Mach numbers up to 3 and bulk Reynolds numbers up to 12000 are investigated. Average profiles of the thermodynamic quantities exhibit significant differences with respect to perfect-gas solutions for both of the configurations. For high-Mach CHIT, compressible structures are modified with respect to air, with weaker eddy shocklets and stronger expansions. In TCF, the velocity profiles of dense gas flows are much less sensitive to the Mach number and collapse reasonably well in the logarithmic region without any special need for compressible scalings, unlike the case of air, and the overall flow behaviour is midway between that of a variable-property liquid and that of a gas.

  7. Dense matter at RAON: Challenges and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujeong; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Gaitanos, T.; Kim, Youngman

    2016-11-01

    Dense nuclear matter is ubiquitous in modern nuclear physics because it is related to many interesting microscopic and macroscopic phenomena such as heavy ion collisions, nuclear structure, and neutron stars. The on-going rare isotope science project in Korea will build up a rare isotope accelerator complex called RAON. One of the main goals of RAON is to investigate rare isotope physics including dense nuclear matter. Using the relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RBUU) transport code, we estimate the properties of nuclear matter that can be created from low-energy heavyion collisions at RAON.We give predictions for the maximum baryon density, the isospin asymmetry and the temperature of nuclear matter that would be formed during 197Au+197Au and 132Sn+64Ni reactions. With a large isospin asymmetry, various theoretical studies indicate that the critical densities or temperatures of phase transitions to exotic states decrease. Because a large isospin asymmetry is expected in the dense matter created at RAON, we discuss possibilities of observing exotic states of dense nuclear matter at RAON for large isospin asymmetry.

  8. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  9. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HanJu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of is dense in .

  10. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ju Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space X is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of A(BX:X is dense in A(BX:X.

  11. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  12. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to repr

  13. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700 °C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor,

  14. Improvements in accuracy of dense OPC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallingal, Chidam; Oberschmidt, James; Viswanathan, Ramya; Abdo, Amr; Park, OSeo

    2008-10-01

    Performing model-based optical proximity correction (MBOPC) on layouts has become an integral part of patterning advanced integrated circuits. Earlier technologies used sparse OPC, the run times of which explode when the density of layouts increases. With the move to 45 nm technology node, this increase in run time has resulted in a shift to dense simulation OPC, which is pixel-based. The dense approach becomes more efficient at 45nm technology node and beyond. New OPC model forms can be used with the dense simulation OPC engine, providing the greater accuracy required by smaller technology nodes. Parameters in the optical model have to be optimized to achieve the required accuracy. Dense OPC uses a resist model with a different set of parameters than sparse OPC. The default search ranges used in the optimization of these resist parameters do not always result in the best accuracy. However, it is possible to improve the accuracy of the resist models by understanding the restrictions placed on the search ranges of the physical parameters during optimization. This paper will present results showing the correlation between accuracy of the models and some of these optical and resist parameters. The results will show that better optimization can improve the model fitness of features in both the calibration and verification set.

  15. Building a dense surface map incrementally from semi-dense point cloud and RGB images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-shan LI; Rong XIONG; Shoudong HUANG; Yi-ming HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Building and using maps is a fundamental issue for bionic robots in fi eld applications. A dense surface map, which offers rich visual and geometric information, is an ideal representation of the environment for indoor/outdoor localization, navigation, and recognition tasks of these robots. Since most bionic robots can use only small light-weight laser scanners and cameras to acquire semi-dense point cloud and RGB images, we propose a method to generate a consistent and dense surface map from this kind of semi-dense point cloud and RGB images. The method contains two main steps: (1) generate a dense surface for every single scan of point cloud and its corresponding image(s) and (2) incrementally fuse the dense surface of a new scan into the whole map. In step (1) edge-aware resampling is realized by segmenting the scan of a point cloud in advance and resampling each sub-cloud separately. Noise within the scan is reduced and a dense surface is generated. In step (2) the average surface is estimated probabilistically and the non-coincidence of different scans is eliminated. Experiments demonstrate that our method works well in both indoor and outdoor semi-structured environments where there are regularly shaped ob jects.

  16. Calculations of bar K-nuclear quasi-bound states using chiral bar KN amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Barnea, N.; Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.

    2014-03-01

    We review our recent calculations of K- quasi-bound states in nuclear systems using subthreshold energy dependent chiral bar KN amplitudes. Strong energy dependence of the scattering amplitudes requires self-consistent evaluation of the involved bar KN interactions. In view of sizable widths predicted by our calculations, an unambiguous identification of K--nuclear quasi-bound states in ongoing experimental searches would be difficult.

  17. Rare kaon decays: $K^{+} → ^{+} \\bar{}$ and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bipul Bhuyan

    2004-03-01

    The experimental progress in the search for $K^{+} → ^{+} \\bar{}$ will be presented in this paper. Also the physics potential of the proposed BNL experiment to search for $K_{L}^{0} → ^{0} \\bar{}$ (KOPIO) will be discussed.

  18. Verification of Properties of Concrete Reinforcement Bars: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    from the producing mills but purchase them as groups of single bars from the ... determining the extent to which they conform to the requirements of. International ... the most widely used bar sizes for the local concrete reinforcement needs.

  19. Bond tests of fiberglass-reinforced plastic bars in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larralde, J.; Silva-Rodriquez, R.; Burdette, J.; Harris, B. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Civil and Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1994-07-01

    Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) bars for concrete reinforcement have been commercially available for several years. The main advantage of such bar relative to the conventional steel reinforcing bars is their resistance to corrosion. The reinforced plastic bars are slightly different from the conventional steel bars both geometrically and mechanically. Thus, research is needed to understand their behavior and to be able to use them in concrete reinforcement with adequate reliability. Bond strength of reinforced plastic bars in concrete is one of the mechanical and behavioral differences with the steel bars. This paper presents the results of pullout and beam tests conducted to determine the bond stress-slip behavior of FRP bars in concrete.

  20. Osmundiron, cleaved iron bars and slags (Osmundjern, kloder og kalotslagger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchwald, Vagn Fabritius

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of so-called Osmund iron, iron bars and slags from iron production in the medieval ages.......Investigation of so-called Osmund iron, iron bars and slags from iron production in the medieval ages....

  1. $\\bar{D}\\Sigma^*_c$ and $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c$ interactions and LHCb pentaquarks

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, LHCb collaboration reported the observation of two hidden-charmed resonances $P_c(4380)$ and $P_c(4450)$ consistent with hidden-charmed pentaquarks. We perform a dynamical investigation about the $\\bar{D}\\Sigma_c^*(2520)$ and $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c(2455)$ interactions which are described by the meson exchanges in a quasipotential Bethe-Salpeter equation approach. Two poles around $4450$ and $4390$ MeV are produced from the $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c(2455)$ interaction with spin parities $3/2^-$ and $5/2^+$, respectively. The peak for $5/2^+$ state has a comparable hight as that of $3/2^-$ state in the $J/\\psi p$ invariant mass spectrum. Another bound state with spin-parity $J^P=3/2^-$ is produced from the $\\bar{D}\\Sigma^*_c(2520)$ interaction. Such results suggest that the narrower LHCb pentaquark $P_c(4450)$ can be well interpreted as a $5/2^+$ $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c(2455)$ molecular state while the $P_c(4380)$ is a $3/2^-$ $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c(2455)$ molecular state mixed with other secondary origins.

  2. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies: I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Aguerri, J A L; Falcón-Barroso, J; Amorin, A; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Fernandes, R Cid; García-Benito, R; García-Lorenzo, B; Delgado, R M González; Husemann, B; Kalinova, V; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Márquez, I; Mast, D; Pérez, E; Sánchez, S F; van de Ven, G; Walcher, C J; Backsmann, N; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; del Olmo, A; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Pérez, I; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Wisotzki, L; Ziegler, B

    2015-01-01

    The bar pattern speed ($\\Omega_{\\rm b}$) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine \\& Weinberg (1984; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$ on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. We measured $\\Omega_{\\rm b}$ using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problem...

  3. Orthogonal Vertical Velocity Dispersion Distributions Produced by Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana

    2017-02-01

    In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions (σ) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct σ peaks on the minor axis of the inner bar, which we termed “σ-humps,” while two local σ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., “σ-hollows.” Analysis of numerical simulations shows that {σ }z-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed σ-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of {σ }z in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower {σ }z along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating {σ }z-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that {σ }z-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of stars in the presence of a sufficiently massive, vertically thin bar, even without an outer bar. Using self-consistent N-body simulations, we verify the existence of vertically thin bars in the nuclear-barred and S2B models that generate prominent σ-humps+hollows. Thus, the ubiquitous presence of σ-humps+hollows in S2Bs implies that inner bars are vertically thin. The addition of a bulge makes the {σ }z-humps more ambiguous and thus tends to somewhat hide the {σ }z-humps+hollows. We show that {σ }z may be used as a kinematic diagnostic of stellar components that have different thicknesses, providing a direct perspective on the morphology and thickness of nearly face-on bars and bulges with integral field unit spectroscopy.

  4. Development of omega-3 rich energy bar with flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Mridula, D.; Singh, K. K.; Barnwal, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0–20%) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55%) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not af...

  5. Possible $B^{(\\ast)} \\bar{K}$ hadronic molecule state

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Cheng-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we estimate the decays of the $X(5568)$ and $X(5616)$ in a $B \\bar{K}$ and a $B^\\ast \\bar{K}$ $S$-wave hadronic molecule scenarios, respectively, which may corresponding to the structure observed by D0 Collaboration. Our estimation indicates both $B\\bar{K}$ and $B^\\ast \\bar{K}$ hadronic molecule decay widths could explain the experimental data in a proper model parameter range.

  6. Access to Bathtub Grab Bars: Evidence of a Policy Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Nicholas; Nair, Rama; Murphy, Maureen; Roberge, Ginette; Lockett, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p lesser than…

  7. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C.

  8. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  10. Observational Evidence of Secular Evolution in Barred Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, I.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Zurita, A.; Funes, JG; Corsini, EM

    2008-01-01

    We report preliminary results of the derived stellar population metallicities and ages along the bars of a sample of 20 barred galaxies. We find that some galaxies show a positive radial bar metallicity gradient, implying that there has been a chemical enrichment and so that the star formation has l

  11. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  12. A Reading PR Reference for Bar Executive Staff and Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Bar, Atlanta.

    This manual provides information to assist bar association staff and officers in explaining the role and function of the bar and in dealing with critical public-relations problems. Sections discuss the use and value of public relations, public relations and the role of the bar, public-relations problems, and major public-opinion problems…

  13. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  14. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  15. Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Galen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson  -  the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages.Keywords: percentage, model, design research DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.558.1-8

  16. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the ability to be successful, productive members of the profession. Instead, the conventional wisdom is that the greatest obstacles to their success will come in the form of external barriers and institutional policies based on preconceived norms that do not acknowledge the divergent challenges faced by these group members.

  17. Riverbank erosion induced by gravel bar accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösch, Mario; Habersack, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    Riverbank erosion is known to be strongly fluvially controlled and determination of shear stresses at the bank surface and at the bank toe is a crucial point in bank erosion modeling. In many modeling attempts hydraulics are simulated separately in a hydrodynamic-numerical model and the simulated shear stresses are further applied onto the bank surface in a bank erosion model. Hydrodynamics are usually simulated at a constant geometry. However, in some cases bed geometry may vary strongly during the event, changing the conditions for hydrodynamics along the bank. This research seeks to investigate the effect of gravel bar accretion during high discharges on final bank retreat. At a restored section of the Drava River bed widenings have been implemented to counter bed degradation. There, in an initiated side-arm, self-dynamic widening strongly affects bed development and long-term connectivity to the main channel. Understanding the riverbank erosion processes there would help to improve planning of future restoration measures. At one riverbank section in the side-arm large bank retreat was measured repeatedly after several flow events. This section is situated between two groins with a distance of 60 m, which act as lateral boundaries to the self-widening channel. In front of this bank section a gravel bar developed. During low flow condition most discharge of the side-arm flows beside the gravel bar along the bank, but shear stresses are too low for triggering bank erosion. For higher discharges results from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model suggested shear stresses there to be generally low during the entire events. At some discharges the modeled flow velocities even showed to be recirculating along the bank. These results didn't explain the observed bank retreat. Based on the modeled shear stresses, bank erosion models would have greatly underestimated the bank retreat induced by the investigated events. Repeated surveys after events applying

  18. Arbejdsulykker inden for BAR-SOSU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    Denne rapport er udarbejdet til BAR SOSU, som har formuleret følgende opgave: 1. At få udarbejdet et overblik over den viden om ulykker indenfor SOSU´s område, som foreligger i eksisterende statistikker, med henblik på udviklingen over de seneste 5-10 år, ulykkernes konsekvenser i form af skadens...... art og i det omfang det er muligt også ulykkernes art. 2. At få gennemgået BAR SOSU´s nuværende materiale målrettet ulykkesforebyggelse og vurdere, hvad der kan udvikles yderligere til brug for at styrke det ulykkesforebyggende arbejde. 3. Med udgangspunkt i nyere forskning om ulykkesforebyggelse og...

  19. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  20. Diffusion in barred-spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Maura; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the radial migration of stars in the disk plane by calculating the diffusion coefficient and the diffusion time-scale for a bulge-disk N-body self-consistent system with a marginally-stable Toomre-Q parameter. We find that diffusion is not constant in time, but follows the evolution of the bar, and becomes maximum near the corotation region and in the external disk region, where asymmetric patterns develop.

  1. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  2. Study of the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and its intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Vetere, M Lo; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Diberder, F Le; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Pegna, D Lopes; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voß, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Vasseur, G; Y\\`, Ch; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Sevilla, M Franco; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Puccio, E M T; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Villanueva-Perez, P; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2013-01-01

    We study the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$, reconstructing the \\Lambda_{c}^{+} baryon in the $p K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ mode, using a data sample of $467\\times 10^{6}$ $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-2 storage rings at SLAC. We measure branching fractions for decays with intermediate $\\Sigma_{c}$ baryons to be ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{++}\\bar{p}\\pi^{-}]=(21.3 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 5.5) \\times 10^{-5}$, ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{++}\\bar{p}\\pi^{-}]=(11.5\\pm 1.0 \\pm 0.5 \\pm 3.0)\\times 10^{-5}$, ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}]=(9.1 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 2.4)\\times10^{-5}$, and ${\\cal B}[\\bar{B}^{0}\\rightarrow\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0}\\bar{p}\\pi^{+}]= (2.2 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.1\\pm 0.6) \\times 10^{-5}$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the uncertainty on the $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\rightarrow\\proton\\Km\\pi^{+}$ branching fraction, respectively. For decays without $\\Sig...

  3. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  4. New Spectroscopy at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoni, M.A.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-18

    The Babar experiment at the SLAC B factory has accumulated a high luminosity that offers the possibility of systematic studies of quarkonium spectroscopy and of investigating rare new phenomena. Recent results in this field are presented. In recent times spectroscopy has become exciting again, after the discovery of new states that are not easily explained by conventional models. States such as the X(3872) and the Y(4260) could be new excited charmonium states, but require precise measurements for positive identification. The BaBar experiment [1] is installed at the asymmetric storage ring PEP-II. 90% of the data accumulated by BaBar are taken at the Y(4S) (10.58 GeV) and 10% just below (10.54 GeV). The BaBar detector includes a 5-layer, double-sided silicon vertex tracker and a 40-layer drift chamber in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, which detect charged particles and measures their momenta and ionization energy losses. Photons, electrons, and neutral hadrons are detected with a CsI(Tl)-crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. An internally reflecting ring-imaging Cherenkov is also used for particle id. Penetrating muon and neutral hadrons are identified by an array of resistive-plate chambers embedded in the steel of the flux return. The detector allows good track and vertex resolution, good particle id and good photon detection so it is especially suited for spectroscopy studies.

  5. Formation of Nuclear Spirals in Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Thakur, Parijat

    2004-01-01

    We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations for the response of the gaseous disk to the imposed moderately strong non-axisymmetric potentials. The model galaxies are composed of the three stellar components (disk, bulge and bar) and two dark ones (supermassive black hole and halo) whose gravitational potentials are assumed to be invariant in time in the frame corotating with the bar. We found that the torques alone generated by the moderately strong bar that gives the maximum of tangential-to-radial force ratio as $(F_{Tan}/F_{Rad})_{max}= 0.3$ are not sufficient to drive the gas particles close to the center due to the barrier imposed by the inner Lindblad resonances (ILRs). In order to transport the gas particles towards the nucleus ($r<100$ pc), a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and high sound speed of the gas are required to be present. The former is required to remove the inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) that prevents gas inflow close to the nucleus, while the latte...

  6. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  7. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  8. Colloquium: Nonlinear Collective Interactions in Dense Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of some important collective processes in dense quantum plasmas is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in a nonlinear quantum electron pressure and tunneling/diffusion of electrons through a nonlinear quantum Bohm potential. Since degenerate electrons have $1/2-$spin due to their Fermionic nature, there also appear a spin electron current and a spin force acting on the electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The present nonlinear equations do not include strong electron correlations and electron-exchange interactions. The quantum effects caused by the electron degeneracy produce n...

  9. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells.

  10. Strategies for Dense Optical CDMA Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-bao; LIN Jin-tong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we have formulated a strategy that the limited available code sequences in pure Direct-Sequence(DS)or Frequency-Hopping(FH)system can be reused to realize dense optical CDMA:the strategy of novel hybrid DS/FH system.In which,the case that there are n users employing the same FH pattern but different DS code patterns is considered.On the condition that the impact of channel noises is neglected,the upper bound probability of error is evaluated based on the stationary random process theory.The results show that the hybrid system is suitable for Dense Optical CDMA(DOCDMA)communication.Moreover,the problems such as the link-impairment,dispersion of group velocity,etc.in the pure(DS or FH)system can be solved effectively.

