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Sample records for demosponge ianthella basta

  1. Brominated Skeletal Components of the Marine Demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: Analytical and Biochemical Investigations

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    Eike Brunner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of brominated tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of brominated compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated bromine mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, brominated compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of bromine into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria.

  2. Preparation of chitin–silica composites by in vitro silicification of two-dimensional Ianthella basta demosponge chitinous scaffolds under modified Stöber conditions

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    Wysokowski, Marcin [Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, PL-60965 Poznan (Poland); Behm, Thomas [Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Liepziger 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Born, René [Institute of Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, Helmholtzstraße 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Bazhenov, Vasilii V. [Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Liepziger 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Meißner, Heike; Richter, Gert [Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina [Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, PL-60965 Poznan (Poland); Makarova, Anna; Vyalikh, Denis [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, Helmholtzstraße 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Schupp, Peter [Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Emsstr. 20, 26382 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Jesionowski, Teofil, E-mail: teofil.jesionowski@put.poznan.pl [Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, PL-60965 Poznan (Poland); Ehrlich, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.ehrlich@physik.tu-freiberg.de [Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Liepziger 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Chitin is a biopolymer found in cell walls of various fungi and skeletal structures of numerous invertebrates. The occurrence of chitin within calcium- and silica-containing biominerals has inspired development of chitin-based hybrids and composites in vitro with specific physico-chemical and material properties. We show here for the first time that the two-dimensional α-chitin scaffolds isolated from the skeletons of marine demosponge Ianthella basta can be effectively silicified by the two-step method with the use of Stöber silica micro- and nanodispersions under Extreme Biomimetic conditions. The chitin–silica composites obtained at 120 °C were characterized by the presence of spherical SiO{sub 2} particles homogeneously distributed over the chitin fibers, which probably follows from the compatibility of Si–OH groups to the hydroxyl groups of chitin. The biocomposites obtained were characterized by various analytical techniques such as energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between silica and chitin molecule. The results presented proved that the character and course of the in vitro chitin silicification in Stöber dispersions depended considerably on the degree of hydrolysis of the SiO{sub 2} precursor. - Highlights: • 2D α-chitin scaffolds isolated from marine demosponge can be effectively silicified using Stöber silica. • The chitin–silica composites were obtained under Extreme Biomimetic conditions. • Character and course of the in vitro chitin silicification in Stöber dispersions is discussed.

  3. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

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    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  4. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. - Highlights: •First assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia •Rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections •Assessment of 28S 'C-Region' for demosponge barcoding •Data for a future comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea

  5. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bü ttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schä tzle, Simone; Wö rheide, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  7. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  8. Speculation with spiculation? - Three independent gene fragments and biochemical characters versus morphology in demosponge higher classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Demosponge higher-level systematics is currently a subject of major changes due to the simplicity and paucity of complex morphological characters. Still, sponge classification is primarily based on morphological features. The systematics of the demosponge order Agelasida has been exceptionally

  9. First report of fossil "keratose" demosponges in Phanerozoic carbonates: preservation and 3-D reconstruction.

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    Luo, Cui; Reitner, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Fossil record of Phanerozoic non-spicular sponges, beside of being important with respect to the lineage evolution per se, could provide valuable references for the investigation of Precambrian ancestral animal fossils. However, although modern phylogenomic studies resolve non-spicular demosponges as the sister group of the remaining spiculate demosponges, the fossil record of the former is extremely sparse or unexplored compared to that of the latter; the Middle Cambrian Vauxiidae Walcott 1920, is the only confirmed fossil taxon of non-spicular demosponges. Here, we describe carbonate materials from Devonian (Upper Givetian to Lower Frasnian) bioherms of northern France and Triassic (Anisian) microbialites of Poland that most likely represent fossil remnants of keratose demosponges. These putative fossils of keratose demosponges are preserved as automicritic clumps. They are morphologically distinguishable from microbial fabrics but similar to other spiculate sponge fossils, except that the skeletal elements consist of fibrous networks instead of assembled spicules. Consistent with the immunological behavior of sponges, these fibrous skeletons often form a rim at the edge of the automicritic aggregate, separating the inner part of the aggregate from foreign objects. To confirm the architecture of these fibrous networks, two fossil specimens and a modern thorectid sponge for comparison were processed for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction using serial grinding tomography. The resulting fossil reconstructions are three-dimensionally anastomosing, like modern keratose demosponges, but their irregular and nonhierarchical meshes indicate a likely verongid affinity, although a precise taxonomic conclusion cannot be made based on the skeletal architecture alone. This study is a preliminary effort, but an important start to identify fossil non-spicular demosponges in carbonates and to re-evaluate their fossilization potential.

  10. Comparison of the effectiveness of Basta, Bialaphos and Glufosinate Ammonium for selecting Transformed Oil Palm Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Rahman Nurfahisza; Md Aman Rafiqah; Ghulam Kadir Ahmad Parveez; Omar Abdul Rashid

    2016-01-01

    One of the important requirements for producing transgenic plants is the ability to isolate true transformed cells and regenerate into complete plants without chimera and escapes. Therefore, an efficient selection process is essential. In this study, three different selection agents, namely Basta, bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium were evaluated on embryogenic calli and embryoids, for their effectiveness on selecting transformed oil palm tissues. Un transformed tissues were used in this study as the minimal concentrations which inhibit the growth of the tissues would be the optimum concentrations for selecting the transformed cells. Based on this study, the growth of embryogenic calli was shown to be fully inhibited at 10 mg litre -1 of Basta. Meanwhile, only 3 mg litre -1 of bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium are needed to inhibit the embryogenic calli. For oil palm embryo id cultures, the minimal concentration for Basta was determined at 20 mg litre -1 as compared to 5 mg litre -1 for bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium. This result indicated that a higher concentration of Basta is needed to completely inhibit the growth of oil palm tissues as compared to bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium. Furthermore, these observations revealed that embryogenic calli are more sensitive to the three selection agents as compared to embryoids. The information gained from this study will be used as a guideline to increase the efficiency for selecting transformed oil palm cells and producing transgenic oil palm. (author)

  11. The effect of herbicide BASTA 15 on the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo and in vitro.

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    Fabian, D; Bystriansky, J; Burkuš, J; Rehák, P; Legáth, J; Koppel, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of maternal poisoning by BASTA-15 on developmental capacities and quality of preimplantation embryos in a mouse model. During in vivo tests, fertilized mice were fed with various doses of BASTA-15 for several days. During in vitro tests, isolated embryos were cultured in a medium with the addition of herbicide or its main compound glufosinate ammonium. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of embryonic pools obtained from treated dams showed that BASTA-15 at dose 58 μl/kg bw negatively affected their ability to reach the blastocyst stage. Moreover, as shown by morphological evaluation, based on cell counting and cell death assay, even the application of herbicide at the lowest dose (approx. 1/100 LD50) had a negative effect on obtained embryo quality. In vitro tests proved the direct ability of BASTA-15 to negatively affect embryo growth and quality. On the other hand, the addition of glufosinate ammonium at equivalent concentrations (from 0.015 to 15 μg/ml) had almost no damaging effect on embryos. It was harmful only at very high doses. Results show that maternal intoxication with BASTA-15 might affect the development of preimplantation embryos and suggest that the responsibility for this effect lies probably not solely with glufosinate ammonium, but in combination with the herbicide's secondary compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Elhady, Sameh S; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Wysokowski, Marcin; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Meissner, Heike; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Bechmann, Nicole; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2018-02-20

    Sponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin. The unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture of such chitinous skeletons opens the widow for their recent applications as adsorbents, as well as scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomimetics. This study has the ambitious goal of monitoring other orders beyond Verongiida demosponges and finding alternative sources of naturally prestructured chitinous scaffolds; especially in those demosponge species which can be cultivated at large scales using marine farming conditions. Special attention has been paid to the demosponge Mycale euplectellioides (Heteroscleromorpha: Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae) collected in the Red Sea. For the first time, we present here a detailed study of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge, as well as its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools. Calcofluor white staining, Fourier-transform Infrared Spcetcroscopy (FTIR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy, as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of a-chitin in the skeleton of M. euplectellioides . We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of the Mycale genus is a promising step in their evaluation of these globally distributed sponges as new renewable sources for both biologically active metabolites and chitin, which are of prospective use for pharmacology and biomaterials oriented biomedicine, respectively.

  13. First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sponges (Porifera are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin. The unique three-dimensional (3D architecture of such chitinous skeletons opens the widow for their recent applications as adsorbents, as well as scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomimetics. This study has the ambitious goal of monitoring other orders beyond Verongiida demosponges and finding alternative sources of naturally prestructured chitinous scaffolds; especially in those demosponge species which can be cultivated at large scales using marine farming conditions. Special attention has been paid to the demosponge Mycale euplectellioides (Heteroscleromorpha: Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae collected in the Red Sea. For the first time, we present here a detailed study of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge, as well as its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools. Calcofluor white staining, Fourier-transform Infrared Spcetcroscopy (FTIR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and fluorescence microscopy, as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of a-chitin in the skeleton of M. euplectellioides. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of the Mycale genus is a promising step in their evaluation of these globally distributed sponges as new renewable sources for both biologically active metabolites and chitin, which are of prospective use for pharmacology and biomaterials oriented biomedicine, respectively.

  14. Deceptive Desmas: Molecular Phylogenetics Suggests a New Classification and Uncovers Convergent Evolution of Lithistid Demosponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Astrid; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Pisera, Andrzej; Hooper, John; Bryce, Monika; Fromont, Jane; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Reconciling the fossil record with molecular phylogenies to enhance the understanding of animal evolution is a challenging task, especially for taxa with a mostly poor fossil record, such as sponges (Porifera). ‘Lithistida’, a polyphyletic group of recent and fossil sponges, are an exception as they provide the richest fossil record among demosponges. Lithistids, currently encompassing 13 families, 41 genera and >300 recent species, are defined by the common possession of peculiar siliceous spicules (desmas) that characteristically form rigid articulated skeletons. Their phylogenetic relationships are to a large extent unresolved and there has been no (taxonomically) comprehensive analysis to formally reallocate lithistid taxa to their closest relatives. This study, based on the most comprehensive molecular and morphological investigation of ‘lithistid’ demosponges to date, corroborates some previous weakly-supported hypotheses, and provides novel insights into the evolutionary relationships of the previous ‘order Lithistida’. Based on molecular data (partial mtDNA CO1 and 28S rDNA sequences), we show that 8 out of 13 ‘Lithistida’ families belong to the order Astrophorida, whereas Scleritodermidae and Siphonidiidae form a separate monophyletic clade within Tetractinellida. Most lithistid astrophorids are dispersed between different clades of the Astrophorida and we propose to formally reallocate them, respectively. Corallistidae, Theonellidae and Phymatellidae are monophyletic, whereas the families Pleromidae and Scleritodermidae are polyphyletic. Family Desmanthidae is polyphyletic and groups within Halichondriidae – we formally propose a reallocation. The sister group relationship of the family Vetulinidae to Spongillida is confirmed and we propose here for the first time to include Vetulina into a new Order Sphaerocladina. Megascleres and microscleres possibly evolved and/or were lost several times independently in different

  15. Deceptive desmas: molecular phylogenetics suggests a new classification and uncovers convergent evolution of lithistid demosponges.

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    Astrid Schuster

    Full Text Available Reconciling the fossil record with molecular phylogenies to enhance the understanding of animal evolution is a challenging task, especially for taxa with a mostly poor fossil record, such as sponges (Porifera. 'Lithistida', a polyphyletic group of recent and fossil sponges, are an exception as they provide the richest fossil record among demosponges. Lithistids, currently encompassing 13 families, 41 genera and >300 recent species, are defined by the common possession of peculiar siliceous spicules (desmas that characteristically form rigid articulated skeletons. Their phylogenetic relationships are to a large extent unresolved and there has been no (taxonomically comprehensive analysis to formally reallocate lithistid taxa to their closest relatives. This study, based on the most comprehensive molecular and morphological investigation of 'lithistid' demosponges to date, corroborates some previous weakly-supported hypotheses, and provides novel insights into the evolutionary relationships of the previous 'order Lithistida'. Based on molecular data (partial mtDNA CO1 and 28S rDNA sequences, we show that 8 out of 13 'Lithistida' families belong to the order Astrophorida, whereas Scleritodermidae and Siphonidiidae form a separate monophyletic clade within Tetractinellida. Most lithistid astrophorids are dispersed between different clades of the Astrophorida and we propose to formally reallocate them, respectively. Corallistidae, Theonellidae and Phymatellidae are monophyletic, whereas the families Pleromidae and Scleritodermidae are polyphyletic. Family Desmanthidae is polyphyletic and groups within Halichondriidae--we formally propose a reallocation. The sister group relationship of the family Vetulinidae to Spongillida is confirmed and we propose here for the first time to include Vetulina into a new Order Sphaerocladina. Megascleres and microscleres possibly evolved and/or were lost several times independently in different 'lithistid' taxa, and

  16. The demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea as a new source of fibrous chitin.

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    Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Lim, Swee-Cheng; Meissner, Heike; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Wysokowski, Marcin; Bechmann, Nicole; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2018-06-01

    Among marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae), only representatives of the order Verongiida have been recognized to synthetize both biologically active substances as well as scaffolds-like fibrous skeletons made of structural aminopolysaccharide chitin. The unique 3D architecture of such scaffolds open perspectives for their applications in waste treatment, biomimetics and tissue engineering. Here, we focus special attention to the demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea collected in the coastal waters of Singapore. For the first time the detailed description of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge and its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools were carried out. Calcofluor white staining, FTIR analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), SEM, and fluorescence microscopy as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of alpha-chitin in the skeleton of P. purpurea. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of Pseudoceratinidae family is a perspective step in evaluation of these verongiid sponges as novel renewable sources for both chitin and biologically active metabolites, which are of prospective use for marine oriented biomedicine and pharmacology, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feeding in deep-sea demosponges: Influence of abiotic and biotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leah M.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2017-09-01

    In shallow benthic communities, sponges are widely recognized for their ability to contribute to food webs by cycling nutrients and mediating carbon fluxes through filter feeding. In comparison, little is known about filter feeding in deep-sea species and how it may be modulated by environmental conditions. Here, a rare opportunity to maintain live healthy deep-sea sponges for an extended period led to a preliminary experimental study of their feeding metrics. This work focused on demosponges collected from the continental slope of eastern Canada at 1000 m depth. Filtration rates (as clearance of phytoplankton cells) at holding temperature (6 °C) were positively correlated with food particle concentration, ranging on average from 18.8 to 160.6 cells ml-1 h-1 at nominal concentrations of 10,000-40,000 cells ml-1. Cell clearance was not significantly affected by decreasing seawater temperature, from 6 °C to 3 °C or 0 °C, although two of the sponges showed decreased filtration rates. Low pH ( 7.5) and the presence of a predatory sea star markedly depressed or inhibited feeding activity in all sponges tested. While performed under laboratory conditions on a limited number of specimens, this work highlights the possible sensitivity of deep-sea demosponges to various types and levels of biotic and abiotic factors, inferring a consequent vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  18. Earliest evidence for social endogamy in the 9,000-year-old-population of Basta, Jordan.

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    Kurt W Alt

    Full Text Available The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity - such as open access to resources and land - had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1. Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%. Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of

  19. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera) are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively). Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  20. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin; Ryu, Tae Woo; Aranda, Manuel; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera) are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively). Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  1. Osculum dynamics and filtration activity in small single-osculum explants of the demosponge Halichondria panicea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2017-01-01

    the clearance method. Osculum dynamics, as expressed by temporal variation of the OSA, including osculum contraction and expansion, correlated with variability in the explant filtration rate, and no water pumping was observed during periods of osculum closure. A linear relationship between filtration rate (FR......Contraction-inflation behavior, including the closure and opening of the exhalant opening (osculum), is common among sponges. This behavior may temporally affect filtration activity, making it difficult to study and understand sponge feeding biology. To examine the interplay between osculum...... dynamics and filtration activity, small (18 mm3) single-osculum explants of the demosponge Halichondria panicea were studied. Time-lapse video stereo-microscope recordings of the osculum cross-sectional area (OSA) were made simultaneously with measurements of the filtration rate (∼15°C, ∼20 PSU) using...

  2. Molecular investigations of the soil, rhizosphere and transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape and maize plants in combination with herbicide (Basta) application under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Dieter; Rosenbrock-Krestel, Hilkea; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Bieber, Evi; Giunaschwili, Nathela; Müller, Rüdiger; Fischbeck, Gerhard; Wagner, Tobias; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted during 1994 to 1998 on the Experimental Farm Roggenstein, near Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria, Germany to determine the effect of transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape in combination with the herbicide Basta [glufosinate-ammonium, phosphinothricin, ammonium (2RS)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato) butyric acid] application on soil microorganisms and the behaviour of the synthetic transgenic DNA in response to normal agricultural practice. No influence of Basta on microbial biomass could be detected. The phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil extracts showed no difference between Basta application and mechanical weed control, whereas conventional herbicide application revealed a different pattern. Basta application resulted in a changed population of weeds with a selective effect for Viola arvensis. During senescence, transgenic rape DNA was degraded similar to endogenous control DNA. After ploughing the chopped plant material in the soil, transgenic as well as endogenous control DNA sequences could be detected for up to 4 weeks for rape and up to 7 months for maize, whereas PCR analysis of composted transgenic maize revealed the presence of the transgene over a period of 22 months.

  3. The ontogeny of choanocyte chambers during metamorphosis in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Sogabe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aquiferous body plan of poriferans revolves around internal chambers comprised of choanocytes, a cell type structurally similar to choanoflagellates. These choanocyte chambers perform a range of physiological and developmental functions, including the capture of food and the generation of stem cells. Despite the increasing interest for choanocytes as sponge stem cells, there is limited knowledge on the development of choanocyte chambers. Using a combination of cell lineage tracing, antibody staining and EdU labeling, here we examine the development of choanocytes and the chambers they comprise during metamorphosis in the marine demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Results Lineage-tracing experiments show that larval epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal pluripotent stem cells, resembling archeocytes, within 24 h of initiating metamorphosis. By 36 h, some of these labeled archeocyte-like cells have differentiated into choanocytes that will form the first postlarval choanocyte chambers. Non-labeled cells also contribute to these primary choanocyte chambers, consistent with these chambers being a chimera of multiple transdifferentiated larval cell types and not the proliferation of a single choanocyte precursor. Moreover, cell proliferation assays demonstrate that, following the initial formation of choanocyte chambers, chambers grow at least partially by the proliferation of choanocytes within the chamber, although recruitment of individual cells into established chambers also appears to occur. EdU labeling of postlarvae and juveniles reveals that choanocyte chambers are the primary location of cell proliferation during metamorphosis. Conclusion Our results show that multiple larval cell lineages typically contribute to formation of individual choanocyte chambers at metamorphosis, contrary to previous reports in other species that show sponge choanocyte chambers form clonally. Choanocytes in postlarval and juvenile

  4. Optimisation of tomato Micro-tom regeneration and selection on glufosinate/Basta and dependency of gene silencing on transgene copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Thi Thu Huong; Crété, Patrice; Robaglia, Christophe; Caffarri, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    An efficient protocol of transformation and selection of transgenic lines of Micro-tom, a widespread model cultivar for tomato, is reported. RNA interference silencing efficiency and stability have been investigated and correlated with the number of insertions. Given its small size and ease of cultivation, the tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) cultivar Micro-tom is of widespread use as a model tomato plant. To create and screen transgenic plants, different selectable markers are commonly used. The bar marker carrying the resistance to the herbicide glufosinate/Basta, has many advantages, but it has been little utilised and with low efficiency for identification of tomato transgenic plants. Here we describe a procedure for accurate selection of transgenic Micro-tom both in vitro and in soil. Immunoblot, Southern blot and phenotypic analyses showed that 100 % of herbicide-resistant plants were transgenic. In addition, regeneration improvement has been obtained by using 2 mg/l Gibberellic acid in the shoot elongation medium; rooting optimisation on medium containing 1 mg/l IAA allowed up to 97 % of shoots developing strong and very healthy roots after only 10 days. Stable transformation frequency by infection of leaf explants with Agrobacterium reached 12 %. Shoots have been induced by combination of 1 mg/l zeatin-trans and 0.1 mg/l IAA. Somatic embryogenesis of cotyledon on medium containing 1 mg/l zeatin + 2 mg/l IAA is described in Micro-tom. The photosynthetic psbS gene has been used as reporter gene for RNA silencing studies. The efficiency of gene silencing has been found equivalent using three different target gene fragments of 519, 398 and 328 bp. Interestingly, silencing efficiency decreased from T0 to the T3 generation in plants containing multiple copies of the inserted T-DNA, while it was stable in plants containing a single insertion.

  5. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  6. Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Strehlow

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial runoff, resuspension events and dredging can affect filter-feeding sponges by elevating the concentration of suspended sediments, reducing light intensity, and smothering sponges with sediments. To investigate how sponges respond to pressures associated with increased sediment loads, the abundant and widely distributed Indo-Pacific species Ianthella basta was exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations, sediment deposition, and light attenuation for 48 h (acute exposure and 4 weeks (chronic exposure. In order to visualise the response mechanisms, sponge tissue was examined by 3D X-ray microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acute exposures resulted in sediment rapidly accumulating in the aquiferous system of I. basta, although this sediment was fully removed within three days. Sediment removal took longer (>2 weeks following chronic exposures, and I. basta also exhibited tissue regression and a smaller aquiferous system. The application of advanced imaging approaches revealed that I. basta employs a multilevel system for sediment rejection and elimination, containing both active and passive components. Sponges responded to sediment stress through (i mucus production, (ii exclusion of particles by incurrent pores, (iii closure of oscula and pumping cessation, (iv expulsion of particles from the aquiferous system, and (v tissue regression to reduce the volume of the aquiferous system, thereby entering a dormant state. These mechanisms would result in tolerance and resilience to exposure to variable and high sediment loads associated with both anthropogenic impacts like dredging programs and natural pressures like flood events.

  7. Chemotaxonomic study of the demosponge Cinachyrella cavernosa (Lamarck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Naik, B.G.; Al-Fadhli, A.A

    previously been identified in Cinachyrella australiensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 4α-methyl gorgostanol from a sponge and DPA from a marine source. The probable origin and chemotaxonomic importance of some of the metabolites is discussed...

  8. Diversity of two widespread Indo-Pacific demosponge species revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Erpenbeck, D.; Aryasari, R.; Benning, S.; Debitus, Cécile; Kaltenbacher, E.; Al-Aidaroos, A. M.; Schupp, P.; Hall, K.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Voigt, O.; de Voogd, N. J.; Worheide, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific is the world's largest marine biogeographic region, covering the tropical and subtropical waters from the Red Sea in the Western Indian Ocean to the Easter Islands in the Pacific. It is characterized by a vast degree of biogeographic connectivity in particular in its marine realm. So far, usage of molecular tools rejected the presence of cosmopolitan or very widespread sponge species in several cases, supporting hypotheses on a higher level of endemism among marine invertebra...

  9. Ya basta ehk kes mõistab hukka kapitalismi kuriteod? = Ya basta or who will condemn the crimes of capitalism? / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    1994. aasta Põhja-Ameerika Vabakaubandusleping keelustas kohalike elanike farmide subsideerimise, millele astusid vastu Chiapa elanikud Mehhikos ning moodustasid Zapatistliku Hea Valitsuse Hunta eesotsas subcomandante Marcosega, kehtestades haldamise detsentraliseerimise

  10. Basta de perseguir al pensamiento disidente: ¡Libertad al profesor Francisco Toloza!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Kohan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Todo el tiempo encarcelan a nuestros compañeros. Buscan cansarnos y desgastarnos.  No  hay  mes  que  no  haya  que escribir  solidarizándose con algún revolucionario que acaban de encarcelar. ¿A esto llaman “libertad”? ¿A esto denominan “pluralismo”? ¿Esto es “el mundo libre”? ¡Por favor! Largan a uno y al día siguiente hay otro encarcelado. Acaban de soltar al cantante y compositor Julián Conrado y al mismo tiempo encarcelan al profesor Francisco Toloza. Nos mantienen “ocupados” pidiendo y reclamando todo el tiempo “suelten a fulano”, “liberen a mengano”. En Colombia. También en Argentina. En Paraguay. En todo el continente. No acabamos de ir a ver a un dirigente piquetero a la cárcel que ya hay otro campesino que está preso. No terminan de soltar a un cantante popular que ya metieron tras las rejas a un conocido profesor universitario. Y en ese vaivén se nos va la vida. Visitando presos, escribiendo todo el tiempo estas cartas de solidaridad, tratando de frenar la represión, la persecución, la demonización. ¿Hasta cuándo?

  11. Le parole dell'arte. Ovvero quando l'opera, da sola, non basta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrica Rotili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves from those works of art that include the killing, the ill-treatment and the use of dead animals and therefore it starts from the artifacts whose status of art is difficult to understand in order to discuss the role and power of the theory in the art world. It considers in particular the philosophy of art of Arthur Danto to reflect on the necessity of the relationship between work and interpretation in contemporary art. If the current art has earned (hardly the freedom from formal constraints, from the ethical and aesthetic standards that until the avant-garde art have regulated the activity of the artist, this art turns out to be, at the same time, a kind of art even more dependent from an exegesis, from an explanation and an interpretation that have to shed light on its meaning, its purpose, its intention. Yet if it is true that what makes something a work of art is its relationship with the context formed by the history and by theory of art and if it is true that an interpretation that is based on this type of knowledge allows a physical object to be seen as a work of art, it is also true that the frames that appeal to history tend not to clearly define the "distinctive characteristics" of art, leaving unresolved, in essence, the question posed by the problem of the recognition criteria.

  12. Not yet? Ya basta: Healing and the horizons of an otherwise in Salinas, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raschig, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Among a persistently criminalized population of Mexican-Americans in the farmtown-gangland of Salinas, California, healing from the wounds of history has emerged as a critical register of political action, a tacit and uncertain activism recalibrating the pace and tense of personal recoveries and

  13. Lei Maria da Penha: Um basta à Violência de Gênero

    OpenAIRE

    Machado de Oliveira Azevedo, Caroline; CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO LA SALLE - UNILASALLE; Weingartner Neto, Jayme; CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO LA SALLE - UNILASALLE

    2015-01-01

    Maria da Penha Law was put in place with the intent of reducing and preventing domestic and familiar violence against woman. This study aims to investigate the scope of the Maria da Penha Law, from decisions in conflicts of jurisdiction in the Court of Rio Grande do Sul. Through theoretical study and analysis of judicial decisions the requirements were identified used for the incidence of the law. The survey results indicat the presence of requeriments the intimate relationship of affection, ...

  14. Não basta gerar, tem que participar?: um estudo sobre a ausência paterna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Daiana Cúnico

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou conhecer, por meio de uma abordagem qualitativa, quais as possíveis razões para a ausência paterna na vida dos filhos após o rompimento conjugal. Para tanto, foram entrevistados pais que participaram do serviço de mediação familiar e tiveram acordo homologado judicialmente em um Núcleo de Práticas Judiciárias Gratuitas. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando a técnica de entrevistas semidirigidas de questões abertas, e os resultados analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Os pais relataram terem se sentido vítimas de um golpe - o golpe da barriga - que teve por objetivo mantêlos em um relacionamento em vias de dissolução. Assim, apresentaram dificuldades em estabelecer um vínculo afetivo com esse filho, visto que amá-lo seria assumir a efetividade de tal golpe. Ademais, foram identificadas semelhanças na história familiar dos participantes que envolviam a paternidade, as quais, por não terem sido problematizadas, não se tornaram objeto de reflexão, o que levou à repetição. Por fim, entende-se que o estudo aponta a importância do cuidado com relação aos efeitos da dissolução conjugal no que tange ao exercício dos papéis parentais, em especial, à paternidade.

  15. Lindane Bioremediation Capability of Bacteria Associated with the Demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabili Loredana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide belonging to persistent organic pollutants (POPs that has been widely used to treat agricultural pests. It is of particular concern because of its toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we assessed the role of bacteria associated with the sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in lindane degradation. Seven bacteria isolates were characterized and identified. These isolates showed a remarkable capacity to utilize lindane as a sole carbon source leading to a percentage of residual lindane ranging from 3% to 13% after 12 days of incubation with the pesticide. The lindane metabolite, 1,3–6-pentachloro-cyclohexene, was identified as result of lindane degradation and determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The bacteria capable of lindane degradation were identified on the basis of the phenotypic characterization by morphological, biochemical and cultural tests, completed with 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and assigned to Mameliella phaeodactyli, Pseudovibrio ascidiaceicola, Oceanicaulis stylophorae, Ruegeria atlantica and to three new uncharacterized species. The results obtained are a prelude to the development of future strategies for the in situ bioremediation of lindane.

  16. Demosponge diversity from North Sulawesi, with the description of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Calcinai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are key components of the benthic assemblages and play an important functional role in many ecosystems, especially in coral reefs. The Indonesian coral reefs, located within the so-called “coral triangle”, are among the richest in the world. However, the knowledge of the diversity of sponges and several other marine taxa is far from being complete in the area. In spite of this great biodiversity, most of the information on Indonesian sponges is scattered in old and fragmented literature and comprehensive data about their diversity are still lacking. In this paper, we report the presence of 94 species recorded during different research campaigns mainly from the Marine Park of Bunaken, North Sulawesi. Six species are new for science and seven represent new records for the area. Several others are very poorly known species, sometimes recorded for the second time after their description. For most species, besides field data and detailed descriptions, pictures in vivo are included. Moreover, two new symbiotic sponge associations are described. This work aims to increase the basic knowledge of Indonesian sponge diversity as a prerequisite for monitoring and conservation of this valuable taxon.

  17. Effects of combined dredging-related stressors on sponges: a laboratory approach using realistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Kamp, Jasmine; Duckworth, Alan; Jones, Ross; Webster, Nicole S

    2017-07-12

    Dredging can cause increased suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs), light attenuation and sedimentation in marine communities. In order to determine the combined effects of dredging-related pressures on adult sponges, three species spanning different nutritional modes and morphologies were exposed to 5 treatment levels representing realistic dredging scenarios. Most sponges survived under low to moderate turbidity scenarios (SSCs of ≤ 33 mg L -1 , and a daily light integral of ≥0.5 mol photons m -2 d -1 ) for up to 28 d. However, under the highest turbidity scenario (76 mg L -1 , 0.1 mol photons m -2 d -1 ) there was 20% and 90% mortality of the phototrophic sponges Cliona orientalis and Carteriospongia foliascens respectively, and tissue regression in the heterotrophic Ianthella basta. All three sponge species exhibited mechanisms to effectively tolerate dredging-related pressures in the short term (e.g. oscula closure, mucus production and tissue regression), although reduced lipids and deterioration of sponge health suggest that longer term exposure to similar conditions is likely to result in higher mortality. These results suggest that the combination of high SSCs and low light availability can accelerate mortality, increasing the probability of biological effects, although there is considerable interspecies variability in how adult sponges respond to dredging pressures.

  18. Cyclic versus Hemi-Bastadins. Pleiotropic Anti-Cancer Effects: from Apoptosis to Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Migratory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bastadins-6, -9 and -16 isolated from the marine sponge Ianthella basta displayed in vitro cytostatic and/or cytotoxic effects in six human and mouse cancer cell lines. The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of these bastadins were similar in cancer cell lines sensitive to pro-apoptotic stimuli versus cancer cell lines displaying various levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli. While about ten times less toxic than the natural cyclic bastadins, the synthetically derived 5,5'-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB displayed not only in vitro growth inhibitory activity in cancer cells but also anti-angiogenic properties. At a concentration of one tenth of its in vitro growth inhibitory concentration, DBHB displayed actual antimigratory effects in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells without any sign of cytotoxicity and/or growth inhibition. The serum concentration used in the cell culture media markedly influenced the DBHB-induced antimigratory effects in the B16F10 melanoma cell population. We are currently developing a specific inhalation formulation for DBHB enabling this compound to avoid plasmatic albumin binding through its direct delivery to the lungs to combat primary as well as secondary (metastases tumors.

