WorldWideScience

Sample records for denmark finland france

  1. Air Pollution Mortality in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Lehmijoki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse health consequences of air pollution are of concern currently and there is a fear that these consequences escalate along with economic growth. The effect of economic growth on air pollution deaths is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden by applying the Environmental Kuznets Curve approach, according to which economic growth has competing effects on air pollution and related deaths. On the one hand, emissions tend to increase as the scale of economic activity increases, but on the other hand, consumers and firms in richer countries use cleaner goods and adopt cleaner technologies. In Denmark and Finland, the latter effects are stronger, while in Sweden the opposite is true. Therefore, air pollution deaths will decrease in Denmark and Finland but increase in Sweden. Since country's own emissions do not determine air pollution completely, the paper briefly analyzes emissions from the Baltic countries and Russia.

  2. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L

    1982-01-01

    Stool weight and transit time through the gut were measured in 4 groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, randomly selected from populations in urban (Copenhagen) and rural (Them) Denmark and urban (Helsinki) and rural (Parikkala) Finland. These populations exhibited a 3-4 fold difference in risk for ...... of gastrointestinal illness, but neither of these variables related to bowel habit....

  3. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, “heroic drinking,” is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, “playful drinking,” has become more prevalent in Denmark as well......, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking", has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations where you need to play with different...... and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16).Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking", is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland...

  4. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  5. Justifications of national gambling policies in France and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marionneau Virve

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – The principles of free trade and free circulation of services within the European Union have created pressures to make the strictly controlled European gambling markets more open. According to the Court of Justice of the European Union, restrictions on gambling are only allowed if they are justified in admissible terms of consumer protection, prevention of criminal activity and protection of public order. This study compares the gambling laws of two European societies, France and Finland, to analyse how their legal frames of gambling have been adjusted to these principles.

  6. Comparison of the energy structures in Denmark, France and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2003-12-01

    Denmark is an example of country which involves massively in the renewable energies development and in the energy efficiency, since 1980. Facing this policy, France and Sweden produce their energy without fossil energies, mainly from nuclear and hydroelectric power. These countries energy policies, providing not much of carbon dioxide emission, are compared by the author. (A.L.B.)

  7. Drinking, Everyday Life Situations and Cultural Norms in Denmark, Finland and West Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpura, J.; Fahrenkrug, H.; Hyttinen, M.

    1990-01-01

    A method called nonactive role-playing, originally developed in social psychology, is applied to illustrate cultural differences with respect to drinking between Denmark, Finland and West Germany. West Germany and Denmark have clearly higher levels of alcohol consumption than Finland, whereas......, heavy-drinking Finns, and ritualistic Germans. Deeper, it seemed that drinking has greatest expressive power in Finland where references to drinking are more frequent and they are used effectively as social markers in the process of events described. In Denmark and Germany, drinking is more self......- evident and is less remarkably used as a carrier of specific cultural meanings. The findings are of interest in considering the nature of the debate on alcohol-related issues in different cultures. Udgivelsesdato: 1990...

  8. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and...

  9. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted in…

  10. Environmental Education. University Level. 10 Years Development; Recommendations. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The Nordic countries have worked together over the last decade to enhance the efforts of environmental educators. This document details: (1) the history and activities of the group responsible for the coordination of efforts at the university level; (2) the types of environmental education occurring in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and…

  11. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Background The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Methods...... From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1¿182¿888), Finland (n=419¿729), Norway (n=1¿006¿767) and Sweden (n=1¿974¿101). The births were linked with individual data on parental...

  12. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  13. Global Culture in Practice. A Look at Children and Adolescents in Denmark, France and Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang; Lemish, Dafna; Drotner, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,......Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,...

  14. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-01-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified...... as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than...... suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death...

  15. Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Benito, Gabriel R.G.; Larimo, Jorma; Narula, Rajneesh; Pedersen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing the internationalization of large companies from small countries requires understanding the process of internationalization by examining the interface between micro (firm strategies) and macro (the forces of centripetal and centrifugal) level factors. We examine the growth and international expansion of the ten largest companies in Denmark, Finland, and Norway over the period 1990 to 1999. Most companies in the sample became more international during the last decade across basically...

  16. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Lin

    2014-01-01

    and extracts some key factors underpinning the effective whole-of-government and whole-of-society efforts. It then considers experiences of several nations – Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden – in building integrated security and defence systems. Finally, the paper investigates the ‘state of play...

  17. Trends and differences in tuberculosis incidences and clustering among natives in Denmark, Sweden and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M K; Lillebaek, T; Andersen, A B

    2018-01-01

    among the countries. In addition, for the periods 2012-2013 and 2014-2015, genotyping data were compared. Genotyping was performed using the 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) method in Denmark and Sweden. For Finland, spoligotyping...... in conjunction with the 15-locus MIRU-VNTR method was used for 2012-2013 and translated into the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR when feasible, and for 2014-2015 only MIRU-VNTR was used. Both incidence trends and molecular epidemiology were assessed for native cases. RESULTS: The average annual rate of change in TB incidence...

  18. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in......, mathematics, and science. The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the topperforming countries; differences can be found in certain areas, in other areas there are greater differences between the four individual countries. Three...

  19. Comparision hexachlorobenzene residues in placentas from Finland and Denmark (1997-2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. for Ecological Chemistry (Germany); Main, K.; M. Ida Schmidt; Boisen, K.; Chellakooty, M.; Damgaard, I.; Skakkebaek, N. [Univ. Dept. of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaleva, M.; Virtanen, H.; Haavisto, A.M.; Toppari, J. [Dept. of Paediatrics and Physiology, Univ. of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be released in to the environment as an industry byproduct, although it has been banned as fungicide in most countries in the 1970s. The high persistence and bioaccumulation along the food chain cause that humans are almost exclusively exposed through their diet. Here we present the fetus exposure as the first step to investigate the possible relationship between the male reproductive system toxicity and environmental exposure of this compound. The two-cohort male placenta samples originate from Denmark and Finland, which have different incidences of male urogenital disorders.

  20. Cumulative risk of bovine mastitis treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valde, J P; Lawson, L G; Lindberg, A; Agger, J F; Saloniemi, H; Osterås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.

  1. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.

  2. National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Gandré, Coralie; Leboyer, Marion; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Belli, Stefano; McDaid, David; Park, A-La; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wykes, Til; van Os, Jim; Haro, Josep Maria; Chevreul, Karine

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  4. The political construction of elder care markets: comparing Denmark, Finland and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Zechner, Minna; Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    2017-01-01

    underpinning the policies of marketization, using the ‘What's the problem?’ approach by Carol Bacchi. The central question is how the market was discursively framed as the solution to the perceived problems of three different systems of elder care, and how such processes are similar or different across......In Europe over the last two decades, marketization has become an important policy option in elder care. Comparative studies predominantly adopt an institutional perspective and analyze the politics and policies of marketization. This analysis takes a step back and examines the fundamental ideas...... the three countries. The analysis includes two extreme types of elder care systems, the Nordic public systems in Denmark and Finland, and the Southern European family-based model in Italy. Empirically, the analysis offers interesting insights into processes of constructing and legitimating markets...

  5. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    of professional knowledge within the Danish teacher education programmes, which is not true of the programmes in the Top-3 countries and (2) the programmes in Canada and Singapore more frequently employ literature combining research-based knowledge with practical guidance and experiences, while the programmes......This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand....... The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the top-performing countries. Two main findings are: (1) philosophically based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body...

  6. Nitrogen consumption, utilisation and losses in pig production in France, The Netherlands, and Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourmad, J.Y.; SOve, B.; Latimer, P.; Boisen, S.; Fernández, J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    In highly intensive pig production areas, manure disposal is a major problem especially for nitrogen, because of water pollution by nitrates and air pollution by gaseous ammonia emissions. The situations in three European countries (Denmark, The Netherlands and France) were compared, on average, it

  7. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs).......In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs)....

  8. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn; Kaplan, George A; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie N

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs). From the national medical birth registries we gathered information on all births from 1987 to 2003. Information on highest completed maternal education and household income in the year preceding birth of the offspring was obtained for 1,012,400 births in Denmark and 499,390 in Finland. We then calculated CIXs for income- and education-related inequality in SGA and preterm birth. The mean household income-related inequality in SGA was -0.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.05, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The maternal education-related inequality in SGA was -0.08 (-0.10, -0.06) in Denmark and -0.07 (-0.08, -0.06) in Finland. The income-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.03 (-0.03, -0.02) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The education-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.05 (-0.07, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) in Finland. In Denmark, the income-related and education-related inequity in SGA increased over time. In Finland, the income-related inequality in SGA birth increased slightly, while education-related inequalities remained stable. Inequalities in preterm birth decreased over time in both countries. Denmark and Finland are examples of nations with free prenatal care and publicly financed obstetric care of high quality. During the period of study there were macroeconomic shocks affecting both countries. However, only small income- and education-related inequalities in SGA and preterm births during the period were observed.

  9. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    ,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = 929,458; Sweden n = 1,761,562). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Slope index of inequality (SII) and mean differences in birthweight for gestational age, SII and risk differences in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. RESULTS: In all countries....... CONCLUSION: The economic recession in Denmark in the 1980s was concurrent with an increase in disparities in fetal growth, whereas the economic recession in Finland and Sweden in the early 1990s did not substantially increase the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth. The economic growth in the later part...... of the 1990s may have diminished the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth in Finland, Norway, and Sweden....

  10. Nordel - Availability statistics for thermal power plants 1995. (Denmark, Finland, Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The power companies of Denmark, Finland and Sweden have agreed on almost identical procedures for the recording and analysing of data describing the availability of power producing units over a certain capacity. Since 1975 the data for all three countries have been summarized and published in a joint report. The purpose of this report is to present some basic information about the operation of power producing units in the three countries. Referring to the report, companies or bodies will be able to exchange more detailed information with other companies or bodies in any of the countries. The report includes power producing units using fossil fuels, nuclear power plants and gas turbines. The information is presented separately for each country with a joint NORDEL statistics for units using fossil fuels, arranged in separate groups according to the type of fossil fuel which is used. The grouping of power producing units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. The definitions in NORDEL's 'Tillgaenglighetsbegrepp foer vaermekraft' ('The Concept of Availability for Thermal Power'), September 1977, are used in this report. The basic data for the availability are in accordance with the recommendations of UNIPEDE/WEC. (author)

  11. Loss of life expectancy derived from a standardized mortality ratio in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Væth, Michael; Støvring, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is a widely used measure. A recent methodological study provided an accurate approximate relationship between an SMR and difference in lifetime expectancies. This study examines the usefulness of the theoretical relationship, when comparing historic mortality data in four Scandinavian populations. For Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, data on mortality every fifth year in the period 1950 to 2010 were obtained. Using 1980 as the reference year, SMRs and difference in life expectancy were calculated. The assumptions behind the theoretical relationship were examined graphically. The theoretical relationship predicts a linear association with a slope, [Formula: see text], between log(SMR) and difference in life expectancies, and the theoretical prediction and calculated differences in lifetime expectancies were compared. We examined the linear association both for life expectancy at birth and at age 30. All analyses were done for females, males and the total population. The approximate relationship provided accurate predictions of actual differences in lifetime expectancies. The accuracy of the predictions was better when age was restricted to above 30, and improved if the changes in mortality rate were close to a proportional change. Slopes of the linear relationship were generally around 9 for females and 10 for males. The theoretically derived relationship between SMR and difference in life expectancies provides an accurate prediction for comparing populations with approximately proportional differences in mortality, and was relatively robust. The relationship may provide a useful prediction of differences in lifetime expectancies, which can be more readily communicated and understood.

  12. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  13. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  14. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C.; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis. PMID:26000630

  15. Work environment satisfaction and employee health: panel evidence from Denmark, France and Spain, 1994-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates whether a satisfactory work environment can promote employee health even after controlling for socioeconomic status and life style factors. A dynamic panel model of health is estimated from worker samples from Denmark, France and Spain, employing both self-assessed general health and the presence of a functional limitation. In all three countries and for both types of health measures, a good perceived work environment is found to be a highly significant determinant of worker health even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and minimizing reverse causality. The marginal effect is, however, larger in France and Denmark than in Spain. Several potential explanations for this finding are discussed. Further, a satisfactory working environment is found to be at least as important for employee health as socioeconomic status. Thus, investing in giving workers a satisfying work environment could be a low-cost way of improving employee health.

  16. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Means-end chain analyses of fish consumption in Denmark and France: A multidimensional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valette-Florence, Pierre; Sirieix, Lucie; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to stress the potentiality of means-end chain analysis for studying cognitive structures on a cross-cultural basis. More precisely, the study attempts to compare and differentiate the means-end orientations motivating or demotivating consumers to buy seafood products in two...... different countries, France and Denmark. The results, although exploratory, lead to the identification of potential common and country-specific targets....

  18. A comparison of fish consumption in Denmark and France: A means-end perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valette-Florence, Pierre; Sirieix, Lucie; Grunert, Klaus G.

    This article aims to stress the potentiality of means-end chain analysis for studying cognitive structures on a cross-cultural basis. More precisely, the study attempts to compare and diffrentiate the means-end orientations motivating or demotivat consumers to buy seafood products in two different...... countries, France and Denmark. The results, although exploratory, lead to the identification of potential common and country-specific targets....

  19. Concentrations of base cations, phosphorous and nitrogen in tree stumps in Sweden, Finland and Denmark; Halter av baskatjoner, fosfor och kvaeve i stubbar i Sverige, Finland och Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Sofie; Waengberg, Ingvar (The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Helmisaari, Heljae-Sisko; Kaakinen, Seija; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna (Metla, Vantaa (Finland)); Melin, Ylva; Petersson, Hans (Swedish Univ. of Agriculture, Umeaa (Sweden)); Skovsgaard, Jens Peter (Forest and Landscape Denmark, Univ. of Copenhagen, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Akselsson, Cecilia (Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    Stump removal is becoming increasingly important in as demand for renewable energy is increasing. Nutrient concentrations in stumps are applied when evaluating the environmental effect of stump removal on acidification and nutrient balances in forest soil. The objectives of this study was to evaluate concentrations of nutrients in stumps in Sweden, Finland and Denmark, and to evaluate how nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and deposition level. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, K, Mg and Na in spruce, pine and birch stumps were assessed in eight sites across Scandinavia. The results of this study indicate that the concentration of nutrients are higher in birch stumps compared with spruce and pine. In Sweden and Finland, the nutrient concentrations were generally higher in the southern sites compared with northern sites in the country, except for P. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher in the bark of the stump and the roots compared to the wood for all nutrients. Furthermore nutrients concentration increased significantly with decreasing root diameter. In Jaedraaas, Sweden, nutrient concentration of N, K, Mg and P in pine decreased with age of the stump harvested tree, for stumps < 65 years. This relation was not evident for other age spans or sites. Further studies are needed to provide a broader picture of how the nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and forestry management to get a better foundation when setting up recommendations for stump removal

  20. The reactions to macro-economic crises in Nordic health system policies: Denmark, Finland and Sweden, 1980-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Juhani; Vrangbæk, Karsten; Winblad, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have experienced two major recessions during the last 25 years. The adjustments to the earlier crisis in the late 1980s (Denmark) and early 1990s (Finland and Sweden) resembled the policies in many other European countries during the present crisis. The analysis of relationship of deep economic crises and growth period between them to the health system policies and institutions in the three countries from the 1980s to 2013 is based on a categorisation of reactions to external shocks as path conforming or path breaking. The results of the empirical long-term trends show that the reactions to deep recessions have been mainly temporary adjustments and acceleration of changes already prepared before economic crisis. The economic crisis in the three countries has not been 'good enough' to enable paradigmatic changes in the Nordic public, decentralised and equity-oriented health systems. Changes such as the slow privatisation in care funding and production and the adoption of new management practices indicate an ongoing paradigmatic change related to longer-term societal, ideological and political developments rather than directly to economic crises or growth.

  1. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux....../Carbodata European networks. Except for some short-term differences (1-5 days), the temporal variation of NEE followed similar patterns in both sites. This similarity followed from similar values of. (i) dates of bud break and of leaf fall; (ii) ecosystem respiration rates during winter; (iii) diurnal NEE during...

  2. Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Kruse, H.; Tast, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and poultry in Denmark, Finland, and Norway to antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion. E. faecium was isolated from 211 broilers and 55 pigs in Denmark in 1997, from Norwegian 55 poultry farms (turkey and br......%) of the virginiamycin-resistant isolates from pigs in Denmark. This study indicates that the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion in Denmark, Finland, and Norway have selected for resistance to most of these drugs among E. faecium in food animals....... as resistant to monensin or salinomycin. In general, an association between the usage of antimicrobial agents in the respective countries and the occurrence of associated resistance was observed. Resistance to avilamycin was frequently observed among isolates from broilers in Denmark, where avilamycin has been...... used, whereas all isolates from Finland and Norway, where these drugs have not been used, were susceptible. The same phenomenon could be observed for avoparcin, bacitracin, tylosin, and virginiamycin; resistance was frequently observed among isolates from where these antimicrobials have been widely...

  3. Acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the US: A cross-cultural study of consumer values and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Poulsen, Jacob; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    Functional foods is a relatively new concept, which covers food products that are enriched with various kinds of (naturally occur-ring) components/substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified in a way so that the product provides an additional physio-lo-gical benefit...... that some consumers seem to approve of such manipu-lations whereas others don't. One possible explanation is differ-ences in con-sumers' values, especially the values pertaining to the relationship between man and nature. The aim of the study presented in this paper is, by means of conjoint analysis......, to study consumer acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States and to investi-gate to which extent acceptance can be explained by consumer values. The three countries are selected due to differences in the importance attached to the value dimensions 'harmony' and 'mastery...

  4. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... continents (Zwaan & de Bruin 2012). Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal, to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats (Armbruster and Mikos 2009), and to what degree...... the global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the format to local audience tastes. A few trans-national, comparative textual analyses of various adaptations of the same formats have been carried out to reveal the differences between adaptations (e.g. Mikos and Perotta 2012...