  11. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  12. Topological Surface States in Dense Solid Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I; Hemley, Russell J

    2016-11-11

    Metallization of dense hydrogen and associated possible high-temperature superconductivity represents one of the key problems of physics. Recent theoretical studies indicate that before becoming a good metal, compressed solid hydrogen passes through a semimetallic stage. We show that such semimetallic phases predicted to be the most stable at multimegabar (∼300  GPa) pressures are not conventional semimetals: they exhibit topological metallic surface states inside the bulk "direct" gap in the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone; that is, metallic surfaces may appear even when the bulk of the material remains insulating. Examples include hydrogen in the Cmca-12 and Cmca-4 structures; Pbcn hydrogen also has metallic surface states but they are of a nontopological nature. The results provide predictions for future measurements, including probes of possible surface superconductivity in dense hydrogen.

  13. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  14. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  15. The influence of the environment on bar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Zarattini, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Corsini, E M

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy mergers and interactions are mechanisms which could drive the formation of bars. Therefore, we could expect that the fraction of barred galaxies increases with the local density. Here we show the first results of an extensive search for barred galaxies in different environments. We conclude that the bar fraction on bright (L>L*) field, Virgo, and Coma cluster galaxies is compatible. These results point towards an scenario where the formation and/or evolution of bars depend mostly on internal galaxy processes rather than external ones.

  16. How can double-barred galaxies be long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Context. Double-barred galaxies account for almost one third of all barred galaxies, suggesting that secondary stellar bars, which are embedded in large-scale primary bars, are long-lived structures. However, up to now it has been hard to self-consistently simulate a disc galaxy that sustains two nested stellar bars for longer than a few rotation periods. Aims: The dynamical and physical requirements for long-lived triaxiality in the central region of galaxies still need to be clarified. Methods: N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including star formation recipes have been performed. Their properties (bar lengths, pattern speeds, age of stellar population, and gas content) have been compared with the most recent observational data in order to prove that they are representative of double-barred galaxies, even SB0. Overlaps in dynamical resonances and bar modes have been looked for using Fourier spectrograms. Results: Double-barred galaxies have been successfully simulated with lifetimes as long as 7 Gyr. The stellar and gaseous distributions in the central regions are time dependent and display many observed morphological features (circumnuclear rings, pseudo-bulges, triaxial bulges, ovals, etc.) typical of barred galaxies, even early-type. The stellar population of the secondary bar is younger on average than for the primary large-scale bar. An important feature of these simulations is the absence of any resonance overlap for several Gyr. In particular, there is no overlap between the primary bar inner Lindblad resonance and the secondary bar corotation. Therefore, mode coupling cannot sustain the secondary bar mode. Star formation is identified here as possibly being responsible for bringing energy to the nuclear mode. Star formation is also responsible for limiting the amount of gas in the central region which prevents the orbits sustaining the secondary bar from being destroyed. Therefore, the secondary bar can dissolve but reappear after ≈1 Gyr as the

  17. Heat Transfer in the LHC Main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D

    2011-01-01

    CERN is performing a systematic analysis of the interconnecting bus bars of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main magnets. Their thermal, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic performances are addressed. In the frame of these studies, the heat transfer between the main superconducting (SC) bus bars and the surrounding He bath is investigated. It represents a key parameter in the comprehension of the bus bars stability and quench propagation mechanisms, thus crucial for the analysis of the 2008 incident which was triggered by a defective bus bars joint. This paper reports on the experimental tests and relative analysis aiming at describing the thermal behavior of the LHC main bus bars.

  18. Accelerating Dense Linear Algebra on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg

    and matrix-vector operations on GPUs. Such operations form the backbone of level 1 and level 2 routines in the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library and are therefore of great importance in many scientific applications. The target hardware is the most recent NVIDIA Tesla 20-series (Fermi...... architecture). Most of the techniques I discuss for accelerating dense linear algebra are applicable to memory-bound GPU algorithms in general....

  19. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  20. Splashing onset in dense suspension droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ivo; Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of droplets of dense suspensions onto a solid substrate. We show that a global hydrodynamic balance is unable to predict the splash onset and propose to replace it by an energy balance at the level of the particles in the suspension. We experimentally verify that the resulting, particle-based Weber number gives a reliable, particle size and density dependent splash onset criterion. We further show that the same argument also explains why, in bimodal systems, smaller ...

  1. A method for dense packing discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kallus, Yoav; Gravel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and ...

  2. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  3. Dense Visual SLAM with Probabilistic Surfel Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixin; Ye, Mao; Ren, Liu

    2017-11-01

    Visual SLAM is one of the key technologies to align the virtual and real world together in Augmented Reality applications. RGBD dense Visual SLAM approaches have shown their advantages in robustness and accuracy in recent years. However, there are still several challenges such as the inconsistencies in RGBD measurements across multiple frames that could jeopardize the accuracy of both camera trajectory and scene reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel map representation called Probabilistic Surfel Map (PSM) for dense visual SLAM. The main idea is to maintain a globally consistent map with both photometric and geometric uncertainties encoded in order to address the inconsistency issue. The key of our PSM is proper modeling and updating of sensor measurement uncertainties, as well as the strategies to apply them for improving both the front-end pose estimation and the back-end optimization. Experimental results on publicly available datasets demonstrate major improvements with our approach over the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, comparing with σ-DVO, we achieve a 40% reduction in absolute trajectory error and an 18% reduction in relative pose error in visual odometry, as well as an 8.5% reduction in absolute trajectory error in complete SLAM. Moreover, our PSM enables generation of a high quality dense point cloud with comparable accuracy as the state-of-the-art approach.

  4. Dense Correspondences across Scenes and Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Moria; Hassner, Tal

    2016-05-01

    We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only few image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. Recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts-the pixels around them-which may be exploited in order to reliably estimate local scales. We make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image. (ii) We explore three means for propagating this information: using the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide scale propagation in each image separately, and using both images together. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive qualitative and quantitative results, demonstrating that scale propagation allows for accurate dense correspondences to be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.

  5. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  6. Slowly rotating bars-Morphologies introduced by bistability in barred-spiral galactic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tsigaridi, L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of a \\textit{barred-spiral} model when the system is rotating slowly and corotation is located beyond the end of the spiral arms. In the characteristic of the central family of periodic orbits we find a "bistable region". In the response model we observe a ring surrounding the bar and spiral arms starting tangential to the ring. This is a morphology resembling barred-spiral systems with inner rings. However, the dynamics associated with this structure in the case we study is different from that of a typical bar ending close to corotation. The ring of our model is round, or rather elongated perpendicular to the bar. It is associated with a folding (an "S" shaped feature) of the characteristic of the central family, which is typical in bistable bifurcations. Along the "S" part of the characteristic we have a change in the orientation of the periodic orbits from a x1-type to a x2-type morphology. The orbits populated in the response model change rather abruptly their orientati...

  7. Automated bar detection in local disc galaxies from the SDSS - The colors of bars

    CERN Document Server

    Consolandi, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic isophotal fitting procedure that succeeds, without the support of any visual inspection of neither the images nor the ellipticity/P.A. radial profiles, at extracting a fairly pure sample of barred LTGs among thousands of optical images from the SDSS. The procedure relies on the methods described in Consolandi et al. (2016) to robustly extract the photometrical properties of a large sample of local SDSS galaxies and is tailored to extract bars on the basis of their well-known peculiarities in their P.A. and ellipticity profiles. It has been run on a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Local supercluster. The procedure extracted for each galaxy a color, an ellipticity and a position angle radial profile of the ellipses fitted to the isophotes. Examining automatically the profiles of 922 face-on late-type galaxies (B/A >0.7) the procedure found that ~ 36 % are barred. The local bar fraction strongly increases with stellar mass. The sample of barred galaxies is used to constr...

  8. On the galactic spin of barred disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter $\\lambda_{d}$ and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into galaxies hosting strong or weak bars, and non-barred galaxies. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting strong bars with the lowest $\\lambda_{d}$ values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with weak bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate $\\lambda_{d}$ values for the case of strong bars, while the maximum for weak bars is at high $\\lambda_{d}$. This bi-modality is in good agreement with previous studies finding stronger bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with low content of cold gas, while weak bars are found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies, usually gas rich. In addition, the...

  9. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  10. The relation between bar formation, galaxy luminosity, and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Aguerri, J A L; Zarattini, S

    2013-01-01

    We derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma cluster are statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on...

  11. MULTI-bar K (hyper)nuclei and Kaon Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2010-10-01

    We report on recent relativistic mean-field calculations of multi-bar K nuclei1,2 which were performed fully and self-consistently across the periodic table. The bar K separation energy B{bar K} as well as the nuclear and bar K-meson densities were found to saturate with the number of antikaons in the nuclear medium. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. In addition, we have explored properties of kaonic hypernuclei - strange systems made of nucleons, hyperons and K- mesons. We observed saturation also in these objects. Since the bar K separation energy B{bar K} does not exceed 200 MeV, multi-bar K nuclei lie energetically well above multi-hyperonic nuclei and it is unlikely that kaon condensation could occur in strong-interaction self-bound hadronic matter.

  12. Exact calculations of a quasi-bound state in the $\\bar{K} \\bar{K} N$ system

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically exact calculations of a quasi-bound state in the $\\bar{K}\\bar{K}N$ three-body system are performed using Faddeev-type AGS equations. As input two phenomenological and one chirally motivated $\\bar{K}N$ potentials are used, which describe the experimental information on the $\\bar{K}N$ system equally well and produce either a one- or two-pole structure of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonance. For the $\\bar{K}\\bar{K}$ interaction separable potentials are employed that are fitted to phase shifts obtained from two theoretical models. The first one is a phenomenological $\\bar{K}\\bar{K}$ potential based on meson exchange, which is derived by SU(3) symmetry arguments from the J\\"ulich $\\pi \\pi - \\bar{K} K$ coupled-channels model. The other interaction is a variant of the first one, which is adjusted to the $KK$ s-wave scattering length recently determined in lattice QCD simulations. The position and width of the $\\bar{K}\\bar{K}N$ quasi-bound state is evaluated in two ways: (i) by a direct pole search in the compl...

  13. How can double-barred galaxies be long-lived?

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Herve

    2015-01-01

    Double-barred galaxies account for almost one third of all barred galaxies, suggesting that secondary stellar bars, which are embedded in large-scale primary bars, are long-lived structures. However, up to now it has been hard to self-consistently simulate a disc galaxy that sustains two nested stellar bars for longer than a few rotation periods. N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including star formation recipes have been performed. Their properties have been compared with the most recent observational data in order to prove that they are representative of double-barred galaxies, even SB0. Overlaps in dynamical resonances and bar modes have been looked for using Fourier spectrograms. Double-barred galaxies have been successfully simulated with lifetimes as long as 7 Gyr. The stellar population of the secondary bar is younger on average than for the primary large-scale bar. An important feature of these simulations is the absence of any resonance overlap for several Gyr. In particular, there is no overlap betw...

  14. Non-axisymmetric vertical velocity dispersion distributions produced by bars

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P

    2016-01-01

    In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions ($\\sigma$) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct $\\sigma$ peaks on the minor axis of inner bar, which we termed "$\\sigma$-humps," while two local $\\sigma$ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., "$\\sigma$-hollows." Analysis of numerical simulations shows that $\\sigma_z$-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed $\\sigma$-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of $\\sigma_z$ in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower $\\sigma_z$ along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating $\\sigma_z$-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that $\\sigma_z$-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of star...

  15. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  16. Dependence of Barred Galaxy Fraction on Galaxy Properties and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Choi, Yun-Young

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than $M_{r}=-19.5+5$log$h$ at $0.02\\le z\\le0.05489$, drawn from the SDSS DR 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio $b/a>0.60$, we find 3,240 barred galaxies ($f_{bar}=30.4%$) which divide into 2,542 strong bars ($f_{SB1}=23.8%$) and 698 weak bars ($f_{SB2}=6.5%$). We find that $f_{SB1}$ increases as $u-r$ color becomes redder, and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion ($\\sigma\\simeq$150 km s$^{-1}$). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with $\\sigma>150$ km s${}^{-1}$. We also find that $f_{bar}$ ...

  17. Morphodynamics of a pseudomeandering gravel bar reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, J.; Billi, P.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of rivers in Tuscany have channel planforms, which are neither straight nor what is usually understood as meandering. In the typical case, they consist of an almost straight, slightly incised main channel fringed with large lateral bars and lunate-shaped embayments eroded into the former flood plain. In the past, these rivers have not been recognised as an individual category and have often been considered to be either braided or meandering. It is suggested here that this type of river planform be termed pseudomeandering. A typical pseudomeandering river (the Cecina River) is described and analysed to investigate the main factors responsible for producing this channel pattern. A study reach (100×300 m) was surveyed in detail and related to data on discharge, channel changes after floods and grain-size distribution of bed sediments. During 18 months of topographic monitoring, the inner lateral bar in the study reach expanded and migrated towards the concave outer bank which, concurrently, retreated by as much as 25 m. A sediment balance was constructed to analyse bar growth and bank retreat in relation to sediment supply and channel morphology. The conditions necessary to maintain the pseudomeandering morphology of these rivers by preventing them from developing a meandering planform, are discussed and interpreted as a combination of a few main factors such as the flashy character of floods, sediment supply (influenced by both natural processes and human impact), the morphological effects of discharges with contrasting return intervals and the short duration of flood events. Finally, the channel response to floods with variable sediment transport capacity (represented by bed shear stress) is analysed using a simple model. It is demonstrated that bend migration is associated with moderate floods while major floods are responsible for the development of chute channels, which act to suppress bend growth and maintain the low sinuosity configuration of

  18. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  19. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  20. P-bar ANDA at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, G., E-mail: g.schepers@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: P-bar ANDA Collaboration

    2012-12-15

    The P-bar ANDA experiment represents the central part of the hadron physics branch of the antiproton program of the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt/Germany. It will investigate antiproton annihilations with an almost 4{pi} acceptance from two sequent spectrometer in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. The gluon rich reaction product of antiproton-proton and antiproton-nucleus collisions on one hand and the high intensity and phase space cooled antiproton beam of the HESR on the other hand constitutes an ideal environment to study the sector of non-conventional hadronic states.

  1. CP Violation at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeche, Christophe; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-15

    We report recent measurements of the three CKM angles of the Unitarity Triangle using about 383 millions b{bar b} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The results of the angles ({beta}, {alpha}, {gamma}) of the unitarity triangle are consistent with Belle results, and with other CKM constraints such as the measurement of {epsilon}{sub K}, the length of the sides of the unitarity triangle determined from the measurements of {Delta}m{sub d}, {Delta}m{sub s}, |V{sub ub}|. This is an impressive confirmation of Standard Model in quark-flavor sector.

  2. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  3. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone... plant in the coal industry, to form part of its overall DMS plant. It replaced the spirals to treat the -1 mm material. Spirals are still the most commonly and accepted method used by the industry, but it seems as if the pioneering cyclone process...

  4. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  5. Oscillating propagators in heavy-dense QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar; Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2016-10-11

    Using Monte Carlo simulations and extended mean field theory calculations we show that the $3$-dimensional $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ spin model with complex external fields has non-monotonic correlators in some regions of its parameter space. This model serves as a proxy for heavy-dense QCD in $(3+1)$ dimensions. Non-monotonic correlators are intrinsically related to a complex mass spectrum and a liquid-like (or crystalline) behavior. A liquid phase could have implications for heavy-ion experiments, where it could leave detectable signals in the spatial correlations of baryons.

  6. Interference Alignment in Dense Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs

    2009-01-01

    We consider arbitrary dense wireless networks, in which $n$ nodes are placed in an arbitrary (deterministic) manner on a square region of unit area and communicate with each other over Gaussian fading channels. We provide inner and outer bounds for the $n\\times n$-dimensional unicast and the $n\\times 2^n$-dimensional multicast capacity regions of such a wireless network. These inner and outer bounds differ only by a factor $O(\\log(n))$, yielding a fairly tight scaling characterization of the entire regions. The communication schemes achieving the inner bounds use interference alignment as a central technique and are surprisingly simple.

  7. Phase transitions in dense 2-colour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boz, Tamer; Fister, Leonard; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate 2-colour QCD with 2 flavours of Wilson fermion at nonzero temperature T and quark chemical potential mu, with a pion mass of 700 MeV (m_pi/m_rho=0.8). From temperature scans at fixed mu we find that the critical temperature for the superfluid to normal transition depends only very weakly on mu above the onset chemical potential, while the deconfinement crossover temperature is clearly decreasing with mu. We also present results for the Landau-gauge gluon propagator in the hot and dense medium.

  8. Flavour Oscillations in Dense Baryonic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We suggest that fast neutral meson oscillations may occur in a dense baryonic matter, which can influence the balance of s/¯s quarks in the nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus interactions, if primordial multiplicities of neutral K 0, mesons are sufficiently asymmetrical. The phenomenon can occur even if CP symmetry is fully conserved, and it may be responsible for the enhanced sub-threshold production of multi-strange hyperons observed in the low-energy A+A and p+A interactions.

  9. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERTAS,DENIZ; GREST,GARY S.; HALSEY,THOMAS C.; DEVINE,DOV; SILBERT,LEONARDO E.