  19. Basta implementar inovações nos sistemas educativos? Is it enough to implement innovations in educational systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Fernandes Moreira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta referências para melhor compreender a implementação de mudanças na escola, sistematizando-as a partir de um estudo sobre a Reforma do Sistema Educativo na Espanha e a implantação de um Currículo Nacional na Inglaterra e País de Gales, conjugado a revisões de pesquisas desenvolvidas nesse campo. A Reforma do Sistema Educativo espanhol tentou equilibrar o caráter prescritivo de diretrizes gerais com o caráter aberto da atribuição de cada escola elaborar sua proposta curricular, a partir de seu contexto e no marco das diretrizes propostas. Seu estudo contribuiu, sobretudo, para explicitar a diversidade de visões e posicionamentos que emergem do contexto de uma inovação. Essa diversidade é sintetizada na forma de seis diferentes tensões. A implantação de um Currículo Nacional na Inglaterra objetivou estabelecer um maior controle sobre a escola por intermédio de um currículo detalhado e prescritivo, associado à aplicação de exames externos como instrumentos de avaliação da escola por meio do desempenho dos alunos nos testes. No caso da experiência inglesa, são expostas análises fundadas em um conjunto diversificado de dados de pesquisa. Essas pesquisas apontam resultados desastrosos no contexto escolar, com o empobrecimento da prática pedagógica, predominando atividades preparatórias para os exames externos. Apresentadas as referências, a partir do substrato proporcionado por essas duas experiências, o autor conclui propondo ir além da perspectiva de implementar inovações em direção a processos de desenvolvimento profissional e institucional, que constituem, na escola, uma maior capacidade de produzir e interagir criticamente com propostas e contextos de mudança.The paper presents references to better understand the implementation of changes at schools. Systematization of the references is based on a study about the reform of the Spanish education system and the implementation of a national curriculum in England and Wales, as well as on reviews of researches developed in that field. The reform of the Spanish education system attempted to balance the prescriptive character of the general guidelines with the more open approach of leaving each school to elaborate its own curricular proposal (taking into account its social context and the general guidelines. The study of the Spanish reform has contributed mainly to make explicit the diversity of viewpoints and attitudes that emerge within the context of an educational innovation. Such diversity is presented and summarized in the form of six different tensions. The implementation of the national curriculum in England and Wales aimed to establishing a greater control upon schools through a detailed and prescriptive curriculum, associated to the use of external exams as instruments of evaluating schools by the performance of their students in the exams. In this case, analyses are grounded on various research data. Those studies point to disastrous results in the educational context, with the impoverishment of pedagogical practices where activities targeted at the exams take priority. After using these two experiences to motivate the description of the references, the paper concludes by proposing that we should go beyond implementing innovations, toward processes of professional and institutional development that enable schools to produce proposals and contexts of change, and to interact critically with them.

  20. Synthesis of the Demospongic Compounds, (6Z, 11Z-Octadecadienoic Acid and (6Z, 11Z-Eicosadienoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mamdapur

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A stereoselective synthesis of (6Z, 11Z-octadecadienoic acid (1 and (6Z, 11Z-eicosadienoic acid (2 from easily accessible pentane-1,5-diol (3 is described. Thus, compound 3 on pyranylation and oxidation gave the aldehyde 5 which was converted to the acid 7 by Wittig reaction with a suitable phosphorane. Its depyranylation and oxidation furnished the key aldehyde 9 which upon Wittig reaction with n-heptylidene and n-nonylidene phosphoranes, respectively followed by alkaline hydrolysis afforded the title acids.

  1. "¡Ya basta con la ciudadanía restrictiva!": Undocumented Latina/o Young People and Their Families' Participatory Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Leticia Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a community-based participatory action research project (PAR), "Voces Diversas e Importantes" [Diverse and Important Voices] that the intergenerational Family School Partnership (FSP) collective enacted to support citizenship participation and increase the possibilities undocumented Latina/o students and families…

  2. [Psychiatric patients and relatives instruct German police officers - an anti-stigma project of "BASTA - the alliance for mentally ill people"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundsam, Kerstin; Pitschel-Walz, Gabi; Leucht, Stefan; Kissling, Werner

    2007-05-01

    Contact with police officers due to schizophrenia and resort to violence in such interactions is a common occurrence and represents a source for stigmatisation of mentally ill people. Aim of this project was to establish a program for police officers to reduce that stigma. The seminar was developed by a German anti-stigma organisation in cooperation with sociology teachers of the Bavarian police academy. Evaluations focussed on the police officers "social distance" and "negative stereotypes" towards mentally ill people. The personal contact between officers and the referees (patients, relatives, professionals) was the core of the seminar. Results of a debriefing after the pilot-project was overall positive. Evaluations in the renewal years showed significant improvement within the scale "social distance" (p stigma interventions.

  3. Textos pedagógicos aprobados para su utilización en las escuelas normales desde su creación basta 1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles SOLER BALADA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La investigación sobre las Escuelas Normales de Instrucción primaria en el siglo XIX es un objeto atrayente, dado que en ellas, por una parte, se reflejan las intenciones del Estado liberal en cuanto a la extensión y amplitud que se deseaba dar al primer nivel de la instrucción pública, y, por otra, aparece de un modo oficial, expreso y permanente la necesidad de los conocimientos y práctica pedagógicos en los planes de formación del profesorado primario.

  4. Holocausto y genocidios. ¿Basta con conocer? La acción, la omisión y las interpretaciones históricas

    OpenAIRE

    López Alonso, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo, basado fundamentalmente en fuentes bibliográficas, examina la evolución histórica y política en las interpretaciones del Holocausto, con especial atención a los países que estuvieron directamente envueltos en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, así como a los casos de Israel y España. El artículo muestra cómo existe una relación directa entre la evolución política española, desde la dictadura franquista a la actual democracia y el creciente interés existente en España por el Holocausto,...

  5. Querer No Basta: Deberes Éticos en la Práctica, Formación e Investigación en Psicología Comunitaria To Want is Not Enough: Ethical Duties in Practice, Training, and Research in Community Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Winkler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una síntesis de los resultados del proyecto de investigación FONDECYT N° 1080528, en el que se indagó la dimensión ética en la práctica, formación e investigación en psicología comunitaria (PC en Chile. Se utilizó una muestra opinática e intencionada de fuentes primarias (93 participantes -usuarios/as, estudiantes y psicólogos/as- y fuentes secundarias de información (194 documentos -programas de asignaturas, tesis y códigos-. Del empleo de diversas técnicas de recolección de datos y estrategias cualitativas de análisis emerge como resultado relevante el principio de respeto por el otro y la participación de la comunidad para la identificación y enfrentamiento de problemas éticos. Asimismo, se hallaron divergencias respecto del concepto de PC y de los deberes éticos en este campo. Finalmente, se sugieren orientaciones éticas para la práctica, formación e investigación en PC.The article presents a summary of the results of the research project FONDECYT N° 1080528, which explores the ethical dimension in practice, training, and research in community psychology (CP in Chile. An intentional opinatic sample of primary (93 participants-users, students, and psychologists- and secondary information sources (194 documents-programs, courses, theses and codes- was used. The use of various data collection techniques and qualitative analysis strategies led to the identification of two relevant results: the principle of respect for the other and community participation in identifying and addressing ethical issues. Divergences in the concept of CP and ethical duties in this field were also found. Finally, ethical guidelines for practice, training, and research in CP are suggested.

  6. 'Basta aplicar uma injeção?': concepções de saúde, higiene e nutrição no Programa de Erradicação da Bouba no Brasil, 1956-1961 "Is a shot alone enough?": concepts of health, hygiene, and nutrition and the Program to Eradicate Yaws in Brazil, 1956-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Silva Muniz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisa o Programa de Erradicação da Bouba, desenvolvido no Brasil entre 1956 e 1961. Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, durante a qual iniciou-se o uso de antibióticos, um novo método parecia possibilitar a erradicação de treponematoses em curto prazo: a aplicação de injeções de penicilina em dose única. Sob o clima de valorização do controle das endemias rurais no país, a organização de uma campanha contra a bouba tornou-se possível. Os trabalhos, realizados pelo Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais, encontraram uma população desnutrida e faminta, o que colocou em dúvida as pretensões da campanha e as concepções de saúde e desenvolvimento da época.The article analyzes the Program to Eradicate Yaws, enforced in Brazil from 1956 through 1961. Following World War II, when antibiotics first came into use, it seemed there might be a method for eradicating treponematosis in a short time: a single-dose injection of penicillin. At a moment when priority was being placed on fighting rural endemic disease in Brazil, it became possible to organize a campaign against yaws. The article explores the initiatives undertaken by the National Department of Rural Endemic Diseases that revealed a malnourished, starving population, and called into question the very intentions behind the campaign and the day's concepts of health and development.

  7. Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). II. Molecular evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Hooper, J.N.A.; List-Armitage, S.E.; Degman, B.M.; Wördheide, G.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second part of a revision and re-classification of the demosponge family Sollasellidae, and an example of a successful use of combined morphological and molecular data. Sollasella had been a poorly known, long forgotten taxon, placed incertae sedis in the order Hadromerida in the last major revision of the demosponges. It has recently been suggested to belong to Raspailiidae in the order Poecilosclerida due to striking morphological similarities. The present analysis verified this...

  8. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... locations: January 21, 2010: Marathon Garden Club, 5270 Overseas Hwy (Mile Marker 50), Marathon, FL 33050... cards and verbal comments will be recorded and transcribed. Dated: December 29, 2009. Daniel J. Basta...

  9. Cardiovascular effects of a herbicide containing glufosinate and a surfactant: in vitro and in vivo analyses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Koyama, K; Goto, K

    1997-08-01

    A herbicide, Basta (BASTA), containing glufosinate ammonium (GLA) as the main component and an anionic surfactant, sodium polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate (AES), causes hemodynamic changes characterized by a decrease in total vascular resistance with an increase or a decrease in cardiac output in human acute oral poisoning. With a motivation based on these clinical observations, we tried to elucidate the exact component and its mode of action that is mostly responsible for the direct cardiovascular effects of this herbicide formulation, investigating the effects of BASTA, GLA, and AES independently on the cardiovascular system in rats in vitro and in vivo. In isolated right atria beating spontaneously in Krebs-Ringer's solution, BASTA and AES produced negative chronotropic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. In electrically driven isolated left atria, BASTA and AES produced positive inotropic responses concentration dependently but negative inotropic responses at extremely high concentrations. In aortic ring segments, BASTA and AES produced no vasoconstrictive effects but exerted significant vasodilative effects when the aortic ring was precontracted with phenylephrine. These in vitro responses caused by BASTA and AES occurred to a similar degree. On the other hand, the main component, GLA, produced no effects in isolated atria and aortas. In anesthetized rats, relatively low doses of BASTA and AES produced a decrease in blood pressure followed by a slight increase in heart rate, which was presumably due to baroreflex caused by the decrease in blood pressure. At an extremely high dose, BASTA and AES produced a decrease in blood pressure with a marked decrease in heart rate. These in vivo responses to BASTA and AES also occurred to a similar degree. In contrast, the main component, GLA, did not produce any effects on heart rate and blood pressure in anesthetized rats. From these results, we concluded that the effects of BASTA in our in vivo experiments

  10. Unravelling host and symbiont phylogenies of halichondrid sponges (Demospongiae, Porifera) using a mitochondrial marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; van der Velde, H.C.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first comparative phylogenetic analysis of a selected set of marine sponges and their bacterial associates. The Halichondrida for an important order in demosponge systematics and are of a particular interest due to the production of secondary metabolites. We sequenced a fragment of

  11. Mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase 1 phylogeny supports alternative taxonomic scheme for the marine Haplosclerida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raleigh, J.; Redmond, N.E.; Delahan, E.; Tropey, S.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Kelly, M.; McCormack, G.P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent molecular studies have shown that the sponge order Haploslcerida is polyphyletic as the freshwater sponges appear to be more closely related to other demosponges than they are to the marine haplosclerids. Within the marine haplosclerid clade relationships viewed via 18S and 28S rRNA gene

  12. Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). II. Molecular evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.; Hooper, J.N.A.; List-Armitage, S.E.; Degnan, B.M.; Wörheide, G.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second part of a revision and re-classification of the demosponge family Sollasellidae, and an example of a successful use of combined morphological and molecular data. Sollasella had been a poorly known, long forgotten taxon, placed incertae sedis in the order Hadromerida in the last

  13. New data on lithistid sponges from the deep Florida shelf with description of a new species of Theonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisera, A.; Pomponi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Most lithistids occur worldwide in deep-water environments, but can be found in some places in shallow water. They are not well known in the tropical western Atlantic, despite the fact that they were first described in the late 1800s. We report here two species of poorly known theonellid demosponges

  14. BOOK REVIEWS / RECENSIONI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    luna basta unattimo a smarrirsi”. “Impegno” dicevamo all'inizio, ma per amor di citazione avremmo proprio dovuto dire “ingegno”, perché se vogliamo proprio avventurarci nel “mare leggero... e... profondo” di questi versi fino al punto di affibbiare una qualità (non certo un' etichetta), quella di “ingegnosa” alla. Poesia di ...

  15. A comparative study of direct hemoperfusion and hemodialysis for the removal of glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, J; Yamashita, M; Yamamoto, T

    1995-01-01

    BASTA is a herbicide containing glufosinate ammonium 18.5% and a surface-active agent. There were six fatalities in 34 cases of glufosinate ammonium poisoning reported by the Japan Poison Information Center. To evaluate efficacy in the removal of glufosinate ammonium from the blood, two bottles were prepared containing 600 mL of heparinized bovine blood with 1 mL or 3 mL of BASTA. Direct hemoperfusion or hemodialysis was performed for two hours at a flow rate of 50 mL/min. The final glufosinate ammonium concentration of the blood bottle containing 1 mL of BASTA decreased to 96.9% of the initial concentration after direct hemoperfusion and to 0.5% after hemodialysis. The final glufosinate ammonium concentration of the bottle containing 3 mL of BASTA decreased to 62.2% after direct hemoperfusion and to 0.9% after hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is more effective than direct hemoperfusion for removal of glufosinate ammonium from blood.

  16. El texto literario en la clase de E/LE, una propuesta didáctica a partir de un fragmento de Qué te voy a contar, de Martín Casariego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzhia Tudela Capdevila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En esta unidad didáctica que presentamos, hemos tenido en consideración la teoría comunicativa (Dell Hymes que postula que, para poder actuar de una manera eficiente en una comunidad, no basta con construir enunciados gramaticalmente correctos, sino que estos deben adaptarse al contexto situacional en el que se insertan.

  17. BOOK REVIEWS / RECENSIONI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Da parecchio tempo, ormai, la critica letteraria sembra viaggiare su binari carneadici, può dire tutto di tutto e niente di niente nel giro di boa di una proposta ermeneutica, nell'arco esplicativo di un libro di critica. Basta usare la formula “x è y” e il critico può generare costruttivisticamente qualsiasi teoria, qualsiasi ...

  18. Los incómodos derechos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Kesch, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    A casi sesenta y un años de la firma del tratado por la ONU sobre los Derechos Humanos son innumerables los asesinatos, genocidios, y torturas ocurridos en todo el mundo. Basta con ojear un :poco en nuestro pasado histórico para darnos cuenta que la teoría difiere abismalmente de la práctica.

  19. Gateway binary vectors with the bialaphos resistance gene, bar, as a selection marker for plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinya; Mano, Shoji; Tanaka, Yuji; Ohnishi, Masato; Nakamori, Chihiro; Araki, Masami; Niwa, Tomoko; Nishimura, Mikio; Kaminaka, Hironori; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yutaka; Ishiguro, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    We constructed two series of Gateway binary vectors, pGWBs and R4pGWBs, possessing the bialaphos resistance gene (bar) as a selection marker for plant transformation. The reporters and tags employed in this system are sGFP, GUS, LUC, EYFP, ECFP, G3GFP, mRFP, TagRFP, 6xHis, FLAG, 3xHA, 4xMyc, 10xMyc, GST, T7 and TAP. Selection of Arabidopsis transformants with BASTA was successfully carried out using both plate-grown and soil-grown seedlings. Transformed rice calli and suspension-cultured tobacco cells were selected on plates containing BASTA or glufosinate-ammonium. These vectors are compatible with existing pGWB and R4pGWB vectors carrying kanamycin and hygromycin B resistance.

  20. Reduction of radio-contamination of vines by the method of 'non-lethal defoliation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study is included in the European Commission Programme RESSAC (Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after a nuclear Accident). Its objective is to investigate the possibility of using 'non-lethal defoliation' as a countermeasure to mitigate the foliar uptake of radionuclides by plant leaves. We experimented on vines in productive agricultural fields in Spata - Attica, Greece. Interception factors and translocation of radionuclides studies were performed by using 134 Cs as marker. The deposition of 134 Cs was dry. Two pesticides, Harvade 60% FL and Basta 20 S.L., were used as defoliants. Our data showed that the recommended commercial doses of these chemicals resulted in defoliating up to 80% of the plants. We observed a reduction of radioactivity translocation to grapes by half, related to the defoliating degree. The efficacy of Harvade seemed higher than that of Basta. (authors)

  1. Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL. Edité par Günter Holtus -Michael Metzeltin - Christian Schmitt. Volume VI,l. Aragones/Navarro, Español, Asturiano/Leonés. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1992, págs. XXXVIII+708

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available El Diccionario enciclopédico de lingüistica románica (LRL es un compendio general de todo el saber romanistico sobre Ia génesis, el desarrollo y el estado actual de las lenguas romanicas. La obra consta de ocho volúmenes, de los cuales han aparecido, hasta ahora, los que tratan de las lenguas románicas desde el Renacimiento basta nuestros dias, con excepción del volumen reservado al gallego y portugués. Esperamos, por tanto, con gran interes la aparición del segundo volumen, dedicado al latín y al desarrollo de las lenguas románicas desde la Edad Media basta el Renacimiento.

  2. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy as a Delayed Complication with a Herbicide Containing Glufosinate Ammonium in a Suicide Attempt: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga, Keiichiro; Izumi, Manabu; Suzukawa, Masayuki; Shinjo, Takafumi; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Yonekawa, Chikara; Ano, Masaki; Yamashita, Keisuke; Muronoi, Tomohiro; Mochiduki, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Background. Glufosinate ammonium has a famous delayed complication as respiratory failure, however, delayed cardiogenic complication is not well known. Objectives. The aim of this study is to report a takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a delayed complication of glufosinate ammonium for suicide attempt. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman ingested about 90 mL of Basta, herbicide for suicide attempt at arousal during sleep. She came to our hospital at twelve hours after ingesting. She was admitted to our...

  3. ARTICLES / SAGGI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    che intellettuali o analfabeti, fortunati o disgraziati, poveri o ricchi, alla fine il bilancio è sempre lo stesso. [...] È la vita, e basta, e se riesco a dirla in modo che altri la riconosca in fraternità leggendomi, questo è il solo dovere che conti, la sola estetica che sia anche un'etica. Che sollievo! Infine l'ho detto, e in prima persona”.

  4. Libertà religiosa collettiva, e nuove intese con le minoranze confessionali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Casuscelli

    2011-03-01

    Costituzione al Trattato di Lisbona – 8. Uguali libertà e  “clausola delle religioni più favorite” – 9. “Provare e riprovare”: non basta confidare nella Corte - 10. Effettività delle tutele e ricorso diretto alla Corte delle confessioni religiose – 11. Costituzione materiale e pace religiosa – 12. Principio di equivalenza, di effettività, di adeguatezza e proporzionalità.

  5. Il rischio tecnologico vantaggi e svantaggi del progresso scientifico

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, H W

    1995-01-01

    I rischi della vita ; misurare il rischio ; la percezione del rischio ; la politica del rischio ; la valutazione del rischio ; la gestione del rischio ; il valore della vita ; qual è il livello "sufficiente" di sicurezza? ; incertezza, causalità, rilevabilità ; le delusioni della cautela ; sostanze chimiche tossiche ; sostanze chimiche cancerogene ; sicurezza sulle autostrade ; trasporto aereo ; radiazioni ionizzanti ; conbustibili fossili ; l'inverno nucleare ; radiazioni non ionizzanti ; quanto basta di statistica e di teoria delle probabilità ; epilogo : cosa significa tutto questo?.

  6. A case of transient diabetes insipidus associated with poisoning by a herbicide containing glufosinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Toya, T; Matsumiya, N; Koyama, K

    2000-01-01

    The herbicide BASTA (AgrEvo, Germany), containing glufosinate ammonium (20%) and an anionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate (33%), is widely used. In acute oral BASTA poisoning, patients develop a variety of clinical signs, including disturbed consciousness, convulsions, and apnea. These effects are suspected to be due to the effects of glufosinate on the central nervous system. A 60-year-old man ingested 500 mL of BASTA herbicide in a suicide attempt. He developed not only unconsciousness, respiratory distress, and convulsions but also an increase in urine output (7885 mL/d), elevated serum sodium (167 mEq/L), elevated plasma osmolality (332 mOsm/kg), and a decrease in both urine osmolality (200 mOsm/kg) and urine specific gravity (1.003), which suggested the development of diabetes insipidus. The plasma level of antidiuretic hormone remained within the normal range (1.3 pg/mL), despite high plasma osmolality. The administration of desmopressin was successful in normalizing urine volume, specific gravity, and osmolality. Serum sodium corrected gradually within 48 hours. The possible mechanisms causing the diabetes insipidus are discussed.

  7. Two cases of glufosinate poisoning with late onset convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, J; Yamashita, M; Yamashita, M; Matsuo, H; Yamamoto, T

    1998-08-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA), the active ingredient in the non-selective herbicide BASTA (18.5% GLA), is a phosphinic acid analogue of glutamic acid. We report 2 cases of GLA poisoning with late onset convulsions and increased serum CK in spite of low blood concentrations of GLA after hemodialysis. A 69-y-old female was admitted to the emergency department after taking 500 ml of BASTA. On arrival she was conscious, and gut decontamination, hemodialysis and hemoperfusion were performed. However, 8 1/2 hours after ingestion, general convulsions occurred. Her serum OK increased to a peak of 24,900 IU/L on the third day of admission. An 87-y-old male was admitted to the emergency department 3 1/2 hours after taking 200 ml of BASTA and receiving gastric lavage at a local emergency room. On arrival he was conscious, and serial activated charcoal and hemodialysis was performed. Blood concentration of GLA after hemodialysis decreased from 1.56 micrograms/ml to 0.68 micrograms/ml. Thirty hours after admission he had general convulsions. GLA was not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid 6 h after the convulsions. His serum CK increased to a peak of 17,870 IU/L on the fifth day of admission.

  8. Fertile transgenic wheat from microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Brettschneider, R; Lörz, H

    1994-02-01

    A reproducible transformation system for hexaploid wheat was developed based on particle bombardment of scutellar tissue of immature embryos. Particle bombardment was carried out using a PDS 1000/He gun. Plant material was bombarded with the plasmid pDB1 containing the beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) under the control of the actin-1 promoter of rice, and the selectable marker gene bar (phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Selection was carried out using the herbicide Basta (Glufosinate-ammonium). From a total number of 1050 bombarded immature embryos, in seven independent transformation experiments, 59 plants could be regenerated. Putative transformants were screened for enzyme activity by the histochemical GUS assay using cut leaf material and by spraying the whole plants with an aqueous solution of the herbicide Basta. Twelve regenerants survived Basta spraying and showed GUS-activity. Southern-blot analysis indicated the presence of introduced foreign genes in the genomic DNA of the transformants and both marker genes were present in all plants analysed. To date, four plants have been grown to maturity and set seed. Histochemically stained pollen grains showed a 1:1 segregation of the uidA gene in all plants tested. A 3:1 segregation of the introduced genes was demonstrated by enzyme activity tests and Southern blot analysis of R1 plants.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the sox family in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum: multiple genes with unique expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Sofia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox genes are HMG-domain containing transcription factors with important roles in developmental processes in animals; many of them appear to have conserved functions among eumetazoans. Demosponges have fewer Sox genes than eumetazoans, but their roles remain unclear. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the early evolutionary history of the Sox gene family by identification and expression analysis of Sox genes in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum. Methods Calcaronean Sox related sequences were retrieved by searching recently generated genomic and transcriptome sequence resources and analyzed using variety of phylogenetic methods and identification of conserved motifs. Expression was studied by whole mount in situ hybridization. Results We have identified seven Sox genes and four Sox-related genes in the complete genome of Sycon ciliatum. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that five of Sycon Sox genes represent groups B, C, E, and F present in cnidarians and bilaterians. Two additional genes are classified as Sox genes but cannot be assigned to specific subfamilies, and four genes are more similar to Sox genes than to other HMG-containing genes. Thus, the repertoire of Sox genes is larger in this representative of calcareous sponges than in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. It remains unclear whether this is due to the expansion of the gene family in Sycon or a secondary reduction in the Amphimedon genome. In situ hybridization of Sycon Sox genes revealed a variety of expression patterns during embryogenesis and in specific cell types of adult sponges. Conclusions In this study, we describe a large family of Sox genes in Sycon ciliatum with dynamic expression patterns, indicating that Sox genes are regulators in development and cell type determination in sponges, as observed in higher animals. The revealed differences between demosponge and calcisponge Sox genes repertoire highlight the need to

  10. Molecular cross-talk between sponge host and associated microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wang, X.; Brandt, D.; Thakur, N.L.; Wiens, M.; Batel, R.; Schroder, H.C.; Muller, W.E.G.

    cited in modern textbooks, e.g. in Pechenik (2000), in which sponges are assumed to be composed of functionally independent cells. The introduction of molecular cloning of genes, coding for “informative” proteins increased in a rapid, self...). The first report in line with this new strategy was on the cloning of a galectin from the demosponge Geodia cydonium (Pfeifer et al., 1993; Hirabayashi and Kasai, 1993). This protein is known to be crucially important for cell-cell interactions (Müller et...

  11. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  12. Glufosinate (phosphinothricin), a natural amino acid with unexpected herbicidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerlein, G

    1994-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (phosphinothricin ammonium) (GLA) is the active ingredient of Basta and several other herbicides used worldwide. It is produced as part of the tripeptide L-phosphinothricyl-L-alanyl-L-alanin, which was first isolated from Streptomyces viridichromogenes or Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Its structure is confirmed by degradation and synthesis. Several processes for the preparation of D,L- and L-phosphinothricin are described. Glufosinate is a structural analog of glutamate and inhibits the glutamine synthetase. The result is a rapid build-up of a high ammonia level and a concomitant depletion of glutamine and several other amino acids in the plant. These effects are accompanied by a rapid decline of photosynthetic CO2-fixation and are followed by chlorosis and desiccation. The results of numerous toxicological studies show that glufosinate ammonium and its commercial formulations are safe for users and consumers under the conditions of recommended use. The fast and complete degradation in soil and surface water prevents movement of residues into groundwater. The toxicological threshold levels for all the nontarget organisms tested are well above the potential exposure levels and therefore do not reflect any hazard for nontarget organisms in the ecosystem. Basta is a nonselective foliar applied herbicide for the control of undesirable mono- and dicotyledonous plants in orchards, vineyards, and plantations for minimum tillage, and as a harvest aid. A synthetic phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene has been introduced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens into dicot crops, such as like tobacco, tomato, spring and winter rapeseed, alfalfa, and several horticultural crops. The PAT gene was also successfully introduced into maize protoplasts that could be regenerated into fertile plants. All transgenic crop plants tolerated a two- to threefold field dosage of Basta.

  13. Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Dupont

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical properties of low stratus and fog are analyzed here based on simultaneous measurement of an in situ sensor installed on board a tethered balloon and active remote-sensing instruments deployed at the Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research (SIRTA observatory (south of Paris, France. The study focuses on the analysis of 3 case studies where the tethered balloon is deployed for several hours in order to derive the relationship between liquid water content (LWC, effective radius (Re and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC measured by a light optical aerosol counter (LOAC in situ granulometer and Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA cloud radar reflectivity. The well-known relationship Z = α × (LWCβ has been optimized with α ϵ [0.02, 0.097] and β ϵ [1.91, 2.51]. Similar analysis is done to optimize the relationship Re = f(Z and CDNC = f(Z. Two methodologies have been applied to normalize the particle-size distribution measured by the LOAC granulometer with a visible extinction closure (R² ϵ [0.73, 0.93] and to validate the LWC profile with a liquid water closure using the Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO microwave radiometer (R² ϵ [0.83, 0.91]. In a second step, these relationships are used to derive spatial and temporal variability of the vertical profile of LWC, Re and CDNC starting from BASTA measurement. Finally, the synergistic remote sensing of clouds (SYRSOC algorithm has been tested on three tethered balloon flights. Generally, SYRSOC CDNC and Re profiles agreed well with LOAC in situ and BASTA profiles for the studied fog layers. A systematic overestimation of LWC by SYRSOC in the top half of the fog layer was found due to fog processes that are not accounted for in the cloud algorithm SYRSOC.

  14. Glufosinate ammonium selection of transformed Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Detlef; Glazebrook, Jane

    2006-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONOne of the most commonly used markers for the selection of transgenic Arabidopsis is resistance to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide that is sold under a variety of trade names including Basta and Finale. Resistance to glufosinate ammonium is conferred by the bacterial bialophos resistance gene (BAR) encoding the enzyme phosphinotricin acetyl transferase (PAT). This protocol describes the use of glufosinate ammonium to select transformed Arabidopsis plants. The major advantage of glufosinate ammonium selection is that it can be performed on plants growing in soil and does not require the use of sterile techniques.

  15. Discoloration of Ancient Egyptian Mural Paintings by Streptomyces Strains and Methods of Its Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces isolated from mural paintings at Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing method. These Streptomyces strains caused discoloration of mural paintings with irreversible red stains of carotenoid pigment. A mixture of n-hexan and acetone (92:8 v/v was the best solvent for extracting and purification of red pigment from biomass of Streptomyces. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF were the most effective in treatment of these red stains without changing the paintings or stone surfaces.

  16. Mac Mahon y las matemáticas en colores

    OpenAIRE

    Hans, Juan A.; Muñoz, José; Fernández, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    En el mundo de los juegos ocurre a veces que la persona que los inventa se hace realmente famosa; un ejemplo puede ser el del húngaro Ernö Rubik, quien a partir de la creación de su cubo se hizo mundialmente conocido y creó de su apellido una franquicia, pues los restantes juegos basta que lleven añadido su apellido para tener asegurada la publicidad y la atención de la audiencia. En otras ocasiones un puzzle o un juego se hace muy conocido pero nadie sabe quién es su autor; un caso podría se...

  17. OS SACRAMENTAIS, SACRAMENTOS DOS POBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Codina

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Basta ter tido um pouco de experiência pastoral com setores populares, concretamente na América Latina, para constatar a importância dos sacramentais na vida cristã do povo. Além das manifestações de piedade popular que se costuma estudar sob a rubrica de religiosidade popular (peregrinações, festas de padroeiro, procissões..., gostaria de destacar aqui outros elementos mais estreitamente ligados ao mundo dos sacramentos, ainda que não formem parte dos sete sacramentos tridentinos.

  18. Las redes sociales virtuales como detonadoras de los movimientos sociales contemporáneos y su certidumbre jurídica en México

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Teresa Montalvo Romero; Luis Fernando Villafuerte Valdés

    2015-01-01

    La sociedad de inicios del siglo XXI ha acelerado mucho sus procesos a partir de la presencia de las Tecnologías de la Información y de Conocimiento (TIC’S). A su vez, el espacio público ha atravesado una serie de modificaciones fundamentales, en la medida en que los procesos de interacción social minimizan el contacto físico para su realización, por ejemplo, solo basta con el uso de las nuevas herramientas de información para sostener una “reunión de trabajo” o realizar transacciones comerci...

  19. Política de modernización agropecuaria y rural 1994-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti del Corral Juan José

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabemos que de tiempo atrás en la sociedad rural colombiana reinan el empleo precario, los bajos ingresos, la violencia y la inseguridad. Por ello la estabilidad de la nación requiere que la actividad agropecuaria sea analizada y entendida más allá de su simple dimensión productiva. Así, para la solución de los problemas de los productores agropecuarios y de los habitantes rurales en general no basta con aumentar la producción o con mejorar la eficiencia.