  5. Cost-consequence analysis of cause of death investigation in Finland and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Lalu, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark with another cost profile. Data on cause of death investigation systems and costs were derived from Departments of Forensic Medicine, Departments of Pathology, and the National Police. Finnish and Danish autopsy rates were calculated in unnatural (accident, suicide, homicide and undetermined...

  6. Nasal and sinonasal cancer. Connection with occupational exposures in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, S; Westerholm, P; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1983-01-01

    A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 in order to study the connection between nasal and sinonasal cancer and various occupational exposures. All new cases of nasal and sinonasal cancer were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland and Sweden...... carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents....

  7. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    , to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  8. The Impact of Institutions on Foreign Policy Think Tanks in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Even though France is an active player on the world stage, its foreign and security think tank milieu is smaller than that of similar powers, most notably the United Kingdom. Comparing French think tanks with those in Denmark illustrates how French institutional structures constrain think tank...... activities. France’s political tradition of centralisation, its non-academic civil service education, and separation of academia and administration create an environment in which think tanks are underfunded and walk a fine line between an over-controlling administration and a suspicious academia. Some French...... think tanks perform well in spite of these structures, which indicates that they could flourish and compete at the highest international level if given better structural conditions....

  9. National Cases combining promotion scheme, ownership structure and operational strategy for Denmark, France and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana; Kroff, Pablo; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the FC4Home project is to assess technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This was carried out...... by means of energy systems analysis and studies on central cases for each of the participating project partners. This document comprises results from Work Package 6 – National Cases combining support schemes, ownership structures and operational strategies of the FC4Home research project. It integrates...... – Analyses of models for promotion schemes and ownership arrangements and Work Package 5 – Residential fuel cell micro CHP in Denmark, France and Portugal – model description, accomplished during the project....

  10. Climate change, energy security, and risk-debating nuclear new build in Finland, France and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraevaeinen, Tuula; Lehtonen, Markku; Martiskainen, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about climate change and energy security have been major arguments used to justify the recent return of nuclear power as a serious electricity generation option in various parts of the world. This article examines the recent public discussion in Finland, France, and the UK - three countries currently in the process of constructing or planning new nuclear power stations. To place the public discussion on nuclear power within the relationship between policy discourses and contexts, the article addresses three interrelated themes: the justifications and discursive strategies employed by nuclear advocates and critics, the similarities and differences in debates between the three countries, and the interaction between the country-specific state orientations and the argumentation concerning nuclear power. Drawing from documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews, the article identifies and analyses key discursive strategies and their use in the context of the respective state orientations: 'technology-and-industry-know-best' in Finland, 'government-knows-best' in France, and 'markets-know-best' in the UK. The nuclear debates illustrate subtle ongoing transformations in these orientations, notably in the ways in which the relations between markets, the state, and civil society are portrayed in the nuclear debates. - Highlights: → Focus on argumentation on new nuclear power in Finland, France, and the UK. → Nuclear power is justified by climate change, energy security, and independence. → The credibility of discursive strategies varies across countries. → Country-specific state orientations shape the success of discursive strategies. → Discursive strategies contain normative claims about state-society relations.

  11. Achieving best practices in national standardisation. A benchmarking study of the national standardisation systems of Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, P.; Potter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The national standardisation systems of Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Italy have been benchmarked in a study that has sought to identify best practices for improving the performance of all participating bodies. This study has been funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Finland with some assistance from the European Commission. It has involved a series of 27 interviews of some 120 participants at different levels in the standardisation and wider stakeholder communities. This report details the features of each national system and describes more than 50 best practices identified during the course of the study, together with more than 25 recommendations for further improvements that are drawn from best practices in other organisations. The report starts by identifying best practices in the national standardisation systems and their structures and processes before moving onto the participation in European and international standardisation, with their challenges of influence, management and delivery. The relationship with government, at national level and within European programmes, is then addressed before moving onto the financing of standardisation activities within each of the national systems. The focus then starts moving more towards the national standards bodies (SFS,SIS,DS,UNI/CEI) by looking into issues relating to publications and onto customer services, sales and marketing. Management issues and the benefits of a long term strategic approach are then covered before moving on to the issues associated with communications and outreach, not only to those outside of the standards community but also those within it and on its edges. Moreover, trends during the last five years and those expected within the next two are dealt with briefly. A number of recommendations are common to all of the participating bodies. More detailed recommendations and suggested priorities have been made privately in a further set of reports delivered to the participating bodies

  12. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Natalie Videbæk

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges of the r......The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges...

  13. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    In Denmark the public debate on media ethics and accountability has seen an all-time high in recent years, culminating, in 2013, with an update of the common and institutionalised guidelines for press ethics. As recently as the summer 2014, in light of a media hacking scandal, the politicians again...

  14. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Anette

    2017-01-01

    the chapter is a thorough presentation of the legal positions of children and juvenile offenders in Denmark including procedural as well as material law and practises. The contemporary tense debate on legal rights and consequences is presented and debated critically. Included is also a discussion...... of the role of the age for criminal liability....

  15. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Nicolaj Sivan; Henricson, Ib Lennart

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges of the r...

  16. Denmark country report 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care....... In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...

  17. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working......, Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...

  18. Household transport consumption inequalities and redistributive effects of taxes: A repeatedcross-sectional evaluation for France, Denmark and Cyprus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berri, Akli; Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent; Mulalic, Ismir

    2014-01-01

    , this result is principally due to the progressivity of taxes on car purchases, a progressivity stronger by far in Denmark where these taxes are so high that car purchase costs can be afforded only by those with high incomes. These findings underline the necessity of taking into account equity issues when......We evaluate household transport consumption inequalities in France, Denmark and Cyprus, investigate their temporal dynamics, and estimate the redistributive effects of taxes on different commodity categories. Using household-level data from repeated cross-sections of expenditure surveys spanning...... has decreased overtime, thus reflecting the increasingly widespread use of cars. Moreover, fuel taxes have become regressive, while the progressive character of taxes on the remaining car use commodities has weakened with time. Taxes on transport goods and services as a whole are progressive. However...

  19. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Bjerregaard, E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2004-01-01

    After a theoretical outset (Rhodes), the author gives an overview of the Danish regions (history, place in the national / EU-system, administrative organisation), followed by discussions of the intra-regional relations (incl. degree of Europeanisation, local - regional cooperation), the relations...... to the national centre and the supranational centre. This is followed bu a conclussion in which it i.a. is stated, that the proces of Europeanization has streangthned the Dansh regions within Denmark, and that the regions do nt have any federal aspirations....

  20. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    is inextricably linked to values and the processes by which people seek to achieve their values through various modes of expression, including food. This research therefore employs the Food-Related Lifestyles (FRL) instrument developed by Grunert et al. (1993), which is rooted in the personal values concept......, to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  1. Shape of the association between income and mortality: a cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1995 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Rehnberg, Johan; Dahl, Espen; Diderichsen, Finn; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Martikainen, Pekka; Rehkopf, David; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Fritzell, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prior work has examined the shape of the income–mortality association, but work has not compared gradients between countries. In this study, we focus on changes over time in the shape of income–mortality gradients for 4 Nordic countries during a period of rising income inequality. Context and time differentials in shape imply that the relationship between income and mortality is not fixed. Setting Population-based cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Participants We collected data on individuals aged 25 or more in 1995 (n=12.98 million individuals, 0.84 million deaths) and 2003 (n=13.08 million individuals, 0.90 million deaths). We then examined the household size equivalised disposable income at the baseline year in relation to the rate of mortality in the following 5 years. Results A steep income gradient in mortality in men and women across all age groups except the oldest old in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. From the 1990s to 2000s mortality dropped, but generally more so in the upper part of the income distribution than in the lower part. As a consequence, the shape of the income gradient in mortality changed. The shift in the shape of the association was similar in all 4 countries. Conclusions A non-linear gradient exists between income and mortality in most cases and because of a more rapid mortality decline among those with high income the income gradient has become steeper over time. PMID:28011804

  2. The book within the cross-section of acquis communautaire and private interest: examples of France, Finland, Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Grilc

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some essential data about book field in France, Finland, Croatia and Slovenia are assembled in 2004. The article compares the data about book production, particularly the part of production which is in accordance with acquis communautaire, the data about publishing market, public library activities and also the data about state support which is ensured for books in all four countries. It outlines the forms of state support for the book in all four countries and also the actual measures of state support which are related to the production of books and reviews, and to the direct support to authors, bookshops and the promotion of reading. On the basis of these data it sets out the examples of good practice which are intended to stimulate the development of the book field in each particular country. It also points out the differences and particularities which are practiced in these countries with the intention to follow their culturalpolitical objectives. In each country, this intention installs the book within the unique cross-section of acquis communautaire and private interest.

  3. Selection and Interpretation of Scientific Evidence in Preparation for Policy Decisions: A Case Study Regarding Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine Into National Immunization Programs in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry St-Martin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs (NIPs worldwide. Nordic countries are usually considered comparable in terms of demographics and health-care services and have comparable rotavirus disease burden. Nevertheless, the countries have reached different decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine: Norway and Finland have already introduced rotavirus vaccines into their NIPs and Sweden is currently changing its recommendation and vaccines will now be introduced on a national scale while Denmark has decided against it. This study focuses on the selection and interpretation of medical and epidemiological evidence used during the decision-making processes in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark. The so-called “severity criteria” is identified as one of the main reasons for the different policy decisions reached across the Nordic countries.

  4. Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs. Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97, 0.56 (0.48, 0.64, 0.82 (0.75, 0.90 and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93, 0.51 (0.43, 0.59, 0.75 (0.67, 0.83 and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75, respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7, 38.6 (34.2, 43.5, 31.3 (27.2, 35.9 and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9, respectively, which was between 20% (DK and 100% (FI higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary

  5. Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM) diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs). Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval) for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97), 0.56 (0.48, 0.64), 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), 0.51 (0.43, 0.59), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83) and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75), respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7), 38.6 (34.2, 43.5), 31.3 (27.2, 35.9) and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9), respectively, which was between 20% (DK) and 100% (FI) higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary-supervised cases of

  6. Payment for Care, Impact on the Economic Situation of the Pensioner in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Charlotte; Willumsen, Marie; Hansen, Hans

    .e. disposable income after net housing costs. Two alternative ways of calculating gross housing costs are included, one is 20 percent of former earnings, another is 20 percent of gross pension income. In two of the countries, Denmark and Germany, there is no direct payment for care provided by professionals......’ of the pensioner for each of the two housing cost alternatives is calculated at selected income levels and the ‘impact profiles’ are compared for the four countries with pay schemes for care for the elderly....

  7. Same, same but different. A comparative perspective on participation and acceptance in siting procedures for HLW repositories in France, Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre

    2015-07-01

    This paper compares national approaches in Finland, Sweden, and France. These three EURATOM Member States are in an advanced stage of siting deep geological disposal (DGD) facilities. The procedures in these countries are largely based on voluntarism, but differ in their approach to public consultation as they were based on the so-called staged volunteer process leading to working partnership arrangements between the operator and the hosting communities and veto rights (Sweden), decisions with strong local community support and veto rights for municipalities until the final decision (Finland), and final top-down decision making after consultative processes (debat public) with the affected communities without veto rights (France). This presentation focuses on participation and acceptance issues; it analyses the different modes of governance with diverse conditions regarding transparency, trust, communication, and participation that have been at work. Moving beyond the fact that variance exists with regard to the relevant national institutional, legal, cultural, industrial, and energy frameworks, the authors take evidence from national case studies and look for common patterns.

  8. Same, same but different. A comparative perspective on participation and acceptance in siting procedures for HLW repositories in France, Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares national approaches in Finland, Sweden, and France. These three EURATOM Member States are in an advanced stage of siting deep geological disposal (DGD) facilities. The procedures in these countries are largely based on voluntarism, but differ in their approach to public consultation as they were based on the so-called staged volunteer process leading to working partnership arrangements between the operator and the hosting communities and veto rights (Sweden), decisions with strong local community support and veto rights for municipalities until the final decision (Finland), and final top-down decision making after consultative processes (debat public) with the affected communities without veto rights (France). This presentation focuses on participation and acceptance issues; it analyses the different modes of governance with diverse conditions regarding transparency, trust, communication, and participation that have been at work. Moving beyond the fact that variance exists with regard to the relevant national institutional, legal, cultural, industrial, and energy frameworks, the authors take evidence from national case studies and look for common patterns.

  9. Cross-border outbreak of listeriosis caused by cold-smoked salmon, revealed by integrated surveillance and whole genome sequencing (WGS), Denmark and France, 2015 to 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjorring, Susanne; Lassen, Sofie Gillesberg; Jensen, Tenna

    2017-01-01

    In August 2017, an outbreak of six listeriosis cases in Denmark was traced to cold-smoked salmon, using epidemiological investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses. Exchange of genome sequences allowed identification in France of a food isolate from a salmon-derived product and a hu......In August 2017, an outbreak of six listeriosis cases in Denmark was traced to cold-smoked salmon, using epidemiological investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses. Exchange of genome sequences allowed identification in France of a food isolate from a salmon-derived product...... and a human isolate from 2016 within the same cgMLST cluster as the Danish isolates (L2-SL8-ST8-CT771). The salmon product came from a third European Union country. WGS can rapidly link human cases and food isolates across Europe....

  10. Excess mortality, causes of death and life expectancy in 270,770 patients with recent onset of mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Nordentoft

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excess mortality among patients with severe mental disorders has not previously been investigated in detail in large complete national populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the excess mortality in different diagnostic categories due to suicide and other external causes of death, and due to specific causes in connection with diseases and medical conditions. METHODS: In longitudinal national psychiatric case registers from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, a cohort of 270,770 recent-onset patients, who at least once during the period 2000 to 2006 were admitted due to a psychiatric disorder, were followed until death or the end of 2006. They were followed for 912,279 person years, and 28,088 deaths were analyzed. Life expectancy and standardized cause-specific mortality rates were estimated in each diagnostic group in all three countries. RESULTS: The life expectancy was generally approximately 15 years shorter for women and 20 years shorter for men, compared to the general population. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was increased two- to three-fold, while excess mortality from external causes ranged from three- to 77-fold. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was generally lowest in patients with affective disorders and highest in patients with substance abuse and personality disorders, while mortality due to suicide was highest in patients with affective disorders and personality disorders, and mortality due to other external causes was highest in patients with substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These alarming figures call for action in order to prevent the high mortality.

  11. Human Factors in the Large: Experiences from Denmark, Finland and Canada in Moving Towards Regional and National Evaluations of Health Information System Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipio, J.; Nieminen, M.; Hyppönen, H.; Lääveri, T.; Nohr, C.; Kanstrup, A. M.; Berg Christiansen, M.; Kuo, M.-H.; Borycki, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to explore approaches to understanding the usability of health information systems at regional and national levels. Methods Several different methods are discussed in case studies from Denmark, Finland and Canada. They range from small scale qualitative studies involving usability testing of systems to larger scale national level questionnaire studies aimed at assessing the use and usability of health information systems by entire groups of health professionals. Results It was found that regional and national usability studies can complement smaller scale usability studies, and that they are needed in order to understand larger trends regarding system usability. Despite adoption of EHRs, many health professionals rate the usability of the systems as low. A range of usability issues have been noted when data is collected on a large scale through use of widely distributed questionnaires and websites designed to monitor user perceptions of usability. Conclusion As health information systems are deployed on a widespread basis, studies that examine systems used regionally or nationally are required. In addition, collection of large scale data on the usability of specific IT products is needed in order to complement smaller scale studies of specific systems. PMID:25123725

  12. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  13. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  14. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome V: l'Algerie, l'Autriche, la Chine, le Danemark, la Finlande, la Hongrie, l'ile de Malte, le Maroc, la Norvege, la Nouvelle-Zelande, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni, la Tunisie, la Turquie, l'ex-URSS (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume V: Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, the former USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, and the former Soviet Union. The laws concern official languages,…

  15. Regulatory approaches to, and practice of, PSA in Finland, France, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, M.; Schaefer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Performing level-1 probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) is the established standard in most countries using nuclear power. In addition, level-2 PSA has become more and more widespread over the past few years. However, regulatory requirements and practice differ from country to country, especially with respect to level-2 analyses. In an effort to determine these differences more precisely, the ISaR Institute for Safety and Reliability, on behalf of VGB PowerTech Service GmbH, conducted a study of these seven countries: Finland, France, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The study focused on level-2 PSA carried out by plant operators within the framework of periodic safety reviews. The findings of the study are based on extensive interviews of at least one expert each on the operators' and the authorities' side for each of the seven countries. Points taken into account in particular included the criteria imposed by regulators on PSA carried out by operators; the rank of PSA within the regulatory framework; the required versus the actual scopes of analysis; the objectives and uses of PSA; reviews of the analyses; the methods employed. (orig.)

  16. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  17. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  18. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  19. The acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States: A study of consumers' conjoint evaluations of the qualities of functional foods and perceptions of general health factors and cultural values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    1. Functional foods is a relatively new concept covering food products enriched with various kinds of (natural) substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified so as to provide consumers with an additional physiological benefit presumed to prevent disease or promote health......; another explanation may be differences in cultural values, which possibly lead to different associations between wholesomeness and other quality aspects, such as taste, convenience and method of processing. 4. Using conjoint analysis and survey questions (n=1500), the aim of the study presented...... in this paper is to investigate whether there are differences in the acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States, and to which extent they are related to differences in consumers' nutritional knowledge, health associations and cultural values. The general results of the study...

  20. Abstract Book of the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry, Risø, Roskilde, Denmark, 2-6th Sept. 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    from Germany, France, Slovenia, Korea, Turkey, and China. The workshop consists two part, 3 days lab practices and 2 days lectures/presentation. 3 lab practices were organized, i.e. (1) Radiochemical separation of Pu and ICP-MS measurement of Pu isotopes; (2) Radiochemical separation of 210Po and 226Ra......This report compiled all abstracts presented in the NKS Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry at Risø, Roskilde, Denmark in 2-6th Sept. 2013. Total 35 participants registered to the workshop, among them 18 from Sweden, 5 from Denmark, 3 from Finland, and 3 from Norway, there are also 6 participants...