    2000-03-29

    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  10. The LHCb pentaquark as a $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c-\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c^*$ molecular state

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, L.; Oset, E.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis of the $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi K^- p$ reaction from where a recent LHCb experiment extracts a $\\Lambda(1405)$ contribution in the $K^- p$ spectrum close to threshold and two baryon states of hidden charm in the $J/\\psi\\,p$ spectrum. We recall that baryon states of this type have been theoretically predicted matching the mass, width and $J^P$ of the experiment, concretely some states built up from the $J/\\psi\\, N$, $\\bar D^* \\Lambda_c$, $\\bar D^* \\Sigma_c$, $\\bar D \\Sigma^*_c$ and $\\bar D^* \\Sigma^*_c$ coupled channels. We assume that the observed narrow state around 4450 MeV has this nature and we are able to describe simultaneously the shapes and relative strength of the the $K^- p$ mass distribution close to threshold and the peak of the $J/\\psi\\,p$ distribution, with values of the $J/\\psi\\, p$ coupling to the resonance in line with the theoretical ones. The non trivial matching of many properties gives support to a $J^P=3/2^-$ assignment to this state and to its nature as a ...

  11. Automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction using robust montmorillonite/epoxy-coated stir bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Saraji, Mohammad; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Herein we present a simple, rapid and low cost strategy for the preparation of robust stir bar coatings based on the combination of montmorillonite with epoxy resin. The composite stir bar was implemented in a novel automated multisyringe stir bar sorptive extraction system (MS-SBSE), and applied to the extraction of four chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as model compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The different experimental parameters of the MS-SBSE, such as sample volume, selection of the desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, sample solution pH, salt effect and extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.34μgL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of the method for the analytes at 10μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 3.5% to 4.1% (as intra-day RSD) and from 3.9% to 4.3% (as inter-day RSD at 50μgL(-1) concentration level). Batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different stir bars was 4.6-5.1%. The enrichment factors were between 30 and 49. In order to investigate the capability of the developed technique for real sample analysis, well water, wastewater and leachates from a solid waste treatment plant were satisfactorily analyzed.

  12. Implant-retained mandibular bar-supported overlay dentures: a finite element stress analysis of four different bar heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Dakhilalian, Mansour; Bajoghli, Farshad; Ghasemi, Ehsan; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan

    2012-04-01

    Proper stress distribution on dental implants is necessary in bar-retained implant overlay dentures. We aimed to comparatively assess this stress distribution according to different bar heights using finite element models. A three-dimensional (3D) computer model of mandible with 2 implants (ITI, 4.1 mm diameter and 12 mm length) in canine areas and an overlying implant-supported bar-retained overlay denture were simulated with 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-mm bar heights using ABAQUS software. A vertical force was applied to the left first molar and gradually increased from 0 to 50 N. The resultant stress distribution was evaluated. Bars of 1 and 2 mm in height transferred the least stress to the implants (3.882 and 3.896 MPa, respectively). The 0-mm height of the bar connection transferred the highest stress value (4.277 MPa). The amount of stress transferred by 3-mm heights of the bar connection was greater than that of 1- and 2-mm bar connections and smaller than that of 0-mm bar connection (4.165 kgN). This 3D finite element analysis study suggested that the use of Dolder bar attachment with 1- and 2-mm heights could be associated with appropriate stress distribution for implant-retained overlay dentures.

  13. The BAR Domain Protein PICK1 Controls Vesicle Number and Size in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; Jansen, Anna M; de Wit, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) is a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain protein involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Here, we identify a selective role for PICK1 in the biogenesis of large, dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in mouse chromaffin cells. PICK1 colocalized with syntaxin-6......, a marker for immature granules. In chromaffin cells isolated from a PICK1 knockout (KO) mouse the amount of exocytosis was reduced, while release kinetics and Ca(2+) sensitivity were unaffected. Vesicle-fusion events had a reduced frequency and released lower amounts of transmitter per vesicle (i.......e., reduced quantal size). This was paralleled by a reduction in the mean single-vesicle capacitance, estimated by averaging time-locked capacitance traces. EM confirmed that LDCVs were fewer and of markedly reduced size in the PICK1 KO, demonstrating that all phenotypes can be explained by reductions...

  14. Hadronic molecules with a ${\\bar{D}}$ meson in a medium

    CERN Document Server

    Caramés, T F; Klein, G; Tsushima, K; Vijande, J; Valcarce, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of a hot and dense medium on the binding energy of hadronic molecules with open-charm mesons. We focus on a recent chiral quark-model-based prediction of a molecular state in the $N \\bar D$ system. We analyze how the two-body thresholds and the hadron-hadron interactions are modified when quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings change in a function of the temperature and baryon density according to predictions of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We find that in some cases the molecular binding is enhanced in medium as compared to their free-space binding. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the search for exotic hadrons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions as well as in the forthcoming facilities FAIR or J-PARC.

  15. Anti-seismic behavior of HRB400 reinforced steel bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bin; SHENG Guang-min; GONG Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    The properties of anti-seismic HRB400 steel bars with 25 mm diameter were systematically investigated. The results showed that the properties of the HRB400 reinforced steel bars had been greatly enhanced comparing with HRB335 steel bars, i.e. coordination of strength and ductility, strain-aging sensibility, low temperature impact toughness, weld ability and high strain low cycle fatigue. The ductile-brittle transit temperatures of hot-rolled and strain-aged steel bars were evaluated as -17℃ and-8℃ respectively, and the low temperature impact toughness of HRB400 steel bars remains to be improved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction showed little vanadium existed in ferrite as VN, most of which existed in pearlite as alloy cementite which resulted in the declination of impact toughness. Methods were suggested to improve the anti-seismic properties of steel bars.

  16. Shepherding Tidal Debris with the Galactic Bar: The Ophiuchus Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Kohei; Sanders, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that g...

  17. Barómetro industrial LEON 50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Álvarez Martínez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Barómetro indusrial LEON 50 es un trabajo de investigación que tiene como objetivo esencial identificar características patrimoniales, financieras y económicas de una muestra de empresas que actúan dentro de la industria leonesa. El soporte de este estudio empírico es la información contable anual auditada que depositan en el Registro Mercantil las empresas integrantes de la muestra, recogida básicamente en el balance de situación, la cuenta de pérdidas y ganacias y el cuadro de finaciación referidos al bienio 2001-02. En esencia, el Barómetro Industrial LEON 50 pretende ser un avance en el análisis, diagnóstico y mejor conocimiento de la industria regional, aportando una visión actualizada sobre estrategias y pautas de actuación empresarial que serán objeto de observación en períodos

  18. Heavy quarkonium moving in a hot and dense deconfined nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Lata; Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of the complex potential between a heavy quark and its anti-quark, which are in relative motion with respect to a hot and dense medium. The heavy quark-antiquark complex potential is obtained by correcting both the Coulombic and the linear terms in the Cornell potential through a dielectric function estimated within real-time formalism using the hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation. We show the variation of both the real and the imaginary parts of the potential for different values of velocities when the bound state ($ Q\\bar{Q}$ pair) is aligned in the direction parallel as well as perpendicular to the relative velocity of the $ Q\\bar{Q}$ pair with thermal medium. With increase of the relative velocity the screening of the real part of potential becomes weaker at short distances and stronger at large distances for the parallel case. However, for the perpendicular case, the potential decreases with increase in velocity at all the distances which results in the larger screening of the pot...

  19. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DARIVA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  20. The symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Kie Sang

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case ...

  1. Symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kie Sang, E-mail: k.s.jeong@yonsei.ac.kr; Lee, Su Houng, E-mail: suhoung@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction on the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  2. Ion Beam Driven Warm Dense Matter Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.

    2008-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a 1-mm beam spot size, and 2-ns pulse length. As a technique for heating matter to high energy density, intense ion beams can deliver precise and uniform beam energy deposition, in a relatively large sample size, and can heat any solid-phase target material. The range of the beams in solid targets is less than 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using reduced density porous targets. We have developed a WDM target chamber and target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial experiments will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  3. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2016-08-09

    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels fail to achieve the percentage of the theoretical peak performance on GPUs that one would expect when running kernels with similar surface-to-volume ratio on hardware accelerators, i.e., the standard matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM). The authors propose adopting a recursive formulation, which enriches the TRMM and TRSM inner structures with GEMM calls and, therefore, reduces memory traffic while increasing the level of concurrency. The new implementation enables efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and mitigates the latency overhead, to run at the speed of the higher cache levels. Performance comparisons show up to eightfold and twofold speedups for large dense matrix sizes, against the existing state-of-the-art TRMM and TRSM implementations from NVIDIA cuBLAS, respectively, across various GPU generations. Once integrated into high-level Cholesky-based dense linear algebra algorithms, the performance impact on the overall applications demonstrates up to fourfold and twofold speedups, against the equivalent native implementations, linked with cuBLAS TRMM and TRSM kernels, respectively. The new TRMM/TRSM kernel implementations are part of the open-source KBLAS software library (http://ecrc.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Res-kblas.aspx) and are lined up for integration into the NVIDIA cuBLAS library in the upcoming v8.0 release.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Media

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2014-01-01

    We study the finite temperature and density effects on beta decay rates to compute their contributions to nucleosynthesis. QED type corrections to beta decay from the hot and dense background are estimated in terms of the statistical corrections to the self-mass of an electron. For this purpose, we re-examine the hot and dense background contributions to the electron mass and compute its effect to the beta decay rate, helium yield, energy density of the universe as well as the change in neutrino temperature from the first order contribution to the self-mass of electrons during these processes. We explicitly show that the thermal contribution to the helium abundance at T = m of a cooling universe 0.045 % is higher than the corresponding contribution to helium abundance of a heating universe 0.031% due to the existence of hot fermions before the beginning of nucleosynthesis and their absence after the nucleosynthesis, in the early universe. Thermal contribution to helium abundance was a simple quadratic functio...

  5. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R

    2007-10-02

    Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  6. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R J; Weber, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: glenzer1@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  7. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  8. Wireless Fractal Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Chen, Min; Hu, Long; Song, Jeungeun; Volk, Mojca; Humar, Iztok

    2017-04-12

    With the ever-growing number of mobile devices, there is an explosive expansion in mobile data services. This represents a challenge for the traditional cellular network architecture to cope with the massive wireless traffic generated by mobile media applications. To meet this challenge, research is currently focused on the introduction of a small cell base station (BS) due to its low transmit power consumption and flexibility of deployment. However, due to a complex deployment environment and low transmit power of small cell BSs, the coverage boundary of small cell BSs will not have a traditional regular shape. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the coverage boundary of an ultra-dense small cell network and give its main features: aeolotropy of path loss fading and fractal coverage boundary. Simple performance analysis is given, including coverage probability and transmission rate, etc., based on stochastic geometry theory and fractal theory. Finally, we present an application scene and discuss challenges in the ultra-dense small cell network.

  9. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.

  10. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  11. HERSCHEL SEARCH FOR O{sub 2} TOWARD THE ORION BAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Hollenbach, David J. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Black, John H.; Hjalmarson, Ake; Liseau, Rene [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Encrenaz, Pierre; Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Falgarone, Edith; Gerin, Maryvonne [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neufeld, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Snell, Ronald L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Van der Tak, Floris [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, and Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-06-10

    We report the results of a search for molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) toward the Orion Bar, a prominent photodissociation region at the southern edge of the H II region created by the luminous Trapezium stars. We observed the spectral region around the frequency of the O{sub 2} N{sub J} = 3{sub 3}-1{sub 2} transition at 487 GHz and the 5{sub 4}-3{sub 4} transition at 774 GHz using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory. Neither line was detected, but the 3{sigma} upper limits established here translate to a total line-of-sight O{sub 2} column density <1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} for an emitting region whose temperature is between 30 K and 250 K, or <1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} if the O{sub 2} emitting region is primarily at a temperature of {approx}<100 K. Because the Orion Bar is oriented nearly edge-on relative to our line of sight, the observed column density is enhanced by a factor estimated to be between 4 and 20 relative to the face-on value. Our upper limits imply that the face-on O{sub 2} column density is less than 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, a value that is below, and possibly well below, model predictions for gas with a density of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} exposed to a far-ultraviolet flux 10{sup 4} times the local value, conditions inferred from previous observations of the Orion Bar. The discrepancy might be resolved if (1) the adsorption energy of O atoms to ice is greater than 800 K; (2) the total face-on A{sub V} of the Bar is less than required for O{sub 2} to reach peak abundance; (3) the O{sub 2} emission arises within dense clumps with a small beam filling factor; or (4) the face-on depth into the Bar where O{sub 2} reaches its peak abundance, which is density dependent, corresponds to a sky position different from that sampled by our Herschel beams.

  12. $B_s$-$\\bar{B_s}$ mixing from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B

    2005-01-01

    We study the $B^0_s-\\bar{B^0_s}$ mixing amplitude in Standard Model by computing the relevant hadronic matrix element in the static limit of lattice HQET with the Neuberger light quark action. In the quenched approximation, and after matching to the $\\bar{\\rm MS}$ scheme in QCD, we obtain $\\hat{B}^{\\bar{\\rm MS},{\\rm NLO}}_{B_s}(m_b)=0.940(16)(22)$.

  13. Cereal and nut bars, nutritional quality and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Araya, E; Zacarías, I

    1995-06-01

    Six snack-type bars were manufactured, to contain oat and wheat germ and two different walnut levels, agglutinated with natural sweeteners and fats. Two bars also contained toasted amaranth with brown sugar cover and wheat extrudate, while two others, contained puffed instead of toasted amaranth. Water activity (Aw) and moisture were determined in the manufactured products. Quality and sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were carried out on the bars containing highest levels of walnuts (18%). The caloric contribution of the bars was computed by Atwater methods. The nutritional quality of the bars was determined by means of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Net Protein Ratio (NPR), and the results were used to obtain relative PER and relative NPR. Samples of the latter bars were kept under accelerated storage for 15 days at 37 degrees C and analyzed every 5 days to determine their Aw, moisture, peroxide and sensory acceptability. The drying time for the cereal - and walnut - based bars was 45 min at 120 degrees C. All bars presented a good fiber supply and the CN1 bar, containing only oat, wheat germ and walnut, had the greatest protein content. In the sensory evaluation, the walnut level with the greatest preference was 18%. PER and NPR values of the bars did not differ significantly showing values approximately 86% that of the casein value. During storage, the moisture and Aw decreased in all the bars. Peroxides remained within the acceptable ranges; acceptability based on sensory evaluation remained best in the bar with toasted amaranth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Faraday resonance in dynamical bar instability of differentially rotating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saijo, Motoyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear behaviour of the dynamically unstable rotating star for the bar mode by three-dimensional hydrodynamics in Newtonian gravity. We find that an oscillation along the rotation axis is induced throughout the growth of the unstable bar mode, and that its characteristic frequency is twice as that of the bar mode, which oscillates mainly along the equatorial plane. A possibility to observe Faraday resonance in gravitational waves is demonstrated and discussed.

  15. STABILIZER BARS – CALCULATIONS, CONSTRUCTION AND PRODUCTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marek WITTEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the calculation and production methods for stabilizer bars. Modern technological and structural solutions in contemporary cars are reflected also in the construction and manufacturing of stabilizer bars. A proper construction and the selection of parameters influence the strength properties, the weight, durability and reliability as well as the selection of an appropriate production method. The selection of the manufacturing process has a fundamental impact on the quality and durability of the stabilizer bars.

  16. Economic Impact of Cruise Ship Passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd; Lynch, Colleen; McConnon, James; Allen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report examines the economic impact of cruise ship passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine. In 2002, 64 cruise ships docked in Bar Harbor carrying about 120,000 passengers and crewmembers. The analysis presented in the report is based on 1,080 passenger surveys conducted between August and October of 2002. Economic impact figures are based on a total of 97,190 passengers, which is the capacity of the 64 cruise ships that were scheduled to visit Bar Harbor in 2002.

  17. Shanghai’s Bars:Urban Romance and Sadness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuSha

    2002-01-01

    When speaking of Shanghai’s bars, what comes to people’s minds first must be Hengshan Street, a road known for its variety of bars. For many people, Hengshan Street is a landmark. On this street, bars in bold and unrestrained styles appeal to visitors. In fact, the whole street is a large open bar: the hurly-burly of "Hello" permeates every corner of the street; the resonant singing of "Rainbow Potato" echoes in the night sky; the rock’n roll of "Full House" fascinates passers-by with the wildness of John Lennon; even

  18. Comparing photometric results of real and N-body bars

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E; Carrasco, L; Bosma, A; De Souza, R E; Recillas, E

    2009-01-01

    We compare the results of the photometrical analysis of barred galaxies with those of a similar analysis from N-body simulations. The photometry is for a sample of nine barred galaxies observed in the J and Ks bands with the CANICA near infrared (NIR) camera at the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofisico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The comparison includes radial ellipticity profiles and surface brightness (density for the N-body galaxies) profiles along the bar major and minor axes. We find very good agreement, arguing that the exchange of angular momentum within the galaxy plays a determinant role in the evolution of barred galaxies.

  19. Musculoskeletal demands of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2007-09-01

    Kinetic analyses of the chalked bar longswing on high bar and its associated progressions were used to explain musculoskeletal contributions during the performance of these skills. Data on four international male gymnasts performing three series of chalked bar longswings and eight progressions were recorded. Customized body segment inertia parameters, two-dimensional kinematics (50 Hz), and bar forces (1000 Hz) were used as input to inverse dynamic modelling. The analysis focused on the relative contributions of the knees, hips, and shoulders with root mean squared differences between the chalked bar longswing and the progressions being used to rank the progressions. Seventy per cent of the total work occurred between 200 degrees and 240 degrees of angular rotation in the longswing, 67% of which was contributed by the shoulders. The shoulders were also dominant in all progressions, with the largest such contribution occurring in the looped bar longswing with "no action". The least similar progression was the looped bar pendulum swing, while the most similar was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. This study provides a useful means for ranking progressions based on their kinetic similarity to the chalked bar longswing and builds on earlier research in identifying that progressions can be classified into those similar in physical demand (kinetics) and those similar in geometry (kinematics).

  20. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...... study is carried out regarding the influence of the number of periods at various frequencies within a semi-infinite bar, stop bands are illustrated at certain periodic intervals within the structure. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 500 Hz. Results from both...