  20. Competência Intercultural e Sustentabilidade: duas faces da mesma moeda

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Pereira, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Não basta falarmos num justo e equilibrado aproveitamento dos recursos, se temos por preocupação salvarmos o nosso planeta. Além do mais, para que se processe esta partilha dos recursos dentro dos princípios elementares do humanismo é imperioso que nos preocupemos mais com a condição humana, com a paz, com a procura de formas de cohabitação e de intercâmbio mais justas. Falarmos hoje de ecologia, significa, em primeiro lugar, reflectirmos sobre a qualidade de vida das camadas populacionais em...

  1. Estimación de un modelo de comportamiento exportador para la empresa española: aplicación del método LISREL

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Alonso Rodríguez

    1995-01-01

    El presente estudio parte de dos aseveraciones. En primer lugar, es admitido que la exportación constituye una de las variables estratégicas básicas en el comportamiento dinámico de una economía moderna. La segunda aseveración tiene que ver con un cambio percibido en la forma de estudiar este ámbito de la realidad económica: existe la convicción, cada vez más generalizada, de que para detectar las ventajas comerciales de un país no basta con investigar, de forma agregada, las bases de su espe...

  2. Los sistemas de información en el contexto empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Issa-Fontalvo, Sugey Martha

    2016-01-01

    Los sistemas de información hacen parte de los medios estratégicos para la reformulación de las prácticas empresariales que promueven el desarrollo de la organización, mejorar su posición competitiva y reorientan el comportamiento de los negocios. Basta con que las organizaciones empresariales tengan un objetivo específico y una definición de metas claras para que integren el uso frecuente de la tecnología y de un sistema de información capaz de gestionar los datos, que posteriormente puede c...

  3. Fidelino de Figueiredo e a renovação dos estudos históricos em Portugal e no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos históricos têm uma longa tradição em Portugal e em quase todos os aspectos e em todos os momentos, os historiadores portuguêses podem ser comparados com os de outros países . Basta destacarmos os nomes de Fernão Lopes, Alexandre Herculano, Oliveira Martins, Gama Barros, Veiga Simões, Duarte Leite, Joaquim de Carvalho e Jaime Cortezão, para citarmos apenas os que não estão mais vivos.

  4. Digital influencers e o comportamento dos seguidores no Instagram: um estudo exploratório

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cláudia Sofia Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Atualmente as redes sociais, na qual se inclui o Instagram, assumem um papel relevante no quotidiano, não só, dos indivíduos, mas cada vez mais no quotidiano das empresas e marcas, que tiveram de repensar as suas estratégias de marketing de forma a captar a atenção dos seus consumidores. Estar presente nas redes sociais e na internet em geral já não basta para que as empresas se mantenham no mercado cada vez mais concorrencial. O influencer marketing, ou marketing de influên...

  5. Despatologizar. Un desafío al control establecido

    OpenAIRE

    Vul, Monica

    2018-01-01

    En la subjetividad contemporánea ciertos discursos ejercen sobre el sujeto un control social por medio de la clasificación y el etiquetamiento. Identificar y combatir es la propuesta política, en una actualidad donde reinan por excelencia los discursos patologizantes y normativos. Basta etiquetar y clasificar a alguien para que la maquinaria de la segregación se ponga en marcha. Segregación que podemos entender como una construcción que recubre por lo menos tres conjuntos de prácticas: 1) enc...

  6. Metodología de evaluación y remoción de xantatos en procesos de flotación

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Gárate, Nelli Sofía; Guerrero Gárate, Nelli Sofía

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio se originó con el fin de demostrar que para mejorar el desempeño ambi¬ental de las Empresas Mineras en los procesos de flotación no solo basta cumplir las normas ambientales aplicables que son muy restringidas y no ayudan a prevenir posi¬bles impactos ambientales puesto que no existe una metodología de control de xantatos en efluentes mineros, por lo tanto el motivo de la presente tesis es implementar un método especifico que podrá determinar el umbral de contaminación para preve...

  7. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  8. Comunicar con los visitantes: una nueva faceta profesional para los conservadores-restauradores

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Rusillo, Santos M. (Santos Miguel)

    2012-01-01

    Los recursos patrimoniales están más expuestos que nunca a la interacción con los visitantes. Por tanto, ya no basta con trasladar a un público mayoritario unos determinados contenidos culturales, pues la actual situación demanda la inclusión de un tipo de mensajes que fomenten y favorezcan la relación recurso-visitante de forma sostenible. Y es precisamente la Difusión preventiva, entendida como una estrategia de sensibilización para informar y persuadir a los visitantes de la extrema fragil...

  9. Percepción social de la ciencia: ¿utopía o distopía?

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Guerrero, Salvador; Torres Melgoza, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Vivimos en la era del conocimiento, disfrutando sus logros y temiendo sus riesgos. Y a pesar de la enorme cantidad de información científica generada cada día, en nuestra sociedad el analfabetismo científico es alarmante: basta con observar el incremento en la difusión de pseudociencias, sectas y charlatanerías que buscan manipular a las poblaciones mundiales aprovechando su ignorancia científica. En el fondo de esta paradoja está la incapacidad de la población para evaluar y distinguir entre...

  10. Transgenic and herbicide resistant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) R.Br. via microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girgi, M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available systems in cereals. In the early 1990?s genetic transformation using immature embryos as explants was successful in rice (Christou et al. 1991), sorghum (Casas et al. 1993) and wheat (Vasil et al. 1992). Yet, the genetic transformation of pearl millet...). The de- velopment of a low-cost method will form the basis for future genetic enhancement of this crop for the benefit of India and Sub-Saharan Africa. Five geneti- cally independent transgenic plants were identified by selection with the herbicide Basta...

  11. Modelo de implantação da estratégia através do uso combinado do método Hoshin Kanri e do gerenciamento de projetos

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Pavão

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação propõe um modelo de implantação da estratégia através do método Hoshin Kanri, combinado ao gerenciamento de projetos, para organizar os processos do desdobramento das diretrizes e iniciativas, aumentando, desta forma, o sucesso na execução da estratégia empresarial. Elaborar a estratégia é um passo importante, contudo não basta ter um bom plano, é preciso executá-lo com sucesso, desenvolvendo as iniciativas certas, dentro do prazo e no custo necessário para atingir os objetiv...

  12. Percepciones e interpretaciones de la población, de la Parroquia de San Antonio de Pichincha, respecto a la contaminación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Mantilla, Dinora

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad, los problemas ambientales, son uno de los aspectos a los que se les está poniendo mucha atención, tanto a nivel global como a nivel local, basta con mirar la televisión o leer la prensa, para darnos cuenta que estos problemas ambientales son una realidad, como también es una realidad el deseo de disminuir o detener el deterioro ambiental; la prioridad en ser tratados, se debe a que el ser humano siente cada vez más los efectos de la alteración del clima, el ex...

  13. Em busca do tempo nas ruas e praças de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Frehse, Fraya

    2016-01-01

    Como será que o cotidiano de nós, pesquisadores urbanos, nas cidades em que vivemos, repercute em nossa trajetória investigativa sobre tais cidades? Argumento neste estudo que há inquietações intelectuais derivadas de nossa condição urbana, por assim dizer. Basta assumir o urbano em termos lefebvrianos; isto é, como referência metodológica para refletir sobre as contradições históricas que impregnam a vida cotidiana na cidade como espaço que simultaneamente favorece e dificulta, de modo privi...

  14. Imagen y elementos no verbales en informaciones políticas televisivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reyes Domínguez Lázaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Destaca la importancia de la imagen, del lenguaje y otros elementos no verbales que intervienen en la comunicación. De este modo no basta con el dominio exhaustivo de las palabras orales, sino de todas aquellas no manifiestas pero si evocadoras en la mente de los telespectadores. La sociedad del siglo XXI es la sociedad de la imagen, y como tal, debe ser considerada y tenida en cuenta en cualquier proceso comunicativo y, mucho más cuando se trata de la televisión.

  15. Desarrollo de la Cultura Tributaria en el Ecuador basada en Principios Eticos y Cívicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri Mackenzie, Galo L. , Ing.

    2006-01-01

    La lucha contra la evasión tributaria y el contrabando constituye hoy en día un tema central en las agendas políticas de los países latinoamericanos, debido a su elevado impacto en la estabilidad económica, en las estrategias de desarrollo y en la gobernabilidad. Aunque las estrategias de control o fiscalización tributaria son fundamentales en dicha lucha, resulta claro que el esfuerzo por controlar el cumplimiento tributario y generar un riesgo creíble ante el incumplimiento no basta por...

  16. Sognando Shadow Moses. Grafica, gameplay e reiterazione come strumenti narrativi metareferenziali

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Papale

    2013-01-01

    Un campo innevato, un eliporto, container metallici, telecamere di sorveglianza. Basta una rapida occhiata alla schermata e il giocatore di Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots fa un salto indietro nel tempo di dieci anni, tornando ancora una volta ad infiltrarsi nella base militare di Shadow Moses. La grafica è quella della prima PlayStation, una grafica che all’epoca era lo stato dell’arte, e che ora mostra tutte le sue grossolane imperfezioni. I dieci anni trascorsi hanno visto sussegu...

  17. Reconstruction of family-level phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera using nuclear encoded housekeeping genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm S Hill

    Full Text Available Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges.We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha, but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosa(p, Myxospongiae(p, Spongillida(p, Haploscleromorpha(p (the marine haplosclerids and Democlavia(p. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosa(p and Myxospongiae(p to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorpha(p+Spongillida(p+Democlavia(p. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillida(p are sister to Haploscleromorpha(p rather than part of Democlavia(p. Within Keratosa(p, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiae(p, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlavia(p, Tetractinellida(p, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis, was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlavia(p. Within Tetractinellida(p, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae, and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida.These results, using an independent nuclear gene set, confirmed

  18. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-01-01

    LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural

  19. Reconstruction of family-level phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) using nuclear encoded housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Malcolm S; Hill, April L; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C; Thacker, Robert W; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E; Collins, Allen G

    2013-01-01

    Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosa(p), Myxospongiae(p), Spongillida(p), Haploscleromorpha(p) (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlavia(p). We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosa(p) and Myxospongiae(p) to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorpha(p)+Spongillida(p)+Democlavia(p). In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillida(p)) are sister to Haploscleromorpha(p) rather than part of Democlavia(p). Within Keratosa(p), we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiae(p), Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlavia(p), Tetractinellida(p), composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlavia(p). Within Tetractinellida(p), we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. These results, using an independent nuclear gene set

  20. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM homeobox (Lhx transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. Results We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. Conclusions The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In

  1. Hyperammonemia following glufosinate-containing herbicide poisoning: a potential marker of severe neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan-Chiao; Wang, Jiaan-Der; Hung, Dong-Zong; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2011-01-01

    Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is the active ingredient of certain widely used non-selective contact herbicides ("e.g.," Basta). Although it is thought to be much less toxic to humans than to plants, deliberate ingestion of GLA could still lead to serious effects ("e.g.," neurotoxicity) or even death. Three cases presented with delayed-onset neurotoxicity including stupor, delirium, seizures, coma, and amnesia after ingesting large amount of Basta. Considering that GLA could irreversibly inhibit glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants, we performed serial measurements of serum ammonia in those patients and revealed marked hyperammonemia in all of them. All patients recovered with the sequelae of persistent amnesia after receiving intensive care and hemodialysis. We speculated that the occurrence of hyperammonemia might at least be partially related to GS inhibition in humans. Moreover, hyperammonemia could serve as a potential marker of severe neurotoxicity, especially prolonged amnesia, following massive ingestion of GLA-containing herbicides. The possible dose-response relation between GLA exposure and serum ammonia level, however, needs more investigations.

  2. Extracellular Secretion of Phytase from Transgenic Wheat Roots Allows Utilization of Phytate for Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Samreen; Maqbool, Asma; Ashraf, Mehwish; Malik, Kauser Abdulla

    2017-08-01

    A significant portion of organic phosphorus comprises of phytates which are not available to wheat for uptake. Hence for enabling wheat to utilize organic phosphorus in form of phytate, transgenic wheat expressing phytase from Aspergillus japonicus under barley root-specific promoter was developed. Transgenic events were initially screened via selection media containing BASTA, followed by PCR and BASTA leaf paint assay after hardening. Out of 138 successfully regenerated T o events, only 12 had complete constructs and thus further analyzed. Positive T1 transgenic plants, grown in sand, exhibited 0.08-1.77, 0.02-0.67 and 0.44-2.14 fold increase in phytase activity in root extracts, intact roots and external root solution, respectively, after 4 weeks of phosphorus stress. Based on these results, T2 generation of four best transgenic events was further analyzed which showed up to 1.32, 56.89, and 15.40 fold increase in phytase activity in root extracts, intact roots and external root solution, respectively, while in case of real-time PCR, maximum fold increase of 19.8 in gene expression was observed. Transgenic lines showed 0.01-1.18 fold increase in phosphorus efficiency along with higher phosphorus content when supplied phytate or inorganic phosphorus than control plants. Thus, this transgenic wheat may aid in reducing fertilizer utilization and enhancing wheat yield.

  3. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  4. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets. PMID:26322053

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the deep-sea sponge Poecillastra laminaris (Astrophorida, Vulcanellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cong; Thomas, Leighton J; Kelly, Michelle; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a New Zealand specimen of the deep-sea sponge Poecillastra laminaris (Sollas, 1886) (Astrophorida, Vulcanellidae), from the Colville Ridge, New Zealand, was sequenced using the 454 Life Science pyrosequencing system. To identify homologous mitochondrial sequences, the 454 reads were mapped to the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Geodia neptuni (GeneBank No. NC_006990). The P. laminaris genome is 18,413 bp in length and includes 14 protein-coding genes, 24 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Gene order resembled that of other demosponges. The base composition of the genome is A (29.1%), T (35.2%), C (14.0%) and G (21.7%). This is the second published mitogenome for a sponge of the order Astrophorida and will be useful in future phylogenetic analysis of deep-sea sponges.

  6. Macrofaunal assemblages associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (Porifera: Demospongiae) at the coasts of Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavloudi, Christina; Christodoulou, Magdalini; Mavidis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset of macrofaunal organisms associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862, collected by scuba diving from two sampling sites: one in Greece (North Aegean Sea) and one in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). This dataset includes macrofaunal taxa inhabiting the demosponge Sarcotragus foetidus and contributes to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. This is the first paper, to our knowledge, where the macrofauna associated with S. foetidus from the Levantine Basin is being recorded. In total, 90 taxa were recorded, from which 83 were identified to the species level. Eight of these species are new records for the Levantine Basin. The dataset contains 213 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. It is accessible at http://lifewww-00.her.hcmr.gr:8080/medobis/resource.do?r=organismic_assemblages_sarcotragus_foetidus_cyprus_greece.

  7. Identification and first insights into the structure and biosynthesis of chitin from the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Brunner, Eike; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Ilan, Micha; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Paasch, Silvia; Kammer, Martin; Born, René; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Belikov, Sergei; Petrova, Olga V; Sivkov, Victor V; Vyalikh, Denis; Hunoldt, Sebastian; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-09-01

    This work demonstrates that chitin is an important structural component within the skeletal fibers of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. Using a variety of analytical techniques ((13)C solid state NMR, FT-IR, Raman, NEXAFS, ESI-MS, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White Staining); we show that this sponge chitin is much closer to α-chitin, known to be present in other animals, than to β-chitin. Genetic analysis confirmed the presence of chitin synthases, which are described for the first time in a sponge. The presence of chitin in both marine (demosponges and hexactinellids) and freshwater sponges indicates that this important structural biopolymer was already present in their common ancestor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  9. CO I barcoding reveals new clades and radiation patterns of Indo-Pacific sponges of the family Irciniidae (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pöppe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a promising tool to facilitate a rapid and unambiguous identification of sponge species. Demosponges of the order Dictyoceratida are particularly challenging to identify, but are of ecological as well as biochemical importance.Here we apply DNA barcoding with the standard CO1-barcoding marker on selected Indo-Pacific specimens of two genera, Ircinia and Psammocinia of the family Irciniidae. We show that the CO1 marker identifies several species new to science, reveals separate radiation patterns of deep-sea Ircinia sponges and indicates dispersal patterns of Psammocinia species. However, some species cannot be unambiguously barcoded by solely this marker due to low evolutionary rates.We support previous suggestions for a combination of the standard CO1 fragment with an additional fragment for sponge DNA barcoding.

  10. Bottomless barrel-sponge species in the Indo-Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Edwin; Voogd, Nicole J De; Wörheide, Gert; Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-07-06

    The use of nuclear markers, in addition to traditional mitochondrial markers, helps to clarify hidden patterns of genetic structure in natural populations (Palumbi & Baker, 1994). This is particularly evident among demosponges that possess slow mitochondrial evolutionary rates compared to Bilateria, where nuclear intron markers can aid in the understanding of shallow level phylogenetic relationships (Shearer et al., 2002). Ideally, these nuclear markers (i) are evolutionary well-conserved across different lineages, (ii) produce amplicons holding a number of sites with sufficient variability to answer the relevant phylogenetic question, (iii) derive from single copy genes (see review in Zhang & Hewitt, 2003). A popular method to amplify intron markers uses EPIC (Exon-Primed, Intron-Crossing) primers that anneal to the more conserved flanking exon regions and subsequently bridge the intron during amplification (Palumbi & Baker, 1994).

  11. Marine Spongin: Naturally Prefabricated 3D Scaffold-Based Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionowski, Teofil; Norman, Małgorzata; Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    The biosynthesis, chemistry, structural features and functionality of spongin as a halogenated scleroprotein of keratosan demosponges are still paradigms. This review has the principal goal of providing thorough and comprehensive coverage of spongin as a naturally prefabricated 3D biomaterial with multifaceted applications. The history of spongin’s discovery and use in the form of commercial sponges, including their marine farming strategies, have been analyzed and are discussed here. Physicochemical and material properties of spongin-based scaffolds are also presented. The review also focuses on prospects and trends in applications of spongin for technology, materials science and biomedicine. Special attention is paid to applications in tissue engineering, adsorption of dyes and extreme biomimetics. PMID:29522478

  12. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE

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    Lavrov Dennis V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial (mt genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp.

  13. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. La relazione tra i sali e la crescita delle colonie di streptomiceti isolati dagli affreschi di alcune antiche tombe egiziane

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    Akmal Ali Sakr

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of the forty-six samples of Streptomyces representing the most potent deteriorating isolates were taken from scaled and stained mural paintings in the tombs at Tell Basta and Tanis, Lower Egypt. These isolates were identified using conventional and 16S rDNA sequencing methods and attributed to S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canaries, S. chibaensis, S. coelicolor, S. corchorusii, S. nigrifaciensand S. parvullus. The different salts occurring on the ancient Egyptian tombs, such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnsium sulphates enhanced the growth of Streptomyces isolates till 10% of these salts. Streptomyces isolates adapted/adopted different defense mechanisms such as pigmentation, osmotic balance and amino acidproduction. The salts had a synergistic effect in the deterioration of the mural paintings through the cooperation of the mycelium of Streptomyces with salts in the mechanical deterioration of the stone surfaces.

  15. The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

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    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

  16. Las redes sociales virtuales como detonadoras de los movimientos sociales contemporáneos y su certidumbre jurídica en México

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    Ma. Teresa Montalvo Romero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La sociedad de inicios del siglo XXI ha acelerado mucho sus procesos a partir de la presencia de las Tecnologías de la Información y de Conocimiento (TIC’S. A su vez, el espacio público ha atravesado una serie de modificaciones fundamentales, en la medida en que los procesos de interacción social minimizan el contacto físico para su realización, por ejemplo, solo basta con el uso de las nuevas herramientas de información para sostener una “reunión de trabajo” o realizar transacciones comerciales multimillonarias, el uso del teléfono celular, los video chats, el twitter, y el comercio electrónico han cambiado el sentido de la comunicación entre las personas.

  17. Mujeres inmigrantes peruanas en Chile

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    Carolina Stefoni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona en torno a la situación de la migración peruana en Chile, en particular sobre la situación de exclusión social y laboral que enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en Santiago. La migración peruana se caracteriza por ser eminentemente femenina y con una alta concentración laboral de este grupo en el trabajo doméstico. ¿Por qué se han vuelto las labores la fuente principal de trabajo para estas mujeres?, ¿basta con señalar que se debe a mano de obra más barata o existen otros argumentos de tipo cultural y social que explican por qué empleadores/as chilenos contratan y prefieren a mujeres peruanas?

  18. Tasas de interés, su volatilidad en el mercado financiero del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pezo López, Néstor Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    La investigación que a continuación se desarrolla, trata sobre el notable tema de la Tasa de Interés, y el análisis que se realiza, basa su alcance sobre extender el trabajo que otros investigadores han realizado, dándole un toque especial al concentrarse en el efecto que la volatilidad de las mismas han producido en la economía ecuatoriana. No es muy difícil ver como está la economía del país en estos tiempos, pues basta con ir al mercado y darnos cuenta que cada vez compramos menos artí...

  19. La protección penal del medio ambiente. Análisis del art. 338 del Código Penal colombiano sobre minería ilegal

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    Sebastián Felipe Sánchez Zapata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la criminalidad medio-ambiental comprende todo un elenco de problemas jurídico-penales de muy difícil solución. Basta acudir a las dificultades que sobresalen al momento de definir el bien jurídico protegido, el desvalor de acción y resultado, las leyes penales en blanco, la relación de causalidad, etc. Un acercamiento, aunque sea superficial, a las dificultades ínsitas de estas categorías revela el uso que se está dando, en nuestro contexto, a la retórica apuesta del legislador por proteger concretos objetos materiales como los yacimientos mineros, las aguas y el material de arrastre. El texto, desde una perspectiva penal, expone la realidad de la  minería ilegal en Colombia y las formas institucionales de reacción contra ella.

  20. Potencial ecoturístico participativo en dos comunidades de la Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana. Iquitos - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales Huansi, Giovanna Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigación se realizó en el ámbito de influencia de la Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana- RNAM, zona ubicada en el km 23 de la carretera !quitos-Nauta, a dos horas en bote motor por vía fluvial (río Nanay) basta los centros poblados San Martín y Mishana El estudio se ejecutó con el propósito de elaborar una propuesta participativa de la actividad eco turística partiendo del conocimiento de la percepción de los pobladores locales sobre la actividad turística y la evaluación de l...

  1. Santos, Ana Cristina, A Lei do Desejo. Direitos Humanos e Minorias Sexuais em Portugal

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    Madalena Duarte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Lei do Desejo, de autoria de Ana Cristina Santos, é um texto sobre os impactos da utilização do regime europeu de direitos humanos por parte do movimento lésbico, gay, bissexual e transgénero (LGBT português. Surge com base na tese apresentada pela autora no âmbito do Mestrado em Sociologia pela Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra, em 2003. O título, além de ser uma sugestiva alusão à obra de Almodôvar, é já bem indiciador da proposta desta obra. Basta que, para tal, entendamo...

  2. La construcción de las ciencias físico químicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Calatayud Aleixandre, Mª Luisa; Carrascosa Alís, Jaime; Furió Mas, Carlos; Gil Pérez, Daniel; Martínez Torregrosa, Joaquín; Ribo Canut, Joan; Solbes Matarredona, Jordi

    1990-01-01

    Desde hace algunas décadas, la crítica de la "enseñanza tradicional" y las referencias a la "enseñanza activa" se han convertido en un auténtico lugar común que acompaña a la presentación de cualquier material didáctico para la enseñanza de las ciencias. Pero no basta con referirse a los "métodos activos", al aprendizaje "por descubrimiento" o al "modelo constructivista". Detrás de estas expresiones se encierran orientaciones didácticas diversas y, a menudo, prácticas docentes que apenas difi...

  3. El Cortijo del Ahorcado (Baeza, Jaén : estudio de los restos arquitectónicos de época ibérica

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    María del Rosario Lucas Pellicer

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dedicadas en los últimos años a la arqueología del mundo ibérico han contribuido notablemente a ampliar los conocimientos sobre la arquitectura funeraria y sobre los relieves y esculturas vinculados a excepcionales monumentos erigidos en honor a los difuntos. La publicación de M. Almagro Gorbea Arquitectura y Sociedad en la Cultura Ibérica, aparecida en 1983, es, junto con otros trabajos más recientes, buena prueba de los logros alcanzados. Basta contrastar las actuales teorías y la documentación hoy disponible con la síntesis que sobre arte ibérico trazara García y Bellido en 1953, para hacernos una idea cabal del progreso alcanzado en los últimos años.

  4. Ethics, design and planning of the built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Moroni, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes a set of original contributions in research areas shared by planning theory, architectural research, design and ethical inquiry. The contributors gathered in 2010 at the Ethics of the Built Environment seminar organized by the editors at Delft University of Technology. Both prominent and emerging scholars presented their researches in the areas of aesthetics, technological risks, planning theory and architecture. The scope of the seminar was highlighting shared lines of ethical inquiry among the themes discussed, in order to identify perspectives of innovative interdisciplinary research. After the seminar all seminar participants have elaborated their proposed contributions. Some of the most prominent international authors in the field were subsequently invited to join in with this inquiry. Claudia Basta teaches "Network Infrastructures and Mobility" at Wageningen University. Between 2009 and 2011 she worked as Coordinator of the 3TU Centre of Excellence for Ethics and Technology of Delft Un...

  5. Aprovechar la web social en clase de E/LE

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    María Soler Albiñana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta comunicación es presentar una experiencia personal acerca de cómo podemos, los profesores de ELE, incorporar la web social a nuestras clases de español, mediante la adaptación de tareas comunicativas. Todos sabemos ya, que actualmente se hallan a nuestra disposición en internet multitud de herramientas gratuitas y relativamente fáciles de utilizar, incluso para los emigrantes digitales, es decir, aquellos que estamos en el mundo desde antes de la llegada de la era digital. Por esta razón, ni el profesor ni el alumno necesitan ya ser expertos en nuevas tecnologías para hacer uso de la web social o web 2.0., basta con tener un poco de curiosidad y ganas de aprender, como las que dieron origen a esta presentación.

  6. Aprovechar la web social en clase de E/LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soler Albiñana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta comunicación es presentar una experiencia personal acerca de cómo podemos, los profesores de ELE, incorporar la web social a nuestras clases de español, mediante la adaptación de tareas comunicativas. Todos sabemos ya, que actualmente se hallan a nuestra disposición en internet multitud de herramientas gratuitas y relativamente fáciles de utilizar, incluso para los emigrantes digitales, es decir, aquellos que estamos en el mundo desde antes de la llegada de la era digital. Por esta razón, ni el profesor ni el alumno necesitan ya ser expertos en nuevas tecnologías para hacer uso de la web social o web 2.0., basta con tener un poco de curiosidad y ganas de aprender, como las que dieron origen a esta presentación.

  7. Sonidos del Silencio

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    Luz Rodríguez Carranza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La novela ha muerto, afirmaba Alberto Moravia, popularizada, anexada y banalizada por el cine, la televisión, la prensa, la sicología y la sociología. Para Carlos Fuentes en cambio - quien cita a Moravia en 1969 – « lo que ha muerto es sólo la forma burguesa de la novela, el realismo » (17. Basta un viaje rápido por la red para verificar, sin embargo, que la víctima goza de buena salud y que no está confinada en la cultura de masas o en las ciencias sociales : el modelo realista del siglo XIX – y particularmente la creación de tipos representativos de una época, sean éstos promediales o excepcionales - constituye aún la principal preocupación de los escritores y críticos literarios del siglo XXI.

  8. Comparação entre os hábitos alimentares de crianças e jovens da Zona Litoral (Póvoa de Varzim) e de Zona Serrana (Guarda)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Zilda Manuela de Macedo

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Estudos da Criança (área de especialização em Promoção da Saúde e do Meio Ambiente) A alimentação, para além de ser uma necessidade básica para a manutenção da vida, pode, também, ser um factor de risco para a saúde. Não basta ter acesso a bens alimentares, é necessário saber comer – saber escolher os alimentos de forma e em quantidades adequadas às necessidades diárias, ao longo das diferentes fases da vida. Se é certo que a família deverá ser a prin...

  9. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  10. LA INTEGRACIÓN DE LOS SISTEMAS DE GESTIÓN. NECESIDAD DE UNA NUEVA CULTURA EMPRESARIAL

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    J. A FRAGUELA FORMOSO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo empresarial surgido en los últimos años, necesita sistemas de gestión que permitan controlar de forma sistemática las actividades y procesos de la empresa, con la participación e implicación de todos sus trabajadores, con el objetivo de lograr los resultados previstos. En estos modelos de gestión, no basta con tener en cuenta solamente los parámetros económicos y de productividad. La satisfacción de los trabajadores, de los clientes y del entorno social en el que desarrolla su actividad, las actuales exigencias en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo, de la calidad y medioambientales, deben de ocupar posiciones preponderantes y de mejora continua.

  11. Cambio cultural y formación en las organizaciones públicas

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    JOSÉ LUIS VEIRA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available la distincion entre organizaciones publicas y privadas es confusa. detras de esta ambigüedad estan la expansion de los servicios publicos mas alla de lo que se venia entendiendo como el core del sector publico, y los procesos de privatizacion. estas dos tendencias de signo contrario tienen un impacto similar en el cambio cultural de las organizaciones publicas. desde los años ochenta los valores asociados al mercado han incrementado su influencia en el sector publico. ello implica la asimilacion de valores del management privado, tales como la competencia y la productividad, pero que no siempre son compatibles con los fines de la funcion publica como el control legal y la justicia. la formacion futura del funcionariado debera resolver estas contradicciones en un nuevo codigo de conducta para la vida publica. en el sector publico no basta con la eficiencia, tambien es necesario respetar el interes general y el control legal.

  12. Acesso à Justiça: A Busca pela Efetividade Processual

    OpenAIRE

    Porto de Carvalho, Márcia Haydée; de Sousa Milhomem, Maria José Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    O presente artigo visa analisar o princípio do acesso à justiça, bem como compreender os marcos normativos garantidores da eficácia na entrega da prestação jurisdicional ao cidadão e as reais molduras necessárias para efetivação desse princípio. Objetiva-se, ainda, analisar em que medida as demandas postas ao crivo do Poder Judiciário são solucionadas em tempo razoável, tendo em vista a fundamentalidade de seu papel na solução dos conflitos sociais. Entende-se que, não basta ter acesso ao jud...

  13. Sognando Shadow Moses. Grafica, gameplay e reiterazione come strumenti narrativi metareferenziali

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    Luca Papale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un campo innevato, un eliporto, container metallici, telecamere di sorveglianza. Basta una rapida occhiata alla schermata e il giocatore di Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots fa un salto indietro nel tempo di dieci anni, tornando ancora una volta ad infiltrarsi nella base militare di Shadow Moses. La grafica è quella della prima PlayStation, una grafica che all’epoca era lo stato dell’arte, e che ora mostra tutte le sue grossolane imperfezioni. I dieci anni trascorsi hanno visto susseguirsi due generazioni di console e innumerevoli cambiamenti dell’estetica e dei linguaggi videoludici. Il mondo è cambiato nella vita reale così come nel gioco.

  14. Promoção de comportamentos seguros na internet : um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Maria João; Valente, Luís; Dias, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    A Internet tem vindo a adquirir um espaço e importância crescentes no quotidiano educativo, lúdico e de convívio social de muitas crianças e jovens. Sendo indiscutível a importância de promover a melhoria das condições de acesso à Internet e o combate à infoexclusão, importa também ter em atenção a qualidade e relevância das competências a desenvolver. De facto, não basta ser um utilizador da Internet, importa ser um utilizador crítico e consciente. O reconhecimento da existência de risco...

  15. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

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    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  16. Proyecto de Normas para la Evaluación de Resultados sobre Propiedades Físicas de la Madera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoheisel H.