  1. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. On 18 September 1995 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Finland the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. For practical accounting purposes as proposed in the notifications, the Agreement came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995

  2. Energy prices in the EU: France is less expensive for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    This article proposes a comparison of electricity and gas prices among the European Union countries in 2008. It outlines that the price of electricity in France is among the cheapest, that taxes are higher in northern European countries as far as electricity is concerned, that the price of gas in France is in the average and that taxing in Europe is less for gas than for electricity. The existence of carbon taxes or climate-energy contributions in some countries is briefly presented (in Sweden since 1991, in Denmark since 1992, in Finland since 1994, in Slovenia since 1997 and in Great-Britain since 2001)

  3. 76 FR 61282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of “Qualifying Country End Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg...: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy...

  4. Gas and electricity prices in France and in the European Union in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    This publication presents and comments tables and graphs of data related to natural gas prices for enterprises and for households and to their evolution between 2013 and 2014, to the electricity price for enterprises and for households and to their evolution between 2013 and 2014 in European countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Croatia, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia, United Kingdom), in the euro Zone (19 countries), and in the European Union as a whole

  5. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  6. Nordic Mediation - Comparing Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio; Storgaard, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details.......The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details....

  7. The vocational education and training system in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Wiborg, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of developments in vocational education and training systems in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the UK and the US.......Analysis of developments in vocational education and training systems in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the UK and the US....

  8. Denmark: consensus seeking and decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Winter, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Governance and Environment in Western Europe: Politics, Policy and Administration, provides an up-to-date overview of developments in this area focusing on a selection of ten countries in Western Europe and the European Union. The countries examined are: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy...

  9. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring......-avirulent') was observed in most years and regions. This frequency increased with increasing proportion of winter barley; it was highest in France and decreased in general over the 8-year period. Most of the spring-avirulent genotypes possessed the V-a22 virulence gene, matching a resistance that has never been present...... of the pathogen population in this system, demonstrated that selection solely due to host resistance genes, i.e. without assuming any cost of virulence, might lead to such results as those observed. The changes in frequency of spring-avirulent genotypes and the frequency of unnecessary virulence genes may...

  10. Finland: Scandinavia's top gas user sees demand rising rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The rising demand for natural gas in Finland which already uses more gas than any other Nordic country is noted. The natural gas market which is based on sales to large industries and for heating is compared to the market in Denmark which is geared to small private heating customers. Imports of Norwegian gas allowing increased sales for power generation in Finland, and the influence of the impending Finnish application for membership of the EC on the gas market are considered. (UK)

  11. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  12. Communication of 30 June 1995 Received from France Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania [ru

  13. Communication of 30 June 1995 Received from France Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania [es

  14. Communication of 30 June 1995 Received from France Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania

  15. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  16. Postcolonial Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    restoration programs are and have been conducted in all former Danish tropical colonies. In Greenland, Denmark is using its sovereignty to boost its international status as part of the Arctic council, as a scientific power centre on Polar/Arctic research – not least in relation to climate change. The article...... Denmark's postcolonial condition, that is, it identifies issues in contemporary Denmark deriving from Danish (and European) colonialism's aftermath. This unfinished business includes contemporary historiography of the migrant other in Danish society, refugee discourse in the public domain, the early...

  17. Energy - Finland`s new trump card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huopalahti, K. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    The energy sector in Finland is heavily constrained by the tough northern climate, meagre fuel reserves, an expensive infrastructure, the small domestic market and limited capital resources. However, Finland`s forest and metal industries have demanded low-cost energy, considering it vital for their existence and therefore for the prosperity of the whole country. Finland`s extensive foreign trade and open policies have also furthered this process; they have forced the industry on the one hand to face competition at home, and on the other to go abroad to compete there. The energy sector has risen to this ambitious challenge, at the same time developing into an independent industrial sector that can compete in the international market

  18. Possibilities and future of wind power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, E.; Tammelin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)

  19. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  20. Management development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Camilla; Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Holt Larsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the major results from a study of management development in Danishorganizations. The study is part of a European research project with participation ofDenmark, the U.K, France, Norway, Rumania, Spain, and Germany. The project is part ofthe so-called Leonardo program the purpose...... of which is to further cross-countrycompetence development and collaboration within the European educational sector. Thefirst phase of the project is a quantitative interview study of one hundred organizations ineach of the participating countries. The second phase consists in qualitative case studiesin...... be published in books, journals and newspaper articles. Hopefully the findings of thelarge European project will thus affect the way in which educational institutions andorganizations manage the `Europeanization' of management development.The present report solely describes significant findings from...

  1. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  2. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  3. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  4. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  6. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  7. Gift from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    An instrument worth $19 000 for the analysis of nuclear radiation, donated by Finland to IAEA, was handed over by the Finnish Ambassador, Mr. Otso Wartiovaara, to the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, at the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf on 22 January. The instrument, a multi-channel analyzer with 512 channels, was constructed in Finland. It is being used in connection with all the major Agency projects under way at Seibersdorf, such as the standardization of radionuclides, agricultural research, and analytical work carried out at the request of Member States

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  9. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate...Department of Defense or the U.S. Government . IRB number ____N/A____. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release

  10. Nursing Education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    , as well as in the Scandinavian countries, has experienced ongoing reforms. The driving forces behind these reforms have been efforts for professional development within nursing and to harmonize higher education in several European countries. Data sources.  The data were collected by a critical review...... need to consider more carefully the directives in the Bologna Declaration when planning and implementing nursing programmes at Bachelor’s and postgraduate levels. Knowledge of the content and structure of nursing education in these countries may enhance development and cooperation between institutions....... Conclusion.  A challenge for the ministries of education in the Scandinavian countries is to compare and coordinate nursing educational programmes in order to enable nursing students, educators, researchers and nurses to study and work in Scandinavia, Europe or even globally. Keywords:Bologna Process...

  11. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  12. National programme: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.

    1986-01-01

    Finland's programmes in the field of reactor pressure components are presented in this paper. The following information on each of these programmes is given: the brief description of the programme; the programme's schedule and duration; the name of the project manager

  13. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  14. Buddhism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism.......Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism....

  15. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  16. Theosophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    Theosophy has been on of the major sources for inspiration for the new spiritual movement in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the history of Theosophy in Denmark is described......Theosophy has been on of the major sources for inspiration for the new spiritual movement in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the history of Theosophy in Denmark is described...

  17. Introduction of New Parasites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    examples of such parasites/parasitic diseases: Setaria tundra, a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode which was detected for the first time in Danish deer in 2010. This parasite is usually considered harmless but is capable of causing peritonitis and mortality in ungulates. The newly detected parasite...... was genetically very similar to previously published isolates from France and Italy, and may have been spread to Denmark from southern Europe. Giardia spp. a zoonotic, unicellular parasite (protozoa) well known in Danish livestock but recently found in extremely high numbers in Danish deer with chronic diarrhea...... for the first time in Denmark approximately 10 years ago in 3 foxes from the Copenhagen area. Since then, no systematic surveillance has been performed, and therefore the current prevalence among wildlife and pets is unknown. So far the parasite has not been found in intermediate hosts (rodents) in Denmark...

  18. Keeping Finland warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Close to 80% of the district heat produced in Finland is generated in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. This is a very high figure, and compares favourably with the situation else here, even in neighbouring Sweden, where local CHP facilities only account for 20% of district heat generation, because of the major role played by hydropower and nuclear. District heat is well-established, and has a 48% market share in Finland. Sales are growing by between 1% and 1,5% a year in terms of temperature-corrected offtake volume. This compares to a 50% market share in Sweden. District heat contracts generally follow recommendations drawn up by Finnish Energy Industries in cooperation with the country's competition and consumer protection authorities. This has promoted a consistent level of best practice and prevented unnecessary disputes between suppliers and customers

  19. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The booklet provides and up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear or energy sector in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. In the booklet nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market

  20. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1986-01-01

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  1. Licensing process in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, Petteri

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act, the use of nuclear energy constitutes operations subject to license. The licensing process and conditions for granting a license is defined in the legislation. The licenses are applied from and granted by the Government. This paper discusses briefly the licensing process in Finland and also the roles and responsibilities of main stakeholders in licensing. Licensing of a nuclear power plant in Finland has three steps. The first step is the Decision in Principle (DiP). Goal of DiP is to decide whether using nuclear power is for the overall good for the Finnish society. The second step is Construction License (CL) and the goal of CL phase is to determine whether the design of the proposed plant is safe and that the participating organisations are capable of constructing the plant to meet safety goals. The third step is the Operating License (OL) and the goal of the OL phase is to determine whether the plant operates safely and licensee is capable to operate the plant safely. Main stakeholders in the licensing process in Finland are the utility (licensee) interested in using nuclear power in Finland, Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Government, Parliament, STUK, the municipality siting the plant and the general public. Government grants all licenses, and Parliament has to ratify Government's Decision in Principle. STUK has to assess the safety of the license applications in each step and give statement to the Ministry. Municipality has to agree to site the plant. Both STUK and the municipality have a veto right in the licensing process

  2. Preventing BEPS in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sourinthone, Aksone

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the focus on multinationals’ tax avoidance schemes or Base Erosion & Profit Shifting (BEPS) has been increasing constantly. The OECD and the European Commission are working on new tax rulings to counter those harmful practices. The report aims to analyse and assess the anti-BEPS package: what does it contain, how can it be effective on the European level and how is Finland implementing the new recommendations? The analysis was a desktop study: peer-reviewed articles, ...

  3. Energy attitudes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, A.T.; Jaervinen, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpi, K.; Palmen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  5. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  6. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the booklet is to provide an up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear energy or other energy sectors in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. Nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market. (orig.)

  7. Case study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy act of Finland 1988 provides for the permits and licenses (decision in principle by the government on a new nuclear power plant-project, construction permit by the government, fuel permits by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, operating license by the government) for major nuclear installations. Political consideration from the point of view of the general interest of the society is made by the Government in the decision in Principle. If the decision in Principle is positive, it is subject to ratification by the parliament. In other words, democracy through representation, but not through referendum, is applied

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  13. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  14. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  15. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  16. School gardens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2016-01-01

    ). School gardens are sprouting in rural and urban areas across Denmark. This case study research sheds new light on various school garden models under the Gardens for Bellies program in Denmark, including school-, community-based and central school gardens. This study aims to document the organization...

  17. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  18. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...

  19. Literature review, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing......Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing...

  20. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure ...

  1. Arbitration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Having lagged behind in its arbitration rules for 30 years, Denmark has become an attractive country in which to conduct arbitration. Denmark now has one of Europe's most modern and streamlined arbitration acts, and if they so wish, the parties can exert a substantial influence on how the case is...

  2. Microbreweries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Østergaard Brandt, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The large breweries in Denmark have existed in more than 150 years. The industry has in recent 10 years experienced a true beer revolution where local entrepreneurs created more than 100 microbreweries, so today there are about 120 breweries in Denmark. One of the reasons why so many microbreweries...

  3. 19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...* Colombia Cyprus Denmark Ecuador Finland France Guatemala Germany, Federal Republic of Greece Iceland India... Federal Republic of Germany Finland France Greece Guatemala Iceland India Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast...

  4. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  5. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions...... there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison....

  6. Hinduism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2017-01-01

    This is an overview article on all research done, articles written etc. on Hinduism in Denmark. The article includes longer introductions, and commentaries on and citations from every book, article, report that is part of the article.......This is an overview article on all research done, articles written etc. on Hinduism in Denmark. The article includes longer introductions, and commentaries on and citations from every book, article, report that is part of the article....

  7. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  8. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P; Koskela, T; Damski, J; Supperi, A [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1997-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  9. Energy use in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of energy use in Denmark since the early 1970s, in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. Improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. This change accounts for two thirds of the decline in the ratio of energy use to gross domestic product that occurred during this time: the rest of the decline was caused by changes in the mix of goods and services produced and consumed by the Danes. Total energy savings achieved between 1972 and 1988 in Denmark ranked among the highest measured in any major OECD country. Overall, most of the energy savings in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. Short-term changes in consumer behaviour were significant in reducing energy needs for space heating and transport. An important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity and motor fuels. (author). 21 refs, 20 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Denmark and UN peacekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Denmark became a staunch supporter of UN peacekeeping during the cold war because it simultaneously served its interests and values and this winning combination meant that it relatively quickly became internalized as part of Denmark’s foreign policy identity. Denmark turned its back on UN...... peacekeeping when NATO took over from the UN in Bosnia in 1995. Since then Denmark has prioritized NATO- and US-led operations. The Danish shift was driven by the interest in supporting the Western great powers as well as an altruistic desire to improve United Nations Protection Force’s (UNPROFOR) dismal...... humanitarian record in Bosnia. This belief was also generated by the positive lessons learned from Denmark’s pioneering use of tanks in UNPROFOR. This tank deployment and subsequent participation in NATO and US-led missions created a new warrior identity. This identity and the Danish interest in maintaining...

  11. Europe in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of European ‘contacts’ during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, i.e. elements of culture derived from Central Europe that were introduced into historical Denmark, on the basis of three examples. First, Baltic Ware, a specific pottery type, was developed...... from Western Slavic antetypes. The rapid spread of Baltic Ware over the Eastern part of Denmark does not reflect a Slavic settlement but the adoption of a high quality product for cooking. Second, the art of glass making was nearly unknown before the Renaissance. To help meet the growing demand...... were imported to Denmark as elements of European medieval court culture. Through a trickling down process they became a common part of daily life in the Renaissance....

  12. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  13. BIM education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf......The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf...

  14. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions.......Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  15. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second...

  16. Denmark at a Crossroad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is regularly portrayed in international science journals as ‘the epidemiologist’s dream’: a country where health data on all citizens can be combined with e.g. information about social or financial position, kinship ties, school performance data as well as tissue samples. Moreover, it can...... to individual rights there is an unfortunate tendency to conjure concerns about privacy with rights of autonomy. We need new modes of ethical reasoning that take point of departure in an understanding of actual data practices. Since Denmark is in many ways at the forefront of intensified data sourcing...

  17. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  18. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  19. Metal Detecting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    questions: 1) Why does the liberal model work in Denmark, 2) which downsides of the liberal model of metal detector archaeology in Denmark can be identified, 30 years after its inception the beginning, and 3) what are possible solutions to these problems. It will be argued that a user-driven national...... all of the spectacular and ground-breaking discoveries of the past decades are owed to metal detectors in the hands of amateur archaeologists. In order to serve as a contribution to the discussion on the upsides and downsides of liberal metal detector archaeology, this article addresses mainly three...

  20. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  1. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  2. Air toxics research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahkala, M.

    1994-01-01

    Air toxics research in Finland has developed rapidly in recent years. Though they have no enormous environmental problems in Finland, the author feels that they have to increase their knowledge of more efficient energy production and control technology. Enormous emission sources are around them, but there are also huge markets for know-how and technology in the energy sector. Two Finnish national research programs will ensure the continuity of the development efforts concerning combustion technology and environmental aspects at both theoretical and practical levels

  3. Nuclear power prospects in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The basic circumstances which stimulated Finland's interest in nuclear power are summarized in the report as follows: 'In Finland the main power resource has been, and still is, water power. It is clear, however, that the hydro potential is insufficient to cover the increasing consumption over a long period of time. Already about one half of this potential has been exploited. Thus the country will necessarily have to consider the utilization of thermal power to an increasingly large extent. There is no indigenous coal or oil. For this reason it has become necessary to investigate realistically the possibilities offered by nuclear power'

  4. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  5. Gender in physics in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Kristine; Nordström, Birgitta; Bearden, Ian; Grage, Mette M.-L.

    2013-03-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10% of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark.

  6. Gender in physics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Karsten Ulrik; Nordström, B.; Bearden, I.

    2013-01-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10 of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark....

  7. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  8. Exchange of dose data within nuclear activities in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.; Malmqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, only Sweden and Finland have introduced nuclear power into energy production. The first still operating nuclear power plant was commissioned in Sweden in 1972 and in Finland in 1977. It was soon noticed that there was a growing tendency that small groups of workers used to move at short notice between Finland and Sweden to work in the nuclear power plants in both countries during maintenance periods. In 1983, the regulatory authorities for radiation protection, National Institute of Radiation Protection in Sweden and Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in Finland, surveyed the radiation exposure to those workers. The authorities have brought about an arrangement by means of which the central dose data bases in the other country since 1984 have been able to record without delay the radiation doses received by her own citizens in the nuclear power plants of the neighbouring country. In addition, the authorities have confirmed the procedures of controlling dose data on workers from the neighbouring country, before those workers start working in a nuclear power plant regulated by the national authorities in question. The paper describes the starting point of the activity, the established practice and the experience achieved. Until now, the practical experiences are positive. The total radiation exposure to the workers in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants has been relatively low at each plant site. Thus, the main objective in the exchange of dose data, is to achieve a good radiation protection control

  9. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  10. Real Estate in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    A general introduction to buying, owning and selling Property i Denmark. The cost of buying and selling property and the tax implications as well as the general concept of real estate is introduced. The paper includes also a brief introduction to some of the aspects which you should beware of when...

  11. Bente Boa, Torm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of July 2009, Maria Anne Wagtmann (Associate Professor, PhD, University of Southern Denmark) had the opportunity to interview Ms Bente Boa, a senior marine HR manager in the Danish ship owning firm TORM A/S' (http://www.torm.com/). Bente Boa is also chairwoman of the "The Sea...

  12. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  13. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  14. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  15. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  16. Anthroposophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    The Anthroposophical worldview has had an significant impact on a range of initiatives and institutions within esoteric thinking in many western countries during teh 20th Century - which is also the case in Denmark. This article gives a brief review over the development of Anthroposophical Societ...

  17. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  18. Prostitution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel; Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Hansen, Kirsten Grønbæk

    2015-01-01

    Prostitution is a worldwide phenomenon, and so are the controversies surrounding it. In Denmark, as in many countries, there is an ongoing public debate about whether it should be seen as a social/political problem, or as a job like any other. The debate takes place within the tension between wel...... welfare state discourses and neo-liberal discourses....

  19. EPBD implementation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Malmsteen, Margit

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status of the implementation of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) in Denmark, as well as plans for its evolution. It addresses the energy requirements, as well as the certification and inspection systems, including quality ...