  1. Non-uniform impact excitation of a cylindrical bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Baruch; Dorogoy, Avraham; Wang, Zonggang

    2009-06-01

    An experimental and numerical study of a non-uniform impact excitation of a circular bar is reported. In experiments, nine strikers with different contact area were accelerated against a circular bar. Axial surface strain of the impacted bar was measured at several distances from the impinged end to include the near and the far fields. The same experimental conditions were solved numerically using a commercial finite element code. It was demonstrated that the far-field response is insensitive to both the size and the form of the striker's colliding end. The distance at which such insensitivity is set is estimated to be approximately one and a half bar diameters.

  2. Mechanical Engineering Safety Note PEPC Spreader Bar Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, D.

    2001-08-26

    The PEPC Spreader Bar Assembly consists of a spreader bar that will be attached to the PEPC Cell Housing or the Midplane Transportation Fixture during operation. While in use in the OAB (Optics Assembly Building), the Spreader Bar Assembly will be manipulated by the NOID (New Optics Insertion Device). The other critical components of the assembly are the three angular contact bearing swivels that attach the spreader bar to the lifting mechanism and the corner clamps which are used to capture the Cell Housing.

  3. Strain analysis of nonlocal viscoelastic Kelvin bar in tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue-chuan; LEI Yong-jun; ZHOU Jian-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on viscoelastic Kelvin model and nonlocal relationship of strain and stress, a nonlocal constitutive relationship of viscoelasticity is obtained and the strain response of a bar in tension is studied. By transforming governing equation of the strain analysis into Volterra integration form and by choosing a symmetric exponential form of kernel function and adapting Neumann series, the closed-form solution of strain field of the bar is obtained. The creep process of the bar is presented. When time approaches infinite, the strain of bar is equal to the one of nonlocal elasticity.

  4. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-11-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  5. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  6. Multipacting Analysis of the Superconducting Parallel-bar Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen,

    2011-03-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is a deflecting/crabbing cavity with attractive properties, compared to other conventional designs, that is being considered for a number of applications. Multipacting can be a limiting factor to the performance of in any superconducting structure. In the parallel-bar cavity the main contribution to the deflection is due to the transverse deflecting voltage, between the parallel bars, making the design potentially prone to multipacting. This paper presents the results of analytical calculations and numerical simulations of multipacting in the parallel-bar cavity with resonant voltage, impact energies and corresponding particle trajectories.

  7. Decay of Langmuir wave in dense plasmas and warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Son, S; Moon, Sung Joon

    2010-01-01

    The decays of the Langmuir waves in dense plasmas are computed using the dielectric function theory widely used in the solid state physics. Four cases are considered: a classical plasma, a Maxwellian plasma, a degenerate quantum plasma, and a partially degenerate plasma. The result is considerably different from the conventional Landau damping theory.

  8. The Quark Flavor Violating Higgs Decay $h \\rightarrow \\bar b s + b \\bar s$ in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, M E; Rehman, M

    2015-01-01

    We study the quark flavor violating Higgs-boson decay $h \\rightarrow \\bar b s + b \\bar s$ in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The decay is analyzed first in a model independent, and in a second step in the minimal flavor violationg (MFV) Constrained MSSM. The experimental constraints from $B$-Physics observables (BPO) and electroweak precision observables (EWPO) are also calculated and imposed on the parameter space. It is shown that in some cases the EWPO restrict the flavor violating parameter space stronger than the BPO. In the model independent analysis values of ${\\cal O}(10^{-4})$ can be found for ${\\rm BR}(h \\rightarrow \\bar b s + b \\bar s)$. In the MFV CMSSM such results can only be obtained in very restricted parts of the parameter space. The results show that it is not excluded to observe the decay $h \\rightarrow \\bar b s + b \\bar s$ in the MSSM at future $e^+e^-$ colliders.

  9. The Star Formation Rate - Dense Gas Relation in the Nuclei of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Desika; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the star formation rate (SFR) and dense molecular gas mass in the nuclei of galaxies. To do this, we utilize the observed 850 micron luminosity as a proxy for the infrared luminosity and SFR, and correlate this with the observed CO (J=3-2) luminosity. We find tentative evidence that the LIR-CO (J=3-2) index is similar to the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) index (N ~ 1.5) in the central ~1.7 kpc of galaxies, and flattens to a roughly linear index when including emission from the entire galaxy. This result may imply that the volumetric Schmidt relation is the underlying driver behind the observed SFR-dense gas correlations, and provides tentative confirmation for recent numerical models. While the data exclude the possibility of a constant LIR-CO (J=3-2) index for both galaxy nuclei and global measurements at the ~80% confidence level, the considerable error bars cannot preclude alternative interpretations.

  10. Probe $\\Lambda - \\bar{\\Lambda}$ oscillation in $J/\\psi \\rightarrow \\Lambda\\,\\bar\\Lambda$ decay at BES-III

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, X. W.; H.B. Li; Lu, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possible searching for the oscillation by coherent $\\Lambda\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production in $J/\\psi \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\bar{\\Lambda}$ decay process. The sensitivity of measurement of $\\Lambda - \\bar{\\Lambda}$ oscillation in the external field at BES-III experiment is considered. These considerations indicate an alternative way to probe the $\\Delta B =2$ amplitude in addition to neutron oscillation experiments. Both coherent and time-dependent information can be used to extract $\\L...

  11. Compression and ablation of the photo-irradiated molecular cloud the Orion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Cernicharo, José; Chapillon, Edwige; Fuente, Asunción; Gerin, Maryvonne; Joblin, Christine; Marcelino, Nuria; Pilleri, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The Orion Bar is the archetypal edge-on molecular cloud surface illuminated by strong ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars. Our relative closeness to the Orion nebula (about 1,350 light years away from Earth) means that we can study the effects of stellar feedback on the parental cloud in detail. Visible-light observations of the Orion Bar show that the transition between the hot ionized gas and the warm neutral atomic gas (the ionization front) is spatially well separated from the transition between atomic and molecular gas (the dissociation front), by about 15 arcseconds or 6,200 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Static equilibrium models used to interpret previous far-infrared and radio observations of the neutral gas in the Orion Bar (typically at 10-20 arcsecond resolution) predict an inhomogeneous cloud structure comprised of dense clumps embedded in a lower-density extended gas component. Here we report one-arcsecond-resolution millimetre-wave images that allow us to resolve the molecular cloud surface. In contrast to stationary model predictions, there is no appreciable offset between the peak of the H2 vibrational emission (delineating the H/H2 transition) and the edge of the observed CO and HCO+ emission. This implies that the H/H2 and C+/C/CO transition zones are very close. We find a fragmented ridge of high-density substructures, photoablative gas flows and instabilities at the molecular cloud surface. The results suggest that the cloud edge has been compressed by a high-pressure wave that is moving into the molecular cloud, demonstrating that dynamical and non-equilibrium effects are important for the cloud evolution.

  12. Compression and ablation of the photo-irradiated molecular cloud the Orion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Cernicharo, José; Chapillon, Edwige; Fuente, Asunción; Gerin, Maryvonne; Joblin, Christine; Marcelino, Nuria; Pilleri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Bar is the archetypal edge-on molecular cloud surface illuminated by strong ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars. Owing to the close distance to Orion (about 1,350 light-year), the effects of stellar feedback on the parental cloud can be studied in detail. Visible-light observations of the Bar1 show that the transition between the hot ionised gas and the warm neutral atomic gas (the ionisation front) is spatially well separated from the transition from atomic to molecular gas (the dissociation front): about 15 arcseconds or 6,200 astronomical units. (One astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance.) Static equilibrium models2,3 used to interpret previous far-infrared and radio observations of the neutral gas in the Bar4,5,6 (typically at 10-20 arcsecond resolution) predict an inhomogeneous cloud structure consisting of dense clumps embedded in a lower density extended gas component. Here we report 1 arcsecond resolution millimetre-wave images that allow us to resolve the molecular cloud surface and constrain the gas density and temperature structures at small spatial scales. In contrast to stationary model predictions7,8,9, there is no appreciable offset between the peak of the H2 vibrational emission (delineating the H/H2 transition) and the edge of the observed CO and HCO+ emission. This implies that the H/H2 and C+/C/CO transition zones are very close. These observations reveal a fragmented ridge of high-density substructures, photo-ablative gas flows and instabilities at the molecular cloud surface. They suggest that the cloud edge has been compressed by a high-pressure wave that currently moves into the molecular cloud. The images demonstrate that dynamical and nonequilibrium effects are important. Thus, they should be included in any realistic description of irradiated interstellar matter. PMID:27509859

  13. Sound scattering in dense granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA XiaoPing; LAURENT J; KHIDAS Y; LANGLOIS V

    2009-01-01

    The sound propagation in a dense granular medium is basically characterized by the ratio of wave-length to the grain size. Two types of wave transport are distinguished: one corresponds to coherent waves in the long wavelength limit, the other to short-wavelength scattered waves by the inhomoge-neous contact force networks. These multiply scattered elastic waves are shown to exhibit a diffusive characteristics of transport over long distances of propagation. Determination of the transport mean free path l* and the inelastic absorption (Q~(-1)) allows the inference of the structural properties of the material such as the heterogeneity and internal dissipation. The relevance of our experiments for seismological applications is discussed. Moreover, we apply the correlation technique of the configu-ration-specific sound scattering to monitoring the dynamic behaviour of the granular medium (irre-versible rearrangements) under strong vibration, shearing and thermal cycling, respectively.

  14. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  15. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ravindra Kumar

    2009-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high intensity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their modeling. After a description of the basic phenomena like multiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is presented. Specific phenomena are chosen for illustration of the scientific and technological possibilities – simulation of astrophysical phenomena, relativistic nonlinear optics, laser wakefield acceleration, laser fusion, ultrafast real time X-ray diffraction, application of the particle beams produced from the plasma for medical therapies etc. A survey of the Indian activities in this research area appears at the end.

  16. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  17. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  18. Carbon nitride frameworks and dense crystalline polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Chris J.; Salamat, Ashkan; Bojdys, Michael J.; Needs, Richard J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2016-09-01

    We used ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to investigate polymorphism in C3N4 carbon nitride as a function of pressure. Our calculations reveal new framework structures, including a particularly stable chiral polymorph of space group P 43212 containing mixed s p2 and s p3 bonding, that we have produced experimentally and recovered to ambient conditions. As pressure is increased a sequence of structures with fully s p3 -bonded C atoms and three-fold-coordinated N atoms is predicted, culminating in a dense P n m a phase above 250 GPa. Beyond 650 GPa we find that C3N4 becomes unstable to decomposition into diamond and pyrite-structured CN2.

  19. Plasmon resonance in warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, R; Bornath, T; Fortmann, C; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Wierling, A; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G

    2008-02-21

    Collective Thomson scattering with extreme ultraviolet light or x-rays is shown to allow for a robust measurement of the free electron density in dense plasmas. Collective excitations like plasmons appear as maxima in the scattering signal. Their frequency position can directly be related to the free electron density. The range of applicability of the standard Gross-Bohm dispersion relation and of an improved dispersion relation in comparison to calculations based on the dielectric function in random phase approximation is investigated. More important, this well-established treatment of Thomson scattering on free electrons is generalized in the Born-Mermin approximation by including collisions. We show that, in the transition region from collective to non-collective scattering, the consideration of collisions is important.

  20. Properties of industrial dense gas plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, E. M.; Forney, L. J.

    Hazardous gases and vapors are often discharged into the atmosphere from industrial plants during catastrophic events (e.g. Union Carbide incident in Bhopal, India). In many cases the discharged components are more dense than air and settle to the ground surface downstream from the stack exit. In the present paper, the buoyant plume model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass. 19, 585-590.) has been altered to predict the properties of hazardous discharges. In particular, the plume impingement point, radius and concentration are predicted for typical stack exit conditions, wind speeds and temperature profiles. Asymptotic expressions for plume properties at the impingement point are also derived for a constant crosswind and neutral temperature profile. These formulae are shown to be useful for all conditions.

  1. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  2. Dense QCD: a Holographic Dyonic Salt

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque; Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Dense QCD at zero temperature with a large number of colors is a crystal. We show that in the holographic dual description, the crystal is made out of pairs of dyons with $e=g=\\pm 1$ charges in a salt-like arrangement. We argue that with increasing density the dyon masses and topological charges equalize, turning the salt-like configuration to a bcc of half-instantons. The latter is dual to a cubic crystal of half-skyrmions. We estimate the transition from an fcc crystal of instantons to a bcc crystal of dyons to about 3 times nuclear matter density with a dyon binding energy of about 180 MeV.

  3. Dynamic structure of dense krypton gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; Salacuse, J. J.; Schommers, W.; Ram, J.

    1984-07-01

    We have made molecular-dynamics computer simulations of dense krypton gas (10.6×1027 atoms/m3 and 296 K) using reasonably realistic pair potentials. Comparisons are made with the recent experimental data[P. A. Egelstaff et al., Phys. Rev. A 27, 1106 (1983)] for the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) over the range 0.4

  4. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  5. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  6. /bar p/p collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Human Rights and Dignity Behind Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Richter, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Death and dying in prisons constitute a topic of growing importance across the globe. Based on the contributions made in this special issue, we reflect on current debates and outline recommendations for dialogue and practice. Scientific dialogue across the Atlantic, and across the globe, provides insights into different national carceral systems and their ways of dealing with end of life behind bars. At the same time, the comparison also helps to identify basic needs and practices that can work in various settings. We identify several issues where further efforts need to be taken to deepen the dialogue. A common ground for all advancement of legislation and practice constitute the minimal level of rights to which every human being is entitled.

  8. Bars and spheroids in gravimetry problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sizikov, Valery

    2016-01-01

    The direct gravimetry problem is solved by dividing each deposit body into a set of vertical adjoining bars, whereas in the inverse problem, each deposit body is modelled by a homogeneous ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid). Well-known formulae for the z-component of gravitational intensity for a spheroid are transformed to a convenient form. Parameters of a spheroid are determined by minimizing the Tikhonov smoothing functional with constraints on the parameters, which makes the ill-posed inverse problem by unique and stable. The Bulakh algorithm for initial estimating the depth and mass of a deposit is modified. The proposed technique is illustrated by numerical model examples of deposits in the form of two and five bodies. The inverse gravimetry problem is interpreted as a gravitational tomography problem or, in other words, as "introscopy" of Earth's crust and mantle.

  9. X-ray scattering from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSherry, D.J

    2000-09-01

    Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The Laser-Produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron Al layer, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, broadly speaking, did not always agree with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron layer of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, where placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays where produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times. (author)

  10. X-ray scattering from dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Declan Joseph

    Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The laser produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, did not always agree broadly with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, were placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays were produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, that the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times.

  11. Dense gas dispersion in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-09-01

    Dense gas dispersion is characterized by buoyancy induced gravity currents and reduction of the vertical mixing. Liquefied gas releases from industrial accidents are cold because of the heat of evaporation which determines the density for a given concentration and physical properties. The temperature deficit is moderated by the heat flux from the ground, and this convection is an additional source of turbulence which affects the mixing. A simple model as the soil heat flux is used to estimate the ability of the ground to sustain the heat flux during release. The initial enthalpy, release rate, initial entrainment and momentum are discussed for generic source types and the interaction with obstacles is considered. In the MTH project BA experiments source with and without momentum were applied. The continuously released propane gas passed a two-dimensional removable obstacle perpendicular to the wind direction. Ground-level gas concentrations and vertical profiles of concentration, temperature, wind speed and turbulence were measured in front of and behind the obstacle. Ultrasonic anemometers providing fast velocity and concentration signals were mounted at three levels on the masts. The observed turbulence was influenced by the stability and the initial momentum of the jet releases. Additional information were taken from the `Dessert tortoise` ammonia jet releases, from the `Fladis` experiment with transition from dense to passive dispersion, and from the `Thorney Island` continuous releases of isothermal freon mixtures. The heat flux was found to moderate the negative buoyancy in both the propane and ammonia experiments. The heat flux measurements are compared to an estimate by analogy with surface layer theory. (au) 41 tabs., 146 ills., 189 refs.

  12. Starbursts in Barred Spiral Galaxies; 2, Molecular and Optical Study of Three Wolf-Rayet Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, T; Considère, S; Davoust, E

    1997-01-01

    We have searched for dense molecular gas in three barred spiral galaxies with young starbursts, NGC 3049, 5430 and 6764, which are known Wolf-Rayet galaxies. We detected HCN in the latter two, and CS was marginally detected in NGC 6764. The dense molecular gas contents of the three galaxies are compared to those of other galaxies and to other indicators of star formation. The HCN luminosities (relative to the CO and far infrared ones) in these galaxies with very young starbursts are consistent with those observed in galaxies with older starbursts and in normal galaxies, and so are our upper limits to the CS intensities (relative to CO). The starburst ages evaluated from our spectrophotometric observations are in the range 3.4 to 6.0 Myr. A circum-nuclear ring is apparent on our images of NGC 5430, the galaxy with the oldest central starburst; this galaxy also has the widest molecular lines. The central star formation rates derived from the Halpha luminosity are consistent with those expected from the global F...

  13. New Observables In the Decay Mode \\bar B_d \\-->\\bar K^{0*} \\ell^+ \\ell^-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede, U.; /Imperial Coll., London; Hurth, T.; /CERN /SLAC; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Reece, W.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2008-08-07

    We discuss the large set of observables available from the angular distributions of the decay {bar B}{sub d} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. We present a NLO analysis of all observables based on the QCD factorization approach in the low-dilepton mass region and an estimate of {Lambda}/m{sub b} corrections. Moreover, we discuss their sensitivity to new physics. We explore the experimental sensitivities at LHCb (10 fb{sup -1}) and SuperLHCb (100 fb{sup -1}) based on a full-angular fit method and explore the sensitivity to right handed currents. We also show that the previously discussed transversity amplitude A{sub T}{sup (1)} cannot be measured at the LHCb experiment or at future B factory experiments as it requires a measurement of the spin of the final state particles.