    1972-04-01

    Full Text Available La correcta evaluación de los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos de propiedades físicas de la madera tiene gran importancia en su aplicación. Es necesario adoptar una base que permita compararlos datos obtenidos en los de diferentes laboratorios y que permita también utilizar estos resultados con el objeto de proponer los usos más adecuados, aprovechando al máximo las propiedades de ceda especie. En la evaluación de los resultados no basta con dar solamente una idea de los valores promedios de las diferentes propiedades físicas sino que es necesario conocer también la forma como estos valores varían. Este propósito sólo se logra mediante un análisis estadístico de los resultados obtenidos.

  17. A civilização industrial no século XIX : um exemplo da aplicação da fotografia enquanto ferramenta didática na disciplina de história

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Catarina Filomena Marinho, 1986-

    2017-01-01

    Relatório da Prática de Ensino Supervisionada, Mestrado em Ensino de História, no 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico e no Ensino Secundário, Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Educação, 2017 A imagem assume um papel inegável na didática da História. Basta uma análise superficial pelos manuais escolares para verificarmos que prolifera a utilização de imagens, fotográficas ou não fotográficas como forma de reforço de conteúdos. Esta necessidade surge da compreensão de que a principal dific...

  18. Educar hij@s interactiv@s. Una reflexión práctica sobre las pantallas Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bringué, X. (Xavier); García, F. (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    La tecnología avanza más rápido que nuestra capacidad para asimilarla. Basta con fijarse en algunos datos para entender la magnitud de lo que algunos llaman la “revolución digital”: el número de internautas en el mundo supera ya los mil millones; los servicios de juego en red cuentan con casi 700 millones de usuarios; el portal de vídeos en Internet YouTube sirve cada día más de 100 millones de películas; más de un tercio de los habitantes cuenta ya con celular y ya se han vend...

  19. La verdad histórica: una verdad que se establece y legitima desde el punto de vista de las victimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rincón-Covelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximarse al concepto de verdad no es una tarea fácil. Supone, entre otras cosas, asumir e incursionar en la basta discusión que existe sobre el concepto. Sin embargo, lo que pretendo en este escrito es algo muy modesto: explorar una aproximación a un concepto particular y muy situado de verdad: el concepto de verdad histórica, inserto en el contexto de sentido que brindan las sentencias de los tribunales internacionales de derechos humanos, y, más concretamente, las sentencias de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. Por tanto, no pretendo incursionar en la discusión más amplia de lo que es la verdad, sino sólo aproximarme a un concepto de verdad que opera en un contexto normativo estrictamente acotado. Ese contexto determina el uso que se hace del concepto.

  20. A Expansão urbana e a reorganização da área metropolitana

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Juliana de

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Urbanismo, História e Arquitetura da Cidade Este estudo trata do papel desenvolvido pelo município de São José dos Pinhais no processo de metropolização de Curitiba e Região. Para tanto, é realizada uma contextualização do processo de urbanização da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba diante das mudanças que ocorrem com o fortalecimento da industrialização no Paraná, que foi basta...

  1. Comerciantes-empresarios en el medio rural argentino a comienzos del siglo XX. El estudio de caso de los Hnos. Vulcano y su Casa de Comercio ‘El Progreso’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Palavecino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el rol que desempeñaron los comerciantes rurales en la administración de sus casas comerciales en el sur bonaerense, durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. A partir de la basta producción teórica e historiográfi ca ligada a los conceptos de empresa y empresario, se plantean algunas cuestiones teórico-metodológicas que permiten comprender la utilización de estos conceptos en el caso estudiado. Se analizará la relación comerciante–cliente, el papel del crédito en la conformación de las carteras de clientes, y los lazos extra-comerciales que vincularon a estos empresarios con su entorno.

  2. Um estudo sobre as filas para transplantes no Sistema Único de Saúde brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho estuda as filas para transplantes no Sistema Único de Saúde, estabelecendo um quadro geral da situação deste problema no Brasil. Os tempos de espera para transplantes de diversos órgãos sólidos são estimados, em cenários alternativos, com o auxílio de um modelo de teoria das filas (queueing theory). O modelo permite estimar as elasticidades dos tempos de espera em relação às taxas de chegada de pacientes de prestação de serviços do sistema. Os prazos de espera são longos e basta...

  3. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge Halichondria okadai

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    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, Halichondria okadai. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for N-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with N-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  4. The natural diet of a hexactinellid sponge: Benthic pelagic coupling in a deep-sea microbial food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Adele J.; Young, Craig M.

    2006-07-01

    Dense communities of shallow-water suspension feeders are known to sidestep the microbial loop by grazing on ultraplankton at its base. We quantified the diet, rates of water processing, and abundance of the deep-sea hexactinellid sponge Sericolophus hawaiicus, and found that, like their demosponge relatives in shallow water, hexactinellids are a significant sink for ultraplankton. S. hawaiicus forms a dense bed of sponges on the Big Island of Hawaii between 360 and 460 m depth, with a mean density of 4.7 sponges m -2. Grazing of S. hawaiicus on ultraplankton was quantified from in situ samples using flow cytometry, and was found to be unselective. Rates of water processing were determined with dye visualization and ranged from 1.62 to 3.57 cm s -1, resulting in a processing rate of 7.9±2.4 ml sponge -1 s -1. The large amount of water processed by these benthic suspension feeders results in the transfer of approximately 55 mg carbon and 7.3 mg N d -1 m -2 from the water column to the benthos. The magnitude of this flux places S. hawaiicus squarely within the functional group of organisms that link the pelagic microbial food web to the benthos.

  5. Mesozoic (Lower Jurassic) red stromatactis limestones from the Southern Alps (Arzo, Switzerland): calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    The Broccatello lithological unit (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian to lower parts of Upper Sinemurian) near the village of Arzo (southern Alps, southern Switzerland) is a mound-shaped carbonate deposit that contains patches of red stromatactis limestone. Within the largely bioclastic Broccatello unit, the stromatactis limestone is distinguished by its early-diagenetic cavity system, a relatively fine-grained texture, and an in-situ assemblage of calcified siliceous sponges (various demosponges and hexactinellids). A complex shallow subsurface diagenetic pathway can be reconstructed from sediment petrography in combination with comparative geochemical analysis (carbon and oxygen isotopes; trace and rare earth elements, REE + Y). This pathway includes organic matter transformation, aragonite and skeletal opal dissolution, patchy calcification and lithification, sediment shrinkage, sagging and collapse, partial REE remobilization, and multiple sediment infiltration. These processes occurred under normal-marine, essentially oxic conditions and were independent from local, recurring syn-sedimentary faulting. It is concluded that the stromatactis results from a combination of calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation. The natural stromatactis phenomenon may thus be best explained by maturation processes of particulate polymer gels expected to form in fine-grained carbonate sediments in the shallow subsurface. Conditions favorable for the evolution of stromatactis appear to be particularly frequent during drowning of tropical or subtropical carbonate platforms.

  6. Exploring cultivable Bacteria from the prokaryotic community associated with the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Samuel; Carre-Mlouka, Alyssa; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Vacelet, Jean; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2014-04-01

    Combining culture-dependent and independent approaches, we investigated for the first time the cultivable fraction of the prokaryotic community associated with the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea. The heterotrophic prokaryotes isolated from this tiny sponge were compared between specimens freshly collected from cave and maintained in aquarium. Overall, 67 isolates obtained in pure culture were phylogenetically affiliated to the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. This cultivable diversity was lower than the prokaryotic diversity obtained by previous pyrosequencing study and comparable to that of another Mediterranean demosponge, the filter-feeding Phorbas tenacior. Furthermore, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we visualized bacterial and archaeal cells, confirming the presence of both prokaryotes in A. hypogea tissue. Approximately 16% of the bacterial isolates tested positive for chitinolytic activity, suggesting potential microbial involvement in the digestion processes of crustacean prey by this carnivorous sponge. Additionally, 6% and 16% of bacterial isolates revealed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, respectively. One Streptomyces sp. S1CA strain was identified as a promising candidate for the production of antimicrobial and antioxidant secondary metabolites as well as chitinolytic enzymes. Implications in the context of the sponge biology and prey-feeding strategy are discussed. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of serine proteases from marine sponges by 2-D zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff G; Schröder, Heinz C

    2007-02-01

    Proteolytic activities isolated from the marine demosponges Geodia cydonium and Suberites domuncula were analyzed by 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography. After purification, a 200 kDa proteolytically active protein band was obtained from G. cydonium when analyzed in gelatin copolymerized 1-D zymograms. The enzymatic activity was quantified using alpha-N-benzoyl-D-arginine p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as a substrate and corresponded to a serine protease. The protease activity was resistant to urea and SDS. DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) did not significantly change the protease activity, but induced a shift in molecular mass of the proteolytic band to lower M(r) values as detected by zymography. Under mild denaturing conditions, lower M(r) bands (zymography, the protease from G. cydonium revealed a pI of 8.0 and an M(r) shift from 200 to 66 kDa. To contrast these results, a cytosolic sample from S. domuncula was analyzed. The proteolytic activity of this sponge after 2-D zymography corresponded to an M(r) of 40 kDa and a pI of 4.0. The biological function of both sponge proteases is not yet known. This study demonstrates that mild denaturing conditions required for IEF may alter the interpretation of the 2-D zymography, and care must be taken during sample preparation.

  8. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  9. The way Wnt works: Components and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAITO-DIAZ, KENYI; CHEN, TONY W.; WANG, XIAOXI; THORNE, CURTIS A.; WALLACE, HEATHER A.; PAGE-MCCAW, ANDREA; LEE, ETHAN

    2013-01-01

    The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that is required for the proper development of all metazoans, from the basal demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica to humans. Misregulation of Wnt signaling is implicated in many human diseases, making this pathway an intense area of research in industry as well as academia. In this review, we explore our current understanding of the molecular steps involved in the transduction of a Wnt signal. We will focus on how the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin, is in a “futile cycle” of constant synthesis and degradation and how this cycle is disrupted upon pathway activation. We describe the role of the Wnt pathway in major human cancers and in the control of stem cell self-renewal in the developing organism and in adults. Finally, we describe well-accepted criteria that have been proposed as evidence for the involvement of a molecule in regulating the canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:23256519

  10. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

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    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  11. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

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    Nickel Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. Results We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-μCT image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM.

  12. Who’s there? – First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai’ian sponge fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Ruth D.

    2017-01-01

    The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai’i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai’ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane’ohe Bay, in O’ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges) living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai’ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S) and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai’ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative. PMID:29267311

  13. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Pons, Laura; Calcinai, Barbara; Gates, Ruth D

    2017-01-01

    The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges) living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S) and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  14. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Jörg U; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Nickel, Michael

    2009-09-08

    Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae) by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-muCT) image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM).

  15. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez Pons

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  16. Giant basal spicule from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni: synthesis of the largest bio-silica structure on Earth by silicatein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Xue-hua; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2009-09-01

    Like all sponges (phylum Porifera), the glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are provided with an elaborate and distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Schulze described the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, collected during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899). This species develops an equally large bio-silica structure, the giant basal spicule (3 m × 10 mm). Using these spicules as a model, one can obtain the basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of silica skeletal elements. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silica, endowing it with unusual optophysical properties, which are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments suggest that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. The spicules are also provided with exceptional mechanical properties. Like demosponges, the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically via the enzyme silicatein (27 kDa protein). This enzyme is located in/embedded in the silica layers. This knowledge will surely contribute to a further utilization and exploration of silica in biomaterial/biomedical science.

  17. Silicon isotope fractionation by marine sponges and the reconstruction of the silicon isotope composition of ancient deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rocha, Christina L.

    2003-05-01

    The silicon isotope composition (δ30Si) of biogenic opal provides a view of the silica cycle at times in the past. Reconstructions require the knowledge of silicon isotope fractionation during opal biomineralization. The δ30Si of specimens of hexactinellid sponges and demosponges growing in the modern ocean ranged from -1.2‰ to -3.7‰ (n = 6), corresponding to the production of opal that has a δ30Si value 3.8‰ ± 0.8‰ more negative than seawater silicic acid and a fractionation factor (α) of 0.9964. This is three times the fractionation observed during opal formation by marine diatoms and terrestrial plants and is the largest fractionation of silicon isotopes observed for any natural process on Earth. The δ30Si values of sponge spicules across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at Ocean Drilling Program Site 689 on Maud Rise range from -1.1‰ to -3.0‰, overlapping the range observed for sponges growing in modern seawater.

  18. SILICEOUS SPONGE SPICULES FROM THE MIOCENE MEM MONIZ MARLS (PORTUGAL AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

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    ANDRZEJ PISERA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene (middle Serravalian Mem Moniz marls from Algarve (Portugal contain a rich and well preserved assemblage of siliceous sponge spicules, which is described here for the first time. The assemblage indicates that the sponge fauna was dominated by Astrophorida, and in particular by Geodiidae. The presence of Eurylus sp. and probably Geodia sp. (both Astrophorida, Samus sp. (Spirophorida and Alectona wallichii (Hadromerida is also reported. Samus sp. and Alectona wallichii are reported from the fossil record for the first time. Additionally, the occurrence of lithistid demosponges (represented by Theonellidae and rhizomorinids, Hadromerida, Spirophorida and Hexactinellida is also shown. Ancorinidae, Pachastrellidae (and/or Cathropellidae, both Astrophorida, were also clearly recognized. Less certain is the occurrence, in the Mem Moniz marls, of Tethyidae (Hadromerida. Bathymetric reconstructions based on sponges are imprecise due to the fact that these organisms often have very wide bathymetric ranges. However, the studied sponge assemblage is clearly neither characteristic of very shallow nor very deep marine environments. The dominance of astrophorids and the presence of lithistids and hexactinellids suggest a depth of at least several tens to one hundred metres, or even more.

  19. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SORGHUM USING TISSUE CULTURE-BASED AND POLLEN-MEDIATED APPROACHES

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    Elkonin L.A.

    2012-08-01

    from 4.5% to 5.4%. Cultivation conditions increasing embryogenic potentials of cultured tissues were the key factors for obtaining of transgenic plants. In the Milo-10, transgenic plants were regenerated also from established embryogenic cultures after their co-cultivation with agrobacterial cell suspension, their frequency was 1.7%. Immature embryos of KVV-114 did not produce embryogenic callus, and in this line transgenic plants were obtained by inoculation of flowering panicles at anthesis. In the progeny of each inoculated panicle the frequency of fertile PCR-positive transgenic plants survived BASTA application was approx. 1%. In the progeny of the [9E] Milo-10 panicle, which was obtained by its pollination with the Milo-10 pollen following agrobacterial inoculation, the frequency of PCR-positive plants survived BASTA application was 3.4%. In the self-pollinated progeny (T1 of KVV-114 and Milo-10 transgenic plants (T0, the seedlings that grew on the GA-containing medium were found, while the leaves of adult plants were sensitive to BASTA application. Nevertheless, PCR analysis confirmed the inheritance of the transgene.

  20. LITERATURA NA ESCOLA: ENTRE O REAL E O POSSÍVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Brocchetto Ramos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As práticas de leitura literária geralmente não respeitam as especificidades deste texto, basta observar o tratamento que a literatura recebe, por exemplo, na maioria dos livros didáticos. Além disso, pesquisa realizada com estudantes de 3ª série sinaliza que essas crianças conhecem, predominantemente, literatura de massa. Frente a essa situação, como parte de estudos do projeto “Formação do leitor: o processo de mediação docente”, apresenta-se Machado de Assis como um autor que pode fazer parte do repertório de estudantes do Ensino Fundamental. Se Machado é um expoente da Literatura Brasileira, deveria estar presente nos planejamentos dos docentes das escolas brasileiras. Neste artigo, elegem-se algumas narrativas curtas do autor para adentrar as práticas de educação literária.

  1. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  2. Screening Chinese soybean genotypes for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation suitability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhang-yue; Tian, Jing-luan; Fu, Wei-zhe; Li, Lin; Lu, Ling-hong; Zhou, Lian; Shan, Zhi-hui; Tang, Gui-xiang; Shou, Hui-xia

    2013-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system is the most commonly used method in soybean transformation. Screening of soybean genotypes favorable for Agrobacterium-infection and tissue regeneration is the most important step to establish an efficient genetic transformation system. In this study, twenty soybean genotypes that originated from different soybean production regions in China were screened for transient infection, regeneration capacity, and stable transgenic efficiency. Three genotypes, Yuechun 04-5, Yuechun 03-3, and Tianlong 1, showed comparable stable transgenic efficiencies with that of the previously reported American genotypes Williams 82 and Jack in our experimental system. For the Tianlong 1, the average stable transformation efficiency is 4.59%, higher than that of control genotypes (Jack and Williams 82), which is enough for further genomic research and genetic engineering. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR), LibertyLink strips, and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays were used to detect the insertion and expression of the transgene, leaves painted with 135 mg/L Basta could efficiently identify the transformants. PMID:23549846

  3. Actualidad y permanencia del 'Tratado de Derecho Administrativo' de Enrique Sayagués Laso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hugo Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Más de medio siglo ha transcurrido desde la publicación de los tomos I (noviembre de 1953 y II (noviembre de 1959 del “Tratado”, concebido en cuatro tomos, pero que la trágica muerte de su autor, en 1965, impidió completar.No obstante el tiempo transcurrido, la actualidad y permanencia de sus opiniones son notorias: basta leer los repertorios de sentencias del Tribunal de lo Contencioso Administrativo, de los Tribunales de Apelaciones y de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, para comprobar que son numerosas las citas de la obra del maestro; lo mismo ocurre en los trabajos publicados por los profesores uruguayos y latinoamericanos.El secreto de la actualidad y permanencia de sus opiniones consiste en que las mismas fueron formuladas luego de profundos estudios del derecho comparado y del derecho positivo y jurisprudencia nacionales.

  4. O discurso capitalista de Marx a Lacan: algumas consequências para o laço social The capitalist speech from Marx to Lacan: some consequences for the social bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zétola Lustoza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigam-se algumas consequências geradas pelo discurso capitalista no laço social. Tomando como ponto de partida a obra de Karl Marx e o ensino de Jacques Lacan, buscou-se caracterizar o capitalismo, enfatizando a acumulação da mais-valia como um movimento sem ponto de basta, deixando o sujeito num estado de insatisfação constante, e este estado, em contrapartida, vem sempre acompanhado pelo gozo de algum gadget. O caráter ilimitado desse processo acarreta uma modificação na relação do sujeito com a natureza, com os outros homens e com ele mesmo, em que tudo se transforma em mercadoria. O sujeito passa a habitar um mundo previamente condenado a tornar-se dejeto.The article investigates the consequences of the capitalist discourse for the social bond. Taking the works of Karl Marx and Jacques Lacan as point of departure, one aimed to characterize capitalism emphasizing the accumulation of surplus-value as a movement without point of enough that causes in the subject a state of constant insatisfaction that on the other hand is always followed by the enjoyment of some gadget. The limitless character of this process causes an modification on the relationship of the subjetc with the nature, with the other men and with himself, where everything becomes commodities. The subject starts to inhabit a world previoulsy condamned to become a deject.

  5. Development of antibiotic marker-free creeping bentgrass resistance against herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Seog; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass plants (Agrostis stolonifera L.) without antibiotic-resistant markers were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Embryogenic callus tissues were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105, harboring the bar and the CP4-EPSPS genes for bialaphos and glyphosate resistance. Phosphinothricin-resistant calli and plants were selected. Soil-grown plants were obtained at 14-16 weeks after transformation. Genetic transformation of the selected, regenerated plants was validated by PCR. Southern blot analysis revealed that at least one copy of the transgene was integrated into the genome of the transgenic plants. Transgene expression was confirmed by Northern blot. CP4-EPSPS protein was detected by ELISA. Transgenic plants remained green and healthy when sprayed with Basta, containing 0.5% glufosinate ammonium or glyphosate. The optimized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method resulted in an average of 9.4% transgenic plants. The results of the present study suggest that the optimized marker-free technique could be used as an effective and reliable method for routine transformation, which may facilitate the development of varieties of new antibiotic-free grass species.

  6. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a delayed complication with a herbicide containing glufosinate ammonium in a suicide attempt: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Keiichiro; Izumi, Manabu; Suzukawa, Masayuki; Shinjo, Takafumi; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Yonekawa, Chikara; Ano, Masaki; Yamashita, Keisuke; Muronoi, Tomohiro; Mochiduki, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Background. Glufosinate ammonium has a famous delayed complication as respiratory failure, however, delayed cardiogenic complication is not well known. Objectives. The aim of this study is to report a takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a delayed complication of glufosinate ammonium for suicide attempt. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman ingested about 90 mL of Basta, herbicide for suicide attempt at arousal during sleep. She came to our hospital at twelve hours after ingesting. She was admitted to our hospital for fear of delayed respiratory failure. Actually, she felt down to respiratory failure, needing a ventilator with intubation at 20 hours after ingesting. Procedure around respiratory management had smoothly done with no delay. Her vital status had been stable, however, she felt down to circulatory failure and diagnosed as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy at about 41 hours after ingestion. There was no trigger activities or events to evoke mental and physical stresses. Conclusion. We could successfully manage takotsubo cardiomyopathy resulted in circulatory failure in a patient with glufosinate poisoning for suicide attempt. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy should be taken into consideration if circulatory failure is observed for unexplained reasons.

  7. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy as a Delayed Complication with a Herbicide Containing Glufosinate Ammonium in a Suicide Attempt: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Tominaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glufosinate ammonium has a famous delayed complication as respiratory failure, however, delayed cardiogenic complication is not well known. Objectives. The aim of this study is to report a takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a delayed complication of glufosinate ammonium for suicide attempt. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman ingested about 90 mL of Basta, herbicide for suicide attempt at arousal during sleep. She came to our hospital at twelve hours after ingesting. She was admitted to our hospital for fear of delayed respiratory failure. Actually, she felt down to respiratory failure, needing a ventilator with intubation at 20 hours after ingesting. Procedure around respiratory management had smoothly done with no delay. Her vital status had been stable, however, she felt down to circulatory failure and diagnosed as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy at about 41 hours after ingestion. There was no trigger activities or events to evoke mental and physical stresses. Conclusion. We could successfully manage takotsubo cardiomyopathy resulted in circulatory failure in a patient with glufosinate poisoning for suicide attempt. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy should be taken into consideration if circulatory failure is observed for unexplained reasons.

  8. Resistance to Phosphinothricin (Glufosinate) and Its Utilization as a Nitrogen Source by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A R; Lopez-Siles, F J; Cardenas, J

    1996-10-01

    Wild-type strain 21gr of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was resistant to the ammonium salt of l-phosphinothricin (PPT, also called glufosinate), an irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase activity and the main active component of the herbicide BASTA (AgrEvo, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). Under the same conditions, however, this strain was highly sensitive to l-methionine-S-sulfoximine, a structural analog of PPT which has been reported to be 5 to 10 times less effective than PPT as an inhibitor in plants. Moreover, this alga was able to grow with PPT as the sole nitrogen source when this compound was provided at low concentrations. This utilization of PPT was dependent upon the addition of acetate and light and did not take place in the presence of ammonium. Resistance was due neither to the presence of N-acetyltransferase or transaminase activity nor to the presence of glutamine synthetase isoforms resistant to PPT. By using l-[methyl-(sup14)C]PPT, we demonstrated that resistance is due to lack of PPT transport into the cells. This strongly suggests that PPT and l-methionine-S-sulfoximine enter the cells through different systems. Growth with PPT is supported by its deamination by an l-amino acid oxidase activity which has been previously described to be located at the periplasm.

  9. A toxicokinetic analysis in a patient with acute glufosinate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Y; Kobayashi, M; Koyama, K; Kohda, Y; Tanaka, T; Honda, H; Hori, Y; Yoshida, K; Kikuchi, M

    1999-05-01

    Incidents of poisoning in humans caused by the ingestion of the glufosinate ammonium containing herbicides are gradually increasing in Japan. This poisoning is characterized by various neurological symptoms such as disturbances of consciousness, convulsions and apnea which appear after an asymptomatic interval of several hours. We studied the toxicokinetics of glufosinate in a patient with this poisoning successfully treated without extracorporeal hemopurification. A 65-year-old male ingested BASTA, which contains 20% w/v of glufosinate ammonium, about 300 ml, more than the estimated human toxic dose. Four and a half hours after ingestion, he showed speech ataxia and systemic tremor. He was prophylactically intubated before the occurrence of serious respiratory failure. After 5 days of artificial ventilation he was extubated and discharged without any sequelae. We studied the serial change of serum glufosinate concentration every 3-6 h and assessed the urinary excretion of glufosinate every 24 h. The absorbed amount of glufosinate was estimated from the cumulative excreted in urine. Toxicokinetic analysis was performed using the two-compartment model. The changes in serum glufosinate concentration exhibited T1/2alpha of 1.84 and T1/2beta of 9.59 h. The apparent distribution volume at beta-phase and the total body clearance were 1.44 l/kg and 86.6 ml/min, respectively. Renal clearance was estimated to be 77.9 ml/min. The indication for extracorporeal hemopurification for this poisoning has been discussed.

  10. Transformation of haploid, microspore-derived cell suspension protoplasts of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaïr, H; Legavre, T; Guiderdoni, E

    1996-06-01

    We compared the transient activity of three cereal gene-derived promoter-gus fusions and the efficiency of selection mediated by three different selectable genes in a polyethylene glycol transformation system with haploid cell suspension protoplasts of rice. The maize ubiquitin promoter was found to be the most active in transformed protoplasts, and selection on ammonium glufosinate mediated by the bar gene was the most efficient for producing resistant calluses. Cotransformation of protoplasts with two separate plasmids carrying the gus and the bar genes, at either a 2∶1 or 1∶1 ratio, led to 0.8 × 10(-5) and 1.6 × 10(-5) resistant callus recovery frequencies and 59.7 and 37.9 cotransformation efficiencies respectively. No escapes were detected in dot blot analyses of 100 resistant calluses with a probe consisting of the bar coding region. Cotransformation efficiency, based on resistance to basta and β-glucuronidase staining of the leaf tissue of 115 regenerated plants, was 47%. Resistance tests and Southern analysis of seed progenies of three diploid transgenic plants demonstrated homozygous integration of multiple copies of the transgene at one locus at least in the first plant, heterozygous integration at one locus in the second plant and heterozygous integration at two loci in the third plant.

  11. Simulacro de las pruebas internacionales: una mirada desde los estándares de lengua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaddy Brigitte Nielsen Nino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo principal comparar los resultados finales de las asignaturas de los cursos modulares y su relación con las pruebas internacionales correspondiente a cada nivel de acuerdo con el Marco Común Europeo que se ha establecido en la ruta académica del programa de licenciatura en inglés. Se parte del resultado inicial del curso intersemestral para la preparación de pruebas internacionales y así se puede determinar el dominio de una lengua extranjera del estudiante de la Licenciatura en Inglés de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad la Gran Colombia, sede Bogotá. Los resultados arrojados a través de pruebas post y pre demuestran que existen algunos factores que influyen en el bajo dominio de la lengua tales como falencias en conceptos básicos, la autonomía, motivación y tiempo de dedicación además el incremento en la deserción de los estudiantes, siendo un curso libre impartido por profesionales expertos. Se concluye, que los cursos intersemestrales para la preparación de una prueba internacional no basta con realizar simulaciones de dichos exámenes sino que generar unas metas claras que permitan concluir adecuadamente la ruta académica propuesta dentro del currículo.

  12. Mobilità ubiquitaria con i telefoni cellulari in contesto scolastico formale – un approccio al mobile learning basato su una cultura ecologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bachmair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non basta limitarsi ad aggiungere i telefoni cellulari alla lunga lista dei media che sono entrati nel mondo nella scuola per migliorare l’offerta formativa. In quest’ottica, il contributo qui presentato si sofferma sui telefoni cellulari considerandoli come una nuova risorsa culturale emergente in un sistema massmediale connotato da personalizzazione, mobilità e convergenza. Inoltre, un simile approccio che vede i cellulari come risorse culturali, sollecita la scuola ad affrontare un dibattito sulle risorse in chiave ecologica. Per individuare soluzioni di impiego di queste nuove risorse culturali, funzionali ai curricoli scolastici, viene prima di tutto suggerita un’analisi dei telefoni cellulari da una prospettiva teorica, considerandoli in rapporto alle strutture sociali, che si riferiscono all’«agency» degli utenti e alle pratiche culturali di uso dei media e dell’apprendimento. In secondo luogo, attraverso questa analisi triangolare delle strutture, dell’agency e delle pratiche, viene esplorato il complesso mobile (mobile complex al fine di collocare la scuola al suo interno. Successivamente viene descritta un’esperienza di impiego del cellulare per la didattica della matematica in contesto scolastico. Dall’analisi di questo progetto dovrebbero emergere le opportunità offerte dai contesti generati dagli utenti, i quali dovrebbero facilitare l’integrazione dell’apprendimento informale nella scuola. Questa investigazione ha condotto alla messa a punto di linee guida per il mobile learning articolate in tre punti1.

  13. Molecular genetic studies on irradiated wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2002-01-01

    Composite genotype(octamer hybrid) was obtained from crossing among eight Egyptian hexaploid wheat cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought stress to produce a genotype, which can economize on the irrigation water requirements or can tolerate drought stress. Gamma irradiation with 10-Krad was used to induce mutations, which could improve drought tolerance for this composite. From eight Egyptian wheat cultivars, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G-160 and Sk-61, respectively. They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield-related traits. Bulked segregating analysis developed some RAPD and SSR markers with different primers, which were considered as molecular for drought tolerance in wheat. Hal 2-like gene was introduced into Egyptian wheat cultivar G-164 via micro projectile bombardment. Two putative transgenic plants were successfully detected by leaf painting with the herbicide basta. PCR/ Southern blotting analysis indicated the presence of both/either bar and/or Hal 2-like genes in the genomic background of the two transgenic plants

  14. Presentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutopía Revista de Desarrollo Económico

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EUTOPÍA es una revista nueva dentro de las ciencias sociales de la región y busca, tal como su nombre lo evoca, la reflexión sobre lo que sucede en nuestra sociedad tomando como eje de análisis el territorio. Eu- topia proviene del griego: eu, bueno y topos lugar, literalmente significaría buen lugar y es justo sobre lo que buscamos reflexionar tanto a nivel de Ecuador como de América Latina. No basta con la teoría de moda del “buen vivir”, si no se dispone de un “buen lugar” para implementar una nueva forma de hacer economía, de recrear las relaciones de reciprocidad, de hacer política participativa, en concreto de construir una sociedad más justa y solidaria. La construcción de un “buen lugar”, no como una Utopía sino como algo real y viable es un reto en el cual es necesaria la incorporación activa del pensamiento social de avanzada en la región.

  15. El acompañamiento terapéutico: una intervención dentro de la clínica psicoanalítica de las psicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Montoya Hernandez

    Full Text Available El abordaje clínico esta determinado por la gravedad del paciente; de esta forma tenemos pacientes con los cuales se puede trabajar mediante un psicoanálisis tradicional, en otros casos implica el trabajar en colaboración con un medico psiquiatra y un psicoanalista, donde el medicamento pone en condiciones de análisis al paciente. En casos mas graves, se incluye al acompañante terapéutico, buscando la reconstitución del lazo social cuando el paciente se aisla ya que el medio ambiente se le ha vuelto demasiado hostil. El hospital será otro recurso donde también le permitirá al pa- ciente recuperarse de una situación aguda donde no basta solo el psicoanálisis ni la medicación en muchos casos. Una intervención múltiple y una discusión de caso por caso en un trabajo en equipo es la propuesta terapéutica.

  16. O outro, o mesmo: A corrida de touros espanhola como objeto da etnologia francesa entreguerras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Sobral

    Full Text Available Resumo Durante a missão etnográfica e linguística Dacar-Djibuti (1931-1933, o escritor e etnógrafo Michel Leiris demonstrou interesse, em uma carta endereçada à sua esposa em Paris, em realizar uma etnografia da corrida de touros espanhola. Tal ideia jamais se concretizou. Este artigo, orientado por um raciocínio conjectural, descreve os fatores que impediriam a realização desta ideia no âmbito da etnologia francesa, caso ela fosse colocada em prática. Mas não basta para tanto compreender somente quais eram os métodos etnográficos então vigentes e a posição de Leiris diante deles; é preciso examinar também o estatuto marginal e ambíguo da Espanha tanto na epistemologia etnológica como no regime identitário europeu, dois sistemas simbólicos que se encontram profundamente imbricados.