  20. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  1. Country report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Finn; Breiting, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Quality criteria for the work of Danish schools working with environmental education or education for sustainable development as they can be revealed in documents related to special initiatives like green flag - green school projects and ecoschools. These are described as part of the state...... of environmental education and education for sustainable development in Denmark, and include explicit criteria as well as implicit criteria....

  2. Finland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, Karin [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    engineering at Helsinki (TKK) and Lappeenranta (LUT) Universities of Technology; - Radiochemistry: University of Helsinki (UH); - Some activities in other universities too; - Finnish specialty in all technical areas is close connection of students with industry, research institutes and the authorities; Summer trainees; Diploma (Master's) theses; Special course at professional level after graduation covering whole area of nuclear safety: - For new staff and recruits from other fields (5 times, 270 participants), - Organised jointly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and all institutes in nuclear energy. 'Radiant Women' Seminar in 2007: For female decision makers and opinion leaders; Some 70 participants; Theme 'The climate changes - changes in everyday life'; Opening speech by Ms. Sirkka Hautojaervi, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment; 'Finland and its adaptation to the climate change', senior researcher Susanna Kankaanpaeae, the Finnish Environment Institute; 'Prevention of climate change in everyday life', communications director Paeivi Laitila from Motiva; 'CO{sub 2}-studies and the effect of the sea on the climate change', senior researcher Heidi Pettersson, the Marine Research Institute. Christmas party in January for Energy Channel members who visited the research department of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety authority STUK. Number of Energy Channel members: {approx}80.

  3. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  4. White paper No 9 (2000 - 2001). The power exchange between Norway and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Norwegian Government will be altering the power exchange between Norway and Denmark from January 1, 2001. This is motivated chiefly by the more open power markets in continental Europe and the establishment of the price area of the Nordic electricity pool Nord Pool in Denmark. The exchange across the Skagerrak cables will be based on the same principles as the old exchange between Norway, Sweden and Finland and on the area prices of the Nord Pool. The new exchange agreement requires a licence from the Government

  5. Work family-life balance and social investment strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the options and possibilities of combining work and family life in a universal welfare state, e. g. Denmark. Related to the ability to combine work and family life is the welfare states investment in affordable and high quality day care and a perspective...... on caring for elderly citizens. The theoretical underpinnings of universal welfare states is given and also the reason why it has been important to ensure and be able to combine work and family life. The article shows how Denmark, Sweden and Finland compare with countries from other and different types...

  6. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  7. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Macao, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania...

  8. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao China...

  9. Nuclear status report for western Europe 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejsa, P.; Laurent, L.; Lauridsen, K.

    1985-01-01

    The status report embraces the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong... Contractor uses forced or indentured child labor in its mining, production, or manufacturing processes. (4...

  11. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  12. Sexual offences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Schierff, Laura Marie; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter

    addresses the question of a dark figure of crime as well as a supposed hidden population of male victims and is consequently developed as a two-stage survey project. The population of interest is men and women above the age of 18 who potentially are victims of sexual offences. The analysis will initially......During the last years, the question of whether or not Denmark suffers from an increasing culture of violation mirroring incidents of rape and sexual coercion has been a hot topic. Thus, the low number of convictions and the complexities of the reported cases has brought about questions...... rape cases has been questioned. The aim of the paper is to present the actual prevalence of sexual offences in Denmark and to investigate the various forms of offenses and their distributions among men as well as women. Thus, this paper work with a conceptualization of rape having both men and women...

  13. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...

  14. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  15. Developments in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The photocopies of overheads with relevant data illustrate the production, foreign trade and consumption of electric power in Denmark during 1990 and 1991 and prices and taxes for 1990-1992. The structure of electric power production and supply is demonstrated. Currently, there are 12 electricity companies (four of which are integrated) and 107 distribution companies in Denmark. An active debate is now taking place on future structure. The main questions are related to the possible fusion of the electricity companies, and amalgamation of distribution companies and/or coordination/cooperation with district heating and gas distribution. These questions are expanded in note form. Some of these considerations will be strongly influenced by future developments within the European Community, it is explained. (AB)

  16. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...... IT - solitions. CSC wanted to buy DC to penetrate the Nordic market. Some effects can be mentioned: Employment in CSC - DK is in 2003 1,700 persons or 2,600 including other companies bought up recently. In innovation positive effects can be registered from contacts with CSC - International. Not only from access...... - Laboratoriet, Benzon - Pharma and Pharma - Medica during years 1988 - 1991.Nycomed wants to establish itself as a company on European level.After a decade with different owners, fusions and splitting ups a construction in which head quarter and R&D move to Denmark close to Copenhagen. The importance...

  17. Technology Museums in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an exhibit review of some of the major technology museums in Denmark. First comes an introduction to the Danish museum ”landscape”. Second a total of six museums and their technology focused exhibits are presented. Among the museums are the Fisheries and Maritime Museum...... in Esbjerg, housing one of the most impressive and representative exhibitions on the technology behind the strong Danish maritime sector. Another museum being mentioned is the Energy Museum, which covers the background for some of the major breakthroughs performed in Denmark within this area; particularly...... within wind power technology. Finally special attention is devoted to the Danish Technological Museum. A museum which is the oldest and most elaborate of all the technology museums. The museum covers virtually every technological breakthrough with any relevance in a Danish section, with a special focus...

  18. Trauma facilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C

    2018-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a leading cause of death among adults aged challenge. Evidence supports the centralization of trauma facilities and the use multidisciplinary trauma teams. Because knowledge is sparse on the existing distribution of trauma facilities...... and the organisation of trauma care in Denmark, the aim of this study was to identify all Danish facilities that care for traumatized patients and to investigate the diversity in organization of trauma management. Methods: We conducted a systematic observational cross-sectional study. First, all hospitals in Denmark...... were identified via online services and clarifying phone calls to each facility. Second, all trauma care manuals on all facilities that receive traumatized patients were gathered. Third, anesthesiologists and orthopedic surgeons on call at all trauma facilities were contacted via telephone...

  19. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds......-trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...

  20. Food insecurity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte; Tetens, Inge

    2018-01-01

    .001) and higher risk of psychological distress (women: adj.RR 2.42 P Obesity was more prevalent in low/very low food secure women (RR 2.44 P Food insecurity in Denmark is associated with adverse factors...... such as unhealthy diet, obesity, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. It is important to widen food insecurity research to non-liberal welfare states since low/very low food security is negatively associated with unhealthy eating and other health indicators, even in a social-democratic welfare state.......Background: Food insecurity and its consequences have not received much attention in the Nordic, social-democratic welfare states. This study reports the prevalence of low and very low food security in Denmark, identifies its socio-demographic determinants and examines its associations with eating...

  1. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  2. Rickettsioses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocias, Lukas Frans; Jensen, Bo Bødker; Villumsen, Steen

    2018-01-01

    Rickettsia spp. can be found across the globe and cause disease of varying clinical severity, ranging from life-threatening infections with widespread vasculitis to milder, more localized presentations. Vector and, to some degree, reservoir are hematophagous arthropods, with most species harboured...... by ticks. In Denmark, rickettsiae are known as a cause of imported travel-related infections, but are also found endemically in ticks across the country. Data are, however, lacking on the geographical origin and clinical features of diagnosed cases. In this study, we have examined the travel history...... and clinical features of two groups of patients; 1) hospital-patients diagnosed with rickettsioses in the years 2010-2015 and 2) patients from primary health care (PHC) centers in Denmark having demonstrated anti-rickettsia antibodies in the years 2012-2015. The patients were identified using the Danish...

  3. Morphology, toxin composition and LSU rDNA phylogeny of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Denmark, with some morphological observations on other European strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels; Franco, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of Alexandrium minutum Halim from Denmark was studied and compared to the morphology of material from Portugal, Spain, France and Ireland. Strains from Denmark and the French coast of the English Channel differed from the typical minutum morphotype by the absence of a ventral pore...

  4. Youth Homelessness in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børner Stax, Tobias

    Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....

  5. Radioanalytical chemistry in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Levi, H.

    1979-12-01

    Publications from Denmark in the field of radioanalytical chemistry are presented in 2 groups, one involving neutron activation and similar techniques, and one for other radioanalytical work. Altogether 258 references including books are given for the period 1936-1977, and the overall doubling time is 5.2 years. A significant deviation from a purely exponential growth was caused by the Second World War. (author)

  6. Superconducting magnet applications in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, P; Collan, H K; Lounasmaa, O V

    1983-01-01

    A short review of superconducting magnet applications in Finland is presented. The development work was done in areas that seem to offer potential for a significant break-through technology. So far our efforts have covered magnetic separation, electric DC machinery and medical NMR imaging, and it is now being extended to biological NMR on living tissue and to particle physics experiments. Our work has been facilitated by the recently started fabrication of domestic superconducting wire.

  7. Fuel cycle management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, H.; Mikkola, I.

    1987-01-01

    Both Finnish utilities producing nuclear power - Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Co. Ltd, TVO) - have created efficient fuel cycle management systems. The systems however differ in almost all respects. The reason is that the principal supplier for IVO is the Soviet Union and for TVO is Sweden. A common feature of both systems at the front end of the cycle is the building of stockpiles in order to provide for interruptions in fuel deliveries. Quality assurance supervision at the fuel factory for IVO is regulated by the Soviet Chamber of Commerce and Industry and a final control is made in Finland. The in-core fuel management is done by IVO using codes developed in Finland. The whole IVO fuel cycle is basically a leasing arrangement. The spent fuel is returned to the USSR after five years cooling. TVO carries out the in-core fuel management using a computer code system supplied by Asea-Atom. TVO is responsable for the back end of the cycle and makes preparations for the final disposal of the spent fuel in Finland. 6 refs., 2 figs

  8. Nuclear power situation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J K

    1976-01-01

    Finland plans to have its future energy policy as well-balanced and economical as possible. Dependence on oil has to be reduced and savings have to be achieved wherever possible. Some growth of energy demand will be inevitable, and most of this growth has to be nuclear. Practically all hydropower that can be reasonably exploited is being utilized already. Finland has an abundance of peat, but it can be economically used only as a regional source of energy. This leaves, as the only real alternatives for the coming decennia, coal and fission; of the two, fission is evidently the better choice. Although other forms of energy such as fusion, solar, tidal, and wind energy have to be studied as longer-range alternatives. Four nuclear power plants are presently under construction in Finland and at least a few additional ones will evidently be built before 1990. Several of them will probably be of the combined district heat and electricity-producing type. The planning of nuclear energy has recently become complicated due to financing difficulties, uncertainties regarding long-range fuel services, and public opposition. The latter is partly caused by lack of information, partly by fears of a change of life-style in communities near the planned power plant sites. (From Conclusions)

  9. Fuel reliability experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Four nuclear reactors have operated in Finland now for 35-38 years. The two VVER-440 units at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant are operated by Fortum and two BWR’s in Olkiluoto are operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The fuel reliability experience of the four reactors operating currently in Finland has been very good and the fuel failure rates have been very low. Systematic inspection of spent fuel assemblies, and especially all failed assemblies, is a good practice that is employed in Finland in order to improve fuel reliability and operational safety. Investigation of the root cause of fuel failures is important in developing ways to prevent similar failures in the future. The operational and fuel reliability experience at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant has been reported also earlier in the international seminars on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. In this paper the information on fuel reliability experience at Loviisa NPP is updated and also a short summary of the fuel reliability experience at Olkiluoto NPP is given. Keywords: VVER-440, fuel reliability, operational experience, poolside inspections, fuel failure identification. (author)

  10. Wind farm progress in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%.......The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%....

  11. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  12. EPR becomes reality at Finland's Olkiluoto 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.; Giese, U.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR is a third-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR). Its development was started in 1992 by Framatome and Siemens within a Franco-German partnership. Since 2001 this work has been continued by Framatome ANP, which was formed when the two companies merged their nuclear businesses. The French company AREVA, world market leader in nuclear technology, holds a 66% share in Framatome ANP, with Siemens owning 34%. From the very start, development of the EPR was focused on improving plant safety and economics even further. The new reactor development was jointly financed together with the leading power utilities of both countries. The first steps towards realization of an EPR nuclear power plant were taken at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2004, consisting of initial preparation of the construction site. By mid-February 2005 the local municipality - Eurajoki - had issued a construction permit, and the Finnish Government a construction license pursuant to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. This had been preceded by a preliminary safety assessment prepared by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry in which STUK verified that it did not see any safety-related issues opposing issuance of the nuclear construction license. STUK emphasized that the evolutionary design of the EPR had been further improved by AREVA compared to the previous product lines. Concreting work began this spring and the unit will start commercial operation in 2009. Construction of an EPR has also been given the political go-ahead in France. According to the utility Electricite de France (EDF) the new reactor will be built as a forerunner of a later series at the site of Flamanville in Normandy. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007. An EPR nuclear power plant has a rated electric capacity of around 1600 MW, depending on specific site conditions. Being the product of intense bilateral cooperation the EPR combines the technological

  13. The question of how Denmark got to be Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2014-01-01

    Historian Mette Frisk Jensen summarizes some of the latest findings in her research on the history of anti-corruption in Denmark since the 17th Century.......Historian Mette Frisk Jensen summarizes some of the latest findings in her research on the history of anti-corruption in Denmark since the 17th Century....

  14. [Bariatric surgery in Denmark.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P.; Iversen, M.G.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2005 the National Board of Health (NBH) published guidelines on bariatric surgery in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the national bariatric effort in relation to these guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on extraction of the following......, a tendency which was attributable to the activities of one of the private clinics. CONCLUSION: The frequency with which bariatric surgery is performed follows a strongly increasing trend and the procedures are only performed at the public departments selected by the National Board of Health...

  15. Group Psychotherapy in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Bo; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2015-10-01

    This is a short article on the history and training standards in the Institute of Group Analysis in Copenhagen (IGA-CPH). We describe theoretical orientations and influences in the long-term training program and new initiatives, like courses in mentalization-based group treatment and a dynamic short-term group therapy course, as well as research in group psychotherapy in Denmark. Some group analytic initiatives in relation to social issues and social welfare are presented, as well as initiatives concerning the school system and unemployment.

  16. PPP in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    It is the aim of the paper to contribute to the discussion on restating the PPP principles. The paper is based on an ongoing research project: ”Procuring Facilities Management through PPP´s”. A review of litterature with a critical, but positive attitude towards PPP is given. An overview of PPP...... in Denmark is presented. Only a few PPP´s have been initiated and though more might be in the pipeline, it is likely that the market for PPP is too small. Government policy is positive toward PPP. Private financing is not seen as an essential part of PPP. Attitudes among participants in PPP isare described...

  17. Country Report. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2018-01-01

    As a small, open economy Denmark has a pursued a distinct path of capitalist production that relies heavily on innovation in design, production and administration and, therefore, a deliberate dependency on sophisticated information technology and intellectual property. The state has long since...... and business community appears to rely less on penal prosecution than technology-driven and community-supported early warning. The state stresses prevention, detection and technical counter-measures through voluntary cooperation by affected public authorities and private enterprises; only in militarily...

  18. The new Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Many countries are confronting challenges of moving internal borders as well as borders of tolerance. Territories and borders are like many aspects of life affected by change and rationalism in a globalised world. The New Denmark, which is about restructuring municipals, is very much concerned...... with local considerations but can at the same time point out more general themes on territorial dislocations. Our intend is to use different layers of information to investigate and map specific patterns and use them as a tools for designing possible solutions to problems related to the loss of identity...

  19. Country Report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    The ePrivacy Directive has been implemented in Denmark through a range of legislative instruments, beginning with the Act on Electronic Communications and Services but leading into more important Executive Order on Provision of Electronic Services and the Cookie Order. This structure could...... be confusing for outsiders as it involves several acts, all of which are concerned not just with one but with several directives. The use of ministerial orders can be explained by the need to introduce flexibility into the fast-changing area, but avoiding a lengthy and complicated full legislative process....

  20. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  1. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  2. Graduation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Margit

    2009-01-01

    all the characteristics of a rite of passage. The graduates wear a traditional cap with a cross as cockade emblem; this special cross is a symbol of Denmark. For graduates of non-Christian background, alternative cockade emblems are available, e.g. a Star of David or a crescent; this shows...... that the cross emblem is also perceived as a Christian symbol. Social anthropologists Sally Moore and Barbara Myerhoff have suggested a scheme of the categories of religious versus scared for analysing secular rituals where religious symbols are sometimes exhibited. The applicability of their approach...

  3. Suburban development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I focus on current projects and activities aiming at renewal and revitalisation of Danish suburban areas. In the last five years several activities have been initiated in order to discuss possibilities and strategies for the future development of the suburban areas in Denmark. A Thi...... original developed. On this background the paper raise the question, if ‘dynamic change’ is in fact the primary goal.......In this paper I focus on current projects and activities aiming at renewal and revitalisation of Danish suburban areas. In the last five years several activities have been initiated in order to discuss possibilities and strategies for the future development of the suburban areas in Denmark. A Think...... Tank has published a report, books and political statements have pointing to the suburban areas as important focal points for future developments, and a number of architectural competitions have been launched. The paper is based on review of these acitivities. It is pointed out, that ‘cultural heritage...