  14. Gas inflow patterns and nuclear rings in barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear rings, dust lanes, and nuclear spirals are common structures in the inner region of barred galaxies, with their shapes and properties linked to the physical parameters of the galaxies. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study gas inflow patterns in barred galaxies, with special attention on the nuclear rings. The location and thickness of nuclear ringsare tightly correlated with galactic properties, such as the bar pattern speed and bulge central density, within certain ranges. We identify the backbone of nuclear rings with a major orbital family of bars. The rings form exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of inflowing gas balances the centrifugal force. We propose a new simple method to predict the bar pattern speed for barred galaxies possessing a nuclear ring, without actually doing simulations. We apply this method to some real galaxies and find that our predicted bar pattern speed compare reasonably well with other estimates. Our study may have important implications for using nuclear ringsto measure the parameters of real barred galaxies with detailed gas kinematics. We have also extended current hydrodynamical simulations to model gas features in the Milky Way.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  16. Stellar, Gas, and Dark Matter Content of Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  17. A Morphological and Statistical Analysis of Ansae in Barred Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Valpuesta, I; Buta, R

    2007-01-01

    Many barred galaxies show a set of symmetric enhancements at the ends of the stellar bar, called {\\it ansae}, or the ``handles'' of the bar. The ansa bars have been in the literature for some decades, but their origin has still not been specifically addressed, although, they could be related to the growth process of bars. But even though ansae have been known for a long time, no statistical analysis of their relative frequency of occurrence has been performed yet. Similarly, there has been no study of the varieties in morphology of ansae even though significant morphological variations are known to characterise the features. In this paper, we make a quantitative analysis of the occurrence of ansae in barred galaxies, making use of {\\it The de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies} by Buta and coworkers. We find that $\\sim 40%$ of SB0's show ansae in their bars, thus confirming that ansae are common features in barred lenticulars. The ansa frequency decreases dramatically with later types, and hardly any ansae are fou...

  18. Nutrition Education Strategies: A Trip to the Salad Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Kotch, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Learning activities related to visiting a salad bar can help students apply basic nutrition concepts to real-life situations and make healthier choices at restaurants and in food preparation. The paper describes a class activity involving students in setting up a salad bar, making choices among ingredients and dressings, and taking home leftovers.…

  19. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a LCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log Mstr /M < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs to weak bars to strongly barred systems (= 20%). Bars in these systems develop after redshift = 1.3, on timescales that depend sen- sitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, = 10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitation- ally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the halos they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90%...

  20. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  1. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  2. The X-Bar Theory of Phrase Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, Andras; Pullman, Geoffrey K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a formalization of the content of X-bar theory reveals very little substance in its claims. Six conditions that encapsulate X-bar theory are discussed: lexicality, succession, uniformity, maximality, centrality, and optionality. (50 references) (JL)

  3. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  4. Stellar line-strength index gradients along bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Isabel; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Zurita, Almudena; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of stellar line indices along the bar region for a sample of six early-type galaxies. We find positive gradients within the bar region in the metal indices in four of the six galaxies, and opposite trends in the other two. These latter two galaxies are classified as SAB a

  5. Gas accretion on spiral galaxies bar formation and renewal

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F

    2002-01-01

    The effects of gas accretion on spiral disk dynamics and stability are studied through N-body simulations, including star formation and gas/stars mass exchange. The detailed processes of bar formation, bar destruction and bar re-formation are followed, while in the same time the disk to bulge ratio is varying. The accreted gas might be first prevented to flow inwards to the center by the bar gravity torques, which maintains it to the outer Lindblad resonance. While the first bar is weakening, the accreted gas replenishes the disk, increasing the disk-to-bulge ratio, and the disk self-gravity. A second bar is then unstable, with a higher pattern speed, due both to the increased mass, and shorter bar length. Three or four bar episodes have been followed over a Hubble time. Their strength is decreasing with time, while their pattern speed is increasing. Detailed balance of the angular momentum transfer and evolution can account for these processes. The gas recycled through star formation, and rejected through st...

  6. Wave boundary layer hydrodynamics during onshore bar migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A.; Ruessink, G.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    To study onshore bar migration and the accompanying intra-wave sediment transport a wave flume experiment was conducted. The wave flume had a rigid bottom with a single bar profile. The focus of the experiment was to measure the hydrodynamics in the wave bottom boundary layer. The results show that

  7. Calculation of error bars for laser damage observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    The use of the error bar is a critical means of communicating the quality of individual data points and a processed result. Understanding the error bar for a processed measurement depends on the measurement technique being used and is the subject of many recent works, as such, the paper will confine its scope to the determination of the error bar on a single data point. Many investigators either ignore the error bar altogether or use a "one size error fits all" method, both of these approaches are poor procedure and misleading. It is the goal of this work to lift the veil of mysticism surrounding error bars for damage observations and make their description, calculation and use, easy and commonplace. This paper will rigorously derive the error bar size as a function of the experimental parameters and observed data and will concentrate on the dependent variable, the cumulative probability of damage. The paper will begin with a discussion of the error bar as a measure of data quality or reliability. The expression for the variance in the parameters is derived via standard methods and converted to a standard deviation. The concept of the coverage factor is introduced to scale the error bar to the desired confidence level, completing the derivation

  8. Theoretical approaches to low energy $\\bar{K}N$ interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cieply, Ales

    2016-01-01

    We provide a direct comparison of modern theoretical approaches based on the SU(3) chiral dynamics and describing the low energy $\\bar{K}N$ data. The model predictions for the $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes and pole content of the models are discussed.

  9. A bond model for ribbed bars based on concrete confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Uijl, J.A.; Bigaj, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new bond model for ribbed bars embedded in concrete has been developed. The model is based on the confining capacity of the concrete surrounding the bar. This confinement capacity is evaluated with the help of a thick-wailed-cylinder model, with which the relation between the radial displacement

  10. On the microlensing optical depth of the galactic bar

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, S

    1996-01-01

    The microlensing probability (optical depth \\tau) toward the Galactic center carries information about the mass distribution of the Galactic bulge/bar, so can be used to constrain the very uncertain shape parameters of the bar. We find tau depends on the bar mass, radial profile, angle, axis scale lengths and boxyness by a few simple analytical formulae, which shows: (1) \\tau is proportional to the mass of the bar, M. (2) \\tau falls along the minor axis with a strong gradient. (3) An oblate bulge can have more optical depth than a triaxial bar if the bar angle \\alpha>45 degress. (4) \\tau is the largest if the angle \\alpha and the axis ratio y_0/x_0 conspires so that y_0/x_0=\\tan \\alpha. (5) At a fixed field on the minor axis but away from the center, boxy bars with a flat density profile tend to give a larger optical depth than ellipsoidal bars with a steep profile. (6) Main sequence sources should have a significantly lower (20-50\\% lower) optical depth than red clump giants if main sequence stars are not ob...

  11. Predictions for the $\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} X (YZ)$ and $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi X (YZ)$ with $X(4160), Y(3940), Z(3930)$

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Wei-Hong; Oset, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the decay of $\\bar B^0 \\to \\bar K^{*0} R$ and $\\bar B^0_s \\to \\phi R$ with $R$ being the $X(4160)$, $Y(3940)$, $Z(3930)$ resonances. Under the assumption that these states are dynamically generated from the vector-vector interaction, as has been concluded from several theoretical studies, we use a reaction mechanism of quark production at the elementary level, followed by hadronization of one final $q \\bar q$ pair into two vectors and posterior final state interaction of this pair of vector mesons to produce the resonances. With this procedure we are able to predict five ratios for these decays, which are closely linked to the dynamical nature of these states, and also predict the order of magnitude of the branching ratios which we find of the order of $10^{-4}$, well within the present measurable range. The measurement of these decays rates can help unravel the nature of these resonances.

  12. Performance with Aspect Ratio of 1.0 and 550MPa Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seokchul; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon; Yim, Sangjoon [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    ACI 349, the matrix of KEPIC SNC code, also limits the yield strength of the bars to 60,000psi (420Mpa). But raising the yield strength of flexural bars to 80,000psi (550MPa) is in progress. For the case of shear bar, however, yield strength of shear and torsion bar are limited to 60,000psi (420MPa) to restrain crack width against diagonal tension. According to recent domestic and foreign studies, high-strength bars are possible to use as shear reinforcement bars. The yield strength of shear bars in Korea and European countries is higher than the yield strength limited by KEPIC and ACI. To use shear bar (horizontal bar) having higher yield strength for the wall used in a nuclear power plant, experiments with Gr.80 bars were performed in this study to evaluate the wall performance and to verify applicability of high-strength bars (Gr.80) as shear bars. To use 550MPa bars for the walls of a nuclear power plant structure, walls made by using 550MPa bars are compared and analyzed with walls made by using 420MPa bars as current code KEPIC SNC (ACI349) 420MPa is limited to. It is revealed that walls using 550MPa grade bar have 67% higher shear strength than walls using bars in accordance with current code. In addition, walls using bars having 550MPa strength show similar behavior to walls using bars having typical strength. However, maximum strength of walls using high strength bars showed 8% reduction in shear strength when compare with maximum strength of walls using bars having typical strength. We found that ductility capability of high-strength bar is not so very different from that of typical strength bar. This study is used as a reference material for the safe application of bars having higher maximum yield strength of shear bar, 550MPa, rather than bars having the maximum yield strength limited by current code, 420MPa.

  13. The ratio of pattern speeds in double-barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Font, Joan; Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Fathi, Kambiz; Epinat, Benoît; Amram, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained two-dimensional velocity fields in the ionized gas of a set of 8 double-barred galaxies, at high spatial and spectral resolution, using their H$\\alpha$ emission fields measured with a scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Using the technique by which phase reversals in the non-circular motion indicate a radius of corotation, taking advantage of the high angular and velocity resolution we have obtained the corotation radii and the pattern speeds of both the major bar and the small central bar in each of the galaxies; there are few such measurements in the literature. Our results show that the inner bar rotates more rapidly than the outer bar by a factor between 3.3 and 3.6.

  14. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  15. Study of aging and embrittlement of microalloyed steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, B.; Perez, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-10-01

    The aging of hooks, anchors, and other bent reinforcing steel bars in concrete structures are considered in modern international standards. Rebend test procedures have been designed in order to predict the aging embrittlement susceptibility by submerging bent reinforcing bar specimens in boiling water. Subsequently the bars are rebent or straightened in order to determine the loss of ductility or embrittlement of the aged material. The present work considers the influence of carbon, sulfur, and niobium on the performance of reinforcing bars in rebend tests of 300 heats of microalloyed steel bars with a variety of compositions. The microstructural evidence and the statistical results clearly indicate the strong influence of carbon and sulfur on rebend failure, while niobium-rich precipitates contribute to the hardening of the ferrite grains during aging.

  16. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has...... been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order...

  17. Disc heating: possible link between weak bars and superthin galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2014-01-01

    The extreme flatness of stellar discs in superthin galaxies is puzzling and the apparent dearth of these objects in cosmological simulation poses challenging problem to the standard cold dark matter paradigm. Irrespective of mergers or accretion that a galaxy might be going through, stars are heated as they get older while they interact with the spirals and bars which are ubiquitous in disc galaxies -- leading to a puffed up stellar disc. It remains unclear how superthin galaxies maintain their thinness through the cosmic evolution. We follow the internal evolution of a sample of 16 initially extremely thin stellar discs using collisionless N-body simulation. All of these discs eventually form a bar in their central region. Depending on the initial condition, some of these stellar discs readily form strong bars while others grow weak bars over secular evolution time scale. We show that galaxies with strong bars heat the stars very efficiently, eventually making their stellar discs thicker. On the other hand, ...

  18. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  19. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  20. meta-DENSE complex acquisition for reduced intravoxel dephasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2004-08-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a meta-DENSE readout and RF phase cycling to suppress the STEAM anti-echo is described for reducing intravoxel dephasing signal loss. This RF phase cycling scheme, when combined with existing meta-DENSE suppression of the T1 recovering signal, yields higher quality DENSE myocardial strain maps. Phantom and human images are provided to demonstrate the technique, which is capable of acquiring phase contrast displacement encoded images at low encoding gradient strengths providing better spatial resolution and less signal loss due to intravoxel dephasing than prior methods.

  1. New light on the formation and evolution of bars - Trends in the stellar line-strength indices distribution inside the bar region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, I.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Zurita, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. Our aim is to study the stellar content of the bar region to constrain its formation and evolution. Methods. Line-strength indices in the bar region of a sample of 6 barred galaxies were employed to derive age and metallicity gradients along the bars using stellar population models. Results. W

  2. Finljandija "otmõvajet" levuju drevessinu / Sergei Tushin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tushin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Venemaal ebaseaduslikult raiutud metsa ostjateks on Soome ettevõtjad, rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Greenpeace üleskutse metsavastaste kuritegude lõpetamiseks. Soome Euroopa Liidu eesistujamaana peaks taotlema euroliidult vastava seadusandluse vastuvõtmist, mis takistaks puitu eksportivates maades röövraiet

  3. Spatial distribution of far-infrared rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar photodissociation region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas ( 500-1000 K) in photodissociation regions (PDRs) with high incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (>105 cm-3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, which is a tracer of dense and warm gas, and that formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims: Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods: We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+J = 3-2 transition at 119.8 μm and the OH Λ doublet at 84 μm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″× 110″ with Herschel/PACS. We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of the CH+J = 2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel/HIFI spectrometer observations. Results: The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 μm emission coincides

  4. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  5. Role of $Y(4630)$ in the $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ reaction near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the charmed baryon production reaction $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ in an effective Lagrangian approach. Besides the $t$-channel $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons exchanges, the $s$-channel $Y(4630)$ meson exchange is taken into account. For the total cross sections, the $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons provide minor background contributions, while the $Y(4630)$ state gives a clear peak structure with the magnitude of 10 $\\mu$b at center of mass energy 4.63 GeV. Basing on the results, we suggest that the reaction of $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ can be used to search for the $1^{--}$ charmonium-like $Y(4630)$ state, and our predictions can be tested in future by the $\\rm{\\bar PANDA}$ facility.

  6. Variation of Galactic Bar Length with Amplitude and Density as Evidence for Bar Growth over a Hubble Time

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Knapen, Johan H; Buta, Ronald J; Block, David L; Puerari, Ivanio

    2007-01-01

    K_s-band images of 20 barred galaxies show an increase in the peak amplitude of the normalized m=2 Fourier component with the R_25-normalized radius at this peak. This implies that longer bars have higher $m=2$ amplitudes. The long bars also correlate with an increased density in the central parts of the disks, as measured by the luminosity inside 0.25R_25 divided by the cube of this radius in kpc. Because denser galaxies evolve faster, these correlations suggest that bars grow in length and amplitude over a Hubble time with the fastest evolution occurring in the densest galaxies. All but three of the sample have early-type flat bars; there is no clear correlation between the correlated quantities and the Hubble type.

  7. Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{n}n$ Charge-Exchange Differential Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is a measurement of the differential cross-section of the $\\bar{p}$p $\\rightarrow$ $\\bar{n}$n charge-exchange reaction with a point-to-point precision of 1\\% in the forward direction, and an absolute normalization error of 3\\%. The high precision of the data should allow, inter alia, a determination of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant to better than 2\\%.\\\\ \\\\ The measurement will be done using the existing neutron and antineutron detectors built for experiment PS199 and liquid hydrogen target. In one week of running time, with a $\\bar{p}$ beam intensity of 3 $ 10 ^{5} $ $\\bar{p}$/sec, the reaction will be measured at a few $\\bar{p}$ momenta, in the range 500 to 900~MeV/c.

  8. Nuss bar procedure: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Robert J.; Kelly, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of pectus excavatum began at the beginning of the 20th century before endotracheal intubation was standard practice. Surgeons therefore developed techniques that corrected the deformity using an open procedure via the anterior chest wall. Initial techniques were unsatisfactory, but by the 1930s the partial rib resection and sternal osteotomy technique had been developed and was used in combination with external traction post-operatively to prevent the sternum from sinking back into the chest. In 1949, Ravitch recommended complete resection of the costal cartilages and complete mobilization of the sternum without external traction, and in 1961 Adkins and Blades introduced the concept of a substernal strut for sternal support. The wide resection resulted in a very rigid anterior chest wall, and in some instances, the development of asphyxiating chondrodystrophy. The primary care physicians therefore became reluctant to refer the patients for repair. In 1987, Nuss developed a minimally invasive technique that required no cartilage or sternal resection and relied only on internal bracing by means of a sub-sternal bar, which is inserted into the chest through two lateral thoracic incisions and guided across the mediastinum with the help of thoracoscopy. After publication of the procedure in 1998, it became widely accepted and a flood of new patients suddenly started to appear, which allowed for rapid improvements and modifications of the technique. New instruments were developed specifically for the procedure, complications were recognized, and the steps taken to prevent them included the development of a stabilizer and the use of pericostal sutures to prevent bar displacement. Various options were developed for sternal elevation prior to mediastinal dissection to prevent injury to the mediastinal structures, allergy testing was implemented, and pain management improved. The increased number of patients coming for repair permitted studies of cardiopulmonary

  9. Dense Molecular Cores Being Externally Heated

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our study on eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3-160 {\\micron}) imaging observations with \\textit{AKARI} telescope and molecular line (HCN and N$_2$H$^+$) mapping observations with \\textit{KVN} telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to mm continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosity of $\\sim0.3-4.4$ L$_{\\odot}$. The other six cores are found to remain as starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3-6 K towards the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an over-dominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory mot...