  17. Entre Fios e Desafios: Indústria da Moda, Linguagem e Trabalho Escravo na Sociedade Imperialista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Daniela Medeiros dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva analisar a significação do conceito de slow fashion, presente nos interstícios da linguagem da moda e disseminado nas mídias sociais, no intuito de desvendar os pressupostos ideológicos contidos no uso deste termo como forma de combater o trabalho escravo na sociedade Imperialista. Para concretizar este estudo realizou-se uma pesquisa ancorada no referencial teórico de Vigotski (2007, 2009 e de Ortiz (2009, 2011. As análises dos dados revelam que não basta refletir sobre a descartabilidade da moda e aderir ao slow fashion como principal linha de ação para lutar contra o trabalho escravo nas cadeias produtivas da indústria da moda. A questão que prioritariamente se coloca é como perscrutar e enfrentar as imposições de um sistema econômico que se reestrutura de modo contínuo, no intuito de reinar soberano, reengendrando novas formas de organização de trabalho extremamente injustas, desiguais e desumanas.

  18. Desarrollo humano, eutopía y viejas palabras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaime Marcuello Servós

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar un marco conceptual a la noción de desarrollo humano como parte importante de una vieja pregunta en ocasiones olvidada, censurada y desde hace un tiempo recuperada por las ciencias sociales; esto es, la pregunta por la buena sociedad. Esta cuestión es algo más que un llamado ético o axiológico. Sus repercusiones son hondas y tienen un contenido social, político, económico y jurídico inevitable. El reto es recuperar una pregunta que va más allá del positivismo tecnocientífico que ha hecho de los datos cuantitativos, del economicismo, de los números y de la falta de crítica una nueva forma de alienación. En este aparente viaje a ninguna parte, no basta con reconocerse como copartícipes del destino de Sísifo, tentados por el carpe diem de Baco o hipnotizados por la vocación de Prometeo y Vulcano. El desarrollo humano ha sido un nuevo paradigma y un cambio de referentes, pero también tiene mucho de re-descubrimiento de viejas palabras.

  19. Transgenic plants: from first successes to future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Angenon, Geert; De Block, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc De Block. He was one of the first scientists worldwide to obtain transgenic plants transformed with the chimeric selectable marker genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase and bialaphos that confer resistance against the antibiotic kanamycin and the herbicide Basta®/glufosinate, respectively at the Department of Genetics of Ghent University and, later on, at the spin-off company, Plant Genetic Systems. Today, these two genes are still the most frequently utilized markers in transgene technology. Marc De Block chose to work on the improvement of crops in an industrial environment to help realize the production of superior seeds or products. He was part of the team that developed the male sterility/restorer system in canola (Brassica napus var. napus) that led to the first hybrid lines to be commercialized as successful products of transgene technology. In more than 30 years of research, he developed transformation procedures for numerous crops, designed histochemical, biochemical and physiological assays to monitor plant performance, and made original and innovative contributions to plant biology. Presently, he considers transgenic research part of the toolbox for plant improvement and essential for basic plant research.

  20. Reflections for a healthy development of PEMEX; Reflexiones para un sano desarrollo de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon M, Francisco [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a company badly administered, with excess of personnel, on the brink of financial collapse and straggler in technology, to verify this is enough to compare the oil potential of the country and the financial results of PEMEX with oil companies of the world - considered here -. To revert those present tendencies and still to satisfy the future demand of hydrocarbons PEMEX will have, on its own, evolve its infrastructure whereas the legislative power must grant greater autonomy to PEMEX as well as approve a new fiscal regime that gradually allow the company more financial resources and not on indebtedness. [Spanish] Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) es una empresa mal administrada, con exceso de personal, al borde del colapso financiero y rezagada en tecnologia, para comprobarlo basta comparar el potencial petrolero del pais y los resultados financieros de PEMEX con empresas petroleras del mundo -aqui estimados-. Para revertir esas tendencias actuales y aun satisfacer la futura demanda de hidrocarburos PEMEX debera, por su parte, evolucionar su infraestructura mientras que el poder legislativo debera otorgar mayor autonomia a PEMEX asi como aprobar un nuevo regimen fiscal que le permitan a la empresa gradualmente mas recursos financieros y no un sobre endeudamiento.

  1. Garantías independientes y cartas de patrocinio: las mejores alternativas para el comercio internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando García Vásquez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La contratación mercantil se desarrolla con preponderancia en el contexto internacional. Ello impone a los agentes contratantes la obligación de constituir mecanismos de garantía eficaces, que les brinden certeza sobre le ejecución de sus derechos de garantía, sin depender para dichas ejecuciones de la incertidumbre y costos que entraña debatir los derechos al interior de un proceso judicial. De igual manera, los establecimientos de crédito precisan de la constitución a su favor de mecanismos de garantía idóneos para conceder crédito a los grupos económicos. Las garantías independientes y las cartas de patrocinio son mecanismos de garantía que satisfacen las necesidades de eficacia y eficiencia que demanda el tráfico mercantil internacional en la constitución de garantías para sus relaciones contractuales, las primeras porque basta el requerimiento del beneficiario para hacer exigible la obligación del garante, y las segundas por la confianza que las matrices generan al mercado financiero para conceder créditos a sus filiales.

  2. Garantías independientes y cartas de patrocinio: las mejores alternativas para el comercio internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando García Vásquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La contratación mercantil se desarrolla con preponderancia en el contexto internacional. Ello impone a los agentes contratantes la obligación de constituir mecanismos de garantía eficaces, que les brinden certeza sobre le ejecución de sus derechos de garantía, sin depender para dichas ejecuciones de la incertidumbre y costos que entraña debatir los derechos al interior de un proceso judicial. De igual manera, los establecimientos de crédito precisan de la constitución a su favor de mecanismos de garantía idóneos para conceder crédito a los grupos económicos. Las garantías independientes y las cartas de patrocinio son mecanismos de garantía que satisfacen las necesidades de eficacia y eficiencia que demanda el tráfico mercantil internacional en la constitución de garantías para sus relaciones contractuales, las primeras porque basta el requerimiento del beneficiario para hacer exigible la obligación del garante, y las segundas por la confianza que las matrices generan al mercado financiero para conceder créditos a sus filiales.

  3. Optimization of an Efficient Non-Tissue Culture Transformation Method for Brassica Juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, I.; Munir, I.; Iqbal, A.; Ullah, F.

    2016-01-01

    The major hurdles in successful in vitro transformation of Brassica juncea through standard tissue culture (STC) method are: culture contamination, somaclonal variations, and lack of expertise. Moreover, the current STC method is time consuming and needs continuous electricity. In the present study, the in planta transformation method through floral dip with or without vacuum infiltration was optimized for successful transformation of B. juncea. The B. juncea CV RAYA Anmol was used for transformation through Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring the binary vector plasmid pBinGlyBar4-EADcT. Based on the resistance reaction to the herbicide Basta, 20 and 40 resistant seedlings were obtained from 2000 seed germinated from the plants transformed through floral dip and vacuum infiltration methods, respectively. The PCR analyses further confirmed the presence of transgene in 3 floral dipped plants without vacuum infiltration and 17 floral dipped plants with vacuum infiltration, giving the transformation frequencies of 1.5*10/sup -3/ and 8.5*10/sup -3/, respectively. This method, which avoids tissue culture, will reduce the somaclonal variation accompanying prolonged culture of cells in a dedifferentiated state, will facilitate functional genomics and improvement of Brassica juncea with novel desirable traits while reducing time and expense. (author)

  4. Apuntes sobre el 'teatro civile'. Entrevista a Daniele Biacchessi

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    Daniele Biacchessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unas pocas líneas no bastan para presentar la figura del periodista, escritor y dramaturgo Daniele Biacchessi. Su amplia labor como periodista en algunos de los medios de difusión más relevantes de Italia y su constante producción como divulgador y creador  del llamado teatro civil hacen de él una figura que no puede dejarse de lado a la hora de hablar del teatro de inspiración cívica de la última década. Interesado en denunciar desde desastres medioambientales como en La fabbrica dei profumi o las matanzas nazis en Sant'Anna di Stazzema y Marzabotto a finales de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, basta dar un vistazo a algunos de sus títulos para tener una idea de la amplitud de temas tratados por Biacchessi, entre los que destacan Giovanni e Nori. Una storia di amore e di resistenza (2014, Passione reporter (2009, Il paese della vergogna (2007, Una stella a cinque punte. Le inchieste D'Antona e Biagi e le nuove Br (2007. Completan la entrevista hecha por Massimiliano Vellini dos pequeños fragmentos de uno de los manuales fundamentales sobre el llamado teatro de carácter cívico, Teatro civile, nei luoghi dell'inchiesta e della narrazione (Milán: Edizioni Ambiente, 2010.

  5. Medición de la pobreza más allá del ingreso: El método AF

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    Adriana Conconi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nadie duda de la necesidad de luchar contra la pobreza. Tanto a nivel individual como a nivel de políticas públicas, en el marco nacional e internacional, hay una gran aceptación de la idea de que cada persona tiene el derecho a gozar de una vida digna. Tal consenso y la importancia que se le da a su erradicación se ponen de manifiesto, por ejemplo, a nivel global en lo que han sido los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM, ahora Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable (ODS en donde, precisamente, el objetivo número uno es terminar con la pobreza en todas sus formas. Tales metas acordadas por los países miembros de las Naciones Unidas (ONU tienen una importancia fundamental en el delineamiento de las políticas en materia de desarrollo y ayuda internacional. Tampoco pareciera existir demasiado debate a la hora de pensar en la pobreza como un fenómeno multidimensional. Basta con ver la realidad de las personas que viven en situación de pobreza o escuchar sus propias experiencias para reconocer que sus privaciones se manifiestan de diferentes formas. Generalmente, éstas se relacionan con la falta de acceso a salud, condiciones precarias de vivienda y servicios, bajo nivel de educación, limitadas posibilidades de empleo, inadecuada alimentación, inseguridad, humillaciones que sufren, violencia, falta de empoderamiento, etc.

  6. La Didáctica Universitaria en el Contexto de la Andragogía: Aprender a Aprender en la Educación de Personas Adultas

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    Luis Alejandro Garita Pacheco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La educación de adultos versa sobre cómo los docentesuniversitarios deben aprovechar las experiencias de suseducandos y enseñarles a aprender a aprender en la universidad.Es imprescindible que el joven adulto sepa organizar,seleccionar y convertir los datos y la información enconocimiento, para lo cual se debe conocer cómo aprendey se le debe enseñar a utilizar sus facultades naturales paralograrlo. La andragogía pone de manifiesto que para undocente universitario no solo basta con dar la lección; elprofesor debe compenetrarse con el estudiante, con los procesosy, sobre todo, con la vocación que todos los docentesdebemos tener.   ABSTRACT Adult education concerns how university professorsshould benefit from their students’ experience and howto teach them learn in the university. It is imperative thatthe young adult knows how to organize, select, and convertdata and information into knowledge; to that end theteacher has to know how they learn, and teach them how touse their natural capacities to obtain it. Andragogy showsthat it is not enough for a university professor to give lessons;he or she must work together with the students, withtheir thought processes and above all to conduct themselveswith the calling that all teachers must have.

  7. Sobre conceptos primitivos - atomismo informacional

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    Manuel Rodríguez Tudor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se intenta una defensa de la teoría de conceptos, en el campo de la ciencia cognitiva, denominada Atomismo Informacional, basado en el análisis de la base conceptual primitiva que toda teoría de conceptos debe asumir. La tesis aquí defendida dice que el contenido intencional de los conceptos se determina completamente de una forma causal, en base a relaciones informacionales que se sustenta en leyes del mundo y, por tanto, permanece estable a través de los individuos y en el mismo individuo (cumpliendo así el requisito de publicidad; y que, por otra parte, al nivel de las tareas cognitivas relevantes atribuidas a la mente (como la categorización, no es el contenido sino las capacidades epistémicas las que desempeñan un rol fundamental. Por tanto, que el contenido no basta para individuar conceptos, de allí la impotencia del AI cuando toma contenido=concepto.

  8. Genotype-independent and enhanced in planta Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Sivabalan; Pavan, Gadamchetty; Sathish, Selvam; Siva, Ramamoorthy; Kumar, Periyasamy Suresh; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2018-04-01

    Agrobacterium infection and regeneration of the putatively transformed plant from the explant remains arduous for some crop species like peanut. Henceforth, a competent and reproducible in planta genetic transformation protocol is established for peanut cv. CO7 by standardizing various factors such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, duration of co-cultivation, sonication and vacuum infiltration. In the present investigation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301- bar was used for transformation. The two-stage selection was carried out using 4 and 250 mg l -1 BASTA ® to completely eliminate the chimeric and non-transformed plants. The transgene integration into plant genome was evaluated by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blot hybridization. Among the various combinations and concentrations analyzed, highest transformation efficiency was obtained when the 2-day pre-cultured explants were subjected to sonication for 6 min and vacuum infiltrated for 3 min in Agrobacterium suspension, and co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 150 µM acetosyringone for 3 days. The fidelity of the standardized in planta transformation method was assessed in five peanut cultivars and all the cultivars responded positively with a transformation efficiency ranging from minimum 31.3% (with cv. CO6) to maximum 38.6% (with cv. TMV7). The in planta transformation method optimized in this study could be beneficial to develop superior peanut cultivars with desirable genetic traits.

  9. Los pasos perdidos de Ernesto Volkening

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    Juan Guillermo Gómez García

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available El abogado Renano El abogado Renano -con estudios de derecho en las universidades de Hamburgo, Frankfort, Berlín, Heidelberg y Erlangen- Ernesto Volkening (1908-1983, que había llegado a Colombia en 1934, al iniciarse el primer gobierno de Alfonso López Pumarejo, cumplió durante su larga estancia en el país hasta su muerte un papel que no es difícil calificar de modesto. Pues, si bien no se sumó al carnaval de los profetas de todas las tendencias que empezaron a hacer su agosto ideológico en la profunda crisis que se vivió en los decenios posteriores a su llegada - basta pensar en los poco recomendables Viktor Frankl y Alfredo Trendall- , lo cierto es que Volkening prefirió mantenerse al margen de la formación institucional de la vida académica del país --que fue el caso contrario de su compatriota el notable geógrafo Ernesto Guhl, autor de la obra estándar Colombia: bosquejo de su geografía tropical (1975- y permaneció muy alejado del escenario crítico-cultural que animaría un poco más tarde polémicamente, entre otras, la argentino-colombiana Marta Traba.

  10. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb. Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

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    Evra Raunie Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L. Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.

  11. Quali interlocutori per ’inchiesta sociale?

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    Piano b

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La chiusura delle fabbriche, la scomparsa della classe operaia, la riconversione dei capannoni dismessi. La città post-industriale, dei servizi, dei centri commerciali. L’immigrazione, la città multietnica, la questione della sicurezza, l’insicurezza percepita dai cittadini italiani nei propri quartieri. Il lavoro precario, il consumismo, la speculazione edilizia, l’inquinamento, la fine delle “comunità”, la parcellizzazione dei rapporti sociali. Parole che da anni leggiamo e ascoltiamo e che ci sembra descrivano in modo appropriato i fenomeni e le trasformazioni in atto nelle città italiane. Ma anche parole di “senso comune”, che diamo per scontate. Descrizioni dei mondi in cui viviamo che è difficile mettere in discussione, che solitamente vengono evocate piuttosto che argomentate. Parole che basta nominare perché tutti bene o male capiscano di cosa si sta parlando. Che ci mostrano in maniera inequivocabile la direzione nella quale sta andando la società in cui viviamo. E, aspetto non secondario, inibiscono l’azione politica collettiva e la nascita di progetti di segno diverso.

  12. Diccionarios “de uso” y diccionarios monolingües para usuarios extranjeros

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    Humberto Hernández

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Un genero centenario ya en otras tradiciones lexicográficas pero de corta vida en el ámbito hispánico es el de la lexicografía monolingüe para usuarios extranjeros. Tan breve es nuestra historia que a mí mismo me cupo la misíon de poner en evidencia Ia notable laguna existente y exponer el modelo del que se suponia debía de ser ese diccionario tan ausente como demandado. Aunque se habían publicado algunas obras que sin ser propiamente diccionarios para estudiantes extranjeros se anunciaban como tales, bubo que esperar basta 1966 para encontrar el primer precedente consciente de este género lexicográfico: el Diccionario de uso del español de María Moliner. Vinieron luego otros repertorios que presentaban aspectos posi­ tivos, aunque de insuficiente nomenclatura unos, como e1 Diccionario básico Sapena idio­ mático y sintdctico, y más extensos, otros, pero necesitados de una exhaustiva revisión en sus métodos y planteamientos.

  13. El educador social. Ética y práctica profesional.

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    Leonor Ronda Ortín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En una sociedad caracterizada por la incertidumbre y la precariedad a los educadores sociales no les basta recurrir a los métodos y técnicas propios de la profesión. El educador, por las características y las circunstancias de su trabajo, necesita una sólida preparación ética.En muchas ocasiones puede recurrir a normas y reglas reconocidas y aceptadas por la sociedad y por el colectivo profesional, pero cuando se halla solo ante el “otro”, muy a menudo, se ve obligado a tomar decisiones que implican su responsabilidad como persona y como educador.-------------------------------------------------------------------In a society characterised by uncertainty and scarcity, social educators require far more than the methods and techniques related to their professional practice. Considering the nature and circumstances of their work, educators also need solid ethics training. They can often have recourse to rules and regulations generally acknowledged and accepted by society and professionals, but when they find themselves against the “other”, they are often obliged to make decisions involving their responsibility as a person and an educator.

  14. Rupturas urgentes em educação Rupturas urgentes en la educación Urgent ruptures in education

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    Pedro Demo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inovar a educação é promessa eterna, porque - segundo se crê - educação é uma das fontes principais de mudança, com o toque ulterior de ser mudança apropriada, aquela mais bem feita. Inspirando-se em Christensen, o texto discute armadilhas da inovação, entre elas: pretender inovar sem inovar-se; buscar controlar o processo de inovação; viver de promessas impossíveis ou de promessas mesquinhas. Os dados sugerem que nosso sistema educacional é inepto: as crianças não aprendem, os professores tendem a ser muito mal formados e mal pagos, a escola está ficando para trás, novas tecnologias não têm chance, e os alunos reclamam cada vez mais. Assim, "reformar" este sistema já não é o caso, porque o sistema já não possui razão suficiente para continuar existindo. Imprescindível seria mudar profundamente, quase começar de novo, em parte para poder estar à altura das necessidades dos alunos em novos tempos, em parte para corresponder aos cuidados pedagógicos da aprendizagem reconhecida crescentemente como desafio continuado. Referência fundamental é o professor, que, afinal, é o agente principal da mudança. Mudar o professor é crucial, porque praticamente todas as mudanças na escola são mudanças docentes. Criticar apenas não basta (nunca basta. É fundamental garantir novas oportunidades.Innovar en el campo de la educación es promesa eterna, porque - según se cree - la educación es una de las fuentes principales de cambio, con el toque ulterior de ser cambio apropiado, el mejor hecho. Inspirándose en Christensen, el texto discute trampas de la innovación, tales como pretender innovar sin innovarse; buscar controlar el proceso de innovación; vivir de promesas imposibles o mezquinas. Los datos sugieren que nuestro sistema educacional es inepto: los niños no aprenden, los maestros o profesores tienden a ser muy mal formados y mal pagados, la escuela está quedándose atrás, nuevas tecnologías no tienen

  15. Differential Tus-Ter binding and lock formation: implications for DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Morgane J J; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2012-10-01

    In E. coli, DNA replication termination occurs at Ter sites and is mediated by Tus. Two clusters of five Ter sites are located on each side of the terminus region and constrain replication forks in a polar manner. The polarity is due to the formation of the Tus-Ter-lock intermediate. Recently, it has been shown that DnaB helicase which unwinds DNA at the replication fork is preferentially stopped at the non-permissive face of a Tus-Ter complex without formation of the Tus-Ter-lock and that fork pausing efficiency is sequence dependent, raising two essential questions: Does the affinity of Tus for the different Ter sites correlate with fork pausing efficiency? Is formation of the Tus-Ter-lock the key factor in fork pausing? The combined use of surface plasmon resonance and GFP-Basta showed that Tus binds strongly to TerA-E and G, moderately to TerH-J and weakly to TerF. Out of these ten Ter sites only two, TerF and H, were not able to form significant Tus-Ter-locks. Finally, Tus's resistance to dissociation from Ter sites and the strength of the Tus-Ter-locks correlate with the differences in fork pausing efficiency observed for the different Ter sites by Duggin and Bell (2009).

  16. Violência na teoria psicanalítica: ruptura ou modalidade de laço social?

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    Tania Coelho dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Haverá uma teoria psicanalítica da violência? Basta associar aviolência à pulsão de morte para explicar o crescimento destefenômeno no laço social contemporâneo? Se nos baseamos na teorialacaniana dos discursos, a violência é um sintoma ou é a rupturado laço social? O crescimento desse fenômeno deve ser analisadoa partir dos efeitos do objeto “a” em posição de ideal de nossacivilização ou como o efeito da abolição do Real como impossívelque o discurso do capitalismo promove? Essas hipóteses sãoexcludentes ou devemos articular uma à outra? Nossa reflexãoressalta os efeitos subjetivos da disjunção entre os elementos emjogo na estrutura dos discursos, verdadeira causa de fenômenoscontemporâneos como a violência.

  17. Los Relatos Zapatistas y su Vínculo con la Oralidad Tradicional

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    Ezequiel Maldonado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina, en la primera parte, la presencia inherente de una tradición oral en las literaturas indias. Una oralidad que permite en el 2001 no sólo la continuidad cul tural en el seno comunitario sino que, en su forma escrita, trasmite relatos e historias que atrapan a escuchas y lectores sin demeritar planos estéticos. En la segunda parte se ejemplifica esta persistente oralidad en los relatos de El Viejo An tonio a través de variados recursos estilísticos: uso de frases recurrentes, trastocamiento de tiempo y espacio, improvisación, sentido de hu mor, ausencia de un orden cronológico etcétera. En sentido estricto, se habla de literatura in dia aquella relatada y escrita por los propios indios; sin em bargo, en el presente caso, Marcos será la voz, el comunicador o “traductor” de An tonio. El ¡Ya basta! indio de 1994 abrió sendas inéditas e impulsó la voz de los sin rostro en el pan orama de la literatura nacional.

  18. Fatores constituintes da cultura de segurança: olhar sobre a indústria de mineração

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    Anna Silvia Vassem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo São notáveis, ainda que insuficientes, os esforços empreendidos por pesquisadores, visando compreender a dinâmica relacionada ao processo de prevenção de acidentes de trabalho. A incidência de tais eventos implica significativas perdas para a sociedade, para as organizações e para as famílias, além dos próprios indivíduos acidentados. Para esse fenômeno, ainda presente nas organizações contemporâneas, não basta uma visão unicamente mecanicista, mas o entendimento das relações interpessoais no contexto laboral, o que remete à cultura organizacional. A partir de uma análise quantitativa, este trabalho buscou testar um modelo de diagnóstico de cultura de segurança do trabalho, presente na literatura, na indústria de mineração brasileira. A partir dos resultados iniciais e de requisitos apontados por um grupo de especialistas da área de segurança, ajustes foram sugeridos e o modelo foi novamente testado. Os resultados validaram o modelo construído e ajustado para esta pesquisa e indicaram que os fatores constituintes da cultura de segurança na realidade estudada foram: aprendizagem organizacional, informação e comprometimento.

  19. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. La educación para la salud en el curriculum escolar

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    Miguel-C SÁNCHEZ-BARBUDO RUIZ-TAPIADOR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo que aquí comprendo con el título «La educación para la salud en el curriculum escolar» intenta ser una reflexión de la misma desde el punto de vista de la función importantísima del profesor de E.G.B.La sociedad está demandando la inclusión de los temas de Educación para la salud en los contenidos programáticos de la Escuela. Es una necesidad que siente una sociedad pluralista, como la nuestra, para saber y poder vivir en libertad. Basta abrir las páginas de los periódicos para encontrarnos noticias que detectan esta necesidad. Así, en noviembre de 1985 la Comisión Antidroga del Congreso en el capítulo tercero dedicado a la prevención de la demanda de la droga, expuso entre sus conclusiones la siguiente: «Una de las actuaciones claves para la prevención primaria de la drogodependencia es la introducción de la educación para la salud en todos los niveles de la enseñanza obligatoria y secundaria. La actitud de los padres y educadores es decisiva».

  1. Nota editorial: misión de la Facultad de Medicina

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    Gonzalo Buenahora

    1934-09-01

    presentar, para obtener el doctorado, un trabajo casi siempre de carácter científico. Influenciado, quizá, por un estudio que leyera de don José Ortega sobre la misión de la Universidad, he pensado que tal costumbre, aparentemente digna de entusiasmo, es un profundo, error que obstaculiza no sólo el verdadero progreso de la ciencia entre nosotros, sino tamhién el desarrollo de la profesión médica en Colombia. En efecto, el fin primordial de la Facultad es formar profesionales y no sabios. Individuos suficientemente capacitados para ejercer honorablemente la profesión sin constituir un peligro social. De modo que el médico, como médico solamente, no tiene la obligación de ser científico. No tiene para qué entrometerse en predios que no le corresponden. Con saber a conciencia lo que los sabios han descubierto basta y sobra. Lo demás es enredar los papeles, tergiversar los destinos, equivocarse de camino.

  2. Comunicar con los visitantes: una 'nueva' faceta profesional para los conservadores-restauradores

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    Santos M. Mateos Rusillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos patrimoniales están más expuestos que nunca a la interacción con los visitantes. Por tanto, ya no basta con trasladar a un público mayoritario unos determinados contenidos culturales, pues la actual situación demanda la inclusión de un tipo de mensajes que fomenten y favorezcan la relación recurso-visitante de forma sostenible. Y es precisamente la Difusión preventiva, entendida como una estrategia de sensibilización para informar y persuadir a los visitantes de la extrema fragilidad de los recursos patrimoniales, la que lo permite de forma óptima. Además, utilizar esta estrategia es una magnífica herramienta al servicio de la identidad corporativa de los propios recursos patrimoniales y de sus conservadores-restauradores. Normalmente, muchas cuestiones relacionadas con las políticas y acciones de conservación preventiva no se explicitan a los visitantes, pero al integrarse en el discurso que se les traslada, permite que estos tengan una idea cabal de esos esfuerzos, lo que redunda en la imagen que tienen del recurso en cuestión y, por extensión, de sus conservadores-restauradores.

  3. del tango argentino desde un estudio de recepción

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    María de los Ángeles Montes Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sociosemiótica realizada en Córdoba, Argentina, en torno a las interpretaciones que realizan los actuales consumidores de tango argentino para apropiarse de una poesía popular, edificada sobre una moral que tiene fuertes puntos de contraste con la de la clase media. Para ello, se realizaron dos ruedas de entrevistas a una muestra teórica compuesta de 26 personas, con el fin de indagar sobre sus preferencias y creencias en las que sustentan sus selecciones. Se ofrece, finalmente, una hipótesis que nos permite comprender por qué la poesía romántica del tango es la selección preferencial: el prototipo de amor que han incorporado es, en parte, coherente con estos poemas y, cuando no lo es, les basta juzgar ese caso particular como menos adecuado al tópico —en lugar de revisar el prototipo interpretativo.

  4. La violencia en centros educativos de Norteamérica y diferentes países de Europa. Medidas políticas tomadas para la convivencia escolar.

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    Antonio García Correa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los temas y fenómenos educativos que más preocupa a la política educativa de varios paísesoccidentales es la violencia, agresión y maltrato físico y psíquico que se producen en los centros escolares.Basta ver como cada día se investiga, publica y escribe más sobre este hecho.Tenemos que reconocer que los profesores e investigadores y la misma política educativa ha esta-do más preocupada por el rendimiento académico, fracaso escolar, que por la violencia escolar. Pero nosestamos dando cuenta que cada día hay menos analfabetos académicos pero más analfabetos emocionales,sociales y sentimentales.El autor nos ofrece en este trabajo un recorrido breve de la violencia escolar y medidas políticastomadas en países occidentales y los resultados obtenidos con estas medidas.

  5. Lactancia Materna y VIH/SIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeria Cortés, F.; Jaime Pérez, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Rosina Cianelli, A.; Báltica Cabieses, V.

    2009-01-01

    Resumen VIH/SIDA es una pandemia que afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños, pero que presenta una tendencia hacia la feminización, afectando especialmente a mujeres jóvenes. Su consecuencia es el aumento de la transmisión vertical, durante el embarazo, parto o lactancia materna. Este estudio bibliográfico describe la relación entre VIH/SIDA y lactancia materna, explicitando factores que influyen en la elección de la modalidad de alimentación de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA. Se describen causas de morbimortalidad infantil asociada y recomendaciones internacionales de lactancia en mujeres con VIH/SIDA. En un mundo globalizado con constantes migraciones poblacionales, estos resultados representan un llamado de atención para profesionales de salud quienes deben considerar factores sociales que influenciarán la toma de decisión de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA al escoger la modalidad de lactancia. No sólo basta conocer el riesgo de transmisión vertical, sino que se debe tomar conciencia de aquellos factores dinámicos y específicos de cada comunidad. PMID:20046815

  6. ORGANISMOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS: um estudo sob a ótica do Direito à informação do Consumidor 1

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    Ana Paula Rodrigues Lorenzini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca observar a problemática do consumo de organismos geneticamente modificados no contexto da atual incerteza científica que permeia as relações humanas – a sociedade de risco. Diante disso, a abordagem do tema é realizada com base no Princípio da Precaução – oriundo do direito ambiental – e o Princípio da Vulnerabilidade – que advêm da legislação consumerista – visto que, em conjunto, os mesmos  ponderam o desconhecimento científico envolvido na questão, conferindo supremacia ao direito de informação do consumidor. Nesse contexto, constata-se que para a real liberdadede escolha do consumidor, não basta o rótulo mencionar que há OGM’s na composição do produto.Assim, finaliza-se defendendo o amplo direito de informação do consumidor através da adoção de rótulos que alertem para a incerteza científica acerca dos possíveis efeitos do uso de produtos que contêm OGM’s.

  7. A interação entre escola e família: desenvolvimento das crianças na educação infantil

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    Sirlene Alkamin Costa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo a compreensão da organização familiar no processo de desenvolvimento da criança na educação infantil. As investigações possibilitaram conhecer e compreender as relações familiares e seu reflexo no desenvolvimento da criança. Realizou-se análise de referencial teórico, pesquisa de campo, com abordagem qualitativa observações descritivas e entrevistas. Concluiu-se que uma criança precisa do acompanhamento dos adultos e educadores e que não basta à participação dos pais nos momentos de festividades é necessário viver com seus filhos o espaço escolar, como um local que preserva, cuida e alicerça os fazeres da infância enquanto tempo de vida. Palavras-chave: Educação infantil; desenvolvimento da criança; famílias.

  8. De metrificação e poesia latina

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    Alceu Dias Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A distinção fonética x fonologia é decisiva no estudo da prosódia latina, pois propicia o estudo dos versos dessa língua sem recurso à pronúncia em voz alta dos seus fonemas. Assim, para que o a inicial da Eneida cumpra seu papel, basta contar-se com que ele contém, por sua abertura máxima, todas as vogais da língua. O tempo, como unidade da língua, é importante na constituição do verso latino. Mas é preciso insistir em que tempo, aí, não é sílaba, portanto o verso latino t em constituição diferente do verso em idiomas modernos. Por isso, em latim, versos são realidade em grande parte psíquica, pouco importando se, para os romanos, eram também física. Só no conceito greimasiano de efeito de ou dos sentidos é que se tem um indicador seguro para a leitura de versos latinos.