  4. Risoe Research Establishment, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-07-01

    On the poetic Roskilde Fjord, 40 kilometers from Copenhagen, and near Roskilde, capital of Denmark in the 12th century, stands the Risoe Research Establishment of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. ere 700 men and women are engaged in searching for ways in which atomic energy can be used to make the world a better and healthier place. The work at Risoe comprises fundamental research, reactor technology and other technological studies, agricultural research and health and safety studies. Nuclear power stations are scheduled to be operative in Denmark some time between 1975 and 1980, and the planning of these stations and development of the many processes this will involve has become a major task at Risoe. Special conditions have to be fulfilled in selecting the site of an atomic research station, and the barren Risoe peninsula had them all: safety, because the site was free from buildings to permit continuous control; closeness to the scientific institutions of the capital, Copenhagen; social amenities in Roskilde; finally, access to an a adequate water supply. his special series of photos covering some aspects of the work and safety conditions at Risoe was commissioned by WHO. (author)

  5. Risoe Research Establishment, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On the poetic Roskilde Fjord, 40 kilometers from Copenhagen, and near Roskilde, capital of Denmark in the 12th century, stands the Risoe Research Establishment of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. ere 700 men and women are engaged in searching for ways in which atomic energy can be used to make the world a better and healthier place. The work at Risoe comprises fundamental research, reactor technology and other technological studies, agricultural research and health and safety studies. Nuclear power stations are scheduled to be operative in Denmark some time between 1975 and 1980, and the planning of these stations and development of the many processes this will involve has become a major task at Risoe. Special conditions have to be fulfilled in selecting the site of an atomic research station, and the barren Risoe peninsula had them all: safety, because the site was free from buildings to permit continuous control; closeness to the scientific institutions of the capital, Copenhagen; social amenities in Roskilde; finally, access to an a adequate water supply. his special series of photos covering some aspects of the work and safety conditions at Risoe was commissioned by WHO. (author)

  6. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  7. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  8. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  9. Public accountability procedures in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Møhl, Terkel

    2004-01-01

    The article raises questions as - who is responsible for environmental and tehnological policy in Denmark? And how are those 'policymakers' made accountable to the public for their decisions?......The article raises questions as - who is responsible for environmental and tehnological policy in Denmark? And how are those 'policymakers' made accountable to the public for their decisions?...

  10. A Church History of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century......A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century...

  11. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  12. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  13. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Aase, H.S.; Alvarez, M.; Azavedo, E.; Baarslag, H.J.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Beslagic, V.; Bick, U.; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, D.; Briediene, R.; Brkljacic, B.; Herrero, J.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Danes, J.; Geer, G. de; Esen, G.; Evans, A.; Fuchsjaeger, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Graf, O.; Hargaden, G.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Ivanov, V.; Jonsson, A.; Kuhl, C.K.; Lisencu, E.C.; Luczynska, E.; Mann, R.M.; Marques, J.C.; Martincich, L.; Mortier, M.; Muller-Schimpfle, M.; Ormandi, K.; Panizza, P.; Pediconi, F.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker, K.; Rissanen, T.; Rotaru, N.; Saguatti, G.; Sella, T.; Slobodnikova, J.; Talk, M.; Taourel, P.; Trimboli, R.M.; Vejborg, I.; Vourtsis, A.; Forrai, G.

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years

  14. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years ...

  15. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina; Azavedo, Edward; Baarslag, Henk J; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A; Beslagic, Vanesa; Bick, Ulrich; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, Dragana; Briediene, Ruta; Brkljacic, Boris; Camps Herrero, Julia; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Danes, Jan; de Geer, Gérard; Esen, Gul; Evans, Andrew; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H; Gilbert, Fiona J; Graf, Oswald; Hargaden, Gormlaith; Helbich, Thomas H; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Ivanov, Valentin; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lisencu, Eugenia C; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Mann, Ritse M; Marques, Jose C; Martincich, Laura; Mortier, Margarete; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus; Ormandi, Katalin; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Pinker, Katja; Rissanen, Tarja; Rotaru, Natalia; Saguatti, Gianni; Sella, Tamar; Slobodníková, Jana; Talk, Maret; Taourel, Patrice; Trimboli, Rubina M; Vejborg, Ilse; Vourtsis, Athina; Forrai, Gabor

    2017-07-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years taking up the invitation while the probability of false-positive needle biopsy is screening. Mortality reduction was also observed for the age groups 40-49 years and 70-74 years, although with "limited evidence". Thus, we firstly recommend biennial screening mammography for average-risk women aged 50-69 years; extension up to 73 or 75 years, biennially, is a second priority, from 40-45 to 49 years, annually, a third priority. Screening with thermography or other optical tools as alternatives to mammography is discouraged. Preference should be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved in programmes. Digital breast tomosynthesis is also set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future. Dedicated pathways for high-risk women offering breast MRI according to national or international guidelines and recommendations are encouraged. • EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT is set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future.

  16. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries.......Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency......, with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...

  18. Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverwijk, J.M.R.; Huisman, J.; Kaiser, F.

    2001-01-01

    With the introduction of the AMKs (Ammattikorkeakoulut) in 1990, the landscape of the Finnish higher education sector has changed immensely. The transformation of the vocational sector started in the 1980s when highly specialised study lines were combined into more comprehensive basic programmes.

  19. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, Ole; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrainwith the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites...... by means of the geostrophic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30o sectors are obtainedthrough ranking of the largest values of the ¤friction velocity pressure¤ 1/2 ¤#rho#¤¤u¤"2_x taken both once every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind...

  20. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    (Technical Report, Danish Technical press, 1970) and by Abild (Technical Report R-522 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1994). A short discussion of the wind storm on the 3rd of December 1999 is included. It is demonstrated how the data can be applied to non-standard situations where the roughness length......Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50 yr wind speed (10 min averages) under standard conditions, i.e., 10 m over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m, The sites are Skjern (15 yr......), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

  1. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  2. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge mobilization is not only a new expression in a Danish context. It is also an interesting concept to introduce and discuss. For doesn’t knowledge mobilization have more – or, at least, as much – to do with politics as with education research or education in itself? Doesn’t modern knowledge...... mobilization have to do with a new political will to mobilize the population by creating a connection between education research and education? On the basis of this report on the Danish efforts with respect to ’knowledge mobilization’, these questions can be answered affirmatively; the extent of knowledge...... competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge...

  3. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  4. The Blasphemy Ban in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassmè; Lassen, Eva Maria

    2017-01-01

    , it can seem odd why Denmark would not have followed the trend of most other European states, including those with which Denmark normally compares itself, to abolish the article. Denmark is a highly secularised society with generally a relaxed attitude towards religion. And finally, surveys indicate...... the potential to bring the ban on blasphemy back to life by bringing it into play with penal systems of other countries with blasphemy laws. The article proceeds to outline the reactions of international human rights bodies to art. 140, focussing on the statement of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religion...

  5. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  6. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Denmark: a geography of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Since the oil crises of the 1970s, when Denmark was 90% dependent upon imported oil, the country has decoupled economic growth from energy consumption and greatly diversified its sources of energy....

  8. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    The report documents the methodologies and data used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from Denmark for the reporting obligations under the European Union, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.......The report documents the methodologies and data used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from Denmark for the reporting obligations under the European Union, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol....

  9. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emissi...... factors for energy, industrial processes, sovent and other product use, agriculture, LULUCF (Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry) and waste....

  10. Multidecadal shoreline changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2014-01-01

    Multidecadal shoreline changes along ca. 7000 km coastline around Denmark were computed for the time interval between 1862 AD and 2005 AD and were connected with a geomorphological coastal classification. The shoreline data set was based on shoreline positions from historical and modern topograph...... shoreline changes around Denmark, the mapping can contribute to enhanced adaptation and mitigation strategies in response to increased risks of erosion and flooding under a changing climate....

  11. The Spirit of France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  12. The windmill industry of Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Windmills are the strong asset of the Danish exporting industry. The share of the Danish industry of the windmill markets of the world is about 50 %. Denmark exported about 57 % more windmills in 1995 than in 1994. About 1500 different types of windmills, varying from farm-mills to large 600 kW wind power plants were sold abroad and 200 is in operation in Denmark. At present the largest export country of Denmark is Germany where the knowledge of environmental issues has nearly doubled the wind power export from Denmark. Germany produces most wind power in the Europe. The Netherlands is a strong competitor of Denmark in the field of wind power. The windmills sold or constructed abroad are mainly large, modern and effective 500 kW windmills. The annual energy production of a windmill corresponds, under good wind conditions, to the annual energy consumption of 200-300 detached houses. Danish Vestas is launching a 60 m tall, 1.5 MW windmill, the paddle-span of which will be 30 m. A good windmill has to be capable to produce power at least 97 % of the operation time. The remaining 3 % is left for maintenance and reparation of the mills. The maximum power of a windmill is estimated to be 1.5 MW. At present the windmill production employs about 10 000 persons in Denmark

  13. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  14. Environmental monitoring in Finland 2006-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This publication presents environmental monitoring carried out in Finland in 2006-2008. It is a summary of the environmental monitoring activities of the following national institutes: Geological Survey of Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute, National Public Health Institute, Plant Production Inspection Centre, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Information Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Statistics Finland, Finnish Environment Institute, and Regional Environment Centres. Monitoring of natural resources, environmental pressures, state of the environment, water and health, land use and environmental policy are presented. The objective was to compile the information on national environmental monitoring and to activate information exchange and cooperation in this field. (orig.)

  15. The future of facility management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasible future of facility management in Finland in order to provide an overview of the future of facility management. This is intended to serve as a guideline for the educational sector, facility management service companies, and the Facility management association in Finland (FIFMA) for future development. Qualitative method, precisely semi-structured/unstructured interview was adopted to address the problems in this study. The study c...

  16. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  17. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  18. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  19. Home installations for producing renewable energy: a comparison between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poize, Noemie; Rudinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    While home installations are on a strongly rising trend in neighbouring countries like Germany and Denmark, such initiatives are having difficulty in taking off in France. The Iddri (Institute for sustainable development and international relations) and the RAEE (Rhone-Alpes regional agency for energy and environment) reckon that regulatory obstacles can be rapidly adjusted at minimal, or no cost, for the State. (authors)

  20. Citizen projects for renewable energy production: a France-Germany comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poize, Noemie; Ruedinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    While home installations are on a strongly rising trend in neighbouring countries like Germany and Denmark, such initiatives are having difficulty in taking off in France. The Iddri (Institute for sustainable development and international relations) and the RAEE (Rhone-Alpes regional agency for energy and environment) reckon that regulatory obstacles can be rapidly adjusted at minimal, or no cost, for the State

  1. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    and a higher proportion of self-reported illness and are in higher risk of health problems and morbidity than their Danish counterparts. Furthermore, their health differences increase more by age. The research project aimed at finding possible explanations for these differences among Turkish and ethnic Danish......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...

  2. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway......, in Norway ‘peak-level' corporatism on wage setting remains stronger than in Denmark, whereas ‘meso-level' corporatism (corporatism in specific policy area) is stronger in Denmark than in Norway........ The social partners have, as general rule, been involved in formulating and implementing changes in welfare state policies, and corporatist arrangements are also seen in relation to some industrial relations issues. The two countries share a number of contextual features important for corporatism. However...

  3. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  4. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  5. The Western Denmark Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten; Maeng, Michael; Madsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary interven......The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary...

  6. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  7. CISG Denmark (www.cisg.dk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CISG Denmark is the danish CISG website, attached to the Pace University, School of Law CISG Database.......CISG Denmark is the danish CISG website, attached to the Pace University, School of Law CISG Database....

  8. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  9. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Tina; Jensen, Trine-Lee Wincentz; Villesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus......). During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype...

  10. Otorhinolaryngological patient injuries in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtivuori, Tuuli; Palonen, Reima; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Holi, Tarja; Henriksson, Markus; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2013-10-01

    Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) is considered a specialty associated with few serious patient injuries. Research data that support this belief are, however, scarce. We analyzed claims associated with ORL to determine the number of Finnish cases and the possible common denominators. Register study of ORL cases in the Patient Insurance Centre (PIC), the Regional State Administrative Agencies (RSAA), and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Care (Valvira) during the years 2004 to 2008. These three agencies are the main actors in the field of patient injury in Finland. We analyzed compensated ORL patient injury cases from the PIC and cases associated with the ORL specialty for Valvira and RSAA from 2004 to 2008 and surveyed patient treatment files, statements from specialists, and compensation decisions. Injuries were usually associated with operations; three patients who experienced injuries during these procedures died. Common ORL operations such as tonsillectomy, septoplasty, and paranasal sinus surgery were most often associated with compensated injuries. Serious injuries were few, with a total of 110 out of 422 (26.1%) claims compensated by the PIC. Of the 110 compensated cases, 30 (27.3%) were related to tumor surgery. The most usual compensated case had iatrogenic nerve injury affecting the facial or trigeminal nerves. Of the compensated cases, 79 (71.8%) were treated by specialists, 15 (13.6%) by residents, and the rest by other medical professionals. Patient injuries in ORL are seldom severe and are strongly associated with surgery. A typical compensated injury was one that occurred in a central hospital during working hours. N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  12. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  13. Nordic Moral Climates. Value Continuities and Discontinuities in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeson, Ulla V.

    Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology......Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology...

  14. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation....... In other areas the regulation is quite alike and the results are most often a result of trying to keep the balance between the tenant’s rights to dispose over a home contrary to the landlord’s rights as a property owner. This paper will explore some different aspects of tenancy law regulation – especially...

  15. Policies for school-to-work transitions in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero

    2018-01-01

    All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish...... and Finnish policies for supporting young people’s edu¬ca¬¬tional and school-to-work transitions, with a particular focus on NEETs and dropouts. The comparison is exploratory and aims to illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each system in reducing dropout rates and promoting smooth transitions. We draw...... and migrant youth, the political discourse is marked more by ideas of employability and vulnerability than of personal development and citizenship....

  16. Policies of school-to-work transitions and VET in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero

    All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish...... and Finnish policies for supporting young people’s edu¬ca¬¬tional and school-to-work transitions, with a particular focus on NEETs and dropouts. The comparison is exploratory and aims to illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each system in reducing dropout rates and promoting smooth transitions. We draw...... and migrant youth, the political discourse is marked more by ideas of employability and vulnerability than of personal development and citizenship....

  17. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...

  18. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  19. Case study - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  1. Open Educational Resources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2010-01-01

    The report presents an overview of accessibility, content types,and educational levels of open Educational Resources for public school, high shcool, higher education, and citizen empowerment and enlightenment offered from educational institutions or via other internet sources in Denmark in late...

  2. Practice and Problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    our practice gradually has arisen. With basis in the University of Aalborg, Denmark, the author has been involved in research and design of sea outfalls since the beginning of the seventies. It is controversial to give examples of dis-functioning sea outfalls by name and it has therefore been avoided...

  3. RIO Country Report Denmark 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    The report offers an analysis of the R&I system in Denmark for 2014, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for two EU policies: the European Research Area and the Innovation Union. The report was prepared according to a set of guidelines for collecting ...

  4. Denmark in the Bologna Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area foreseen in the Bologna Declaration (1999) will facilitate inter-university co-operation by promoting the mobility and employability of European citizens. The article outlines the current development in Denmark, especially as regards the training...

  5. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  6. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  7. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  8. A Review of Telemedicine Services in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatri, Vikramajeet; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is gaining popularity due to the provision of ubiquitous health care services that is a fundamental need for every socialized society. In this paper, telemedicine services in Finland are discussed, as well as how they came into existence, how they are funded, evaluated, and what...... are their impacts on health care systems and society. Telemedicine services like teleradiology, telelaboratory, telepsychiatry and remote consultations, are being offered in all hospital districts. Primary health care centers in Finland are lacking telemedicine services, and are planning to have them. Electronic...

  9. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  10. War, Inflation, and Wages: The Labor Market in Finland, 1910-1925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Heikkinen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The First World War was an immense economic shock also for the Finnish economy. As the war began, Finland, as the Grand Duchy of Russia, was cut off from its main export market in Western Europe. During the first war years, however, Russian war-related demand boosted Finnish exports and industry (metal and textiles. This boom ended in bust after the Russian revolution. Furthermore, the Finnish Civil War in 1918 aggravated the crisis. The peg of the Finnish currency markka to the ruble (until 1917 and a deficit in state finances fueled inflation: the price level increased about elevenfold before the markka was stabilized in the early 1920s. Because the labor movement lost the civil war, its political position was rather weak after 1918. This paper analyzes these turbulent years from the viewpoint of the labor market in examining the development of nominal and real wages of manufacturing workers, focusing on the four main industries: sawmill, paper and pulp, metal and textile industries. We show that the asymmetrical shocks they faced caused great variation in their wage and employment development. A comparison with Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States shows that the relative position of manufacturing workers (real earnings/real GDP per capita developed more favorably in the deflation economies (Sweden, the UK, and the USA than in the inflation economies (Finland and France.

  11. In nuclear civil construction, France benefits from a leading know-how and expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    2016-01-01

    EGIS is an enterprise that has been a partner for EDF and AREVA since the construction of the first nuclear power plant in France at Fessenheim in 1970. EGIS has a global competency for nuclear civil construction from design to the follow-up of the work. EGIS has taken part into the construction of the 3 first EPR in France, Finland and China and into the implementation of post-Fukushima measures in operating nuclear power plants. EGIS has developed a specific know-how for managing the seismic risk. (A.C.)

  12. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  13. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  14. Power and democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Jørgensen, Torben Beck; Valgårda, Signild

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  15. Power and democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Jørgensen, Torben Beck; Valgårda, Signild

    the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... contemporary democracy live up to our democratic ideals? The answer is that in many ways democracy is doing better than we might have expected, considering the intense pressure on the nation state and the democratic institutions in the postwar period. The Danish population is still full of democratic life...

  16. The Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majborn, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Risoe National Laboratory of Denmark started as a nuclear research centre, under the Atomic Energy Commission in 1955, with research reactors, an accelerator and related facilities. The research component, aimed at the introduction of nuclear power plants in Denmark, was wound up in 1985 with the country deciding to forego nuclear power in its energy planning. From 1993 the centre is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Research with three main areas of work: i) research on high international level; ii) train researchers; and iii) provide service to industry. The centre is funded up to 53% by the Danish Government and 47% by contract earnings. Some areas of current research include: i) materials science; ii) optics and sensor systems; iii) plant production and ecology; and iv) systems analysis. The nuclear component of the research centre is related to the operation of the nuclear facilities and for maintaining national expertise in nuclear safety and radiation protection. (author)

  17. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  18. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  19. Experiences with biomass in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Solér, Ola

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with biomass use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  20. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  1. Released from Prison in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette; Storgaard, Anette

    2016-01-01

    In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support the paro......In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support...... the parolees. The primary purpose of the Schedule was to prevent crime and secure parolees’ rights to social security and support. This chapter focuses on parolees in Denmark; their experiences of transitioning from prison back into society and life after prison; and whether the Danish state’s reentry...... ambitions can be mirrored in the parolees’ first-hand experiences. Our findings suggest that parolees experienced their reentry as chaotic; that their supervision lacked vision; and ‘informal’ punishment was severe and permeated their lives post-prison....