  10. The ionization fraction in dense clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Boisanger, C B; Van Dishoeck, E F

    1995-01-01

    We present submillimeter observations of various molecular ions toward two dense clouds, NGC 2264 IRS1 and W 3 IRS5, in order to investigate their ionization fraction. Analysis of the line intensity ratios by the way of statistical equilibrium calculations allows determination of the physical parameters: n(H2)~(1-2)e6 cm-3 and T(kin)~50-100 K. Column densities and abundances are also derived. Together, the abundances of the observed ions provide a lower limit to the ionization fraction, which is (2-3)e-9 in both clouds. In order to better constrain the electron abundance, a simple chemical model is built which calculates the steady state abundances of the major positive ions, using the observed abundances wherever available. With reasonable assumptions, good agreement within a factor of two with the observations can be achieved. The calculated electron fraction is x(e)= (1.0-3.3)e-8 in the case of NGC 2264 and x(e)=(0.5-1.1)e-8 for W 3 IRS5. In the first case, the high abundance of N2H+ requires a rather high...

  11. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Daranlot, Julien; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimetre-wavelength transitions so its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms each involving two radical-radical reactions are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction down to 56 K. The effect of the measured rate constants for this reaction and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase format...

  12. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  14. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zeki Karakus

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement.

  15. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  16. A numerical study of interactions and stellar bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; González-García, A. César; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Stringer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    For several decades, it has been known that stellar bars in disc galaxies can be triggered by interactions, or by internal processes such as dynamical instabilities. In this work, we explore the differences between these two mechanisms using numerical simulations. We perform two groups of simulations based on isolated galaxies, one group in which a bar develops naturally, and another group in which the bar could not develop in isolation. The rest of the simulations recreate 1:1 coplanar fly-by interactions computed with the impulse approximation. The orbits we use for the interactions represent the fly-bys in groups or clusters of different masses accordingly to the velocity of the encounter. In the analysis, we focus on bars' amplitude, size, pattern speed and their rotation parameter, R=R_{CR}/R_{bar}. The latter is used to define fast (R1.4). Compared with equivalent isolated galaxies, we find that bars affected or triggered by interactions: (i) remain in the slow regime for longer, (ii) are more boxy in face-on views and (iii) they host kinematically hotter discs. Within this set of simulations, we do not see strong differences between retrograde or prograde fly-bys. We also show that slow interactions can trigger bar formation.

  17. Bond Strength of Composite CFRP Reinforcing Bars in Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-surface mounted (NSM fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP bars is an interesting method for increasing the shear and flexural strength of existing timber members. This article examines the behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP bars in timber under direct pull-out conditions. The objective of this experimental program is to investigate the bond strength between composite bars and timber: bars were epoxied into small notches made into chestnut and fir wood members using a commercially-available epoxy system. Bonded lengths varied from 150 to 300 mm. Failure modes, stress and strain distributions and the bond strength of CFRP bars have been evaluated and discussed. The pull-out capacity in NSM CFRP bars at the onset of debonding increased with bonded length up to a length of 250 mm. While CFRP bar’s pull-out was achieved only for specimens with bonded lengths of 150 and 200 mm, bar tensile failure was mainly recorded for bonded lengths of 250 and 300 mm.

  18. Stellar, gas and dark matter content of barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of HI mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, this due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10$^{10} M_{\\odot}$, at fixed stellar mass, the...

  19. Dynamics of barred galaxies: effects of disk height

    CERN Document Server

    Klypin, A; Colin, P; Quinn, T

    2008-01-01

    We study dynamics of bars in models of disk galaxies embeded in realistic dark matter halos. We find that disk thickness plays an important, if not dominant, role in the evolution and structure of the bars. We also make extensive numerical tests of different N-body codes used to study bar dynamics. Models with thick disks typically used in this type of modeling (height-to-length ratio hz/Rd=0.2) produce slowly rotating, and very long, bars. In contrast, more realistic thin disks with the same parameters as in our Galaxy (hz/Rd= 0.1) produce bars with normal length Rbar approx R_d, which rotate quickly with the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar radius 1.2-1.4 compatible with observations. Bars in these models do not show a tendency to slow down, and may lose as little as 2-3 percent of their angular momentum due to dynamical friction with the dark matter over cosmological time. We attribute the differences between the models to a combined effect of high phase-space density and smaller Jeans mass in the...

  20. Permutation Matrix Method for Dense Coding Using GHZ States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Rui-Bo; CHEN Li-Bing; WANG Fa-Qiang; SU Zhi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method called the permutation matrix method to perform dense coding using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We show that this method makes the study of dense coding systematically and regularly. It also has high potential to be realized physically.

  1. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  2. Phase Structure and Transport Properties of Dense Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We provide a summary of our current knowledge of the phase structure of very dense quark matter. We concentrate on the question how the ground state at asymptotically high density -- color-flavor-locked (CFL) matter -- is modified as the density is lowered. We discuss the nature of the quasi-particle excitations, and present work on the transport properties of dense QCD matter.

  3. Finding dense locations in symbolic indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for many applications such as overloaded area detection, security control, crowd management, indoor navigation, and so on. Indoor tracking data can be enormous and are not immediately ready for finding dense locations. This paper...

  4. Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular Gas Properties and 3D Distribution with Hi-GAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular gas distribution.The cloud clump properties and the dense gas distribution will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar gas to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular gas properties and galactic distributions.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane

  5. Influence of laser treatment on the fatigue of notched bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHui; LingWeiye; JiangShouwei

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue cutting is a new approach for separating material. Man-made fatigue can be realized by applying a rotating bending load to a notched bar. To better utilize the new method, laser treatment is adopted in this study. After laser radiation at the notch root, the fatigue cycle of the bar drops dramatically. Based on the experimental result, we draw the conclusion that the fatigue of the bar is influenced by the shape of the hardened area. A hardened area that has a small axial dimension and a relatively large radial dimension facilitates the fatigue. The desirable hardened area can be obtained by controlling the laser treatment parameters.

  6. BAR EL CUBANO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    A EXCEPCIÓN DE LAS PUERTAS, LAS NEVERAS DEL BAR Y LA COCINA DE GAS, EL RESTO DEL BAR HA SIDO MUY REFORMADO. DEBAJO DE LA BARRA DE ACERO CONTINÚA LA BARRA ORIGINAL DE MÁRMOL. ANTERIORMENTE HABÍA OTRA DE MADERA. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX BAR DE PLANTA RECTANGULAR, CON UNA GRAN BARRA DE ACERO Y MESAS. EN EL FONDO LOCALIZAMOS LA COCINA, LOS BAÑOS Y UN PEQUEÑO COMEDOR. EN LA ENTRADA HAY UNA GRAN PUERTA DE MADERA. Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO Clasificación del suelo: URBANO ...

  7. Temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe River mouth bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zuosheng; ZHANG Yong; LIU Zhan; WEI Helong; HE Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the bathymetric records of 371 survey sections in the present Huanghe mouth area from 1996 to 2001, the temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe mouth bars were studied by using GIS technology. The variation of the mouth bars is closely related to the water and sediment discharges from the Huanghe River to the sea that has been decreasing drastically in recent years, and to coastal hydrodynamic regimes. The characteristics of the mouth bars are unique in contrast with those of other estuaries in the world (1) The mouth bars of the Huanghe River consist of many small sandbars. Usually the sandbars are of ellipse-shape with the long axis of about 1~6 km, and short axis of about 1~4 kin. The long axis is parallel to the principal direction of tidal current, and the short axis is variable, depending on the local dynamics. The crest of the sandbars is only about 0.4 m below the water surface at low tide. They are distributed within an area of 20 km2, not far from the river mouth area. The present mouth bars are in small-medium size, quite different from the large one formed during the 1970s and 1980s, when the river sediment discharge was several times larger than that after 1996. (2) The scale of a river mouth bar is related to the river discharge of that year. In 1997 sediment discharge from the Huanghe River was 42 Mt, and the mouth bar consisted of several small scattered sandbars. In 1998 the size of mouth bars was much larger thar that in 1997, as the sediment discharge from the Huanghe River increased to 363 Mt. Variation of the mouth bars largely depends on the sediment discharge with a correlation coefficient of 0.78. The calculation of the volume of the mouth bar area shows that about 30%~40% of the river's into-sea sediment is deposited in the mouth bar area. (3) Compared with other large estuaries in the world, the Huanghe mouth bars have three unique features in responding to its high sediment concentration: small size, steep

  8. Graphle: Interactive exploration of large, dense graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huttenhower Curtis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of biological data can be modeled as network structures, including experimental results (e.g. protein-protein interactions, computational predictions (e.g. functional interaction networks, or curated structures (e.g. the Gene Ontology. While several tools exist for visualizing large graphs at a global level or small graphs in detail, previous systems have generally not allowed interactive analysis of dense networks containing thousands of vertices at a level of detail useful for biologists. Investigators often wish to explore specific portions of such networks from a detailed, gene-specific perspective, and balancing this requirement with the networks' large size, complex structure, and rich metadata is a substantial computational challenge. Results Graphle is an online interface to large collections of arbitrary undirected, weighted graphs, each possibly containing tens of thousands of vertices (e.g. genes and hundreds of millions of edges (e.g. interactions. These are stored on a centralized server and accessed efficiently through an interactive Java applet. The Graphle applet allows a user to examine specific portions of a graph, retrieving the relevant neighborhood around a set of query vertices (genes. This neighborhood can then be refined and modified interactively, and the results can be saved either as publication-quality images or as raw data for further analysis. The Graphle web site currently includes several hundred biological networks representing predicted functional relationships from three heterogeneous data integration systems: S. cerevisiae data from bioPIXIE, E. coli data using MEFIT, and H. sapiens data from HEFalMp. Conclusions Graphle serves as a search and visualization engine for biological networks, which can be managed locally (simplifying collaborative data sharing and investigated remotely. The Graphle framework is freely downloadable and easily installed on new servers, allowing any

  9. Dense surface reconstruction with shadows in MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of internal organ surfaces provides useful information for better control and guidance of the operations of surgical tools for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The current reconstruction techniques using stereo cameras are still challenging due to the difficulties in correspondence matching in MIS, since there is very limited texture but significant specular reflection on organ surfaces. This paper proposes a new approach to overcome the problem by introducing weakly structured light actively casting surgical tool shadows on organ surfaces. The contribution of this paper is twofold: first, we propose a robust approach to extract shadow edges from a sequence of shadowed images; second, we develop a novel field surface interpolation (FSI) approach to obtain an accurate and dense disparity map. Our approach does not rely on texture information and is able to reconstruct accurate 3-D information by exploiting shadows from surgical tools. One advantage is that the point correspondences are directly calculated and no explicit stereo matching is required, which ensures the efficiency of the method. Another advantage is the minimum hardware requirement because only stereo cameras and a separated single-point light source are required. We evaluated the proposed approach using both phantom models and ex vivo images. Based on the experimental results, we achieved the precision of the recovered 3-D surfaces within 0.7 mm for phantom models and 1.2 mm for ex vivo images. The comparison of disparity maps indicates that with the addition of shadows, the proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art stereo algorithms for MIS.

  10. Measurements of J/\\psi decays into \\omega K \\bar{K} \\pi and \\phi K \\bar{K} \\pi

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Bai, Y; Ban, Y; Cai, X; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, Jin; Chen, X D; Chen, Y B; Chu, Y P; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fu, C D; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gu, S D; Gu, Y T; Guo, Y N; Guoa, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hou, J; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huangb, G S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Ji, X B; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Lai, Y F; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, R Y; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Liang, Y F; Liaoc, H B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liud, H H; Liu, H M; Liue, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, H B; Liu, J; Liu, Q; Liu, R G; Liu, S; Liu, Z A; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Maf, L L; Ma, Q M; Malik, M Q A; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Olsen, S L; Ping, R G; Qi, N D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, C P; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tian, J P; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wan, X; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wangg, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Weng, Y; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Yan, M L; Yang, H X; Yang, M; Yang, Y X; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, C X; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zangh, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhaoi, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhong, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhu, Z L; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S

    2007-01-01

    The decays of $J/\\psi \\to \\omega K\\bar{K}\\pi$ and $J/\\psi \\to \\phi K\\bar{K}\\pi$ are studied using $5.8 \\times 10^{7}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer (BESII) at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC). The $K^{0}_{S}K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$ and $K^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{0}$ systems, produced in $J/\\psi \\to \\omega K\\bar{K}\\pi$, have enhancements in the invariant mass distributions at around 1.44 GeV/$c^{2}$. However, there is no evidence for mass enhancements in the $K\\bar{K}\\pi$ system in $J/\\psi \\to \\phi K\\bar{K}\\pi$. The branching fractions of $J/\\psi \\to \\omega K^{0}_{S}K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $\\phi K^{0}_{S}K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $\\omega K^{*}\\bar{K}+c.c.$, and $\\phi K^{*}\\bar{K}+c.c.$ are obtained, and the $J/\\psi \\to \\eta K^{0}_{S}K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$ branching fraction is measured for the first time.

  11. Study of $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R B; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M B; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A C; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K Y; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S P; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ulrich, M U; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M W; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A Z; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    The decays $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$ have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 million $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII $e^+e^-$ collider. The branching fractions are determined to be $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p})=(2.112\\pm0.004\\pm0.031)\\times10^{-3}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n})=(2.07\\pm0.01\\pm0.17)\\times10^{-3}$. Distributions of the angle $\\theta$ between the proton or anti-neutron and the beam direction are well described by the form $1+\\alpha\\cos^2\\theta$, and we find $\\alpha=0.595\\pm0.012\\pm0.015$ for $J/\\psi\\to p\\bar{p}$ and $\\alpha=0.50\\pm0.04\\pm0.21$ for $J/\\psi\\to n\\bar{n}$. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the $J/\\psi\\to N\\bar{N}$ decay.

  12. A Study of $e^+e^-\\to p\\bar{p}$ Using Initial StateRadiation with BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-12-13

    The e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} cross-section is determined over a range of p{bar p} masses, from threshold to 4.5 GeV/c{sup 2}, by studying the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p}{gamma} process. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 232 fb{sup -1}, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring, at an e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |G{sub E}/G{sub M}|, is measured for p{bar p} masses below 3 GeV/c{sup 2}; its value is found to be significantly larger than 1 for masses up to 2.2 GeV/c{sup 2}. We also measure J/{psi} {yields} p{bar p} and {psi}(2S) {yields} p{bar p} branching fractions and set an upper limit on Y(4260) {yields} p{bar p} production and decay.

  13. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  14. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  15. Accurate Element of Compressive Bar considering the Effect of Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By constructing the compressive bar element and developing the stiffness matrix, most issues about the compressive bar can be solved. In this paper, based on second derivative to the equilibrium differential governing equations, the displacement shape functions are got. And then the finite element formula of compressive bar element is developed by using the potential energy principle and analytical shape function. Based on the total potential energy variation principle, the static and geometrical stiffness matrices are proposed, in which the large deformation of compressive bar is considered. To verify the accurate and validity of the analytical trial function element proposed in this paper, a number of the numerical examples are presented. Comparisons show that the proposed element has high calculation efficiency and rapid speed of convergence.

  16. $B\\to \\eta^{(\\prime)} (\\ell^{-} \\bar\

    CERN Document Server

    Akeroyd, A G; Geng, C Q; Akeroyd, Andrew G.; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    In the quark-flavor mixing scheme, $\\eta$ and $\\eta'$ are linear combinations of flavor states $\\eta_{q}=(u\\bar{u}+d\\bar{d})/\\sqrt{2}$ and $\\eta_{s}=s\\bar{s}$ with the masses of $m_{qq}$ and $m_{ss}$, respectively. Phenomenologically, $m_{ss}$ is strictly fixed around 0.69, which is close to $\\sqrt{2m^{2}_{K}-m^{2}_{\\pi}}$ by the approximate flavor symmetry, while $m_{qq}$ is found to be $0.18\\pm 0.08$ GeV. For a large allowed value of $m_{qq}$, we show that the BRs for $B\\to \\eta^{(\\prime)} X$ decays with $X=(\\ell^{-} \\bar\

  17. Wave decomposition phenomenon and spectrum evolution over submerged bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Benxia; YU Xiping

    2009-01-01

    Wave decomposition phenomenon and spectrum evolution over submerged bars are investigated by a previously developed numerical model. First, the computed free surface displacements of regular waves at various locations are compared with the available experimental data to confirm the validity of the numerical model, and satisfactory agreements are obtained. In addition, variations of decomposition characteristics with incident wave parameters and the change of energy spectrum for regular waves are also studied. Then the spectrum evolution of irregular waves over submerged bars, as well as the influence of incident peak wave period and the steepness of the front slope of the bar on spectrum evolution, is investigated. Wave decomposition and spectral shape are found to be significantly influenced by the incident wave conditions. When the upslope of the bar becomes 1:2, the length of the slope becomes shorter and will not benefit the generation of high frequency energy, so spectrum evolution is not significant.

  18. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  19. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain medical conditions or who take medications or supplements. Energy drinks are not the same as sports drinks. ... before you eat or drink any kind of energy supplement. They're expensive. Though energy bars and drinks ...

  20. Managing purchasing and inventory with bar codes. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, J

    1986-04-01

    Automated identification systems (bar coding) have proven their worth in a number of diverse manufacturing and materials handling environments. Whether this technology can be broadly applied with equal effectiveness in the health care setting still remains largely unproven. One thing is certain, however. Before bar code technology can be effectively applied in any setting, the materials manager must understand several basic concepts: How materials flow through his physical plant; How, where and in what amounts they are used; and How and when they are expensed. With this information, it is possible to create a systematized approach to materials cost containment, of which bar coding is one element. In the following article, the author illustrates how purchasing and inventory control can be made more time and labor efficient through the use of bar code technology.

  1. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nutritional bang for the buck include trail mix, fresh or dried fruits, and whole-grain cereals. previous continue Cutting Through the Hype There's some clever marketing behind energy bars and drinks, and you've ...