  9. ¿Tiene el concepto de política de J. Rancière presupuestos marxistas?

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    Andrés Felipe Parra Ayala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo interroga críticamente la pretensión de Jacques Rancière de pensar la política sin referencia a espacios sociales ni a las relaciones de poder que tienen lugar en ellos. En este texto se pretende mostrar que estas descripciones y cartografías de los espacios sociales operan como presupuestos ocultos de la teoría rancieriana, a pesar de ser rechazadas por el mismo filósofo francés como elementos fundamentales de la reflexión sobre la política. El artículo se acerca en la primera parte a las objeciones del pensador francés en contra de las teorías que derivan la naturaleza del conflicto político de la comprensión de los conflictos sociales, como el marxismo. En la segunda parte se muestra que el concepto rancieriano de la política, sin referirse a descripciones sociológicas de la sociedad como las del marxismo, caería en contradicciones internas a la hora de vincular la política con la emancipación, pues la figura de la actualización de la igualdad no basta para definir el carácter emancipatorio la irrupción política.

  10. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  11. EL POSICIONAMIENTO ESTRATÉGICO DEL AUTOR EN ARTÍCULOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN: UNA PROPUESTA PARA SU ESTUDIO

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    Paulina Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Artículo de Investigación se define, frecuentemente, como un texto especializado en el que se comunican los resultados de una investigación. Esta concepción es, a nuestro parecer, neutra e ingenua, pues no da cuenta del hecho de que escribir y publicar un Artículo de Investigación es siempre una acción estratégico–persuasiva: no basta con señalar ciertos resultados, sino que también es fundamental persuadir a la audiencia de su relevancia en el contexto del conocimiento ya establecido, y de que son resultados que merecen ser considerados. Sobre la base de un trabajo de corte teórico, bibliográfico y reflexivo, nuestro objetivo es proponer una alternativa para el estudio del Artículo de Investigación, basada en nuestra concepción del fenómeno. Como principal resultado, proponemos la noción de posicionamiento estratégico del autor como una opción más acabada y exhaustiva para explicar los aspectos sociales y discursivos que subyacen a la transmisión del conocimiento.

  12. Exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 System for Targeted Genome Mutagenesis in Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia; Yang, Chunping; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Yulong

    2016-02-03

    Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has emerged as a powerful approach for targeted genome modification in eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human cell lines. Its successful application in several plant species promises enormous potential for basic and applied plant research. However, extensive studies are still needed to assess this system in other important plant species, to broaden its fields of application and to improve methods. Here we showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is efficient in petunia (Petunia hybrid), an important ornamental plant and a model for comparative research. When PDS was used as target gene, transgenic shoot lines with albino phenotype accounted for 55.6%-87.5% of the total regenerated T0 Basta-resistant lines. A homozygous deletion close to 1 kb in length can be readily generated and identified in the first generation. A sequential transformation strategy--introducing Cas9 and sgRNA expression cassettes sequentially into petunia--can be used to make targeted mutations with short indels or chromosomal fragment deletions. Our results present a new plant species amenable to CRIPR/Cas9 technology and provide an alternative procedure for its exploitation.

  13. Perfil Sazonal dos Enterococcus e E. coli nos mananciais do Distrito Federal - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v5i1.417

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    Ana Flavia Correia Heringer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a eficácia de um indicador microbiológico não basta verificar sua ação como fato isolado. O ambiente externo tem seu papel designado de acordo com as variações climáticas. No Distrito Federal duas estações são aparentes: o período da seca e da chuva. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os valores obtidos aplicando-se as técnicas do substrato enzimático para E. coli e dos tubos múltiplos para Enterococcus, comparando-os para se obter aquele que apresenta-se como melhor indicador de contaminação e determinar a influência do clima sobre a população de bactérias presentes nos mananciais. Valores demonstraram que os Enterococcus foram tão ou mais resistentes à ação do meio externo que a E. coli, embora não se possa concluir que exista um indicador mais eficaz. A avaliação sazonal determina quando podemos utilizar os indicadores devido às adversidades do meio conferindo mais segurança para a qualidade da água e, conseqüentemente, a saúde humana.

  14. El Rakin, conteo mapuche, un conocimiento con valor de uso

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    Gloria Quidel Catrilaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio está referido al sistema de numeración y las formas de conteo del pueblo mapuche. La necesidad de cuantificar hizo que este pueblo creara su propia forma de conteo ( Rakin , dando origen a un sistema de numeración decimal perfecto q ue se ha traspasado oralmente de generación en generación, por lo que no tiene símbolos para representar los números. El Rakin como práctica social de l pueblo mapuche encuentra valor en su uso , es un conocimiento situado producto de la construcción social de un pueblo en un contexto específico. Este sistema de numeración tiene una lógica decimal en donde basta saber con tar hasta diez para poder continuar contando . Para esto utiliza principios agregativos y repetitivos o multiplicativos. Es de interés de est e estudio sistematizar y visibilizar un conocimiento de origen social como alternativa epistémica que permita validar otros conocimientos más allá del conocimiento cient ífico y cooperar a la generación de una relatividad epistémica que reconozca distintos tipos de conocimiento de los seres humanos organizados en sociedades. El método de análisis utilizado es cualitativa etnográfica y los instrumentos que se utilizaron fueron entrevistas.

  15. A reta e a curva: a estética da paisagem?

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    Euler Sandeville Junior

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a common compreension i n landscape architecture that formal design is like a hard human dominance over nature and the organic or informal landscape means total identification with nature. Then I thinkthatthe understandingofthesimbolism in landscape architecture is basic to our compreension of the past masterpiece and to the compreension of the historic relationship between nature, culture and design that is the base to studies about landscape architecture. The kind of contrasts like straight line against curve lines, the rational aganist the organic, are also very common in architecture and urban design and my intention in this paper is to introduce my thinking about these. "Na ilusão o desejo basta a si mesmo; não espera nenhum apoio da experiência * (Rosset, 1989 *Parks and gardens of curves are always new, always revealing new thoughts and new interests in life. Straight lines are copied from the achitect and do not belong to the landscape. They have nothing to do with nature, of which landscaping is a part and out of which art has grown. Landscaping must follow the lines of the tree with its thousands of curves

  16. A formação do intérprete educacional e sua atuação em sala de aula

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    Luiz Cláudio Oliveira Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available É fundamental contar com a participação do intérprete educacional de Língua de Sinais (LS na inclusão. Esse artigo aborda a formação e as diferentes funções dos intérpretes em contextos educacionais inclusivos. Basta ser conhecedor da LS? Isso garante ao intérprete o sucesso em sua função? É preciso também agir como mediador entre professor e os alunos surdos, buscando promover a compreensão. Nessa pesquisa foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com onze intérpretes que atuam na inclusão, buscando conhecer a formação inicial, o tempo de exercício profissional, quais as motivações e quais as funções que desempenha na sala de aula e na escola. Resultados apontam a ausência de planejamento conjunto professor-intérprete e de acesso prévio aos conteúdos apresentados em sala. Verificou-se que quando o intérprete age pedagogicamente, crianças surdas aprendem mais.

  17. Notas sobre la recepcion del “lanzarote” Español en el siglo XVI (Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, ms. 9.611

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    José Manuel Lucía Megías

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Libra del cavallero Zifar (romance Castellano de principios del siglo XIVI se alude al lai Lanval de María de Francia en un curioso episodio que está llamado a ser uno de los primeros reclamos literarios explícitos de la materia artúrica en la Península Ibérica. Detengámonos en él unos instantes: Roboán, hijo del Cavallero Zifar, es enviado por el emperador de Trigrida al Otro Mundo, a las Islas Dotadas. En un "batel sin gobernalle" arriba a una tierra protegida por rocas tan altas que llegan basta el cielo. El infante entra por un "postigo" que abre las puertas ante su presencia y después de recorrer algo más de "seis migeros" por un caño, llega "a la otra parte" y se encuentra con dos doneelias "muy bien vestidas e muy apuestas" que le informan sobre la naturaleza encantada del lugar, el nombre de su señora -Nobleza-, y la historia de su madre -Señora del Parescer-, de su padre -Lanval. Mientras que el grupo se encamina al encuentro de la emperatriz, una doncella comienza a leer Ia historia de Lanval (Yván en el Zifar.

  18. Breve estudio sobre las Patentes y su utilización como fuente de Información.

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    Liset Pentón Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo acelerado de la producción demanda constantemente de nuevas técnicas, vinculadas directamente al avance de la ciencia y la tecnología, como respuesta del hombre al desafío de la vida, y dentro de ellas las innovaciones, como frutos específicos, tienen gran importancia, por lo que se hace necesario dejar bien claro que no basta con generar ideas, sino que han de ser protegidas, así como a los creadores de estas ideas, que también merecen encontrar protección a sus derechos, considerando de vital importancia realizar una revisión bibliográfica, tratando de familiarizar al mundo empresarial, con esta temática, exponiéndoles qué son las patentes, su importancia, y cómo el conocimiento de este tipo de información y su uso efectivo se ha hecho indispensable en el quehacer creativo del movimiento científico e innovador.

  19. Isolation of Persicaria minor sesquiterpene synthase promoter and its deletions for transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Aimi Farehah; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2016-11-01

    Sesquiterpene synthase (SS) catalyzes the formation of sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) via carbocation intermediates. In this study, the promoter region of sesquiterpene synthase was isolated from Persicaria minor to identify possible cis-acting elements in the promoter. The full-length PmSS promoter of P. minor is 1824-bp sequences. The sequence was analyzed and several putative cis-acting regulatory elements were identified. Three cis-acting regulatory elements were selected for deletion analysis which are cis-acting element involved in wound responsiveness (WUN), cis - acting element involved in defense and stress responsiveness (TC) and cis-acting element involved in ABA responsiveness (ABRE). Series of deletions were conducted to assess the promoter activity producing three truncated fragments promoter; Prom 2 1606-bp, Prom 3 1144- bp, and Prom 4 921-bp. The full-length promoter and its deletion series were cloned into the pBGWFS7 vector which contain β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter gene. All constructs were successfully transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana based on PCR of positive BASTA resistance plants.

  20. Alfabetismo científico, misión de la universidad y ciudadanía: ideas para su construcción en los países en vías de desarrollo Scientific literacy, mission of the university and citizenship: ideas for their construction in developing countries

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    Francisco López Segrera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta un análisis del nuevo concepto de alfabetismo científico como competencia requerida para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía en el siglo XXI y como complemento y ampliación del alfabetismo tradicional. Ya no basta con enseñar a leer y escribir, es necesario también hacer realidad la educación permanente para todos y el acceso universal a las Tics en un marco de pertinencia e inclusión social.The present article is an analysis of the new concept of scientific literacy as a requirement for the exercise of citizenship in the 21st century and as complement and extension of traditional literacy. It is no longer enough to teach how to read and write, it is necessary also to make lifelong education for all and the universal access to the ICTs a reality in a frame of relevancy and social inclusion.

  1. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

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    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  2. Insights into early extracellular matrix evolution: spongin short chain collagen-related proteins are homologous to basement membrane type IV collagens and form a novel family widely distributed in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Geourjon, Christophe; Aghajari, Nushin; Navratil, Vincent; Deléage, Gilbert; Lethias, Claire; Exposito, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    Collagens are thought to represent one of the most important molecular innovations in the metazoan line. Basement membrane type IV collagen is present in all Eumetazoa and was found in Homoscleromorpha, a sponge group with a well-organized epithelium, which may represent the first stage of tissue differentiation during animal evolution. In contrast, spongin seems to be a demosponge-specific collagenous protein, which can totally substitute an inorganic skeleton, such as in the well-known bath sponge. In the freshwater sponge Ephydatia mülleri, we previously characterized a family of short-chain collagens that are likely to be main components of spongins. Using a combination of sequence- and structure-based methods, we present evidence of remote homology between the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of spongin short-chain collagens and type IV collagen. Unexpectedly, spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins were retrieved in nonsponge animals, suggesting that a family related to spongin constitutes an evolutionary sister to the type IV collagen family. Formation of the ancestral NC1 domain and divergence of the spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families may have occurred before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest divergence among extant animal phyla. Molecular phylogenetics based on NC1 domain sequences suggest distinct evolutionary histories for spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families that include spongin short-chain collagen-related gene loss in the ancestors of Ecdyzosoa and of vertebrates. The fact that a majority of invertebrates encodes spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins raises the important question to the possible function of its members. Considering the importance of collagens for animal structure and substratum attachment, both families may have played crucial roles in animal diversification.

  3. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  4. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja

    2014-10-30

    Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.

  6. Mine Waste and Acute Warming Induce Energetic Stress in the Deep-Sea Sponge Geodia atlantica and Coral Primnoa resedeaformis; Results From a Mesocosm Study

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    Elliot Scanes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is the potential for climate change to interact with pollution in all of the Earth's oceans. In the fjords of Norway, mine tailings are released into fjords generating suspended sediment plumes that impact deep-sea ecosystems. These same deep-sea ecosystems are expected to undergo periodic warming as climate change increases the frequency of down-welling events in fjords. It remains unknown how a polluted deep-sea ecosystem would respond to down-welling because multiple stressors will often interact in unpredictable ways. Here, we exposed two deep-sea foundation species; the gorgonian coral Primnoa resedaeformis and the demosponge Geodia atlantica to suspended sediment (10 mg L−1 and acute warming (+5°C in a factorial mesocosm experiment for 40 days. Physiology (respiration, nutrient flux and cellular responses (lysosomal cell stability were measured for both the coral and sponge. Exposure to elevated suspended sediment reduced metabolism, supressed silicate uptake and induced cellular instability of the sponge G. atlantica. However, combining sediment with warming caused G. atlantica to respire and excrete nitrogen at a greater rate. For the coral P. resedaeformis, suspended sediments reduced O:N ratios after 40 days, however, warming had a greater effect on P. resedaeformis physiology compared to sediment. Warming increased respiration, nitrogen excretion, and cellular instability which resulted in lower O:N ratios. We argue that suspended sediment and warming can act alone and also interact to cause significant harm to deep-sea biota, however responses are likely to be species-specific. Warming and pollution could interact in the deep-sea to cause mortality to the coral P. resedaeformis and to a lesser extent, the sponge G. atlantica. As foundation species, reducing the abundance of deep sea corals and sponges would likely impact the ecosystems they support.

  7. The Largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873–1876 treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition “Valdivia” (1898-1899, Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm. With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  8. Deep developmental transcriptome sequencing uncovers numerous new genes and enhances gene annotation in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Valverde, Selene L; Calcino, Andrew D; Degnan, Bernard M

    2015-05-15

    The demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica is amongst the few early-branching metazoans with an assembled and annotated draft genome, making it an important species in the study of the origin and early evolution of animals. Current gene models in this species are largely based on in silico predictions and low coverage expressed sequence tag (EST) evidence. Amphimedon queenslandica protein-coding gene models are improved using deep RNA-Seq data from four developmental stages and CEL-Seq data from 82 developmental samples. Over 86% of previously predicted genes are retained in the new gene models, although 24% have additional exons; there is also a marked increase in the total number of annotated 3' and 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Importantly, these new developmental transcriptome data reveal numerous previously unannotated protein-coding genes in the Amphimedon genome, increasing the total gene number by 25%, from 30,060 to 40,122. In general, Amphimedon genes have introns that are markedly smaller than those in other animals and most of the alternatively spliced genes in Amphimedon undergo intron-retention; exon-skipping is the least common mode of alternative splicing. Finally, in addition to canonical polyadenylation signal sequences, Amphimedon genes are enriched in a number of unique AT-rich motifs in their 3' UTRs. The inclusion of developmental transcriptome data has substantially improved the structure and composition of protein-coding gene models in Amphimedon queenslandica, providing a more accurate and comprehensive set of genes for functional and comparative studies. These improvements reveal the Amphimedon genome is comprised of a remarkably high number of tightly packed genes. These genes have small introns and there is pervasive intron retention amongst alternatively spliced transcripts. These aspects of the sponge genome are more similar unicellular opisthokont genomes than to other animal genomes.

  9. The largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Gan, Lu; Jochum, Klaus P; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873-1876) treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899), Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm). With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  10. Giant siliceous spicules from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Only 13 years after realizing, during a repair of a telegraph cable pulled out from the deep sea, that the depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, the Challenger expedition (1873-1876) treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges (Hexactinellida). They had been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges (phylum Porifera); they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Soon after, during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899), Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3-m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structure, the giant basal spicules (3 mx10 mm). Using these spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be achieved. They are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold (composed of a 27-kDa protein), which mediates the formation of the siliceous lamellae, into which the proteins are encased. The high number of 800 of 5-10 microm thick lamellae is concentrically arranged around the axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon oxide, providing it with unusually optophysical properties, which are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments might suggest that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges, also the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein (27-kDa protein). It is suggested that these basic insights will surely contribute to a further applied utilization and exploration of silica in bio-material/biomedical science.

  11. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

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    Juliane Germer

    Full Text Available The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM, and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify.

  12. Ensino da enfermagem psiquiátrica/saúde mental: sua interface com a Reforma Psiquiátrica e diretrizes curriculares nacionais La enseñanza de la enfermería psiquiátrica/salud mental: su conexión con la Reforma Psiquiátrica y las directrices curriculares nacionales Teaching psychiatric nursing/mental health: its interface with the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and national curriculum guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josicelia Dumêt Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo teórico acerca do processo de formação em Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Saúde Mental, frente às crescentes mudanças no mundo globalizado e seu acelerado processo de modernização científica e tecnológica. Objetiva discutir o fazer pedagógico no ensino da Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Saúde Mental, e sua interface com os princípios da Reforma Psiquiátrica e das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais dos Cursos de Graduação em Enfermagem. Para sua sustentação teórica, adota como referência alguns construtos da Reforma Psiquiátrica e das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem, e sua relação com fatores constituintes do fazer pedagógico na Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Saúde Mental. Evidencia que não basta apontar questões técnicas relativas a conteúdos e ensino, procedimentos didáticos, métodos e técnicas pedagógicas; é necessário superar desafios e implementar as mudanças, pautando-se numa nova perspectiva, e ousando colocar em questão a natureza do saber e das práticas institucionais psiquiátricas.Estudio teórico acerca del proceso de formación en Enfermería Psiquiátrica y Salud Mental, frente a los crecientes cambios en el mundo globalizado y su acelerado proceso de modernización científica y tecnológica. Objetiva discutir el quehacer pedagógico en la enseñanza de Enfermería Psiquiátrica y Salud Mental, y su conexión con los principios de la Reforma Psiquiátrica y de las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales de los Cursos de Graduación en Enfermería. Para su sustentación teórica, adopta como referencia algunos constructos de la Reforma Psiquiátrica y de las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales del Curso de Graduación en Enfermería, y su relación con factores constituyentes del quehacer pedagógico en la Enfermería Psiquiátrica y Salud Mental. Evidencia que no basta apuntar cuestiones técnicas relativas a contenidos y enseñanza, procedimientos didácticos, m

  13. Conhecimento sobre terapêutica medicamentosa em diabetes: um desafio na atenção à saúde Conocimiento sobre la terapéutica medicamentosa en diabetes: un desafío en la atención a la salud Patients' knowledge regarding medication therapy to treat diabetes: a challenge for health care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Turcatto Gimenes Faria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento dos pacientes acerca da terapia medicamentosa em uso para o controle do diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal realizado em um centro universitário do interior paulista, em 2007. Foram entrevistados 46 pacientes com diabetes, mediante questionário que investigou variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e referentes à terapia medicamentosa. Foi realizada análise univariada dos dados e cálculo de medidas de tendência central. RESULTADOS: Dos participantes, 89,1% utilizavam antidiabéticos orais, 41,3% insulina e 30,4% terapia combinada com antidiabéticos orais e insulina. Dos 46 investigados, 56,5% apresentaram déficit no conhecimento acerca da terapia medicamentosa para o controle do diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes apresentou déficit de conhecimento em relação ao medicamento em uso. Os resultados apontam a necessidade de construção de um processo de reorientação da atenção ao paciente nos serviços de saúde, pois não basta oferecer os medicamentos, mas é preciso avaliar a forma como vêm sendo utilizados.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de los pacientes respecto a la terapia medicamentosa usada para el control de la diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en un centro universitario del interior de São Paulo, en el 2007. Fueron entrevistados 46 pacientes con diabetes, mediante un cuestionario que permitió investigar variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y referentes a la terapia medicamentosa. Fue realizado el análisis univariado de los datos y cálculo de medidas de tendencia central. RESULTADOS: De los participantes, el 89,1% utilizaban antidiabéticos orales, el 41,3% insulina y el 30,4% terapia combinada con antidiabéticos orales e insulina. De los 46 investigados, el 56,5% presentó déficit en el conocimiento respecto a la terapia medicamentosa para el control de la diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSI

  14. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.

  15. Degradation and leaching behaviour of 14C-glufosinate in a silty sand soil. Experiments in outdoor lysimeters with undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, R.

    1996-12-01

    Degradation and leaching behaviour of 14 C-labelled glufosinate in a silty sand soil was investigated in two outdoor lysimeters after repeated application of 12.5 litres/hectare (1/ha) Basta (divided in 7.5 and 5 l/ha respectively). The 14 C-loss during application was 4.8-8.2%. The 14 C-content in the plants (vines and weeds) was 0.3% of that applied at the most. After 130 days, 25.9 and 25.5% of the applied material was found in the soil up to a depth of 40 cm. One year after the first application, this amount was still 18.5 and 18.6%. As a consequence of the renewed spraying, the detected amounts of 14 C were 44.3 and 43.1% some 107 days after the first application in the second experimental year. The additional investigation in lysimeter 2 after 373 days showed a decrease to 33.9%. Most of the detected radioactivity remained in the 0-10 cm soil layer. At the end of the experiment, the amount of 14 C in the 30-40 cm layer was 0.5%. The total residues in the 0-10 cm soil layer were less than 1 mg/kg at all dates of sampling, and only a small amount still represented the free acid of the active ingredient. The average values were 0.05 mg/kg after 130 days, 0.01 mg/kg after 363 days and 0.09 mg/kg at the following date of sampling. In the spring of the following year, no residues of the free acid were detectable. The radioactivity in the percolate amounted to a maximum of 0.11% of that applied and in no case represented the free acid of the ammonium salt. (author)

  16. Degradation and leaching behaviour of {sup 14}C-glufosinate in a silty sand soil. Experiments in outdoor lysimeters with undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, R

    1996-12-01

    Degradation and leaching behaviour of {sup 14}C-labelled glufosinate in a silty sand soil was investigated in two outdoor lysimeters after repeated application of 12.5 litres/hectare (1/ha) Basta (divided in 7.5 and 5 l/ha respectively). The {sup 14}C-loss during application was 4.8-8.2%. The {sup 14}C-content in the plants (vines and weeds) was 0.3% of that applied at the most. After 130 days, 25.9 and 25.5% of the applied material was found in the soil up to a depth of 40 cm. One year after the first application, this amount was still 18.5 and 18.6%. As a consequence of the renewed spraying, the detected amounts of {sup 14}C were 44.3 and 43.1% some 107 days after the first application in the second experimental year. The additional investigation in lysimeter 2 after 373 days showed a decrease to 33.9%. Most of the detected radioactivity remained in the 0-10 cm soil layer. At the end of the experiment, the amount of {sup 14}C in the 30-40 cm layer was 0.5%. The total residues in the 0-10 cm soil layer were less than 1 mg/kg at all dates of sampling, and only a small amount still represented the free acid of the active ingredient. The average values were 0.05 mg/kg after 130 days, 0.01 mg/kg after 363 days and 0.09 mg/kg at the following date of sampling. In the spring of the following year, no residues of the free acid were detectable. The radioactivity in the percolate amounted to a maximum of 0.11% of that applied and in no case represented the free acid of the ammonium salt. (author)

  17. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  18. Gloria Bautista Gutierrez: realism mágico, cosmos latinoamericano teoría y práctica. Editorial América Latina, Santafé de Bogotá, D.C., edición noviembre 1991, p. 141

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Kalenić Ramšak

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available La autora de este libro, Gloria Bautista Gutiérrez, actualmente profesora en la Universidad de Clemson (South Caroline, en Estados Unidos, ha publicado basta ahora muchos ensayos de crítica literaria fijando su especial atención en temas literarios contemponineos, sobre todo en los narradores hispanoamericanos del iglo XX, como son por ejemplo Gabriel García Márquez, Jorge Luis Borges, Emesto Sábato, Juan Rulfo, Carlos Fuentes, Isabel Allende y otros. Como resultado de varios años de investigación y ensefianza apareció en 1991 el libro Realismo mágico, cpsmos latinoamericano donde la pofesora Bautista vio la necesidad de esclarecer el término "realismo mágico" tan vaga y libremente empleado por muchos críticos literarios hispanoamericanos y europeos a lo largo de nuestro siglo. El mayor valor del libro es el esfuerzo de alumbrar y hacer más comprensible el término mencionado, de concretizar y determinar sus límites formales, tanto en el campo teórico como en el práctico, porque en la segunda parte dellibro la teoría se aplica a dos novelas, a Cien años de soledad y a La casa de los espíritus, cuyos autores son escritores muy eminentes, el Nobel colombiano Gabriel García Márquez y la chilena Isabel Allende.

  19. Bens culturais acessíveis às crianças: limites e possibilidades para o desenvolvimento cultural na educação infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriane Sirlene Silva de Assis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de uma tese de doutorado que investigou o processo de desenvolvimento cultural da criança na Educação Infantil a partir das concepções de diferentes sujeitos. O presente trabalho focalizou as concepções das crianças, das professoras e dos pais sobre o acesso das crianças aos bens culturais. A pesquisa utilizou procedimentos metodológicos fundamentados em abordagem qualitativa e coletou dados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e questionários. A Teoria Histórico-Cultural serviu de fundamentação teórica para o estudo. A análise dos dados enunciou que a escola e a família contribuíam para o desenvolvimento cultural das crianças, todavia, essa contribuição ocorria de forma pouco intencional e sistematizada. A pesquisa demonstrou que o acesso das crianças e dos adultos aos bens culturais era restrito e limitado, em especial à televisão, e isso empobrecia as possibilidades de desenvolvimento cultural deles. As atividades artísticas e culturais eram interpretadas como recurso didático-pedagógico e raramente se vinculavam ao lazer, ao divertimento, a ampliação da visão de mundo e consequentemente ao desenvolvimento cultural. O estudo ressaltou que não basta ter acesso aos bens culturais, há que se buscar por meio da apropriação do patrimônio cultural da humanidade, uma atuação mais consciente na prática social.

  20. Nuestro valor judío de la expectación-expedición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi FULLAT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: No parece prudente proponer unos valores de la educación que sean universales. ¿No se acaba inexorablemente en un centrismo europeo?. Basta con descubrir los valores de Occidente. La civilización occidental posee tres orígenes: Grecia, Roma y Jerusalén. Este estudio se ciñe a la esfera judía esperando más adelante continuar con los otros dos. A partir del concepto hebreo de tiempo antropológico y valiéndose de un método hermenéutico, a mitad de camino entre el de Gadamer y el de Habermas, se descubre el valor del futuro —expectación—, valor que posee dimensión emancipadora —expedición—.SUMMARY: It is not cautious to propose universal values of education. When we try it, don't we fall with inexorabily in an european point of view?. It suffices to discover the main occidentalist values. In fact, the western civilization has got three origins: Greece, Rome and Jerusalem. The aim of this article is to analyze the Jewish field, and we hope, in the future, to be abble to deal with the other two. Starting from the hebrew concept of anthropological time and using the méthode of hermeneutics —between Gadamer and Habermas— we find out the value of the future (expectation, a value wich has an emancipatory side (expedition.

  1. El Ajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carda Paredes Antonio

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available El Ajo es del género ALLIUM, AJO, de la familia de las LILIACEAS. El ajo es una planta exótica, herbácea, anual, que fue traída de España junto con la cebolla, su congénere, en la época de la Colonia, y se aclimató muy bien en los climas fríos. El ajo es también planta bulbífera, y el bulbo llamado vulgarmente CABEZA está compuesto de varios bulbillos llamados DIENTES, cubiertos cada uno de una túnica muy delgada, seca y blanquecina. El olor del ajo es más fuerte y más difusible que el de la cebolla y basta que se le despoje de su cubierta o película que lo cubre para que este olor se deje sentir vivamente a alguna distancia. Examinado químicamente el ajo, contiene las siguientes sustancias: mucílago, azúcar, azufre, sales y un aceite volátil amarillo muy acre y de sabor muy fuerte. A este aceite se atribuyen las propiedades excitantes del bulbo. El aceite volátil del ajo se extrae por destilación de los bulbos frescos. Este acéite contiene azufre y es más pesado que el agua. El ajo no es alimenticio pero es un condimento indispensable en todas las preparaciones del arte culinario.

  2. Efficient use of electric power in corporative 3M Mexico; Uso eficiente de la energia electrica en el corporativo 3M Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, Alfredo; Quinones Bonilla, Antonio S. [3M Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico); Bustos Antunez, Jorge I; Reyes Arce, Manuel [Hines Interests, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    It is not enough to count on with the state of the art technology for the daily operation of a building, the challenge is to be able to make a clear analysis and with attainable goals for the optimization of rational use of the electrical energy in the operation of intelligent buildings without affecting the comfort and productivity for users as well as the functionality and profitability for the owner. This went our base to carry out control strategies that helped the efficient use of the electrical energy, obtaining important savings without neglecting the operative part, of services and human within the property. It is thus, that 3M Mexico wanting to reach these purposes, conducted actions to improve the efficiency of the equipment in the following items: electric network, general lighting, air conditioning system, ventilation and extraction, hydropneumatic system, and sumps operation. [Spanish] No basta contar con la tecnologia de punta para la operacion diaria de un edificio, el reto es ser capaces de realizar un analisis claro y con metas alcanzables para la optimizacion de uso racional de la energia electrica en las operaciones de edificios inteligentes sin afectar el confort y productividad para usuarios asi como la funcionalidad y rentabilidad para el propietario. Esta fue nuestra base para llevar a cabo estrategias de control que ayudaron al uso eficiente de la energia electrica, obteniendo ahorros importantes sin descuidar la parte operativa, de servicios y humana dentro de la propiedad. Es asi, que 3M Mexico queriendo alcanzar dichos propositos, realizo acciones para mejorar la eficiencia de los equipos en los siguientes rubros: red electrica, iluminacion general, sistema de aire acondicionado, ventilacion y extraccion, sistema hidroneumatico, y operacion de carcamos.

  3. O disfarce da força

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonil Parraz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos analisar a definição de justiça que Pascal oferece, tal como ela se apresenta no "reino da concupiscência". Para ele, a justiça é "prevenção da sedição" (La 66; B.326. Prevenir qualquer revolta é a garantia da paz no Estado. Para tanto, não basta a arte do bem governar, ressaltada nos "Trois discours sur la condition des grands", é preciso usar a força. Ora, como a força não se deixa manipular por se tratar de uma qualidade palpável, ao passo que a justiça se presta a isso, por ser uma qualidade espiritual, manipula-se a justiça para justificar a força. Esvaziado o velho conceito de justiça: "dar a cada um o que lhe é devido", esta passa a ser o disfarce da força.In this article we intend to analyze the definition of justice in the "realm of concupiscence" given by Pascal. Justice is, according to him, prevention of sedition (L. 66; B. 326. Preventing any revolt is the guarantee of peace in the State. Pascal points out in the Trois discours sur la condition des grandes that the good art in governing is not enough to achieve this goal. It is necessary to use force. Because force cannot be manipulated since it is a tangible quality unlike justice, which is a spiritual quality, justice is manipulated to justify force. Once the traditional concept of justice as "give every one his due" becomes empty, justice becomes the disguise of force.