  2. Finland, Sweden and Austria doubled the share of hydroelectric power in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    1996-01-01

    New EU countries Finland, Sweden and Austria increased the amount of hydroelectric power produced in EU in 1995 by more than 50 % compared to the year 1994. Especially Sweden and Austria are very dependent on hydroelectric power; the share of hydroelectric power is in Austria more than 70 % and even in Sweden it was nearly 50 %. The share of hydroelectric power in 1995 the EU region was 14 % of the total power demand. Due to the new EU countries the share of hydroelectric power of the total electric power demand, which would have decreased, increased by over 3 %. The increase of the electric power demand in Finland was lowest in the EU region, about 1.0 %, while it was in Greece 5.0 % and in Spain about 4.6 %. The share of nuclear power in the EU region was about 35 % in 1995. The most nuclear power dependent country in the EU was France there the share of nuclear power of the total electric power demand was 89 %. Both Finland and Sweden increased the production of back-pressure power generation in 1995. The share of back-pressure power generation in EU in 1995 was about 50 TWh which corresponds to some 1.5 % of the total electric power demand. About 50 % of the total electric power generation in EU was produced by condensing power generation. This production increased by 10 % compared to 1994. The netimport of electric power of EU increased by 80 % in Finland and Sweden, which are large importers of electric power outside the EU region

  3. Climate change and employment. A case study of Finland; Changement climatique et emploi. Cas de la Finlande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The study has been carried out by a consortium led by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the Social Development Agency (SDA), which includes Syndex, the Wuppertal Institute and ISTAS. It was commissioned by the European Commission, DG environment, as a contribution to improve current understanding of the relationship between climate change and employment. The study was also supported financially by seven public bodies: Ministries of Environment of Belgium, Spain, Finland, Italy, United-Kingdom; ADEME and DIAC in France. The first part of the study examines the potential consequences for employment of global warming in Europe - which has already begun and will continue. The main finding is that even moderate climate change will affect economic activity and employment in Europe, with some regions and economic sectors being particularly vulnerable. Increased warming will be likely to have very damaging consequences. The second half of the report considers the challenge for employment of the transition towards a lower CO2 European economy at the horizon 2030, in four key economic sectors: energy production, transport, steel and cement industries, construction/housing. The study considers a number of scenario for a reduction of 40% in CO2 emissions by the year 2030 and what the effects can be on European employment and skills. Case studies of eleven European countries are also analysed. This report is about Finland. [French] La Finlande est le 5e pays europeen en superficie, avec un total de 338.145 km{sup 2}, pour une population de 5,2 millions d'habitants. Le climat finlandais est le plus froid d'Europe, avec des besoins en chauffage pratiquement toute l'annee et des besoins en eclairage tres importants les mois d'hiver, en raison de la duree tres courte du jour. L'industrie est dominee par l'exploitation forestiere et le papier, ainsi que la metallurgie et la chimie, ces industries etant hautement energie-intensives. Ces

  4. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  5. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  6. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  7. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  8. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  9. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Denmark surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2015. In March 2012 a new Energy Agreement was reached in Denmark. The Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, which aims at bringing Denmark closer to the target of 100% renewable energy in the energy and transport sectors by 2050. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Denmark consist of a feed-in premium scheme (combined with tenders for offshore wind), a quota system, tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes

  11. Kotka ecopower IGCC-project, the attempt to transfer the biocycle project to Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Danish utilities Elsam and Elkraft planned to build a small (7 MW e ) IGCC-plant in Denmark, called Biocycle Project, based on the gasification and gas clean-up technology of Enviropower Inc. EU/THERMIE program committed to finance part of the investment. The project, however, was not feasible due to the difficulty of finding a suitable customer and sufficient amount of reasonably priced biomass. For this reason a new host and site was found for the Biocycle project. The new site was in Kotka, Finland, where Kotka Energy Ltd., the Energy Board of the City of Kotka acted as the main partner. The fuel of the IGCC project would have been sugar mill wood residue from Xyrofin Inc. During the feasibility investigation (project definition phase) Xyrofin Inc. made the decision to change the production process which eliminated the wood waste production. Without no-cost fuel and due to the low electricity price in Finland the small size IGCC power plant proved not to be feasible. (author)

  12. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, Lasse [North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu (Finland); Suhonen, Niko [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts. (author)

  13. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  14. ASPECTS OF COMMODIFICATION OF RUSSIAN IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ханнес Виимаранта

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commodification of Russian in Finland, where recent decades have seen a sharp rise in the size of the Russian-speaking population and the number of tourists from Russia. We particularly consider the use of Russian in the fields of traditional and medical tourism, education, and culture - all of them areas where Russian tourists show a strong preference for services in their native language. The need to provide a variety of services in Russian means that proficiency in Russian is a sig-nificant asset on the job market, both for immigrants and for the relatively small number of Finns who can speak the language. We also note that there is considerable demand among Russian-speaking parents in Fin-land for educational services to supplement their children’s school education.

  15. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkonen, Lasse; Suhonen, Niko

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts.

  16. Data Mining Thesis Topics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Rouvinen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The Theseus open repository contains metadata about more than 100,000 thesis publications from the different universities of applied sciences in Finland. Different data mining techniques were applied to the Theseus dataset to build a web application to explore thesis topics and degree programmes using different libraries in Python and JavaScript. Thesis topics were extracted from manually annotated keywords by the authors and curated subjects by the librarians. During the project, the quality...

  17. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Paananen, M.; Oehberg, A.; Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  18. Special requirements of aquaponics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soppela, Olli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis brings together observations about special features that should be taken into consideration when designing the technical aspects of aquaponics practices and production units in Finland. Market demands, water purification and facility temperature control methods; sources of healthy feed and the needs for artificial lighting vary significantly around the globe. The unique combination of climate conditions, legislation and zoological conditions should be taken into consideration whe...

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  20. Role of biofuels in Finland; Utility viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of wood biomass in Finland to generate energy (4.3 Mtoe) is one of the largest in the western industrialized countries. It represents 14 % of the primary energy use, while the use of peat for energy generation (1.4 Mtoe), often included in the same group, makes up 4-5 %. Significant energy groups include bark and sawdust (0.95 Mtoe) and waste liquors (2.4 Mtoe) from the chemical forest industry. Peat has primarily been used in population centres and by industry for combined generation of heat and power. The utilization of own by-products and other back-pressure generation based on peat or on imported fuels (in southern Finland), is typical for the industrial power plants. Wood biomass utilization will also be competitive in the future if it is readily collected in sufficient quantities at a given place as waste wood for industry. These biomasses include bark, various sawdusts, industrial waste chips and screenings, and as a separate group black liquor in the process circulation of the wood processing industry. The development of fluidized bed boilers in particular has provided improvement prerequisites for the use of low grade fuel batches of varying quality in combined heat and power plants. Most of the combined heat and power plants now built in Finland exceed the limit set for the competitiveness. Consequently, the prospects for an economical increase of combined heat and power generation capacity in Finland based on present technology is relatively small. The size of a competitive power plant has been determined to be about 50 MWe

  1. DTP2 Laboratory Situation in Tampere, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Remote Handling is very important technology in the ITER project. Even ITER is regarded as a fairly long project, for the remote handling methods, tools and systems there is not very much development time provided. The technology has to be developed and demonstrated a long before supplied to the site in Cadarache. This is a large challenge, because the complex operations and extremely high reliability requirements. In the end of 2004, the Remote Operation and Virtual Reality Centre (ROViR) was established in Tampere Finland. The start up for this facility creation was an agreement with EFDA to host the Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) in Finland. During the year 2005 the ROViR Centre was put in action. The construction work for DTP2 is currently going on and the platform should be ready for hosting the remote handling development by the end of 2006. After that the laboratory will receive the robots, tools and employees for the DTP2 operation. This abstract will give an overview of the DTP 2 platform in Tampere Finland as well as describe some other projects started in 2005. Presentation describes some problems of the ITER remote handling and tells about the state-of-the-art solutions. It also highlights some of the next tasks after putting the DTP2 platform in action. There are a plenty of tasks in the development of the ITER remote handling, after DTP2 laboratory is established. (author)

  2. eHealth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare...... suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing...

  3. Accessing social rights in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    are in decreasing order Polish, German and British nationals. Debates among politicians reflected in the media have since the enlargement of the EU to 10 new Member States in 2004 focused on and off on the issue of access by migrants to social benefits and the issue of social tourism. The debate and discussions...... 2014. The reason for that is the government’s change of practice in administrating family benefits, granting them to all Union citizens lawfully residing in Denmark without any requirement of prior residence in the country. This change was the result of a request from the European Commission...

  4. Day-Care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Helle

    2011-01-01

    interacting with ethnic minority children and their parents, however, staff are occasionally forced to make explicit the reasoning behind their actions. A focus on the interaction of ethnic minority children and their parents in day-care centres therefore provides insights into the cultural beliefs and values......  The chapter explores central notions of appropriate social behavior in what is arguably the most important institution in Denmark when it comes to social integration, namely day-care, also known as pre-school. Moral values guiding everyday practices are generally taken for granted. When...

  5. Denmark between liberalism and nationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Mouritsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    What explains the restrictive turn towards immigrants in European countries like Denmark? Are countries returning to nationalism, or are they following a general European trend towards a perfectionist, even ‘repressive’ liberalism that seeks to create ‘liberal people’ out of immigrants? Recent...... developments in Danish policies of integration and citizenship, education and anti-discrimination suggest a combination of these two diagnoses. The current Danish ‘integration philosophy’ leaves behind a previous concern with private choice and equal rights and opportunities to emphasize other historical...

  6. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  7. Becoming adult educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Søgaard Lund, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of identity-construction processes among adult educators in Denmark and we address the question how adult educators develop professionalism, not least by taking advantage of existing opportunity structures for current and prospective adult educators. A between......-cases analysis of fifteen narrative interviews explores the professional pathways towards adult education, the perceived images of a (professional) adult educator, processes of identification with concrete or imaginary communities, and motivation for adult educator to enrol in current opportunity structures...

  8. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...

  9. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Funder, S G; Madsen, H

    2015-01-01

    Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed by means of intensity-duration-frequency curves for urban drainage design for the relevant locations being France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Denmark. Based on this approach projected increases of extreme precipitation by 2100 of 9 and 21% are expected for 2 and 10 year return periods, respectively. The results should be interpreted with caution as the best region to represent future conditions for Denmark is the coastal areas of Northern France, for which only little information is available with respect to present precipitation extremes.

  10. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  11. Tidal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  12. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. La titrisation en France.

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  14. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  15. Pharmacy education in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  16. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  17. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  18. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  19. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    The media environment continues to be characterized by strong public service broadcasters (DR and TV2) and a strong national press, but the already entrenched debate about the role of public service media online is intensifying ahead of a new remit in 2018...

  20. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Øster, Flemming; Thomassen, H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Tort Law Yearbook provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in tort law in Europe. It contains reports on most EU Member States, including the new Member States the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithunia, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania....

  1. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Morthorst, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    This project has investigated outward foreign direct investments from the Nordic economies, and analysed the role domestic multinational companies play in their respective Nordic home economies. The project consisted of a desktop study of existing research, a quantitative study of FDI flows and t...

  2. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Despite a change of government in September 2011, Danish politics have been largely characterised by continuity since the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008, although with an increased emphasis on reforming the welfare state in order to increase growth and create new jobs. A pragmatist turn...

  3. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2008-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change helps readers learn about the astonishingly intricate processes that make ours the only planet known to be habitable. These three volumes include more than 750 articles that explore major topics related to global warming and climate change......-ranging geographically from the North Pole to the South Pole, and thematically from social effects to scientific causes....

  4. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    on the kinds of gendered understanding that underline research surveys like the WIME project and discusses the potential limitations of this approach to gender analysis. Furthermore, it discusses the benefits and potential problems of applying gender inclusive policies to media institutions by drawing upon....... Using this concept, this article critically discussed diversity policies and gender equality policies as they apply to media institutions....

  5. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  6. Oral contraception in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nadia M; Laursen, Maja; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated.......Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated....

  7. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  8. Denmark. Self-sufficiency and reserves management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erceville, H. d'.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1991, Denmark is a self-sufficient and a net petroleum and natural gas exporting country. Like all neighboring countries of the North sea, this country enjoys many advantages. However, Denmark exports and imports about a third of its hydrocarbons. This policy is a way to control its reserves for the future. (J.S.)

  9. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  10. The BRICS and Denmark - Economics & High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Denmark's otherwise strategic opening towards the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) lacks the world order dimension of raison de système.......Denmark's otherwise strategic opening towards the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) lacks the world order dimension of raison de système....

  11. The strange birth of liberal Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Sharpe, Paul; Lampe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    into decline, in fact flourished. Key to the success of Danish agriculture was an early diversification towards dairy production. This article challenges this simple story which sees Denmark as something of a liberal paragon. Denmark's success owed much to a prudent use of trade policy which favoured dairy...

  12. The text of the agreement of 11 June 1971 between Finland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Finland, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 11 June 1971, which entered into force on 9 February 1972, between Finland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons has been suspended

  13. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  14. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carrie...

  15. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  16. Finland: a model of energy transition to be followed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorot, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    Published before the debate of the French Parliament on the law on energy transition, i.e. on a new energy model, or on the construction of a low carbon and less energy consuming society to comply with France's international commitments, this report first discusses the French situation, the evolution of its energy policy, the challenge of a search for a balance between a cheap electricity and energy independence, and the plurality of factors and objectives (economic, budgetary, environmental, industrial, societal, political and social) which are sometime contradictory. The second part presents and comments the case of Germany which seems to be a good example regarding energy policy, however it faces some difficulties and pitfalls: a quick evolution of the energy mix in favour of renewable energies, but an always higher cost supported almost only by individuals, a disturbed electricity market, an environmental impact due to the wider use of coal (less expensive than gas). The third part addresses the case of Finland which could be a more inspiring example: no decision to phase out nuclear, no decision of a quick and forced development of renewable energies, modification of the energy mix by the development of local forest resources, an electric system of good quality, a high energetic competitiveness. The report outlines the consistency of the Finnish policy: search for a balance between international commitments of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, competitive tariffs, and strengthening of energetic independence. The associated choices are discussed, and it appears that the cost-efficiency criterion is prevailing

  17. 76 FR 29191 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands would likely lead...) from Finland and the Netherlands. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Purified...

  18. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  19. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  20. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  1. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  2. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  3. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  4. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  5. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  6. Planeteria: news from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Acker, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-10-01

    France has a good network of planetaria. They are linked through a network called Association of the French Speaking Planetaria. In this talk, I will present this organization and its different activities. I will also report on the making of a Art and Science museum in Grenoble which will include a planetarium. The grand opening is foreseen in 2014. Finally, I will present an astronomical show which has been adapted for planetaria and demonstrate how this benefits both to the show and the planetarium.

  7. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  8. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  9. Offshore Wind Energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Hvelplund, Frede

    for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between......Offshore wind energy has developed in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... availability of locations, driven by accelerating requirements of environmental concern, park size and public acceptance, is one important driver. Mounting risk of mega-projects and the infinite demand for renewable energy is another likely cause. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks...

  10. Wind energy planning in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godtfredsen, F.; Lemming, J.; Nielsen, S.R.; Jessien, S.

    1992-01-01

    The total capacity of the about 3300 Danish wind turbines is approximately 450 MW. Most of the wind turbines have been erected detached or in small clusters by private citizens - especially by joint ownership. 100 MW of the capacity have been installed by the power companies, mainly in wind farms. Up till now the privately owned wind turbines have been erected without a previous planning process. Increased expansion of wind energy makes demands on physical planning, since access to suitable locations in Denmark is limited. Hence more coordination is called for between the interested parties to ensure optimal utilization of the sites allocated by the physical planning authorities. A siting committee appointed by the Government has recommended locations for additional 100 MW power company wind farms as well as a more detailed planning in each local community. The detailed planning in the municipality of Thisted is described. (au)

  11. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  12. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

      This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  13. Diabetes among migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin...... to the part of the population without diabetes were calculated based on follow up of the entire Danish population. Results Compared with native born Danes, the incidence of diabetes was about 2.5 times higher among migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, and these migrant groups also showed...

  14. Nontuberculous pulmonary mycobacteriosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andréjak, Claire; Thomsen, Vibeke Ø; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Few population-based data are available regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease epidemiology and prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine NTM pulmonary colonization incidence, disease incidence, and prognostic factors. METHODS: All adults in Denmark with at least one NTM......-positive pulmonary specimen during 1997 to 2008 were identified using national medical databases and were categorized as having possible or definite NTM disease or colonization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We calculated annual age-standardized NTM incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of death...... associated with patient age, sex, comorbidity, NTM species, and NTM disease status. Of 1,282 adults with 2,666 NTM-positive pulmonary specimens, 335 (26%) had definite NTM disease, 238 (19%) possible disease, and 709 (55%) colonization only. NTM incidence rates decreased until 2002, followed by an increase...

  15. Law and Protestantism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the influence of the Reformation on the law in Denmark. The Reformation was basically a reform of the church, but it also affected the concept of law and state in general. In 1536, King Christian III dismissed the catholic bishops and withheld the property of the church....... The king, as custos duarum tabularum, guardian of both the tablets of law, also took over the legislation for the church. Especially in subjects of morals and criminal law new principles and statutes were enacted. Copenhagen University was reformed into a protestant seminary even though the former...... faculties were maintained. For that task Johannes Bugenhagen was summoned who also drafted the new church ordinance of 1537. In marriage law protestant principles were introduced. A marriage order was established in 1582....