  2. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Berrier, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced ...

  3. Results on Charmonium-like States at BaBar

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Valentina; Collaboration, for the BABAR

    2012-01-01

    We present recent results on charmonium and charmonium-like states from the BaBar B-factory located at the PEP-II asymmetric energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ storage ring at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  4. Laying performances and egg quality of local barred hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... Key words: egg quality, laying performances, local barred hens. ... nutritional status, income of many small-scale ... particular information associated with different ... hens and 1 cock per unit, house in battery cages made of.

  5. Heavy-quark symmetry implies stable heavy tetraquark mesons $Q_iQ_j \\bar q_k \\bar q_l$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichten, Estia J.; Quigg, Chris

    2017-07-29

    For very heavy quarks $Q$, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry predict the existence of novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states of the form $Q_iQ_j \\bar q_k \\bar q_l$ (subscripts label flavors), where $q$ designates a light quark. By evaluating finite-mass corrections, we predict that double-beauty states composed of $bb\\bar u \\bar d$, $bb\\bar u \\bar s$, and $bb\\bar d \\bar s$ will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states $cc \\bar q_k \\bar q_l$, mixed beauty+charm states $bc \\bar q_k \\bar q_l$, and heavier $bb \\bar q_k \\bar q_l$ states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observation of a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  6. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream-bar

  7. The nature of the dense obscuring material in the nucleus of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Blietz, M.; Cameron, M.; Harris, A. I.; Madden, S.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the distribution, physical parameters, and kinematics of the molecular interstellar medium toward the nucleus of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 are reported. The data consist of 2.4 by 3.4 arcseconds resolution interferometry of the 88.6 GHz HCN J = 1 towards 0 line at 17 km/s spectral resolution, single dish observations of several mm/submm isotopic lines of CO and HCN, and 0.85 arcseconds imaging spectroscopy of the 2.12 micron H2 S(1) line at a velocity resolution of 110 km/s. The central few hundred parsecs of NGC 1068 contain a system of dense (N(H2) approximately 10(exp 5) cm(exp -3)), warm (T greater than or equal to 70 K) molecular cloud cores. The low density molecular envelopes have probably been stripped by the nuclear wind and radiation. The molecular gas layer is located in the plane of NGC 1068's large scale disk (inclination approximately 35 deg) and orbits in elliptical streamlines in response to the central stellar bar. The spatial distribution of the 2 micron H2 emission suggests that gas is shocked at the leading edge of the bar, probably resulting in gas influx into the central 100 pc at a rate of a few solar mass per year. In addition to large scale streaming (with a solid body rotation curve), the HCN velocity field requires the presence of random motions of order 100 km/s. We interpret these large random motions as implying the nuclear gas disk to be very thick (scale height/radius approximately 1), probably as the result of the impact of nuclear radiation and wind on orbiting molecular clouds. Geometry and column density of the molecular cloud layer between approximately 30 pc to 300 pc from the nucleus can plausibly account for the nuclear obscuration and anisotropy of the radiation field in the visible and UV.

  8. Galaxy Zoo: finding offset discs and bars in SDSS galaxies★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Bamford, Steven P.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Fortson, Lucy; Hart, Ross E.; Häußler, Boris; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2017-08-01

    We use multiwavelength Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and Galaxy Zoo morphologies to identify a sample of ∼270 late-type galaxies with an off-centre bar. We measure offsets in the range 0.2-2.5 kpc between the photometric centres of the stellar disc and stellar bar. The measured offsets correlate with global asymmetries of the galaxies, with those with largest offsets showing higher lopsidedness. These findings are in good agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf-dwarf tidal interactions producing off-centre bars. We find that the majority of galaxies with off-centre bars are of Magellanic type, with a median mass of 109.6 M⊙, and 91 per cent of them having M⋆ < 3 × 1010 M⊙, the characteristic mass at which galaxies start having higher central concentrations attributed to the presence of bulges. We conduct a search for companions to test the hypothesis of tidal interactions, but find that a similar fraction of galaxies with offset bars have companions within 100 kpc as galaxies with centred bars. Although this may be due to the incompleteness of the SDSS spectroscopic survey at the faint end, alternative scenarios that give rise to offset bars such as interactions with dark companions or the effect of lopsided halo potentials should be considered. Future observations are needed to confirm possible low-mass companion candidates and to determine the shape of the dark matter halo, in order to find the explanation for the off-centre bars in these galaxies.

  9. Development of omega-3 rich energy bar with flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, D; Singh, K K; Barnwal, P

    2013-10-01

    Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0-20%) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55%) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not affect the hardness but it was decreased with increasing level of sweeteners except in control sample. The total calories obtained from the energy bar showed significant increase with the increasing levels of flaxseed, the maximum (397.95 kcal) being for bars with 20% flaxseed and 45% sweeteners. This energy bar sample also showed the maximum protein (12.41%), crude fat (11.86%), ash (1.65%), iron (3.77 mg/100 g), crude fiber (2.18%) and omega-3 as alpha-linolenic acid (22.50%, fatty acid basis) content. The overall mean sensory score for overall acceptability for samples with 10% flaxseed and 55% sweeteners and 15% flaxseed and 45% sweeteners were at par but the omega-3 and other nutrients in the later sample was higher than the former sample, hence, 15% flaxseed and 45% sweeteners along with other ingredients may be considered for production of acceptable quality omega-3 fatty acid rich energy bar at commercial scale, which also stored well at refrigerated condition.

  10. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K) ove

  11. Piezoelectric Generation and Damping of Extensional Waves in Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the electromechanical processes of generation and damping of transient waves in bars with attached piezoelectric members. In particular, the influence of amplifier and electrical circuitry on the mechanical waves is of interest. A straight bar element containing piezoelectric members is viewed as a linear system with one electrical and two mechanical ports where it interacts with external electrical and mechanical devices through voltage, current, forces and velocities....

  12. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  13. THE MASS PROFILE AND SHAPE OF BARS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): SEARCH FOR AN AGE INDICATOR FOR BARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Zaritsky, Dennis [University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille (France); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FIN-90014 (Finland); Knapen, Johan H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMTO, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Madore, Barry F. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    We have measured the radial light profiles and global shapes of bars using two-dimensional 3.6 μm image decompositions for 144 face-on barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. The bar surface brightness profile is correlated with the stellar mass and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio of their host galaxies. Bars in massive and bulge-dominated galaxies (B/T > 0.2) show a flat profile, while bars in less massive, disk-dominated galaxies (B/T ∼ 0) show an exponential, disk-like profile with a wider spread in the radial profile than in the bulge-dominated galaxies. The global two-dimensional shapes of bars, however, are rectangular/boxy, independent of the bulge or disk properties. We speculate that because bars are formed out of disks, bars initially have an exponential (disk-like) profile that evolves over time, trapping more disk stars to boxy bar orbits. This leads bars to become stronger and have flatter profiles. The narrow spread of bar radial profiles in more massive disks suggests that these bars formed earlier (z > 1), while the disk-like profiles and a larger spread in the radial profile in less massive systems imply a later and more gradual evolution, consistent with the cosmological evolution of bars inferred from observational studies. Therefore, we expect that the flatness of the bar profile can be used as a dynamical age indicator of the bar to measure the time elapsed since the bar formation. We argue that cosmic gas accretion is required to explain our results on bar profile and the presence of gas within the bar region.

  14. HNCO in massive galactic dense cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, I.; Henkel, C.; Mao, R. Q.

    2000-09-01

    We surveyed 81 dense molecular cores associated with regions of massive star formation and Sgr A in the JK-1K-1 = 505-404 and 10010-909 lines of HNCO. Line emission was detected towards 57 objects. Selected subsamples were also observed in the 101-000, 404-303, 707-606, 15015-14014, 16016-15015 and 21021-20020 lines, covering a frequency range from 22 to 461 GHz. HNCO lines from the K-1 = 2,3 ladders were detected in several sources. Towards Orion-KL, K-1 = 5 transitions with upper state energies Eu/k ~ 1100 and 1300 K could be observed. Five HNCO cores were mapped. The sources remain spatially unresolved at 220 and 461 GHz (10010-909 and 21010-20020 transitions) with beam sizes of 24'' and 18\\arcsec, respectively. The detection of hyperfine structure in the 101-000 transition is consistent with optically thin emission under conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). This is corroborated by a rotational diagram analysis of Orion-KL that indicates optically thin line emission also for transitions between higher excited states. At the same time a tentative detection of interstellar HN13CO (the 100,10-90,9 line at 220 GHz toward G 310.12-0.20) suggests optically thick emission from some rotational transitions. Typical HNCO abundances relative to H2 as derived from a population diagram analysis are ~ 10-9. The rotational temperatures reach ~ 500 K. The gas densities in regions of HNCO K-1=0 emission should be n>~ 106 cm-3 and in regions of K-1>0 emission about an order of magnitude higher even for radiative excitation. HNCO abundances are found to be enhanced in high-velocity gas. HNCO integrated line intensities correlate well with those of thermal SiO emission. This indicates a spatial coexistence of the two species and may hint at a common production mechanism, presumably based on shock chemistry. Based on the observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and on observations with the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope (HHT). The HHT

  15. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2000-06-30

    . This successfully reduced cracking, however the films retained open porosity. The investigation of this concept will be continued in the final year of the project. Investigation of a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method for defect mending in dense membranes was also initiated. An appropriate metal organic precursor (iron tetramethylheptanedionate) was identified whose deposition can be controlled by access to oxygen at temperatures in the 280-300 C range. Initial experiments have deposited iron oxide, but only on the membrane surface; thus refinement of this method will continue.

  16. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  17. Dynamical Modelling Of The Inner Galactic Barred Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Matthieu

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the present state of the Milky Way disk is a necessary first step towards learning about the formation history of our Galaxy. While it is clear from infrared photometry that the inner disk hosts a 5 kpc long bar with a central Box/Peanut bulge, the interplay between the bar and the inner disk remains poorly known. To this end we build N-body dynamical models of the inner Galaxy with the Made-to-Measure method, combining deep photometry from the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS surveys with kinematics from the BRAVA, OGLE and ARGOS surveys. We explore their stellar to dark matter fraction together with their bar pattern speed and constrain from the modelling the effective Galactic potential (gravitational potential + bar pattern speed) inside the solar radius. Our best model is able to reproduce simultaneously (i) the Box/Peanut shape of the bulge, (ii) the transition between bulge and long bar, (iii) the bulge line-of-sight kinematics and proper motion dispersions, (iv) the ARGOS velocity field in the bar region and (v) the rotation curve of the Galaxy inside 10 kpc. Our effective potential will be an important input to more detailed chemodynamical studies of the stellar populations in the inner Galaxy, as revealed by the ARGOS or APOGEE surveys.

  18. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  19. A numerical study of interactions and stellar bars

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; González-García, A César; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Stringer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that stellar bars in disc galaxies can be triggered by interactions, or by internal processes such as dynamical instabilities. In this work, we explore the differences between these two mechanisms using numerical simulations. We perform two groups of simulations based on isolated galaxies, one group in which a bar develops naturally, and another group in which the bar could not develop in isolation. The rest of the simulations recreate 1:1 coplanar fly-by interactions computed with the impulse approximation. The orbits we use for the interactions represent the fly-bys in groups or clusters of different masses accordingly to the velocity of the encounter. In the analysis we focus on bars' amplitude, size, pattern speed and their rotation parameter, ${\\cal R}=R_{CR}/R_{bar}$. The latter is used to define fast (${\\cal R}1.4$). Compared with equivalent isolated galaxies we find that bars affected or triggered by interactions: (i) remain in the slow regime for longer; (ii) are...

  20. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Heller, Clayton [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  1. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  2. Model-based pattern speed estimates for 38 barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rautiainen, P; Laurikainen, E

    2008-01-01

    We have modelled 38 barred galaxies by using near-IR and optical data from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. We constructed the gravitational potentials of the galaxies from $H$-band photometry, assuming constant mass-to-light ratio. The halo component we chose corresponds to the so called universal rotation curve. In each case, we used the response of gaseous and stellar particle disc to rigidly rotating potential to determine the pattern speed. We find that the pattern speed of the bar depends roughly on the morphological type. The average value of corotation resonance radius to bar radius, $\\mathcal{R}$, increases from $1.15 \\pm 0.25$ in types SB0/a -- SBab to $1.44 \\pm 0.29$ in SBb and $1.82\\pm 0.63$ in SBbc -- SBc. Within the error estimates for the pattern speed and bar radius, all galaxies of type SBab or earlier have a fast bar ($\\mathcal{R} \\le 1.4$), whereas the bars in later type galaxies include both fast and slow rotators. Of 16 later type galaxies with a nominal value of $\\m...

  3. Hercules and Wolf 630 Stellar Streams and Galactic Bar Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V

    2016-01-01

    We have identified the four most significant features in the UV velocity distribution of solar neighborhood stars: H1, H2 in the Hercules stream and W1, W2 in the Wolf 630 stream. We have formulated the problem of determining several characteristics of the central Galactic bar independently from each of the identified features by assuming that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams are of a bar-induced dynamical nature. The problem has been solved by constructing 2:1 resonant orbits in the rotating bar frame for each star in these streams. Analysis of the resonant orbits found has shown that the bar pattern speed is 45-55 km/s/kpc, while the bar angle lies within the range 40-60 degrees. The results obtained are consistent with the view that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams could be formed by a long-term influence of the Galactic bar leading to a characteristic bimodal splitting of the UV velocity plane.

  4. Determination of glycemic index value of Naturo fruit bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Kodanda Rami; Raju, I Naga; Giriprasad, B; Lakshminarayanan, G; Sekhar, R Chandra; Reddy, C Damodar

    2009-11-01

    The glycemic response to Naturo fruit bar that is commercially available in India was determined against a glucose sta dard in a non-blind, repeated measure, crossover design trial. Eleven healthy subjects (mean age 37.3 (SD 5.5) years and mean BMI 213 (SD 36) kg/m2) were recruited to the study. Subjects were given Naturo fruit bar and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 grams carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after overnight fasting (0 hours) and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For Naturo fruit bar, the glycemic index (GI) value was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve (iAUC) as a percentage of each subject's average iAUC for the standard food. The GI value of Naturo fruit bar was found to be 38.50. As per the Food and Agriculture Organization, GI cut-off values are as follows: low 70. Therefore Naturo fruit bar could be classified under low glycemic food/nutrient. Considering the widespread consumption of fruits/bars in India, this information is valuable for people who prefer to use low glycemic food which offer many beneficial effects because their consumption significantly reduces the GI of the diets of the Indian population.

  5. Bar effects on central star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seulhee; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2011-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be a channel of gas inflow to the galactic center and trigger central star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially on AGN. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 < z < 0.05) bright (Mr < -19) database, we have constructed a sample of 6,658 relatively face-on late-type galaxies through visual inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGN are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black-hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degenera...

  6. The Key Technique of Manufacture of Dense Chromium Sesquioxide Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIMaoqiang; ZHANGShuying; 等

    1998-01-01

    Dense chromium sesquioxide refractories have widely been used in the kilns for making alkai-free and anti-alkali glass fibers due to their excellent re-sistance to molten glasses.Densifications of chromium sesquioxide during sintering can be blocked by evaporation of chromium trioxide derived from oxidation at high temperature,In this paper the mech-anism of sintering chromium oxide and the process-ing technique for making dense chromium sesquiox-ide refractories are discussed .A process in laboratory scale for making dense chromium sesquioxide bricks is demonstrated.

  7. Dense deposit disease in a child with febrile sore throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Conti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense deposit disease or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II is a rare glomerulopathy characterized on renal biopsy by deposition of abnormal electron-dense material in the glomerular basement membrane. The pathophysiologic basis is uncontrolled systemic activation of the alternate pathway of the complement cascade. C3 nephritic factor, an autoantibody directed against the C3 convertase of the alternate pathway, plays a key role. In some patients, complement gene mutations have been identified. We report the case of a child who had persistent microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and hypocomplementemia C3 for over 2 months. Renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of dense deposit disease.

  8. Observation of $\\eta_{c}$ decay into $\\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Albayrak, O; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Coccetti, F; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q Z; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhong, Z; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2012-01-01

    Using a data sample of $2.25\\times10^{8}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector, we present the first observation of the decays of $\\eta_{c}$ mesons to $\\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$. The branching fractions are measured to be $(2.11\\pm0.28_{\\rm stat.}\\pm0.18_{\\rm syst.}\\pm0.50_{\\rm PDG})\\times10^{-3}$ and $(0.89\\pm0.16_{\\rm stat.}\\pm0.08_{\\rm syst.}\\pm0.21_{\\rm PDG})\\times10^{-3}$ for $\\eta_{c} \\to \\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, respectively. These branching fractions provide important information on the helicity selection rule in charmonium-decay processes.

  9. El Barón de Humboldt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available

    No llegaron los viajeros científicos enviados a la Nueva Granada por el emperador de Austria, aquéllos en cuya prevención había procedido Caballero y Góngora a fundar la Expedición del Nuevo Reino.
    Pero vino - y en plena oportunidad y con todas las condiciones previstas y buscada por el arzobispo virrey - otro explorador, el mayor de la América Equinoccial, quien había de consagrar para el mundo científico europeo y para la posteridad, dándole toda su trascendencia humana y nacional, la obra de Mutis y de su escuela: Federico Enrique Alejandro, Barón de Humboldt.

    Había nacido en Berlin el 14 de septiembre de 1769 y en los 90 años que había de durarle lá vida no tendrían las ciencias naturales otra personificación tan completa ni otro ejemplar tan audaz, tan resuelto, tan codicioso y afortunado, los exploradores; ni la naturaleza americana contaría con un admirador tan convencido, ni los americanos con un profeta de sus destinos tan inspirado, como este hombre descrito en su pasaporte para América como de edad veintiocho años, cabello ligeramente rojizo, ojos grises, nariz larga, boca más bien grande, barbilla bien conformada, frente espaciosa, picado de viruela .... que viajaba con el
    fin de adquirir conocimientos.