  4. La Philosophie der Arithmetik, de Edmund Husserl: sobre la fundamentación de la aritmética, del concepto de número al concepto de espacio

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    Luis Alberto Canela Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer libro publicado de Edmund Husserl, Filosofía de la aritmética, contiene una serie de tesis que el fundador de la fenomenología desarrollará, con detalle, en textos posteriores, por ejemplo: Investigaciones lógicas y Lógica formal y lógica trascendental. Esto nos sugiere que el análisis sobre el concepto de número que emprende Husserl en esta primera obra, lleva implícita una investigación que está revestida de conceptos “pre-fenomenológicos”, entre los que basta mencionar el concepto de percepción. Del mismo modo, Filosofía de la aritmética se presenta como uno de los primeros intentos husserlianos por pensar filosóficamente problemas propios de la ciencia, con lo que, el texto en cuestión se reviste de un valor fundamental que vale la pena hacer explícito. The first book published by Edmund Husserl, Philosophy of Arithmetic, contains a series of theses that the founder of phenomenology developed, in detail, in later texts, e.g Logical Investigations and Formal and Transcendental logic. This suggests that the analysis of the concept of number that Husserl undertake in this first work, implies an investigation that is covered with concepts “pre-phenomenological” among which is the concept of perception. Similarly, Philosophy of Arithmetic is presented as one of the first attempts to think philosophically Husserlian problems of science, which, the text in question takes on a fundamental value that this work making explicit.

  5. La gestión participativa en la construcción del hábitat residencial. Experiencia con 54 familias dispersas de Villa El Libertador

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    Mónica Martínez Rusconi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1995, se viene incursionando sobre la temática de la participación en el diseño y materialización del hábitat para población de escasos recursos. A través de sucesivos proyectos de investigación otorgados por la Secretaría de Extensión Universitaria (1995 y el Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la provincia de Córdoba (Martínez Rusconi 1996-1999, y en el marco de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Diseño, se ha consolidado una basta experiencia en el medio local, acercándonos a la comunidad, verdadero protagonista del ejercicio participativo. Una de las experiencias desarrolladas se lleva a cabo con un grupo de población dispersa –54 familias- de Villa El Libertador. La participación como mecanismo de gestión ha permitido el desarrollo de acciones tendientes a abordar la problemática habitacional de este grupo humano, como son la selección y compra de tierra urbana, y la elaboración y gestión del proyecto de vivienda. La obtención de tercera mención, dentro del concurso “La participación en el planeamiento y diseño del hábitat popular” (Cyted 1998, avala las experiencias, métodos y reflexiones abordados dentro de esta línea investigativa.

  6. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MODELOS ARFIMA

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    Elkin Castaño-Vëlez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la introducción de los modelos fraccionalmente integrados ARFIMA para  series de tiempo con memoria larga, ha surgido un gran interés en el estudio de sus propiedades y áreas de aplicación. En este modelo, el grado de la memoria está definido por el parámetro de diferenciación fraccional, el cual toma valores en un intervalo continuo de números reales. Para realizar la estimación de este parámetro y probar la existencia de memoria larga, se han propuesto distintos procedimientos en la literatura. Ahora bien, generalmente no basta con conocer si hay memoria larga en la serie de tiempo, sino que es necesario estimar adecuadamente el valor del parámetro de diferenciación fraccional, del cual depende la dinámica de largo plazo de la serie, y de la componente ARMA asociada al comportamiento de corto plazo. Esta estimación requiere de la especificación correcta del modelo ARFIMA.  El objeto de este documento es el de implementar un proceso de identificación del modelo ARFIMA para series estacionarias a partir de un procedimiento paramétrico propuesto, y comparar su desempeño con métodos semiparamétricos propuestos en la literatura.  Los resultados obtenidos a través de un estudio de simulación, muestran que el procedimiento propuesto tiene, en general, un mejor desempeño.

  7. La elasticidad de la demanda por electricidad y la política energética

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    Alexander Galetovic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el análisis y la práctica de la política energética se suele suponer que la elasticidad de la demanda por energía eléctrica es irrelevante. Este trabajo muestra que durante episodios de escasez de energía una “pequeña” elasticidad basta para generar caídas “grandes” de la probabilidad de déficit y del costo del abastecimiento eléctrico. Esto se debe a que en la vecindad de la capacidad del sistema, la oferta de energía de corto plazo es cercana a vertical. Ilustramos nuestro punto cuantitativamente simulando la operación esperada del sistema eléctrico chileno durante los años de ajuste a la crisis causada por los cortes de gas argentinos, el periodo 2006-2010. Mostramos que el aumento de los precios causado por el retraso de las inversiones y los cortes de gas argentino, combinado con una “pequeña” elasticidad de la demanda mensual por energía (0.0548 en valor absoluto eran suficientes para reducir mucho la probabilidad de déficit mensual y retornarla a niveles normales. Más aún, si se soslaya el efecto de los mayores precios en el consumo, el costo marginal se sobreestima en 32% y el costo de operación esperado en 41 por ciento.

  8. IMPACTOS DAS MUDANÇAS E INOVAÇÕES NO ENSINO SUPERIOR

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    Danielle Rabelo Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva abordar o impacto de algumas mudanças e inovações nas Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES, fazendo inicialmente uma abordagem do contexto atual, avaliando o crescimento observado nas duas últimas décadas e as novas possibilidades de desenvolvimento das mesmas. As IES têm um grande desafio pela frente e o trabalho ora apresentado discute duas grandes contribuições que podem ser dadas à sociedade e ao crescimento do país: o uso de Metodologias Ativas como ferramenta inovadora e a contribuição do Ensino a Distância (EaD no ensino superior. Avalia-se aqui como essas duas ações podem propiciar um diferencial à qualidade de ensino e melhor preparação para o mercado de trabalho e uma maior inclusão de pessoas nesse nível de ensino. A tendência é que as organizações melhorem seus produtos, invistam em novas ideias, tornem o conhecimento produtivo nessa diversidade tecnológica. A instituição que não abre os olhos para as inovações e transformações está fadada ao fracasso, mas não basta apenas olhar: é preciso ver, conhecer, entender e aderir às mudanças, até mesmo promovê-las. Só assim ela não ficará estagnada.

  9. Programación de ciclos de maquinado en tornos con control numérico

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    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available La realidad colombiana, como país en vía de desarrollo, ha demostrado la necesidad de introducir nuevas tecnologías para tener competitividad en los mercados nacional e internacional. Pero no basta con importar tecnología y seguir siendo dependientes de ésta, sino que se hace necesario tomar desarrollos tecnológicos y adecuarlos a nuestras necesidades. Una forma de avanzar en este sentido es desarrollar una tecnología nacional que nos permita tener cierto nivel de independencia y disminuir costos de importaciones. La Industria Metalmecánica, como principal generadora de Bienes de Capital, debe estar a la vanguardia de los avances tecnológicos. La introducción de los procesos de CAD/CAM y CNC al país ha sido lenta y generalmente subutilizada y acondicionada a la asistencia técnica de las compañías extranjeras. Por tal razón, la generación de Software y demás soportes tecnológicos en esta área constituyen la base que puede iniciar el proceso de independencia tecnológica en este campo. De acuerdo con esta línea de pensamiento, la Universidad Nacional, a través de la facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, con el ingeniero E. Córdoba, profesor de ésta facultad, está enfocando los proyectos de grado en este sentido.

  10. LA EDUCACIÓN, ENTRE LA CIENCIA Y LA TÉCNICA

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    José Alberto Rivera Piragauta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea una reflexión filosófica sobre la educación. Pretende ser un acercamiento, a modo de disertación, redescubriendo el papel que tiene la educación cuando se mueve en coordenadas tan claramente definidas como lo es la ciencia y la técnica, sin desconocer que la mirada está puesta en el horizonte de la educación desde la virtualidad. La metodología consistió en la revisión y el posterior análisis de algunos textos que se referencian a lo largo del escrito, y que son posibles caminos que orientan al lector en temas interesantes y a su vez actuales sobre la educación. Así las cosas, la hipótesis a desarrollar es: El objeto técnico es el punto de encuentro de la ciencia y la técnica que justifica la nueva metodología de la educación en los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje. Es una reflexión que se fundamenta en la riqueza propia de la historia del pensamiento humano y de sus aportes a la ciencia y, por ende, al conocimiento, si y solo si tiene su necesaria réplica en la educación. Dicha reflexión tiene una carga bastante fuerte en literatura filosófica, que sirve de base para elaborar un posterior discurso sobre la educación en medio del mundo tecnológico, ya familiar para todo el género humano. Basta, por ahora invitar al lector a descubrir las aristas y los puntos de interés para propiciar nuevas indagaciones sobre el tema.

  11. O custo da política subnacional: a forma como o dinheiro é gasto importa? Relação entre receita, despesas e sucesso eleitoral

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    Jeison Giovani Heiler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem por objeto as despesas em campanhas eleitorais. Especificamente propõe: a produzir um mapeamento dos gastos eleitorais da eleição de 2010 efetuados por candidatos a deputado federal; b identificar padrões de gastos existentes; c identificar a existência de correlação estatística importante entre diferentes padrões de gastos eleitorais e resultado eleitoral nas urnas. As questões que orientam o artigo são as seguintes: a A forma como os atores utilizam seus recursos expressam as particularidades dos competidores? b Determinados gastos de campanha possuem maior impacto no sucesso eleitoral do que outros? Para fins de mapeamento das despesas eleitorais elaborou-se uma classificação que busca apreender os gastos eleitorais em três grandes categorias: 1 gastos com “publicidade”; 2 gastos com “infraestrutura” de campanha; e 3 gastos com “pessoal”. Os principais achados residem na percepção de que somente o volume de dinheiro não basta para explicar o sucesso eleitoral. Os modelos demonstram que o padrão de gasto precisa ser concentrado e que as maiores despesas devem ser destinadas para "comunicação e publicidade". Além disso, candidatos que disputam eleições em partidos mais organizados e com um grau de coordenação mais centralizado estão em melhores condições do que seus concorrentes que não compartilham dessa situação, conforme hipótese originalmente apresentada por Guarnieri (2011.

  12. activismo y estéticas en experimento

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    Omar Rincón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Podemos comunicarlo todo: tenemos las tecnologías de la comunicación cada vez más cerca; pero no podemos contar nada, porque no tenemos nada qué decir, ni sabemos cómo decirlo. Hay que inventarlo todo, intervenir de nuevo la sociedad desde la comunicación. Es necesario convertir los medios en experiencia estética, social y política. ¿Cómo? Usando a las tecnologías para el activismo y el experimento; recurriendo a los llamado retro, porque no es lo más actual, lo más mercado, como experiencia de inspiración y emoción. Hay que volver a las estéticas, a los modos de narrar y a las historias que están inscritas en nuestras identidades locales; en nuestras sensibilidades femeninas, juveniles o sexuales; en nuestras tradiciones étnicas, o en nuestros modos urbanos. Sólo basta una minicámara para inventar el universo. En este ensayo se realiza un alegato contra los universos estético-narrativopolíticos construidos por la máquina televisiva y la homogeneidad del mercado. En este texto se argumenta a favor del activismo comunicativo, de la exploración tecnológica y de la inspiración étnica como estrategias para generar una mayor conciencia sobre el valor social de la comunicación, la intervención estético-narrativa de la sociedad y la importancia política de los medios de la gente.

  13. DESAFÍO DOCENTE: EL ALUMNO POSTMODERNO

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    Teresa Alfaro Ramírez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las sociedades progresan: la actual, en un mundo que comandan la globalización y la informática, es una sociedad postmoderna. En ella, se han modificado las formas de transmitir y relacionar socialmente la cultura; se han desarrollado nuevos seres humanos, individuos postmodernos con características muy particulares: ellos son nuestros alumnos. ¿Cómo optimizamos la tríada del aprendizaje (alumno-docente-conocimientos? No basta saber los contenidos y ser un especialista en la materia; es indispensable ser conscientes del entorno actual para analizar y comprender las características de nuestros alumnos, también denominados “hijos de la globalización” o “nativos digitales”. Solo así conoceremos, asimismo, nuestra propia realidad como individuos y docentes. El presente ensayo procura analizar las características de nuestros alumnos y reflexionar sobre nuestro papel como docentes en un entorno complejo y cambiante. ABSTRACT: Societies progress: currently, a globalized and computer world, is a postmodern society. In it, the ways of transmitting and socializing culture have changed; new human beings have been developed postmodern individuals with very particular characteristics: they are our students. How to optimize the learning triad (student-teacher-knowledge? It is not enough to know the contents and be a specialist in the field, it is essential to be aware of the current environment to analyze and understand the characteristics of our students, also called "sons of globalization" or "digital natives". Only then shall we know, also, our own reality as individuals and teachers. This paper seeks to analyze the characteristics of our students and reflect on our role as teachers in a complex and changing environment.

  14. Los Refugiados Iraquíes en Oriente Medio: El Ascenso de la “Cuestión Iraquí”

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    Beatriz Tomé

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La invasión de Irak y 2003 y el posterior conflicto intercomunitario han desatado numerosas consecuencias locales, regionales e internacionales. Una de ellas, frecuentemente obviada, es la salida de algo más de dos millones de refugiados a los países vecinos. Lo que convierte a Oriente Medio en la región que acoge a casi la mitad de los refugiados globales. Los principales países receptores, Jordania y Siria, contemplan la llegada de los expatriados iraquíes –intensificada a partir de 2006- desde una perspectiva de seguridad ampliada: seguridad nacional, económica, del régimen y desde el miedo a que éstos actúen como “gérmenes” de los problemas de su país de origen. La respuesta al problema es compleja. No basta ya con terminar con las causas que le dieron origen. La mejor solución es el regreso a Irak: permitiría el aprovechamiento de buena parte del capital humano y financiero situado ahora al otro lado de la frontera. Pero la vuelta necesita de unas condiciones específicas: no sólo el cese de la violencia, también cierta estabilidad y la existencia de una infraestructura que sea capaz de cubrir las necesidades de los que regresan. De no ser así, la situación empeoraría con los que vuelven uniéndose a los ya más de dos millones de desplazados internos e incapaces de integrarse en el nuevo modelo estatal.

  15. Observações biológicas e meteorológicas feitas na Ilha de Trindade

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    Rudolf Barth

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available 1. As observações faunísticas, florísticas e climatológicas formam ainda um aspecto incompleto da Ilha de Trindade. Necessitamos ainda de observações em outras estações do ano e, também, do arquipélago de Martin Vaz, bem como de dados meteorológicos de alguns anos consecutivos. 2. A vegetação da ilha e, concomitantemente, a parte fértil da terra, estão desaparecendo pela influência de animais introduzidos (porcos, cabritos e carneiros que se alimentam das pucas plantas, destruindo o revestimento do solo e, assim, acelerando a erosão. Para possibilitar habitações permanentes em pequena escala, são necessárias duas operações imediatas; a diminuir ou, ainda melhor, eliminar por completo êstes animais cuja carne é comestível; b plantar árvores pelo menos na parte habitada e no córrego que abastece a guarnição com água. 3. O solo é rico em minerais, porém pobre em micro-organismos. Para horticultura basta uma adubação por estrume natural e cal, que existe em quantidade na ilha em forma de recifes coralinos. 4. É explicada a formação provàvel da inversão dos alísios e, com isso, o clima sêco da ilha. 5. De vários pontos de vista (ecologia, climatologia, de navegação e aviação, de previsão de tempo no continente, da pesca etc., torna-se aconselhável manter na ilha um pôsto permanente de meteorologia e radiossondagem.

  16. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars. PMID:26734025

  17. "Poesia para ser série tem que alcançar o grau de brinquedo": Manoel de Barros e o jogo das coisas jogadas

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    Adris André de Almeida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8552.2012n13p75 Em “Os jogos e os homens” (1960, Roger Caillois divide os jogos em quatro grupos: os de competição, os de sorte, os de simulação e os de vertigem. Embora toda a dificuldade de se classificarem os jogos – já que basta um “fora do jogo” para pôr em xeque a classificação –, há algumas características comuns a todos: o jogo é livre – caso contrário, sendo obrigatório, perderia sua natureza alegre e atrativa –; é separado do tempo e do espaço correntes; seu desenrolar e seu resultado são incertos – nada está decidido de antemão –; é improdutivo, já que não cria bens nem obras; tem certo regulamento, que suspende as leis ordinárias, criando uma nova legislação; cria outra realidade, ou uma irrealidade em comparação com a vida vulgar, por isso é uma ficção. A partir dessas seis características fundamentais, o que propomos neste trabalho é ler a literatura como jogo. Para tanto, escolhemos jogar com poemas de Manoel de Barros, já que sua obra poética reúne claramente as características elencadas por Caillois.

  18. Responsabilidad social: compromiso u obligación universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Aguirre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como propósito analizar la responsabilidad social desde el enfoque del compromiso u obligación que las organizaciones universitarias tienen con respecto a la sociedad en la cual interactúan, sustentándose en autores como Vallaeys et al. (2009, Guedez (2006, Pelekais y Aguirre (2008, Pelekais et al. (2007 Carneiro (2004 entre otros. Bajo un paradigma cualitativo, la investigación fue documental y analítica con un diseño bibliográfico. La técnica fue la observación documental, a través de la revisión de textos y otros documentos necesarios para conceptualizar la categoría objeto de estudio; asimismo, fuentes electrónicas. La contrastación teórica realizada dejó en evidencia que las universidades realizan esfuerzos por cumplir con acciones de responsabilidad social que beneficien a la comunidad tanto interna como externa, no obstante carecen de recursos económicos para los planes y proyectos programados, debido a la reformulación presupuestaria. En conclusión, las universidades están sustentadas en pilares éticos donde se ven apoyadas en el compromiso hacia la docencia, investigación y extensión, por tanto no basta con la transferencia de conocimientos teóricos o técnicos sino se ejerce la responsabilidad social bajo una perspectiva del compromiso de los principios y dimensiones de ella, vinculándose a la coherenciadel comportamiento ético individual como capacidad de interrelación del personal dentro y fuera de ella, del tal manera que se genera un vinculo con la universidad-sociedad-empresa generando así una triangulación por el bienestar responsable de la colectividad para garantizar el alcance del bien sustentable.

  19. Degradation behaviour of phosphinothricin in nontransgenic and transgenic maize- and rape cells as well as in whole plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, G.; Pawlizki, K.H.; Ruhland, M.

    2000-01-01

    Up to now only very few publications are available about the metabolism of phosphinothricin (D/L-PPT, trade names: BASTA trademark , LIBERTY trademark ) in plants. In most of these reports degradation studies with cell cultures using very low herbicide concentrations are described. There are no publications about the degradation in transgenic intact plants under outdoor conditions yet. In order to clarify the question, whether the degradation in transgenic crops may differ from that in nontransgenic plants and if there exist differences between D- and L-PPT, the degradation of 14 C-D/L-, -L- and -D-PPT in transgenic and nontransgenic cell cultures as well as in intact, transgenic rape and maize plants was studied under outdoor conditions. D-PPT was not metabolised to a reasonable extent both in cell cultures and whole plants, all metabolites were formed from L-PPT. At harvest the amounts of total residues in maize plants ranged from 9 to 16% of the applied herbicide dosage and in rape plants from 35 to 47%. In nontransgenic plant cells L-PPT was exclusively metabolised to different methylphosphinico fatty acids. The main metabolite both in transgenic cells and whole plants with a content of 60 to 90% of total residues in rape and maize was N-acetyl-L-PPT, which seems to be stable in transgenic plants. In addition very low amounts of the same methylphosphinico fatty acids as in nontransgenic cells were detected in transgenic plants. More than 95% of the total residues were extractable by water, the formation of nonpolar and nonextractable residues was below 4%. At harvest the highest amounts of the residues were found in the treated leaves (4-15%), the lowest in the kernals (0,07-0,6%). According to these results total residues of PPT will not exceed the official tolerances in transgenic rape and maize if application follows good agricultural practice. (orig.) [de

  20. A propósito del libro magistral de Alexander sobre cirugía pulmonar ""The collapse therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis"

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    Antonio Camacho Ruiz

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los libros y publicaciones que sobre el tratamiento quirúrgico de la tuberculosis pulmonar se han escrito ya, pero son muy pocos los que pueden compararse con el que vio la luz en Yanquilandia en 1937 con el título de "The collapse therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis" de John Alexander, en colaboración con Max Pinner, Blair Marnwell y Kirgy Smith, tres grandes lumbreras de la fisiología mundial. No podía ser de otra manera ya que Alexander entre otros muchos títulos y méritos, es profesor de cirugía en la Universidad de Michigan, Jefe cirujano del sanatorio de ese estado, cirujano consultor de varios sanatorios, médico encargado de la sección de cirugía torácica del hospital de Michigan, etc., etc. y quien ha enriquecido la cirugía con métodos personales, mejoramientos en las técnicas operatorias y contribuído grandemente con sus conocimientos y experiencia al progreso de este arte. Además del hombre y de sus capacidades, su campo de experimentación es vastísimo, ya que los Estados Unidos gozan de un equipo sanatorial envidiable, con todo el instrumental y medios de que no dispone ningún otro país. Basta decir que en estos establecimientos hay hospitalizados hoy más de cien mil tuberculosos. Antes de hablar algo de este maravilloso libro tal vez no sería mutil, para ser más completo, decir brevemente lo que ha sido y es la lucha antituberculosa en el mundo y las armas de que se dispone actualmente para combatir este flagelo.

  1. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  2. Overexpression of a New Zinc Finger Protein Transcription Factor OsCTZFP8 Improves Cold Tolerance in Rice

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    Yong-Mei Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses in rice. C2H2 zinc finger proteins play important roles in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a new C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor OsCTZFP8 in rice. OsCTZFP8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein, which contains a typical zinc finger motif, as well as a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS and a leucine-rich region (L-box. Expression of OsCTZFP8 was differentially induced by several abiotic stresses and was strongly induced by cold stress. Subcellular localization assay and yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that OsCTZFP8 was a nuclear protein and has transactivation activity. To characterize the function of OsCTZFP8 in rice, the full-length cDNA of OsCTZFP8 was isolated and transgenic rice with overexpression of OsCTZFP8 driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among 46 independent transgenic lines, 6 single-copy homozygous overexpressing lines were selected by Southern blot analysis and Basta resistance segregation assay in both T1 and T2 generations. Transgenic rice overexpressing OsCTZFP8 exhibited cold tolerant phenotypes with significantly higher pollen fertilities and seed setting rates than nontransgenic control plants. In addition, yield per plant of OsCTZFP8-expressing lines was significantly (p<0.01 higher than that of nontransgenic control plants under cold treatments. These results demonstrate that OsCTZFP8 was a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cold tolerance in rice.

  3. Efecto cristal. Reflexiones sobre arquitectura

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    Dr. Arq. Carlos Pantaleón Panaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ESPEJISMO es una ilusión óptica debido a la reflexión total de la luz cuando atraviesa capas de aire de densidad distinta, con lo cual los objetos lejanos dan una imagen invertida, como si se reflejaran sobre el agua, tal como ocurre en las llanuras de los desiertos. 1 La definición de espejismo nos explica que es una ilusión, una ficción, un desvarío, un delirio. Algo que no es real ni verdadero, la apariencia engañosa de algo que no existe. ¿Pero no existe, realmente? Tal vez se pueda decir, desde algún punto de vista, que una imagen ilusoria no es real. Pero ¿podríamos afirmarlo desde el punto de vista del fenómeno de la percepción? Si lo vemos, ¿no tendríamos derecho a decir que es real? ¿Algo tiene que ser material y poder tocarse, para ser real? ¿No basta simplemente con verlo? Este artículo de reflexión trata sobre el tema de lo ilusorio, de los espejismos y apariencias engañosas que, no obstante su naturaleza falaz, existen y se perciben, y son procesados por nuestra mente como fenómenos sensoriales que conforman nuestra percepción. El hilo conductor es un viaje a través de diferentes paisajes espejados: el del azar, el de las artes y el de la arquitectura. 1Diccionario de la Real Academia Española

  4. Formación para la ciencia: una reflexión sobre los desafíos de la investigación en enfermería en la región de Latinoamérica

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    Laura Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Florence Nightingale, fundadora de la enfermería moderna, en el siglo XIX afirmó que el rol de enfermería es asistir al proceso de reparación natural. Si bien esta aseveración hoy es cierta, la enfermería se ha desarrollado como una profesión en si misma, con su propio cuerpo de conocimientos, un espectro de práctica definido y una educación necesaria para su ejercicio. Hoy, el avance de la ciencia y la tecnología y el contexto de práctica le imprimen una complejidad a la tarea de asistir al proceso de reparación natural. Aquel hacer de enfermería se ha transformado, complejizado, y ya no basta solo con asistir a la persona sino que además es necesario implementar nuevas formas de asistencia y de cuidado. La investigación permite a la enfermería identificar nuevas formas de cuidado y aumentar el cuerpo de conocimientos de la profesión. Este editorial tiene por objetivo compartir una reflexión sobre la práctica de la investigación en enfermería hoy e invita a pensar hacia donde deberíamos enfocar los futuros esfuerzos de producción de conocimiento. Cómo citar este artículo: Alberto L. Formación para la ciencia: una reflexión sobre los desafíos de la investigación en enfermería en la región de Latinoamérica. Rev Cuid. 2014; 5(2: 713-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v5i2.128 

  5. Tecnologias e letramento digital: navegando rumo aos desafios

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    Ivanda Martins Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Computadores, celulares, redes sociais, ferramentas de pesquisa e interação on-line são recursos utilizados pelos alunos no mundo dinâmico da cibercultura. As tecnologias da informação e comunicação estão exigindo leitores e produtores de textos ainda mais participativos. Aos textos impressos, somam-se os hipertextos e os suportes eletrônicos, que demandam diferentes estratégias de leitura e escrita. Será que a escola consegue criar espaços para as práticas de letramento digital dos alunos? Os professores precisam aprender a gerenciar as tecnologias da informação e comunicação. Ensinar com e para o uso crítico das tecnologias é função primordial da escola no processo de inclusão digital. Nesse sentido, não basta apenas usar aleatoriamente as tecnologias, sem planejamentos ou objetivos claros, mas sim transformar as relações dos sujeitos com os suportes tecnológicos. O presente trabalho discute a inserção das tecnologias na escola e apresenta contribuições para repensar o planejamento didático, considerando a diversidade de recursos tecnológicos que os professores podem utilizar na organização de situações de aprendizagem que levem o aluno a aprimorar as práticas de letramento digital.

  6. La nación dividida: análisis multidimensional de las políticas de construcción nacional en relación con las minorías húngaras transfronterizas

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    Dániel Gazsó

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En Europa central y oriental las estrategias de construcción nacional suelen estar relacionadas con un tipo de minorías nacionales que tienen vínculos, tanto objetivos como simbólicos, con su Estado matriz. Uno de los casos que mejor ilustran el desarrollo histórico y la situación actual de este tipo de minorías son las minorías húngaras transfronterizas. Nuestro objetivo principal es dar a conocer cómo influyen en ellas las políticas actuales de construcción nacional de Hungría y por qué estas políticas no responden a sus necesidades. Para este fin no basta realizar una investigación documental, ya que las naciones y el nacionalismo son fenómenos duales, construidos esencialmente desde arriba, pero que no pueden entenderse a menos que se analicen desde abajo. Por esta razón, después de estudiar los antecedentes históricos de Hungría; las mencionadas estrategias políticas de construcción nacional; y la situación de las minorías húngaras transfronterizas, hemos realizado trabajos de campo etnográficos en dos comunidades húngaras, la de Prekmurje/Muravidék en Eslovenia y la de Transcarpatia en Ucrania. Debido a las diferencias que hay entre ellas, su estudio a nivel local e interpersonal permite captar la diversidad de estas minorías y la complejidad de las cuestiones nacionales al respecto.

  7. NUEVO PARADIGMA EN LA GESTIÓN ORGANIZACIONAL: GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO

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    William Boet Cisneros

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación exhaustiva, que tuvo la finalidad de proponer indicadores que permitieran medir el capital intangible de la organización. La motivación principal a la hora de emprender este trabajo estuvo condicionada por la ausencia de una metodología, con valores científicos apropiados para la selección de los indicadores del capital intangible (conocimientos en el Centro Universitario de Guantánamo. Para que el conocimiento se convierta en fuente de ventajas competitivas no basta con que exista, es necesario que se pueda capturar, crear, distribuir, almacenar, compartir y utilizar por los miembros de la organización, y es precisamente a través de la gestión del conocimiento, que se logran estos propósitos, de ahí la actualidad de este trabajo. El objeto de la investigación es dar respuesta a la hipótesis siguiente: Si se aprovechan las capacidades intelectuales de la organización, de forma que desarrolle su capacidad de aprendizaje, que potencie la innovación constante y la creación de nuevos conocimientos y que desarrolle los sistemas y la tecnología necesaria para ello, el Centro Universitario de Guantánamo estará en condiciones de afrontar los retos futuros, y asumir el nuevo paradigma, convertir el capital intelectual en capital financiero

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  8. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  9. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  10. Mapping coral and sponge habitats on a shelf-depth environment using multibeam sonar and ROV video observations: Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bárbara M.; Du Preez, Cherisse; Edinger, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to locate and map deep-water coral and sponge habitats are essential for the effective management and conservation of these vulnerable marine ecosystems. Here we test the applicability of a simple multibeam sonar classification method developed for fjord environments to map the distribution of shelf-depth substrates and gorgonian coral- and sponge-dominated biotopes. The studied area is a shelf-depth feature Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada and the method was applied aiming to map primarily non-reef forming coral and sponge biotopes. Aside from producing high-resolution maps (5 m2 raster grid), biotope-substrate associations were also investigated. A multibeam sonar survey yielded bathymetry, acoustic backscatter strength and slope. From benthic video transects recorded by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) six primary substrate types and twelve biotope categories were identified, defined by the primary sediment and dominant biological structure, respectively. Substrate and biotope maps were produced using a supervised classification mostly based on the inter-quartile range of the acoustic variables for each substrate type and biotope. Twenty-five percent of the video observations were randomly reserved for testing the classification accuracy. The dominant biotope-defining corals were red tree coral Primnoa pacifica and small styasterids, of which Stylaster parageus was common. Demosponges and hexactinellid sponges were frequently observed but no sponge reefs were observed. The substrate classification readily distinguished fine sediment, Sand and Bedrock from the other substrate types, but had greater difficulty distinguishing Bedrock from Boulders and Cobble. The biotope classification accurately identified Gardens (dense aggregations of sponges and corals) and Primnoa-dominated biotopes (67% accuracy), but most other biotopes had lower accuracies. There was a significant correspondence between Learmonth's biotopes and substrate types

  11. Early sponges and toxic protists: possible sources of cryostane, an age diagnostic biomarker antedating Sturtian Snowball Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, J J; Jarrett, A J M; Sirantoine, E; Kenig, F; Moczydłowska, M; Porter, S; Hope, J

    2016-03-01

    The period 800-717 million years (Ma) ago, in the lead-up to the Sturtian Snowball glaciation, saw an increase in the diversity of eukaryotic microfossils. To afford an independent and complementary view of this evolutionary period, this study presents the distribution of eukaryotic biomarkers from three pre-Sturtian successions across the supercontinent Rodinia: the ca. 780 Ma Kanpa Formation of the Western Australian Officer Basin, the ca. 800-740 Ma Visingsö Group of Sweden, and the 740 Ma Chuar Group in Arizona, USA. The distribution of eukaryotic steranes is remarkably similar in the three successions but distinct from all other known younger and older sterane assemblages. Cholestane was the only conventional structure, while indigenous steranes alkylated in position C-24, such as ergostane, stigmastane, dinosterane and isopropylcholestane, and n-propylcholestane, were not observed. This sterane distribution appears to be age diagnostic for the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. It attests to the distinct evolutionary state of pre-Snowball eukaryotes, pointing to a taxonomic disparity that was still lower than in the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma). All three basins also show the presence of a new C28 sterane that was tentatively identified as 26-methylcholestane, here named cryostane. The only known extant organisms that can methylate sterols in the 26-position are demosponges. This assignment is plausible as molecular clocks place the appearance of the earliest animals into the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. The unusual 26-methylsterol may have protected sponges, but also other eukaryotes, against their own membranolytic toxins. Some protists release lytic toxins to deter predators and kill eukaryotic prey. As conventional membrane sterols can be the site of attack for these toxins, sterols with unusual side-chain modification protect the cell. This interpretation of cryostane supports fossil evidence of predation in the Chuar Group and promotes hypotheses about the

  12. 7(th) International Immunoglobulin Conference: Poster presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnatz, K; Ballow, M; Stangel, M; Bril, V

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy is the mainstay of treatment for primary antibody deficiency disorders and has proved to be efficacious in specific autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Additionally, due to the role of Ig in complement activation, it is being used increasingly in solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, Ig is the primary or secondary treatment in some immune-mediated neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) or multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). This session discusses trends of Ig use in Europe, proposed mechanisms of action, adverse effects and the potential role of Ig therapy in transplantation. Dr Šedivá reported that Ig therapy is available in all European countries, although dosing is not always optimal, due partly to reimbursement plans. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) has become increasingly accessible in recent years; however, the chosen route of administration still varies widely between countries. Dr Berger's presentation on optimization of Ig therapy in neuropathies, and Dr Rojavin's report on a pharmacometric model to determine the serum IgG levels achieved by different dosing regimens in primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients, led to the challenging concept of using individualized dosing strategies. Dr Klehmet reported on the potential benefit of using antigen-specific T cell responses as a biomarker of IVIg responsiveness in CIDP patients, while Dr von Gunten provided an insight into the mechanisms of action of Ig preparations, suggesting that the immunoregulatory effects of IgG may be mediated by IgG antibodies against glycans. Dr Basta reported on the potential thrombogenic adverse effects associated with Ig therapy. Although these adverse events are rare, further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between Ig replacement and immunomodulatory therapy and these adverse reactions. In transplantation, Dr Carbone described that prophylactic IVIg treatment was found to decrease the

  13. Estructuración del sistema de ataque 2 – 4 en balonmano. [The 2:4 attack in handball. Structuring

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    José Luis Arias Estero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El balonmano como se conoce en la actualidad ha evolucionado con respecto al balonmano de hace unos años. El balonmano actual ha progresado a causa, principalmente, de la mejora de la calidad individual de los jugadores. Gracias a este desarrollo, las posibilidades de participación de los jugadores han aumentado, tanto en defensa como en ataque. Hoy no sólo basta con destacar en algunos aspectos del juego, sino que además, se exige la utilización de las distintas variables del juego con garantías de éxito expresadas en términos de rendimiento. En este sentido, los sistemas de juego son las estructuras sobre las que se desarrolla el juego. Estas estructuras también son susceptibles a los cambios. No obstante, la literatura encontrada sobre los sistemas de juego en balonmano es escasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue mostrar la estructuración realizada del sistema ofensivo 2:4 en balonmano. El 2:4 es un sistema de juego ofensivo como tal. A parte, dentro del juego con transformación es uno de los sistemas resultantes. Palabras clave: Balonmano, Sistema de ataque 2:4, Estructuración.   Abstract The handball has been evolving for years. The present handball has progressed because of the player’s individual quality improvement. The player’s participation options have increased as much in defence as in attack. Today not only it is enough with emphasizing in some game aspects. It is necessary to use different variables from the game to achieve success and to improve the performance. The game systems are the structures on which the game is developed. These structures also are susceptible to the changes. However, the literature found on the game systems in handball is little. The aim of this work was to show the structuring made of the 2:4 offensive system in handball. The 2:4 is an offensive system. However, within the transformation game it is one of the resulting systems. Key words: Handball, The 2:4 attack, Structuring.