  16. Area Handbook Series: Finland: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    franchise . The first national election, that of 1907, yielded Europe’s largest social democratic parliamentary faction. In a single step, Finland went from...place (see fig. 10). They were the first in Europe to gain the franchise , and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the...52,498 Income from property and entrepreneurship ......... 1,936 2,228 2,649 2,986 2,812 Other domestic current transfers ............... 2,822 3,301 3,858

  17. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  18. Country policy profile - Finland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  19. Incidence of Savant Syndrome in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, T; Ruusila, L; Ruusila, U

    2000-08-01

    The general incidence of Savant Syndrome was assessed in Finland. First, a survey was made of all 583 facilities which served people with mental retardation. Second, letters asking for information regarding people with Savant Syndrome were published in two key Finnish journals of the field. We received reports of 45 cases of Savant Syndrome. This makes an incidence rate of 1.4 per 1,000 people with mental retardation. The most common form of exceptional skills was calendar calculation, followed by feats of memory.

  20. Country policy profile - Finland. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  1. An energy handbook for teachers in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavonen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook for teachers is to provide an introduction to the principles and practices of energy education. It is composed of three sections plus commercial materials from energy companies. Part 1 discusses important aspects of energy and teaching methods. Part 2 provides graphical information showing how energy is produced and consumed in Finland. Part 3 is an introduction to energy from various aspects. One focus in the handbook is nuclear energy. Workshops on energy are also proposed to teachers. 8 figs., 2 refs

  2. Finland – Russia Business cooperation 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kononova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    During the years of 2014 and 2015 a lot of changes have happened in Russia’s and Fin-land’s foreign policy. It could really affect the business cooperation between those two countries, so in my thesis I want to take a look into this situation, since this is a really hot topic to-day. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze changes in cooperation between Finland and Russia during embargo on products and to find out how companies keep their positions on Russian market. Another purpose was...

  3. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  4. Mael-e(st-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mée, Mael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A performance of Mael Le Mée and France Geoffroy Photos and videos (France: Denis Louis Photo (Montreal: Alexandre Cv France Geoffroy’s assistant: Rosalie Chrétien Production: Espace Projet and Dorsa Barlow Performance co-developed within the project BIOGRAPHIES, with the support of CNC – DICRéAM, Aquitaine Regional Council and the City of Bordeaux.

  5. Gas de France international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the main international objectives of Gaz de France, and actions taken to achieve them. The safety and the reliability of natural gas supplies is the priority-holder axis of the international strategy of Gaz de France. The second axis is to obtain a consolidated position in Europe on natural gas markets and valorize the know-how of Gaz de France in foreign countries

  6. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  8. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  9. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...... been published. This paper, accordingly, has an explorative nature and asks two basic questions: What is the current state of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark, and what are the prospects for a further development of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark? The paper is based...

  10. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... examined the content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR-CCTR. METHODS: We retrieved 2008-2012 data to examine the 1) content; 2) completeness of procedure registration using the Danish National Patient Registry as reference; 3) completeness of variable registration comparing observed vs...

  11. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... with detailed case studies of five industries to explore why low-end jobs are so different in Denmark. Some jobs that are low-paying in the United States, including hotel maids and meat processors, though still demanding, are much more highly compensated in Denmark. And Danes, unlike American workers, do...

  12. The Strange Birth of Liberal Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul Richard

    The usual story of the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century sees Denmark as something as an outlier: a country which, like Britain, resisted the globalization backlash in the wake of the inflow of cheap grain from the New World, but where agriculture, rather than going...... into decline, in fact flourished. Key to the success of Danish agriculture was an early diversification towards dairy production. We dispute this simple story which sees Denmark as something of a liberal paragon. Denmark's success owed much to a prudent use of trade policy which favoured dairy production...

  13. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and Netherlands would be likely to lead [[Page 27664

  14. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  15. Circannual rhythm in the incidence of cryptorchidism in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E; Haavisto, Anne-Maarit

    2005-01-01

    Conflicting data on circannual variation in birth rates of urogenital malformations have been reported previously. To assess risk factors of cryptorchidism we studied the seasonal variation of cryptorchidism in Finland. We performed a prospective cryptorchidism study in Turku, Finland, from 1997 ...

  16. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  17. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  18. The nuclear power situation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    and's limited choice of energy sources makes nuclear power especially lly attractive and it is estimated that in 1985 14% of the energy consumed will be nuclear, which will then be the second most important source after oil (49%). Four power reactors, Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO 1 and 2, are at present under construction. The first two are Russian PWRs, the latter two Asea-Atom BWRs. Loviisa 3 and 4 are planned but not yet ordered, and plans for a 1000 MWe plant to the West of Helsinki exist. The nuclear controversy in Finland has mainly been repetitions of the US and Swedish debates since 1970. However, local opposition to the project W. of Helsinki, based on the sociological effects of the inflow of Finnish speaking workers into a rural Swedish speaking district has become apparent. In the long term 13 major nuclear power plants are envisaged by the year 2000. Finland is party to the NPT and the IAEA safeguard system. (JIW)

  19. Radioactivity of household water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Saxen, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nationwide study on artificial and natural radioactivity in household water has been under way in Finland since the 1960s. The occurrence of artificial radionuclides in the surface water of drainage basins has been monitored extensively. The proportion of household water derived from surface waters in Finland is currently 48 %, but its usage is decreasing whereas that of groundwater is increasing at an annual rate of 1 - 2 %. The natural radioactivity of household water has been studied in almost all of the waters distributed by public waterworks and in 5400 private ground water wells. The downward trend in 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 3 H concentrations in surface water continued from the middle 1960s until the Chernobyl accident. After the accident ten different radionuclides were detected in surface waters, but only 137 Cs made a minor contribution the radiation dose. The maximum effective dose via ingestion of water was about 0.001 mSv in 1986, and considerably lower in the following years

  20. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  1. Ore potential of basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, J.; Ekberg, M.; Heinonen, P.; Karppanen, T.; Hakapaeae, A.; Sandberg, E.

    1993-02-01

    The report is associated with a study programme on basic rocks, which has the aim to complement the preliminary site investigations on repository for TVO's (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) spent nuclear fuel. The report comprises a mining enterprise's view of the ore potential of basic plutonic rocks in Finland. The ores associated with basic plutonic rocks are globally known and constitute a significant share of the global mining industry. The ores comprise chromium, vanadium-titanium-iron, nickel-copper and platinum group element ores. The resources of the metals in question and their mining industry are examined globally. A review of the use of these metals in the industry is presented as well. General factors affecting the mining industry, such as metal prices, political conjunctures, transport facilities, environmental requirements and raw material sources for the Finnish smelters have been observed from the point of view of their future effect on exploration activity and industrial development in Finland. Information on ores and mineralizations associated with Finnish basic rocks have been compiled in the report. The file comprises 4 chromium occurrences, 8 vanadium-titanium-iron occurrences, 13 PGE occurrences and 38 nickel-copper occurrences

  2. A review of the seismotectonics of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1992-12-01

    Recent major improvements in our knowledge about seismicity, crustal structure, primary stress field and tectonics together with other extensive geophysical and geological investigations have provided a good basis for a review of the seismotectonic setting of Finland. Correlations have been found to be present for the seismicity in Finland with the seismotectonic zones inside the Baltic Shield and with the seismicity of the North Atlantic Ridge. The current stress field in the Fennoscandian Shield seems to be dominated by ridge push forces. This conclusion is based on earthquake focal mechanisms, in-situ stress measurements and geodetic information. The report discusses the possible block movements induced by future glaciation. Location of the seismotectonic zones, duration of the glaciation and the presence of locally anomalous shear stresses seem to relate to the distribution of the discovered post-glacial faults in Fennoscandia. Special attention is paid to local seismotectonics. Potential direct or indirect effects on underground openings are possible due to local earthquakes or the creep. The importance of slow deformation processes in the bedrock is emphasized. (orig.)

  3. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H; Savolainen, T [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  4. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T; Tuomenvirta, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  5. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emissions in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee; Melanen; Ekqvist; Verta

    2000-10-02

    This paper is part of the study of atmospheric emissions of heavy metals conducted by the Finnish Environment Institute in collaboration with the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) under the umbrella of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. The scope of our study is limited solely to anthropogenic mercury that is emitted directly to the atmosphere. This article addresses emission factors and trends of atmospheric mercury emissions during the 1990s and is based mainly on the database of the Finnish Environmental Administration. In addition, data based on the measurements taken by the VTT regarding emission factors have been used to estimate emissions of mercury from the incineration of waste. The study indicates that the total emission of mercury has decreased from 1140 kg in 1990 to 620 kg in 1997, while industrial and energy production have been on the increase simultaneously. The 45% emission reduction is due to improved gas cleaning equipment, process changes, automation, the installation of flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants and strict pollution control laws. In the past, some authors have estimated a higher mercury emission in Finland. In this study, it is also observed that there are no big changes in the quality of raw materials. Estimated emission factors can be of great help to management for estimating mercury emissions and also its risk assessment.

  6. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  7. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  8. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  9. The introduction of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafs, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my research was to study the introduction of nuclear power in Finland with special focus on the domestic engineering works industry. I wanted to find out what really happened during this long process, which I consider to be unique. I also tried to clearfy the reasons why it came about at all, and why it developed in such a peculiar way. My basic research questions were: (a.) When and how was nuclear power introduced in Finland? (b.) Which were the reasons for this introduction and which were the results? (c.) Which was the role of the domestic engineering works industry? I started the investigation by exploring the original situation in Finland and also in the countries which came to be a primus motor for the development. I studied the relevant literature and interviewed quite a few of the persons who in a decisive way had an influence on the long and chaotic process which led to the introduction of nuclear power in Finland. When describing the different phases in the development I stayed in principle within the historic framework, although I diverged from a strict chronological order when necessary. Neither did I in my investigation take a neutral stance regarding the two large projects that had a central position in the introduction, namely the nuclear power plants in Lovisa and in Olkiluoto. The Lovisa project implied a greater challenge and it was also more important to the domestic industry than Olkiluoto. It therefore got more attention than Olkiluoto. Oy Finnatom Ab (managed by me 1975-2001), due to its role as a spokesman for the Finnish nuclear engineering works industry, occupied a central position in my investigation. The start of the introduction may psychologically be dated to the startup in 1958 of the Ydin Exponential pile, YXP, and in 1962 of Finland Reactor I, FiR I, and the end to the signing in 1982 by Industrins Kraft, ASEA and Asea-Atom of the acceptance protocol for Olkiluoto and the final permits for Lovisa, granted by the

  10. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  11. Environmental economy account for Denmark 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental economy account for Denmark shows that the contribution to acidification in Denmark increased with 1% from 2002 to 2003, while the contribution to the greenhouse effect increased with 11,3%. The latter covers an increase of 19,3 % from the energy supply and an increase of 22,4% from Danish ships' bunkering outside Denmark. The environmental account for Denmark presents accounts of the energy consumption (and water consumption) of the industrial branches and the households together with their emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. The account also contains information about the environmental taxes and subsidies that rest with industry and households. Finally, volume and value are presented of the oil and gas reserves in the North Sea. The environmental account combines environmental data with the Danish National Accounts, making it possible to analyse the relation between economy and environment. (ln)

  12. Environmental economy account for Denmark 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental economy account for Denmark shows that the contribution to acidification in Denmark decreased with 11% from 2000 to 2001 while the contribution to the greenhouse effect decreased with 0,4%. The latter must be seen in relation to the fact that the contribution from energy consumption increased with 5,4% and that the contribution from Danish ships' bunkering outside Denmark decreased with 7,7%. The environmental account for Denmark presents accounts of the consumption of energy (and water) of the industrial branches and the households together with their emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. The account also contains information about the environmental taxes and subsidies that rest with industry and households. Finally volume and value are presented for the oil and gas reserves in the North Sea. The environmental account combines environmental data with the Danish National Accounts making it possible to analyse the relation between economy and environment. (ln)

  13. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  14. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  15. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  16. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....

  17. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  18. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  19. Denmark, Democracy and the Free Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2006-01-01

    What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world.......What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world....

  20. The Mobilisation of Muslim Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations...... immigrant women´s organisations, this paper aims to explore patterns of networking among these women, and the level and nature of their interaction with other organisations and societal institutions....

  1. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villesen Palle

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus. During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation of introgressed brown hares from Sweden. The impurity of hare populations has implications for conservation and population genetics.

  2. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  3. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  6. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  8. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  9. Energy in France. References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet is a compilation of key data about the energy in France: energy and economy (energy industries and gross internal product, employment, investments), overall energies (primary energy production and consumption, sectoral consumption, energy bill, price of imported crude oil), petroleum (primary production, sectoral consumption of refined petroleum products, automotive fuels demand, import and export of petroleum products), natural gas (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of origin), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports), electric power (production per origin, classical thermal production per type of fuel, sectoral consumption), renewable energies (overall production, heat networks supplied with non-conventional energy sources, wood consumption, wind power production, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, cumulated energy saving), energy prices (in industries and households, automotive fuel prices, energy consumptions in households), energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). A synthesis of the main energy tariffs and prices is given in a separate folder. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  11. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  12. Nuclear status report for Western Europe 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decock, J.P.; Rogghe, L.; Selleslagh, E.; Fynbo, P.B.; Tuura, L.; Gaussens, J.; Cuzzaniti, M.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Monroy, C.R.; Wikdahl, C.E.; Juillerat, T.; Starr, G.; Afgan, N.; Riznic, J.

    1988-01-01

    Information about nuclear electricity production and main events in the nuclear sector in 1987 is given for following countries: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, F.R. Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia

  13. Implementing the green economy in a european context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Pitkänen, Kati; Loiseau, Eleonore; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Kuikman, P.J.; Leskinen, Pekka; Thomsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This report summarises the key results of a PEER project analysing the green economy. The project explored green economy concepts and 10 practical cases from Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark.

  14. The Color of Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Petra; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Stegemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This roundtable brings together music therapists from Denmark, France, Finland, Greece,Ireland, Poland, UK, and Austria to report about music therapy education, research, and practices with young children and their families. Learn about demographics, cultural values, intervention settings...

  15. 48 CFR 225.003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unincorporated concern having its principal place of business in the United States. (4) Domestic end product has... are qualifying countries: Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Egypt Finland France Germany Greece...

  16. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  17. Learning from the neighbours: Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toeller, G.

    1983-03-01

    In Denmark the owners of wind power plants monthly notify, on a volunteer basis, what number of kilowatt hours they have produced during the past weeks. From the first beginnings in 1979, the number of Danish wind power plants, which take part in the capacity statistics, has now increased to about 300. In the windy month of November in 1982, a quarter per cent of the total Danish electrical power generation has been achieved by wind power plants according to statistics and estimates. It can also be seen from the statistics which types of plants were not ready for operation or which plants generate how much capacity. A seperate calculation also shows how many operation hours a wind energy plant achieves per annum. Plants which are in the power range of 10 kW to 30 kW reach, on average, 6000 working hours. The plants of the 55 kw-type which are equipped with higher towers reach an average value of 6300 hours per annum.

  18. National construction, Denmark. Flat roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, C

    1995-04-01

    The Paris meeting of IEA Annex 24 (held in the spring of 1991) declared a set of typical building constructions, the Heat, Air and Moisture characteristics of which should be dealt with as part of the Annex work. Each type of construction was assigned to one or more countries as their National Construction, and it has been the responsibility of each country to prepare a report on what may be regarded as common knowledge in the country on the hygrothermal behaviour of their construction. This knowledge is in part due to experimental work carried out by research bodies in the countries, and due to experience form practice. This report has two main sections: Section 2 gives a general overview of the design of the most common variants of flat roofs and common knowledge reported for such roofs. Section 3 gives an account of research projects carried out in Denmark on flat roofs to analyze their hygrothermal performance. Whenever possible, an emphasis will be put on the hygrothermal consequences of thermally insulating such constructions. (EG) 19 refs.

  19. Aging fatherhood in Finland - first-time fathers in Finland from 1987 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Miia; Bloigu, Aini; Hemminki, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Klemetti, Reija

    2016-06-01

    The increase in maternal age has been well documented in Western societies, but information on paternal age trends is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in age and other background characteristics of first-time fathers in Finland in the period 1987-2009. A random 60% sample of first-time fathers in each year from 1987 to 2009 was obtained from Statistics Finland (n=344,529). Five-year intervals were used (three years in 1987-1989). Sociodemographic characteristics of older first-time fathers (⩾40 years) were compared over time using logistic regression. In the logistic regression, immigrants were excluded from the study population as they may have had children before migrating to Finland. The mean age of first-time fathers increased from 28.7 to 30.4 years in 1987-2009. The change was greatest in the Capital Region and smallest in Northern and Eastern Finland. Fatherhood at the age of ⩾40 years doubled from 3.1% to 6.8%. From 2005 to 2009, men who lived in rural areas and the Capital Region, had a long education, were divorced or widowed, had been born in a rural area and were native Finnish speakers, were more likely than other men to be old when they became fathers. CONCLUSIONS DURING THE STUDY PERIOD, THE AVERAGE AGE OF FIRST-TIME FATHERS INCREASED BY TWO YEARS FURTHER STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO EXAMINE WHETHER DELAYS IN FIRST-TIME FATHERHOOD AFFECT FERTILITY, CHILD HEALTH AND THE USE OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Development of stump utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkkainen, M

    1975-01-01

    Presents a historical review of the utilization of stump- and rot-wood in Finland, based on Finnish literature from the mid 19th century until to-day. Pine stumps were used for tar production to a small extent during the 19th century, and on a much larger scale during the two World Wars. Other industrial uses of stumpwood have hitherto been of minor importance, but stumps are now beginning to be used in the pulp industry. The largest quantity of stumpwood used has always been that taken by the rural population for fuel; it amounted to >200 000 m/sup 3/ solid measure in the 1930's, and was still >100 000 m/sup 3/ in the 1960's.

  1. Future probabilities of coastal floods in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Havu; Leijala, Ulpu; Johansson, Milla M.; Leinonen, Katri; Kahma, Kimmo K.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal planning requires detailed knowledge of future flooding risks, and effective planning must consider both short-term sea level variations and the long-term trend. We calculate distributions that combine short- and long-term effects to provide estimates of flood probabilities in 2050 and 2100 on the Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Our distributions of short-term sea level variations are based on 46 years (1971-2016) of observations from the 13 Finnish tide gauges. The long-term scenarios of mean sea level combine postglacial land uplift, regionally adjusted scenarios of global sea level rise, and the effect of changes in the wind climate. The results predict that flooding risks will clearly increase by 2100 in the Gulf of Finland and the Bothnian Sea, while only a small increase or no change compared to present-day conditions is expected in the Bothnian Bay, where the land uplift is stronger.