    El encuentro en la retirada Santa Fe, de Mutis y Humboldt, juntó dos órbitas tan dispares como eran la ciencia ibérica y la alemana en el siglo XIX, pero que coincidían en su pasión por los estudios positivos, en su altivez nacionalista, en su tesón titánico y en la trascendencia que pretendían dar a sus lucubraciones.
    Humboldt es para las ciencias alemanas, el alfa que para nosotros representa José Celestino Mutis...

  10. Lattice study of semileptonic {ital B} decays: {ital {bar B}}{r_arrow}{ital Dl}{bar {nu}} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, K.C.; Hazel, N.M.; Henty, D.S.; Hoeber, H.; Kenway, R.D.; Richards, D.G.; Shanahan, H.P.; Simone, J.N. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Lellouch, L. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Nieves, J.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Wittig, H. [Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO7 1BJ (United Kingdom); (UKQCD Collaboration)

    1995-11-01

    We then use these functions, in conjunction with heavy-quark effective theory, to extract {ital V}{sub {ital c}{ital b}} with no free parameters from the {ital {bar B}}{r_arrow}{ital D}{sup *}{ital l}{bar {nu}} decay rate measured by the ALEPH, ARGUS, and CLEO Collaborations. Using the CLEO data, for instance, we obtain {vert_bar}{ital V}{sub {ital c}{ital b}}{vert_bar} =0.037{sub {minus}1{minus}2{minus}1}{sup +1+2+4}[0.99/1+{beta}{sup {ital A}}{sub 1}(1)]1/1 +{delta}{sub 1/{ital m}{ital c}}{sup 2}, where {delta}{sub 1/{ital m}{ital c}}{sup 2} is the power correction inversely proportional to the square of the charm quark mass, and {beta}{sup {ital A}}{sub 1}(1) is the relevant radiative correction at zero recoil. Here, the first set of errors is experimental, the second represents the statistical error, and the third represents the systematic error in our evaluation of the Isgur-Wise function. We also use our Isgur-Wise functions and heavy-quark effective theory to calculate branching ratios for {ital {bar B}}{sub ({ital s})}{r_arrow}{ital D}{sub ({ital s})}{ital l}{bar {nu}} and {ital {bar B}}{sub ({ital s})}{r_arrow}{ital D}{sub ({ital s})}{sup *}{ital l}{bar {nu}} decays.

  11. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  12. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  13. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  14. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating

  15. Fermion mass and the pressure of dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S; 10.1063/1.2714447

    2008-01-01

    We consider a simple toy model to study the effects of finite fermion masses on the pressure of cold and dense matter, with possible applications in the physics of condensates in the core of neutron stars and color superconductivity.

  16. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Prakasam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  17. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .2. Thermal and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Stenekes, R.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of two densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxane systems were investigated in relation to the molecular structure. The networks were prepared from functional branched prepolymers and crosslinked via a hydrosilylation curing reaction. The prepolymers having only viny

  18. RESEARCH ON DENSITY STABILITY OF AIR DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆振福; 陈清如

    1994-01-01

    In this papcr on thc basis of studying the distribution of fine coal in the dense medium fluidized bed, the optimal size range of fine coal, which constitutes a fluidized bed together with the dense medium, has been found. In the separating process the fine coal will continuously accumulate in fluidized bed, thus inevitably reducing the density of the bed. In order to keep bed density stable, the authors adopted such measures as split-flow of used medium and complement of fresh dense medium. The experiment results in both lab and pilot systems of the air-dense medium fluidized bed show that these measures are effective and satisfactory. Then authors also have established some relative dynamic mathematical models for it.

  19. Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2013-01-01

    Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669

  20. A Green Method for Processing Polymers using Dense Gas Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan B. Yoganathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense CO2 can be used as an environmentally-benign polymer processing medium because of its liquid-like densities and gas-like mass transfer properties.In this work, polymer bio-blends of polycarbonate (PC, a biocompatible polymer, and polycaprolactone (PCL, a biodegradable polymer were prepared. Dense CO2 was used as a reaction medium for the melt-phase PC polymerization in the presence of dense CO2-swollen PCL particles and this method was used to prepare porous PC/PCL blends. To extend the applicability of dense CO2 to the biomedical industry and polymer blend processing, the impregnation of ibuprofen into the blend was conducted and subsequent dissolution characteristics were observed.

  1. Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChunYan; LI XiHan; DENG FuGuo; ZHOU Ping; ZHOU HongYu

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete multiple round quantum dense coding scheme for improving the source capacity of that introduced recently by Zhang et al. The receiver resorts to two qubits for storing the four local unitary operations in each round.

  2. Strange meson-baryon interaction in hot and dense medium: recent progress for a road to GSI/FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, Daniel; Aichelin, Jörg; bratkovskaya, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We report recent results on the dynamics of strange hadrons in two-body reactions relevant for near-threshold production in heavy-ion collisions at GSI/FAIR and NICA-Dubna. In particular, $\\bar K N$ scattering in hot and dense nuclear matter is studied within a chiral unitary framework in coupled channels, setting up the starting point for implementations in microscopic off-shell transport approaches. We focus on the calculation of transition rates with special attention to the excitation of hyperon resonances and isospin effects. Additionally, we explore "unconventional" strangeness generation by meson-meson and meson-baryon interactions in connection with recent HADES observations of deep sub-threshold $\\phi$ and $\\Xi$ production.

  3. Molecular basis for SNX-BAR-mediated assembly of distinct endosomal sorting tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Sessions, Richard B.; Traer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    -BARs, we report that some, but not all, can elicit the formation of tubules with diameters that resemble sorting tubules observed in cells. We reveal that SNX-BARs display a restricted pattern of BAR domain-mediated dimerization, and by resolving a 2.8 Å structure of a SNX1-BAR domain homodimer, establish...... that dimerization is achieved in part through neutralization of charged residues in the hydrophobic BAR-dimerization interface. Membrane remodelling also requires functional amphipathic helices, predicted to be present in all SNX-BARs, and the formation of high order SNX-BAR oligomers through selective 'tip...

  4. The high-bar and low-bar back-squats: A biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Brown, Scott R; Helms, Eric R; Duncan, J Scott; Storey, Adam G

    2017-02-08

    No prior study has compared the joint angle and ground reaction force (Fv) differences between the high-bar back-squat (HBBS) and low-bar back-squat (LBBS) above 90% 1RM. Six male powerlifters (height: 179.2 ± 7.8 cm; bodyweight: 87.1 ± 8.0 kg; age: 27.3 ± 4.2 years) of international level, six male Olympic weightlifters (height: 176.7 ± 7.7 cm; bodyweight: 83.1 ± 13 kg; age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years) of national level, and six recreationally trained male athletes (height: 181.9 ± 8.7 cm; bodyweight: 87.9 ± 15.3 kg; age: 27.7 ± 3.8 years) performed the LBBS, HBBS, and both LBBS and HBBS (respectively) up to and including 100% 1RM. Small to moderate (d = 0.2-0.5) effect size differences were observed between the powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters in joint angles and Fv, although none were statistically significant. However, significant joint angle results were observed between the experienced powerlifters/weightlifters and the recreationally trained group. Our findings suggest that practitioners seeking to place emphasis on the stronger hip musculature should consider the LBBS. Also, when the goal is to lift the greatest load possible, the LBBS may be preferable. Conversely, the HBBS is more suited to replicate movements that exhibit a more upright torso position, such as the snatch and clean, or to place more emphasis on the associated musculature of the knee joint.

  5. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, George [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    The Topical Collaboration for Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense matter brought together researchers from a variety of nuclear science specialties and a number of institutions to address nuclear physics and neutrino physics problems associated with dense matter and the origin of the elements. See attached final technical reports for (1) the UCSD award and (2) a copy of the report for the whole TC

  6. MICROSPRAY SIMULATION OF DENSE GAS DISPERSION IN COMPLEX TERRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Anfossi, D.; Tinarelli, G.; S. Trini Castelli; Commanay, J.; Nibart, M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: An extended validation of the new Lagrangian particle model MicroSpray version for dense gas simulation is proposed. MicroSpray simulates the dense gas dispersion in situations characterized by the presence of buildings, other obstacles, complex terrain, and possible occurrence of low wind speed conditions. Its performances are compared to a chlorine railway accident (Macdona), to a field experiment (Kit Fox) and to an atmospheric CFD model.

  7. Measurement of Electron-Ion Relaxation in Warm Dense Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. Data are compared with various theoretical models.

  8. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Sciences (China); Ye, Bin [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Information and Electrical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.

  9. Fatigue of reinforcing bars during hydro-demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, C. W. K.; Ouwejan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Reinforcing steel fractured during hydro-demolition of a reinforced concrete pier head due to low cycle flexural fatigue from vibration caused by impact of the high pressure water jet on the exposed length of the bars. Research into the fatigue performance of steel reinforcing steel tends to focus on the high cycle axial performance in reinforced concrete members and re-bending behaviour. However with the increasing use of hydro-demolition of concrete structures as part of remediation works care is required to ensure the steel reinforcement exposed to the high pressure jet of water is not going to suffer relatively low cycle flexural damage that may compromise the designed performance of the completed reinforced concrete structure. This paper describes the failure assessment, fatigue analysis, and metallographic examination that was undertaken. It was found that the rib to flank transition radius on the reinforcement steel was small enough to cause a significant stress concentration effect and was the location of fatigue crack growth. A relatively simple analysis using the maximum unrestrained cantilevered bar length and force exerted by the water jet was used to calculate the maximum expected bending moment. This was compared to the bending capacity at initiation of yielding at the rib flank transition accounting for stress concentration effects. This showed that the observed cyclic reversing ductile crack growth and fracture of the H25 bars was consistent with the loading applied. A method is proposed based on these observations to assess suitable limits for unrestrained bar lengths or maximum working offset of the water jet from the point of bar restraint when undertaking hydro-demolition work. The fatigue critical performance requirements of AS/NZS4671 500E bars are also therefore compared with those of BS4449:2005 and PN EN/ISO 15630-1:2011 for comparable 500C bars

  10. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  11. A continuous sensor for damage detection in bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Ghoshal, Anindya; Schulz, Mark J.

    2002-08-01

    The concept of a continuous sensor for detecting vibration and stress waves in bars is investigated in this paper. This type of sensor is a long tape with a number of sensing nodes that are electrically connected together to form a single sensor with one channel of data output. The spacing of the sensor nodes can be designed such that the sensor is capable of detecting acoustic emissions (AEs) occurring at any point along the length of the sensor. An active fiber composite material or piezoceramic wafers can be used as the active element of the sensor. The characteristics of this new type of sensor were investigated by a simplified simulation and through experiments. The scope of the simulation is primarily to determine the characteristics of the new type of sensor that is proposed and the simulation is not intended to model the complex dispersion characteristics of guided waves in bars. The sensor was modeled as being integrated within a uniform cantilever bar to measure longitudinal stress wave propagation. Damping was included in the model to attenuate the wave as it travels. The sensor was connected to an electrical tuning circuit to examine the capability to filter out undesirable noise due to ambient vibration that would occur in practice. The elastic response of the bar was computed in closed form, and the coupled piezoelectric constitutive equations and electric circuit equations were solved using the Newmark-Beta numerical integration method. Strain, vibration, and wave propagation responses were simulated and results indicate that damage to the bar can be detected by recognizable changes in the sensor output as the wave propagates along the bar and passes over each sensor node. Experiments were performed to verify the concept of the continuous sensor on a composite bar. The testing showed the continuous sensor can replace four or more individual sensors to detect AEs and thus may be a practical method for structural health monitoring.

  12. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  13. Crystal Structures of the BAR-PH and PTB Domains of Human APPL1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,J.; Mao, X.; Dong, L.; Liu, F.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors and other important signaling molecules. It contains a BAR and a PH domain near its N terminus, and the two domains may function as a unit (BAR-PH domain). We report here the crystal structures of the BAR-PH and PTB domains of human APPL1. The structures reveal novel features for BAR domain dimerization and for the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. The BAR domain dimer of APPL1 contains two four-helical bundles, whereas other BAR domain dimers have only three helices in each bundle. The PH domain is located at the opposite ends of the BAR domain dimer. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirm the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. Lipid binding assays show that the BAR, PH, and PTB domains can bind phospholipids. The ability of APPL1 to interact with multiple signaling molecules and phospholipids supports an important role for this adaptor in cell signaling.

  14. Surface modification of Poly(tetrafluorethylene) magnetic stirring bars with plasma of hexamethyldisiloxane and its applications in the stir bar sorptive extraction technique

    OpenAIRE

    R. Baeza-Marrufo; P. Acereto-Escoffié; C. Carrera-Figueiras; D. Muñoz-Rodriguez; A. Ávila-Ortega; J. A. López-Barrera; J. Morales-Corona; Olayo-González, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of plasma polymerization to modify the surface of stir bars for its use in Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE). The modification of the poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surface of stir bars was done through plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (30 min, 110 W and 1.4×10-1 Torr). The coating was characterized by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The modified stir bars wer...

  15. Observation of $B^{0} \\rightarrow p\\bar{\\Lambda} D^{(*)-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Y -Y; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Adamczyk, K; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Asner, D M; Atmacan, H; Aushev, T; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bakich, A M; Barberio, E; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bobrov, A; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dingfelder, J; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Goldenzweig, P; Greenwald, D; Grzymkowska, O; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hou, W -S; Hsu, C -L; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Jacobs, W W; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Joo, K K; Kawasaki, T; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lai, Y -T; Lee, I S; Li, L; Li, Y; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Luki, P; Masuda, M; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohanty, S; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Mori, T; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Nayak, M; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, C W; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Rauch, J; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Seino, Y; Senyo, K; Seong, I S; Sevior, M E; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Starič, M; Stypula, J; Sumihama, M; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Teramoto, Y; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Yelton, J; Yusa, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the first observation of the decays $B^0 \\rightarrow p\\bar{\\Lambda} D^{(*)-}$. The data sample of $711$ fb$^{-1}$ used in this analysis corresponds to $772$ million $B\\bar{B}$ pairs, collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance by the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider. We observe $19.8\\sigma$ and $10.8\\sigma$ excesses of events for the two decay modes and measure the branching fractions of $B^0 \\rightarrow p\\bar{\\Lambda} D^{-}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow p\\bar{\\Lambda} D^{*-}$ to be $(25.1\\pm2.6\\pm3.5)\\times10^{-6}$ and $(33.6\\pm6.3\\pm4.4)\\times10^{-6}$, respectively, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. These results are not compatible with the predictions based on the generalized factorization approach. In addition, a threshold enhancement in the di-baryon ($p\\bar{\\Lambda}$) system is observed, consistent with that observed in similar $B$ decays.

  16. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  17. Bar Coding Platforms for Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Uwe R.

    A variety of novel bar coding systems has been developed as multiplex testing platforms for applications in biological, chemical, and biomedical diagnostics. Instead of identifying a target through capture at a specific locus on an array, target analytes are captured by a bar coded tag, which then uniquely identifies the target, akin to putting a UPC bar code on a product. This requires an appropriate surface functionalization to ensure that the correct target is captured with high efficiency. Moreover the tag, or bar code, has to be readable with minimal error and at high speed, typically by flow analysis. For quantitative assays the target may be labeled separately, or the tag may also serve as the label. A great variety of materials and physicochemical principles has been exploited to generate this plethora of novel bar coding platforms. Their advantages compared to microarray-based assay platforms include in-solution binding kinetics, flexibility in assay design, compatibility with microplate-based assay automation, high sample throughput, and with some assay formats, increased sensitivity.

  18. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Sarra-Bournet, Christian [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); Pioro-Ladrière, Michel, E-mail: michel.pioro-ladriere@usherbrooke.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); CIFAR Program in Quantum Information Science, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), M5G 1Z8 Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large current density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.

  19. Evolution of Elastic X-ray Scattering in Laser-Shocked Warm Dense Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C; Brown, C; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-06-02

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4 ns long laser pulses. Separate 1 ns long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-{alpha} photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120{sup o} using a HOPG crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state {bar Z}, and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  20. A 100-parsec elliptical and twisted ring of cold and dense molecular clouds revealed by Herschel around the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Compiègne, M; Bernard, J P; Paradis, D; Martin, P; Testi, L; Barlow, M; Moore, T; Plume, R; Swinyard, B; Zavagno, A; Calzoletti, L; Di Giorgio, A M; Elia, D; Faustini, F; Natoli, P; Pestalozzi, M; Pezzuto, S; Piacentini, F; Polenta, G; Polychroni, D; Schisano, E; Traficante, A; Veneziani, M; Battersby, C; Burton, M; Carey, S; Fukui, Y; Li, J Z; Lord, S D; Morgan, L; Motte, F; Schuller, F; Stringfellow, G S; Tan, J C; Thompson, M A; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G; Umana, G

    2011-01-01

    Thermal images of cold dust in the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way, obtained with the far-infrared cameras on-board the Herschel satellite, reveal a 3x10^7 solar masses ring of dense and cold clouds orbiting the Galactic Center. Using a simple toy-model, an elliptical shape having semi-major axes of 100 and 60 parsecs is deduced. The major axis of this 100-pc ring is inclined by about 40 degrees with respect to the plane-of-the-sky and is oriented perpendicular to the major axes of the Galactic Bar. The 100-pc ring appears to trace the system of stable x_2 orbits predicted for the barred Galactic potential. Sgr A* is displaced with respect to the geometrical center of symmetry of the ring. The ring is twisted and its morphology suggests a flattening-ratio of 2 for the Galactic potential, which is in good agreement with the bulge flattening ratio derived from the 2MASS data.