  2. Trends in occupational hygiene in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.

  3. Aquifer thermal energy storage in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iihola, H; Ala-Peijari, T; Seppaenen, H

    1988-01-01

    The rapid changes and crises in the field of energy during the 1970s and 1980s have forced us to examine the use of energy more critically and to look for new ideas. Seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (T < 100/sup 0/C) on a large scale is one of the grey areas which have not yet been extensively explored. However, projects are currently underway in a dozen countries. In Finland there have been three demonstration projects from 1974 to 1987. International co-operation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, Annex VI, 'Environmental and Chemical Aspects of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers and Research and Development of Water Treatment Methods' started in 1987. The research being undertaken in 8 countries includes several elements fundamental to hydrochemistry and biochemistry.

  4. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in Finland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, H.

    1999-02-01

    A survey on the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy has been made by STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland. In 1997 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 51 700 and that of the therapeutic treatments was 2 240. In 1994 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 50 900 and that of therapeutic treatments was 2 150. The collective effective dose to the patients was 207 manSv and the mean effective dose to the population was 0.04 mSv per person. In 1994 the collective effective dose was 220 manSv. The numbers of nuclear medicine examinations and of therapeutic treatments have not changed much when compared to those in 1994. The collective effective dose has decreased. The main reason for that is the decreased use of the radionuclide 131 I. (orig.)

  5. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  6. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  7. The Younger Dryas age of the Salpausselkä moraines in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Donner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The late-glacial Younger Dryas Stadial, as defined over seventy years ago in Denmark, was compared with the withdrawal of the Scandinavian ice sheet and correlated in Finland in 1951 with the formation of the Salpausselkä moraines. Since then a great number of studies of Younger Dryas has eventually led to its definition in the Event Stratigraphy for the North Atlantic region, based on the oxygen isotope stratigraphy in the Greenland ice-core NGRIP. The age of the Younger Dryas / Preboreal boundary, the beginning of the Holocene, is in this stratigraphy dated at 11 653 yr. BP, an age close to the age deter-mined for the drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake and the beginning of the rapid retreat of the ice margin from Salpausselkä II in Finland and the corresponding Billingen moraine in Sweden. This leads to the conclusion that the Salpausselkä moraines Ss I and Ss II were formed during Younger Dryas, according to the revised varve chronology between c. 12 260 and c. 11 600 yr. BP. The third Salpausselkä, Ss III, was according to this dating formed in early Holocene. After the 1950s, when the Salpausselkä moraines were dated as having been formed during the Younger Dryas Stadial, the ages of the boundaries of Younger Dryas changed as a result of revisions of the time scales of varved clays and the use of radiocarbon ages and their calibrations. As a result of these changes the age of the two main Salpausselkä moraines, Ss I and Ss II, is older than assumed 60 years ago on the basis of the varve chronology.

  8. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  9. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  10. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. France looks to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-22

    France's Solar Energy Commission has announced a series of measures it is backing to increase the country's production of energy from biomass. Following consultations on suitable equipment, it has decided to go ahead with experiments of 15 systems designed to produce methane from animal wastes. Its eventual target is the production of between 1 million and 1.5 million tons per year of oil equivalent (toe) from this source. Secondly, it has launched a tender for the supply of domestic and industrial heating equipment capable of functioning on straw. It has calculated that the amount of straw available for this end use is in the region of 6 million ton per year, equivalent to about 2 million tons per year toe. Finally, tests are to be carried out in 14 different areas to determine the best variety of Jerusalem artichoke for the production of ethanol. Together with the Institut Francais du Petrole the Commission is building a demonstration unit for the production of acetone/butyric acid by fermentation of sugars from Jerusamlem artichoke and beet roots.

  12. Nuclear electricity from France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.

    1987-01-01

    This second volume of the Berlin series presents the papers and discussion of the eleventh discussion meeting on energy law, for the first time held in Berlin, on May 12-13, 1987. The leading subject of the first conference day, namely electricity imports from France, has since then widely been discussed in the media or at other meetings, although the legal problems or obstacles revealed at this Berlin meeting are far from being solved. There is EdF's wish to export electricity to West Germany on the other hand, and there is the West German coal industry's scepticism on the other hand. Much is at stake for West Germany's national concept of enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, and the related system of subventions. Supply concepts and franchise charges, a standing topic of the power sector for quite a time now, have been discussed on the second conference day. The papers read there gave an account of the situation and also presented some new aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  13. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  14. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  15. Outreach in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  16. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  17. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  18. The Demand for Rental Homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2007-01-01

    For a number of years, homeownership rates have been increasing along with increasing GDP per capita in most European countries, but not in Denmark after 2000. Why have increased real incomes kept the demand for rental housing up in Denmark? The present paper takes a closer look at the Danish dev...... traits found on the Danish housing market and the technique employed for prediction are of interest to housing researchers in other countries.......For a number of years, homeownership rates have been increasing along with increasing GDP per capita in most European countries, but not in Denmark after 2000. Why have increased real incomes kept the demand for rental housing up in Denmark? The present paper takes a closer look at the Danish...... development, and gives some indications of the future demand for rental housing in Denmark. The results indicate a future stagnant rental demand kept up by an increasing share of persons of old age and young persons undergoing education, and thus a rising homeownership rate. It is believed that the structural...

  19. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  20. Electricite de France in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menage, G.; Bergougnoux, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes financial results of a french electric utility (Electricite de France) in 1992. Statistical data on investments, tariffs, and prices of electric power in Europe are also given. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  2. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  3. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out. The main aim was to study cultural identity and experiences of difference. The primary objective of this study is to give a voice to young international adoptees in Finland and present results as examples of how the dominant population adapts to difference.

  4. Amateur observations of exoplanets in Finland: History and recent activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Kehusmaa, P.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Exoplanet have been observed by Finnish amateur astronomers already 17 years. Recently there are two active observers, but the interest to photometric observations on exoplanet transits is increasing in Finland.

  5. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A.

    2003-11-01

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  6. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  7. Additional nuclear power in Finland; Challenge for economics and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raumolin, H.I.

    1989-01-01

    The overview of energy situation in Finland is presented. Additional base-load power is needed in the second half of the 1990's. The experience of nuclear power including the price of electricity as well as construction and operation of power plants is presented. Challenges for new nuclear power are described. The challenges can be met by utilizing the good experience gained in Finland, as well as the competitive situation on the international market

  8. Service design for Chinese restaurant management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is focused on understanding the service and operation model of Chinese restaurants in Finland, identifying the gaps between the service suppliers’ and the customers’ view on service quality and trying to find out the best Chinese restaurant service design in Finland. The conceptual framework of the thesis is based on the service design, the scale to measure the service quality - SERVQUAL model, and the comparison of Finnish and Chinese food culture and...

  9. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. In brief...France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different news we can find information about the situation of the radiation accidents at the hospital of Epinal in the east of France. The medical surveillance of the irradiated patients has allowed to find others cases of over exposure.These new cases add to a series of events enlightened in this service: 24 patients treated for a prostate cancer between may 2004 and august 2005 have been over exposed of about 20 % because of a bad use of the treatment planning software. 4 hundred patients treated for a prostate cancer between 2001 and 2006 have been over exposed of about 8% by an excessive use of the imaging controlling the positioning during the treatment. Among 4500 patients treated for different cancers between september 1987 and july 2000 and concerned by a programming error of an internal software, 312 patients have received an overexposure of about 7%. The Authority of nuclear safety and the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) publish the report of management 2006 on the Internet gate of the National network of environmental radioactivity measurements. The Internet site of the pluralist expertise group on the uranium mines sites of the Limousin opens at the address :www.gep-nucleaire.org. The high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety is officially created. The Asn has classified at the level 4+ of the experimental scale Asn-S.F.R.O. the accident occurred at the teaching hospital of Toulouse between the 11. april 2006 and the 18. april 2007 implying 145 patients treated by intracranial radiosurgery. (N.C.)

  11. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  12. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  13. The Market for Hospital Medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market...... for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised....... 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume...

  14. Mobility and language change in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    featured substantial amounts of dialect features (Kristensen 1980; Pedersen 1986). In 2005 to 2010, researchers at the Danish National Research Center for Language Change in Real Time (LANCHART) and the University of Southern Denmark re-interviewed informants, thus providing data for investigating language......Mobility and language change in Denmark This paper demonstrates how mobility affects language change in real time and reports on the results of my PhD-thesis. In the thesis I made a real time panel study in three towns in distinct dialect areas in Denmark and examined language change in 23 speakers...... recorded in 1978 to 2010. The results emphasize the advantages of approaching mobility from different angles when investigating patterns of language change. The present paper focuses on six geographically and socially mobile informants. At the time of the early recordings, the three towns were in different...

  15. Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark:A Disaggregate Perspective@*In this paper, we provide an industry-level analysis of skill-biased technological change(SBTC) in Denmark over the last two decades. The analysis shows that SBTC has variedconsiderably across industries, and traditionally...... large Danish industries have experiencedrelatively less SBTC. This may partly explain why wage inequality between skilled and lessskilled has risen less in Denmark than in other countries. We also find that SBTC has beenconcentrated in already skill-intensive industries. This contains important...... information aboutfuture labour requirements, as the relative importance of these industries must be expectedto grow, thereby reinforcing the shift in demand for skilled labour.JEL Classification: J24, J31, L6Keywords: skill-biased technological change, Danish industries...

  16. Environmental economy account for Denmark 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental economy account for Denmark shows that the contribution to acidification in Denmark decreased with 5,2% from 2003 to 2004, while the contribution to the greenhouse effect decreased with 4,4%. The reserves of petroleum and natural gas increased in 2004 with 14 b.DKK to 232 b.DKK. The environmental account for Denmark presents accounts of the energy consumption (and water consumption) of the industrial branches and the households together with their emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. The account also contains information about the environmental taxes and subsidies that rest with industry and households. Finally, volume and value are presented of the oil and gas reserves in the North Sea. The environmental account combines environmental data with the Danish National Accounts, making it possible to analyse the relation between economy and environment. (ln)

  17. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    ) are observed across central government agencies, when the content of the performance contracts is compared. This makes it interesting to examine how variation in the content of the performance contracts across agencies can be explained? Based on a broad theoretical framework in which variation......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  18. Firewood processing devices in Finland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2002-01-01

    This Forestry Bulletin presents a review of the market situation for firewood processing devices in Finland during March 2002. The review is based on a questionnaire sent to device manufacturers. The firewood processing devices have traditionally been divided into three groups according to their functions: cross-cutting devices, splitting devices and cross-cutting and splitting devices. With a cross-cutting device the tree can be cross-cut only. Because it is easily possible to build the splitting function into a cross-cutting device, merely manufacturing a cross-cutting devices is rare. In all the splitting machines on the market, the splitting is carried out on a horizontally operated hydraulic cylinder pushing against a splitting blade. The types of cross-cutting blade mostly used in cross-cutting and splitting devices are circular i.e. circular saw blade, and chain saw. These devices are called firewood sawing machines. In firewood chopping machines that have a chopping blade, the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade. The splitting is done by a wedge blade or an axe blade. The firewood chopping machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Circular blade firewood machines use either a cone screw or hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. They can handle wood of 20-30 cm thick in diameter. Machines using a chain saw can process stems of a maximum 30-45 cm thick in diameter. All firewood machines that work with a chain saw use a hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. According to the questionnaire responses, there were 14 (12 Finnish, one Norwegian and one Italian) manufacturers of firewood processing devices in the market. There were over 80 device models. There were only three cross-cutting devices, thirty splitting devices and forty cross-cutting splitting devices. The price range of the devices was 500-66,000 euros (including 22% VAT). According to the MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  19. Economics of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, Risto; Luostarinen, Kari

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power generation fits perfectly with the long duration load profile of the Finnish power system. The good performance of the Finnish nuclear power has yielded benefits also to the consumers through its contribution to decreasing the electricity price. Furthermore, the introduction of nuclear power has resulted in a clear drop in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in the shift of 1970's and 1980's. In the year 2001 the four Finnish nuclear power units at Loviisa and Olkiluoto generated 22.8 TWh electricity, equivalent to 28 per cent of the total consumption. Loviisa power station has a net output capacity of 2 x 488 MW, and Olkiluoto 2 x 840 MW. The capacity factors of the four nuclear units have been above 90 per cent, which are among the highest in the world. The energy-intensive process industries in particular have strong belief in nuclear power. In November 2000, Teollisuuden Voima company (TVO) submitted to the Finnish Government an application for decision in principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit. The arguments were among other things to guarantee for the Finnish industry the availability of cheap electric energy and to meet the future growth of electricity consumption in Finland. The carbon-free nuclear power also represents the most efficient means to meet the Greenhouse Gas abatement quota of Finland. Simultaneously, the energy policy of the Government includes intensive R and D and investment support for the renewable energy sources and energy conservation, and the objective is also to replace coal with natural gas as much as reasonably possible. The fifth nuclear unit would be located in one of the existing Finnish nuclear sites, i.e. Olkiluoto or Loviisa. The size of the new nuclear unit would be in the range of 1000 to 1600 MW electric. The ready infrastructure of the existing site could be utilised resulting in lower investment cost for the new unit. The Finnish Government accepted the

  20. Parenthood, Gender and Work-Family Time in the United States, Australia, Italy, France, and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lyn; Mullan, Killian

    2010-01-01

    Research has associated parenthood with greater daily time commitments for fathers and mothers than for childless men and women, and with deeper gendered division of labor in households. How do these outcomes vary across countries with different average employment hours, family and social policies, and cultural attitudes to family care provision?…

  1. Institutional dynamic of the call center industry in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole H.; Beraud, Mathieu; Colin, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The call centre development is substantially increasing in the most part of industrialized countries. Coming to the fore and seeking for staff, this sector is still looking for benchmarks, especially in terms of employment. Currently it can be said that the sector is under construction since its ...... to the specific micro and meso dynamic of this emerging industry. We base on a part of the first results obtained in a research on low wage initiated by the Russell Rage Foundation. More precisely we use the results from sectoral survey....

  2. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  3. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  4. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  5. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  6. Denmark's net'zero energy home'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    Judging by looks alone, you'd never guess that the simple one-and-a-half-story house on a residential street outside Århus, Denmark, is anything more than an ordinary single-family home. The stylish little house has the broad windows and long sloping roof of a typical Scandinavian home; a trampol......Judging by looks alone, you'd never guess that the simple one-and-a-half-story house on a residential street outside Århus, Denmark, is anything more than an ordinary single-family home. The stylish little house has the broad windows and long sloping roof of a typical Scandinavian home...

  7. Copenhagen is hot, Denmark is not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csaba, Fabian; Stöber, Birgit

    This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence on ident......This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence...... audiences represent and use place image survey results....

  8. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  9. Male and Female Labour Supply in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1996-01-01

    This paper estimates labour supply for married and single men and women in Denmark in 1990, using a double-hurdle model which allows involuntary unemployment due to for example demand restrictions, and fixed costs of work. A labour supply f unction based on a variant of the Stone-Geary utility...... function with a nonlinear wage rate is estimated. Elasticities of labour supply with respect to wage, income and tax rate are presented. Finally, the effects on the four groups of a few recently discussed tax and transfer reforms in Denmark are simulated....

  10. The Nordic countries and China - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    Usually, Denmark is considered a ‘small state’ and China as one of world’s leading powers, however, Denmark and China have a ‘comprehensive strategic partnership’ signed by the two states in 2008. In this section we will account for this extraordinary relationship by briefly analysing the history...... of Danish-Chinese relations, the ups and downs during the Cold War and after the end of the Cold War, the development leading to the partnership agreement and the current situation....

  11. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  12. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    's Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer...

  13. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). CONCLUSION......: This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification...

  14. Surviving severe traumatic brain injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from...... severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark...

  15. Epidemiology of autoimmune diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, William W.; Rose, N.R.; Kalaydijan, A.

    2007-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of the autoimmune diseases taken together has not been done heretofore. The National Patient Register of Denmark is used to estimate the population prevalence of 31 possible or probable autoimmune diseases. Record linkage is used to estimate 465 pairwise co-morbidities in i......An epidemiologic study of the autoimmune diseases taken together has not been done heretofore. The National Patient Register of Denmark is used to estimate the population prevalence of 31 possible or probable autoimmune diseases. Record linkage is used to estimate 465 pairwise co...

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of Denmark's waste tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1998-01-01

    By the mid-l980s, Denmark had a serious waste disposal problem: Its per capita generation of waste was among the highest in Europe and rising; it was running out of landfill space, with Copenhagen set to exhaust its landfill capacity in a short time; and there was a great deal of concern about air...... pollution from incinerators. Denmark responded to this situation by adopting a comprehensive waste management policy that included an innovative tax on waste designed to promote the reuse and recycling of many types of waste. Now that the tax has been in place for a decade, there is enough data to assess...

  17. Offshore investments: Denmark shows the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of wind power in Denmark and discusses the tremendous growth in the manufacture of wind turbines since 1981 with Denmark holding some 60% of the worlds' wind turbine market. The move to offshore wind farms is explained in terms of the shortage of land and the quality of the offshore wind, and details of the Tuno Knob pilot offshore wind farm are given. Offshore wind power in Europe, the challenges to offshore operations, the costs involved, environmental effects of the use of offshore wind, and the growing amount of wind power capacity are discussed

  18. Management Accounting in Denmark; Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Andersen, Michael; Rohde, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The article describes the present state of cost and management accounting in Denmark within “mainstream accounting”, both as regards theory and practice. In the case of theory, there has been a gradual convergence of views. The essence of these views is briefly described. Concerning practice......, the main results of two new empirical studies are presented one on product costing and the other on identifying the adoption of “modern cost management techniques” in Denmark. The article places both current theory and practice in their historical context. In the former, this is done through an outline...

  19. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  20. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.