  14. Macroeconomíc aspects of the development plan Aspectos macroeconómicos del plan de desarrollo

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    Lorente Luis

    1999-06-01

    servicio de la deuda externa y la remision de utilidades del capital extranjero. No basta reducir el deficit comercial casi a cero en el 2002: hace falta genera un superavit, es decir, que ademas de aumentar las exportaciones, tenemos que sustituir importaciones, pero sin el proteccionismo simplista de antaño. En vez de aranceles altos, hay que crear fuentes de capital de riesgos dispuestas a financiar nuevas empresas, innovaciones tecnologicas y produccion de bienes con calidad y precio suficientes para sustiruir buena parte de lo que importamos.

  15. As mútuas interfaces entre projetos e ações de educação ambiental e de gestão de recursos hídricos: subsídios para políticas de estado

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    Carlos H. Saito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto problematiza os desafios postos aos gestores públicos que lidam com a necessidade de gerir recursos para apoio a projetos de educação ambiental relacionados à gestão de recursos hídricos. As questões centrais apresentadas são: "Qual Educação Ambiental (EA cabe fomentar?", "Que concepção de recurso hídrico estamos assumindo?" e "Quando um projeto de EA tem a ver com recursos hídricos e vice-versa?". Estas questões são respondidas a partir do reconhecimento da legitimidade e necessidade do Estado em assumir seu papel coordenador, seletivo e indutor, e à luz de diversos estudos de caso. Argumenta-se que não basta ao Estado fomentar projetos, sendo necessário que esse mesmo Estado se estruture para ser capaz de conhecer e avaliar a magnitude e a distribuição das diferentes modalidades de apoio concedidas, assumindo também um papel investigativo de sua própria ação e prática. Acredita-se assim poder manter a coerência entre os resultados das ações e os princípios geradores das mesmas, atendendo ainda os objetivos fundamentais da educação ambiental expressas na Política Nacional de Educação Ambiental.The manuscript deals with problems handled by policy makers which needs do manage financial resources to support environmental education projects relative to water resources management. The main questions presented are: "What kind of Environmental Education should we support?"; "Which conceptions of water resources are we taken?" and "When does a project of Environmental Education have to do with water resources and vice-versa?" These questions are answered by recognizing the legitimacy and necessity of the State to assume its coordinative, selective and inductive hole, based on several case-study. It is also said that it is not sufficient for State to only stimulate projects, and this same State should structure itself to be able to know and to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of the different kind of

  16. ARQUITETURA E ACESSIBILIDADE: UMA QUESTÃO DE DIREITOS HUMANOS

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    Diego Freire Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Com base nos preceitos legais da Constituição Brasileira de 1988, da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT/NBR 9050 e do reconhecimento do direito legal de ir e vir de forma livre e autônoma de todo cidadão, o presente artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre a criação da linha tênue que liga a Arquitetura e Urbanismo à acessibilidade, lançando um novo olhar sobre o tema, que deve ser de consciência geral, em que não basta apenas o segmento de normas técnicas, se faz necessário, em caráter de urgência, a humanização dos ambientes construídos, seja qual for sua natureza. O estudo foi realizado nas dependências de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior, de uma instituição de Educação Básica e nas ruas do centro de uma cidade, todos localizados em uma cidade do Sertão Central. Foram utilizados como referências teóricas os estudos de Sassaki (2009, ONU (2006, Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas – ABNT (2004 e a Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil (1988. Através de levantamento fotográfico, revisão literária e pesquisas de campo foram observadas as barreiras arquitetônicas e urbanísticas que limitam a circulação de deficientes físicos ou pessoas com mobilidade reduzida, e ainda as boas iniciativas frente ao tema. Apesar da legislação existente e das normas disponíveis, a grande maioria dos espaços construídos não atendem de modo eficaz as necessidades de acessibilidade. Percebeu-se a importância do reconhecimento, por parte dos arquitetos urbanistas da dimensão humana; do reconhecimento dos direitos legais de todo cidadão e da dignidade inerente ao homem.

  17. Conocimientos tradicionales: Las tensiones y perspectivas

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    Nilton Cesar da Silva Flores

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Por fuerza de la globalización se ha convertido en un importante desafío nacional el mantenimiento y la protección de los conocimientos tradicionales y los recursos genéticos. Los conocimientos tradicionales son todos aquellos común y de pertenencia a una nación, construido a partir de las prácticas, costumbres y creencias, que se transmiten de generación en generación y cuya existencia genera un impacto directo en la cultura de un país. Además, su concepción puede estar asociada con el patrimonio genético del país. Lo que  eleva la importancia de su protección. Puesto que pueden interferir no sólo en la identidad cultural, así como el desarrollo económico de la misma. Dado que, puede representar la riqueza tecnológica de una nación en contra de su uso para fines de la industria farmacéutica, biomédica, la agroindustria, entre otros. Por lo tanto, su protección debe ser objeto de una exaltación legal, especialmente en el caso de los países en desarrollo. Sin embargo, no es exactamente lo que sucede. Por lo tanto, basta simplemente analisar la   legislación brasileña al respecto. Hecho que hace que su protección sea ineficaz. Aunque carece de definiciones y conceptos esenciales y necesarios para el control adecuado de su explotación. Es sobre esta base, la aparición de la defensa que la mejor manera encontrada por su protección, que és por medio de la utilización de las indicaciones geográficas. Instituto de la Propiedad Industrial, que tiene reconocimiento internacional, se garantizaría una protección adecuada a los conocimientos tradicionales del Brasil.

  18. Impacto y consecuencias del viaje a los Estados Unidos de 1945 en el ministerio de san Alberto Hurtado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Clavero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el impacto y las consecuencias del viaje de san Alberto Hurtado a los Estados Unidos en el año 1945. El acceso a nuevos documentos ha permitido iluminar de mejor manera los motivos del viaje: luego de su renuncia a la Acción Católica, es becado por Mons. Edwin O'Hara para ir a estudiar por un año a la Escuela de Trabajo Social de la Universidad Católica de Washington. El viaje le permite, además, tomar contacto con diversas obras sociales de la Iglesia de EE. UU y de Canadá, profundizar su estudio en la doctrina social de la Iglesia y sus aplicaciones prácticas, y proyectar dos de sus obras sociales más conocidas: el Hogar de Cristo y la ASICH. Finalmente, el contacto con uno de los países más desarrollados del mundo, le inspira en su ministerio sacerdotal a predicar que «la materia no basta» y la centralidad de «la visión de fe».This article shows the impact and the consequences of St. Alberto Hurta-do's trip to the United States in 1945. Access to new documents has shed further light on the reasons for the trip: after he renounced the Catholic Action, Mons. Edwin OHara gives him a scholarship to study at the Catholic University School of Social Work in Washington. The trip also allows him to get involved in several social works of the U.S. and Canadian Church, deepen his study of the Church's social doctrine and its practical applications, and plan two of his best-known social works: Hogar de Cristo and ASICH. Finally, contact with one of the world's most developed countries inspires him in his priestly ministry to preach that «what is material is not enough» and the centrality of the «vision of faith».

  19. Identification of Fitness Determinants during Energy-Limited Growth Arrest in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, David W; Bergkessel, Megan; Newman, Dianne K

    2017-11-28

    infections. Identification of the genes required for survival of growth arrest (encompassing entry, maintenance, and exit) is an important first step toward understanding the physiology of bacteria in this state. Using Tn-seq, we identified and validated genes required for fitness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when energy limited for organic carbon or oxygen, which represent two common causes of growth arrest for P. aeruginosa in diverse habitats. This unbiased, genome-wide survey is the first to reveal essential activities for a pathogen experiencing different types of energy limitation, finding both shared and divergent activities that are relevant at different survival stages. Future efforts can now be directed toward understanding how the biomolecules responsible for these activities contribute to fitness under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Basta et al.

  20. Gestión integrada de recursos hídricos en el Uruguay en el contexto internacional

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    Diana Margarita Míguez Caramés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de proteger el medio ambiente y en especial la cantidad y la calidad de las fuentes de agua dulce contra los efectos de las presiones naturales y antrópicas se ha vuelto cada vez más importante a nivel mundial. Para ello, no basta con aplicar tecnologías de extracción de agua y de depuración efectivas, sino que también se debería implementar sistemas de gestión participativos para alinear las actividades humanas hacia el desarrollo sostenible. La herramienta más idónea para realizarlo es la Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH mediante la cual se genera información sobre la que basar políticas de gestión ambiental y de provisión de agua potable y saneamiento equitativas, que contemplen las opiniones de todos los grupos de interés. En el caso de Uruguay, la Constitución de la República consagra el derecho de todos los habitantes del país al acceso al agua y al saneamiento. El proceso de implementación del sistema de GIRH se inició dándole participación a la ciudadanía a través de un referéndum, luego del cual los referentes en el tema de todos los sectores de la sociedad aconsejaron a nivel parlamentario, y el procesó derivó en la reglamentación de la ley del agua. Se consolidó así una estructura de gestión por cuencas hidrográficas basada en el ciclo hidrológico que se encuentra hoy en un grado de desarrollo que refleja la mejora continua de la institucionalidad de la gobernanza del agua. En esta revisión se releva el desarrollo de estos procesos tanto a nivel nacional como mundial y se propone una serie de herramientas y estrategias para hacer cada vez más eficiente la gobernanza.

  1. As práticas educativas parentais e a experiência das crianças Parental education practices and children's experience

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    Cléopâtre Montandon

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tenta mostrar o quanto é importante estudar a experiência das crianças e seus pontos de vista para podermos compreender os diferentes fenômenos sociais que lhes dizem respeito. Na perspectiva da sociologia da infância, sua experiência é considerada no âmbito das estruturas sociais e do contexto particular nos quais se insere. A partir de vários exemplos no campo da educação de crianças, a autora argumenta que não basta examinar as práticas educativas de seus educadores, mas que é necessário compreender as perspectivas das crianças ou, dito de modo mais simples, que importa analisar não apenas o que os educadores fazem com as crianças, como também o que estas fazem com o que se faz com elas. Duas pesquisas são apresentadas para apoiar essa abordagem: a primeira diz respeito à experiência que as crianças têm de sua educação no âmbito familiar e escolar; a segunda trata de um objetivo particular dos educadores modernos: o desenvolvimento da autonomia das crianças. Em ambos os estudos, a experiência das crianças foi apreendida por intermédio de suas representações, emoções e ações, e foi situada segundo suas características sociais e culturais.This paper tries to show that the experience of children and their points of view are paramount when one wants to understand the various social phenomena that concern them. According to the perspective of the Sociology of Childhood, children's experience is analyzed in the framework of the social structures and the particular contexts in which it takes place. Using different examples from the field of the education of children, the author argues that it is not sufficient to examine the educational practices of adults; it is equally important to examine the children's perspective. In other words, we should take into consideration what the children do with what is done to them. Two studies are presented to support this approach: the first one concerns the

  2. Prevenção de doenças em idosos: os equívocos dos atuais modelos Disease prevention in the elderly: misconceptions in current models

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    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A população brasileira está envelhecendo de forma significativa, num contexto de melhora gradual dos índices sociais e econômicos do país. O aumento da longevidade acarreta maior uso dos serviços de saúde, pressionando os sistemas de saúde pública e previdência, gerando mais custos e ameaçando a sustentabilidade do sistema. A alternativa para evitar a sobrecarga desse sistema é investir em políticas de prevenção de doenças, estabilização das enfermidades crônicas e manutenção da capacidade funcional. Este artigo visa a analisar as dificuldades de implantação de programas de prevenção e as razões do fracasso de diversos programas de promoção da saúde, prevenção e gerenciamento de doenças crônicas no grupo etário dos idosos. Não há saída possível para a crise de financiamento e reestruturação do setor sem a implantação da lógica preventiva. O conhecimento científico já identificou corretamente os fatores de risco para a população idosa, mas isso não basta. Precisamos saber utilizar esse conhecimento para efetuar a necessária transição do modelo assistencial para o modelo de prevenção.The Brazilian population is aging significantly within a context of gradual improvement in the country's social and economic indicators. Increased longevity leads to increased use of health services, pressuring the public and social welfare health services, generating higher costs, and jeopardizing the system's sustainability. The alternative to avoid overburdening the system is to invest in policies for disease prevention, stabilization of chronic diseases, and maintenance of functional capacity. The current article aims to analyze the difficulties in implementing preventive programs and the reasons for the failure of various programs in health promotion, prevention, and management of chronic diseases in the elderly. There can be no solution to the crisis in financing and restructuring the health sector without

  3. El desarrollo del niño hasta los 12 meses. Orientaciones al pediatra para su vigilancia con la familia

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    Carmen Sánchez-Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El pediatra tiene un papel de primera importancia en la vigilancia y promoción del desarrollo de los niños; los padres estiman que es el profesional que puede orientarlos para saber si su desarrollo es normal y sobre la forma de proveer cuidados para favorecerlo. Para atender estas demandas el pediatra debe utilizar distintas herramientas que le permitan comprender la forma en que se va organizando el desarrollo del niño, pero a la vez la forma en que los cuidados, organización del ambiente y condiciones de riesgo y alarma pueden impactar en su evolución. No basta con aplicar pruebas de cribado, deben observarse además los procesos de crianza y la forma en qué aspectos del entorno pueden favorecer o limitar el desarrollo, acompañándose de recomendaciones claras que lo promuevan.  El objetivo primario de este artículo es llamar la atención del pediatra sobre la necesidad de asesorar a los padres sobre su capacidad para vigilar y favorecer el desarrollo normal y el cuidado de sus hijos en las actividades de la vida cotidiana. Señalamos aspectos del desarrollo susceptibles de ser observados regularmente y sobre los que se puede incidir mediante recomendaciones que modulen la relación con el niño. Exponemos una visión clínica del desarrollo infantil que permita, de manera sencilla, resolver las necesidades de los padres sobre cómo supervisar y conducir el desarrollo de sus hijos. Les proponemos complementar su evaluación con indicaciones y sugerencias para que aprendan a observar a sus hijos, siguiendo determinadas secuencias que de no cumplirse indican al pediatra una condición de riesgo y la necesidad de aplicar una prueba de tamizado completa otra de mayor especialización en la que se tenga experiencia.

  4. RIESGO PROFESIONAL DEL ANESTESIOLOGO y DEL PERSONAL QUE TRABAJA EN EL AREA QUIRÚRGICA. II PARTE

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    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available

    3. RIESGOS INHERENTES A PRODUCTOS QUlMlCOS USADOS EN EL QUIROFANO
    Estos pueden ser causados por gases o líquidos anestésicos detergentes y jabones, aerosoles, formaldehído, caucho y materiales plásticos, compuestos yodados y drogas variadas (55.
    Muchas veces estos productos son capaces de producir una lesión dermatológica, y frecuentemente son sustancias potencialmente antígenas y que además del contacto con la piel pueden ser inhaladas, ingeridas, inoculadas (141. Es interesante recordar que los guantes de caucho se inventaron para la enfermera y esposa del cirujano Doctor Halstead, quien era alérgico al fenol y hoy hay muchos cirujanos que son alérgicos a los guantes de caucho.
    Se pueden hac« sensibilizaciones alérgicas a cualquier droga como gases, líquidos, cremas, polvos, etc., a los cuales se está expuesto diariamente y con mayor frecuencia de la deseada.
    El anestesiólogo está expuesto a diferentes riesgos de infección que se podrán ver agravados por la interferencia en su respuesta inmunológica; basta observar las actividades diarias de un anestesiólogo: Intubación de la vía aérea conlos procedimientos asociados aellas; los actos relacionados a una traqueotomía; las venoclisis para inyección de sustancias variadas y la transfusión de sangre; las maniobras para el sondaje gástrico y la punción lumbar (139 y además, en la sala de cirugía se tratan pacientes enfermos, que muchas veces son portadores sanos o que están francamente infectados (60. Los arañazos, punciones, abrasiones etc., establecen soluciones de continuidad que son fáciles puertas de entrada.

    En las diversas encuestas: Venturini y Col. encontraron un 32% de infecciones cutáneas, 250/0 de infecciones oftalmológicas y 4130/0 pulmonares, en las encuestas de CLASA y del Brasil se encontraron un 32% y un 96% respectivamente de anestesiólogos que afirmaron haber tenido infecciones adquiridas por el ejercicio de su

  5. VIDA DE LAS MAQUETAS: ENTRE LA REPRESENTACIÓN Y LA SIMULACIÓN / Life of the models: between representation and simulation

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    Miguel Ángel de la Cova Morillo-Velarde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La maqueta arquitectónica puede representar hasta la simulación una realidad por venir, con toda la fidelidad que permite el proceso escalar, o usar el cambio de tamaño para reivindicar su propia identidad, como indicio de la arquitectura que representa. Pero el escalado afecta a algo más que a la geometría. Los materiales y los procesos mediante los cuales se realiza el modelo también transfieren o replican los de lo proyectado. La maqueta posee su propio tiempo de gestación, su propia vida: es una arquitectura en sí misma. En ese lapso de tiempo, la maqueta convive de múltiples maneras con el dibujo, y es habitada por sus constructores, artesanos que se transforman en arquitectos y viceversa, para luego cobijar los deseos de promotores, técnicos colaboradores y público en general. Todos se moverán por ella con las limitaciones que posee la escala, que han de ser salvadas con la imaginación y el análisis. Los modelos digitales han roto esa magia de juego de manos. Como ya ocurre en la música o en la cirugía, habrá que encontrar las convivencias entre manualidad y virtualidad. No basta con los ojos. Lo real necesita de las manos, “para tomar contacto con la dureza del pensamiento”. SUMMARY The architectural model can represent, evensimulate, a reality to come, with all the faithfulness that the scalar process allows, or it can use the change of size to vindicate its own identity as an indication of the architecture it represents. However,scaling affects more than just the geometry. The materials and processes, by which the model is made, also transfer or replicate those of what isplanned. The model has its own gestation time, its own life: itis an architecture in itself. In that time span, the model coexists in many ways with the drawing, and is inhabited by its builders, craftsmen who become architects and vice versa, to latertake on board the wishes of developers, technical partners and the general public. All will

  6. Estandarización del ensayo del lisado de amebocitos de Limulus (LAL:: método de gelificación

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    Rolando Perdomo Morales

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre las principales aplicaciones del método del lisado de amebocitos de Limulus (LAL está el control de endotoxinas en producto final de drogas parenterales. Para la aplicación exitosa del ensayo se requiere del dominio de un conjunto de habilidades, por lo que usualmente se corre en laboratorios especializados que ya cuentan con una basta experiencia. Aunque ya es un método ampliamente establecido y conocido, la aplicación del ensayo puede ser laborioso, consumir tiempo y reactivos hasta la obtención de resultados correctos. En el presente trabajo se describe la estandarización del ensayo del LAL por el método de gelificación. Se evalúan varias estrategias con la finalidad de optimizar y/o reducir el tiempo total de ensayo, el empleo de materiales como puntas certificadas libres de endotoxinas, tubos de ensayo y la sustitución de agua libre de endotoxinas suministrada por los fabricantes de reactivo LAL por agua para inyección. El procedimiento estandarizado produce resultados válidos según los criterios de la Farmacopea de EE.UU.The control of endotoxins in the final product of parenteral drugs is among the main applications of the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL. For the successful application of this test, it is necessary to have a thorough knowledge of a series of abilities. That's why, it is usually made at specialized laboratories having a vast experience. In spite of the fact that it is already a widely established and known method, the application of the assay may be laborious, take time and consume reagents until the obtention of the right results. In the present paper, it is described the standardization of the LAL assay by the gelification method. Various strategies are evaluated in order to optimize and/or reduce the total time of the assay, the use of materials as certified endotoxin-free points, test tubes, and the substitution of endotoxin-free water, supplied by the manufacturers of LAL reagent, by injection water

  7. A Integração Informação- Conhecimento como Elemento Agregador de Valor Competitivo para as Empresas Contemporâneas

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    Flávia Adrilene de Araújo Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute o papel da informação e do conhecimento no âmbito organizacional, procurando enfatizar, além de sua importância, o novo foco de sua conceituação, entendimento e aplicação dentro do cenário da chamada “era do conhecimento e da aprendizagem contínua”, entendendo-a como fruto de um contexto que impõe constantes mudanças inerentes a um mundo em transformação. Este cenário parece desafiar a inteligência humana a pensar novos modelos de gestão que contemplem crescimento pessoal e organizacional, como meio de agregar valor aos seus processos, bens e serviços, única forma de sobreviver às demandas da nova sociedade. Embora sejam inúmeros os enfoques e objetivos, o que a bibliografia atual aponta como consenso é o fato de a vantagem competitiva das empresas estar diretamente ligada a ativos intangíveis, conhecimento e aprendizagem. Não basta mais prospectar informação, armazená- la, tratá-la, analisá-la, gerar decisão e implementar ações. É preciso que a empresa aprenda com as experiências vivenciadas, estruturando seu próprio processo histórico, contínuo e inacabado. Dessa forma, a conclusão do presente artigo aponta para a integração informação/ conhecimento, entendendo-se a primeira como fruto da busca e análise com vistas à sua coerente utilização; já o segundo como o resultado da aplicação contextual de forma a gerar experiência individual e coletiva, elementos precursores da chamada aprendizagem organizacional. Espera-se que este escrito, portanto, motive o leitor a repensar novos paradigmas de competitividade, estratégias organizacionais e estruturas institucionais, onde a integração entre informação e conhecimento seja considerada chave para o sucesso das empresas nesta nova ordem mundial.

  8. UN NUEVO MECANISMO DE DEFENSA DEL APARATO URINARIO.

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    Pablo Gómez Martinez

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Son muchos los trabajos publicados que explican la resistencia natural del aparato urinario a la infección y las maneras como se defiende. Basta citar unos cuantos para demostrar que ninguno de ellos es plenamente satisfactorio: la naturaleza del epitelio, la evacuación completa del sistema excretor, el factor intrínseco vesical, el lavado hacia el exterior (wash
    out de Hinman, los mucoproteídos, la resistencia del paciente, la virulencia del germen infectante, son mecanismos comúnmente citados como factores en contra del proceso infeccioso.

    Sin embargo, hay que tener en cuenta que la infección no se produce si el organismo es inmune a agentes microbianos, y que si se desarrolla, es porque este mecanismo humoral está disminuido o ausente o alterado, o porque otros, posiblemente existentes, no han sido capaces de vencer el ataque infeccioso al individuo.

    Una vez establecida la infección, los mismos agentes bacterianos obran como antígenos capaces de producir anticuerpos, es decir, de desencadenar el proceso inmunológico que permitirá al paciente salir airoso de la lucha, o modificar la evolución clínica de la
    enfermedad.

    Ya sea natural o adquirida, generala local, la inmunidad es la que en esencia y básicamente, juega un papel de primera magnitud en la defensa del aparato urinario.

    Mecanismo inmunológico local. Hasta hace poco tiempo, la inmunología se ocupaba principalmente de la respuesta serológica a la infección, tanto en el hombre como en los animales y trataba de producir su inmunidad administrando una gran variedad de antígenos
    cuya respuesta se mide por el título de los anticuerpos producidos en el suero, como prueba de la eficacia del proceso. Nadie puede negar que la vacunación ha sido uno de los grandes triunfos de la humanidad en su lucha contra las epidemias.

    Sin embargo, estudios más recientes han demostrado que, aunque puede existir una relaci

  9. Notas sobre fiebre amarilla en Colombia

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    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1937-09-01

    Full Text Available I-Introducción ll.-Datos clínicos anteriores al período de las investigaciones de laboratorio. Época colonial. III-Período de laboratorio anterior al descubrimiento de los animales receptivos. IV.-Período posterior al descubrimiento de los animales receptivos y a la prueba de protección. V.-Trabajos en Colombia durante el período de las investigaciones. VI. El servicio de fiebre amarilla cooperativo entre el Departamento Nacional de Higiene y la Fundación Rockejeller. VIl.-Consideraciones generales. VIlI.-Conclusiones. IX-Recomendaciones. X. Agradecimientos. XI.-Bibliografía. XIl.-Anexos. Legislación sobre viscerotomía. Es de fundamental interés para la vida de la República el estudio y solución de los problemas que se refieren a la salud de sus habitantes; y como el territorio colombiano es cálido en su mayoría, lógicamente se concluye que los asuntos de patología tropical han de ser los primeros en orden de importancia. La fiebre amarilla ha revestido graves caracteres epidémicos en repetidas épocas y por su condición endémica en anchas zonas del territorio colombiano, es una constante amenaza pública; un estudio para conocer su historia, la aparición de los brotes epidémicos, su distribución geográfica, la incidencia de morbosidad y Ietalidad, la localización precisa y la extensión de los territorios afectados, las fuentes del virus y los agentes transmisores, así como la preparación de planes y programas de lucha contra el flagelo, son cuestiones tan interesantes que basta anunciarlas para reconocer su trascendencia. En el deseo de contribuír modestamente al desarrollo de tal programa, he recogido los apuntes cuya exposición forma el presente trabajo.

  10. A mediação da informação aliada ao uso das tecnologias da informação e comunicação em uma biblioteca escolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Gregorio Vidotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A mediação da informação promove a aproximação entre o usuário e o conteúdo de seu interesse.Objetivos: Apresentar um recorte da dissertação “Apropriação das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação em bibliotecas escolares: em busca de um espaço dinâmico”, onde mostraremos as diversas formas para que sejam realizadas interferências no sentido de satisfazer as necessidades informacionais em uma biblioteca escolar, baseada nas propostas do “Manifesto de um bibliotecário 2.0” de Laura Cohen, bibliotecária da Universidade de Albany, nos Estados Unidos, além de apresentar estudos feitos pelo grupo de bibliotecárias australianas: Helen Partridge, Julie Lee e Carrie Munro, que organizaram um projeto para identificar as principais habilidades, conhecimentos e atributos exigidos pelo “bibliotecário 2.0”, do qual participaram 81 profissionais australianos.Metodologia: Esse estudo buscou uma pesquisa qualitativa e com análise bibliográfica das investigações apresentadas pela bibliotecária norte americana Laura Cohen e das três pesquisadoras australianas Helen Partridge, Julie Lee e Carrie Munro, para dessa forma fazermos uma comparação entre realidades e experiências, tão adversas e ao mesmo tempo semelhantes com a nossa realidade brasileira.Resultados: Não basta utilizar as TIC na biblioteca só pela modernidade ou variedade de aplicações. É necessário ter consciência da utilidade destes ou de qualquer outro meio de interesse dos alunos para poder mostrar sua qualidade e a utilidade prática. O bibliotecário, antes de utilizar as TIC, deve fazer um levantamento profundo sobre as problemáticas com as quais esse instrumento de trabalho pode contribuir de forma relevante.Conclusão: Eventos, atividades e estruturação física do ambiente proporcionam um claro exemplo de mediação da informação em uma biblioteca escolar, evidenciando a interferência positiva que o profissional da informa

  11. Pabellón del club náutico de Sevilla

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    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available This lightweight pavillion is a provisional design, until the permanent Social Headquarters of the Nautical Club of Seville is built. Its plan layout is L shaped, and it faces south and west, so that its main frontage has maximum sunshine during the colder months. As it was anticipated that this building should have multiple uses, so that it could serve as dining room, meeting, and lecture hall, etc., it was decided to suspend from the ceiling a kind of reed woven curtains, which due to their lightness and flexibility, make it easy to subdivide in various ways the building, according to particular requirements. An ondulated canopy and screens, which gyrate about a vertical axis, have been fitted on the outside. These are covered with cane material. Inside, the walls are white, except for a number of lines made with tiles. There is also a picture, and a stand with the sporting trophies; this being the only ornamentation. The furniture is mostly made of cloth and cane, and a number of plants is also distributed about the building, thereby contributing to create a «winter garden» atmosphere, which is highly compatible with the general layout.Este pabellón Iigero se ha construido, como solución de emergencia, basta edificar el Local Social definitivo del Club Nautico de Sevilla, Su planta en forma de ángulo y la orientación sur y oeste de las «fachadas principales» aseguran el aprovechamiento al máximo del soleamiento en los meses fríos. Como se pensó que este local tuviera múltiples utilizaciones —sirviendo de comedor, local de reunión, banquetes, conferencias, etc.— se han empleado unas esterillas de junco, colgadas del techo, que, dada su ligereza y movilidad, permiten efectuar las subdivisiones y variaciones oportunas con un esfuerzo mínimo. Exteriormente existen una visera ondulada y unas pantallas giratorias, en sentido vertical, cubiertas de cañas, e, interiormente, las paredes blancas interrumpidas por unas líneas de cer

  12. Confiabilidad de dispositivo observable en un instante del tiempo: Aplicación a componentes de transmisión de radares

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    Juan Pablo Valencia Arango

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinar la confiabilidad de dispositivos es una de las principales tareas de la ingeniería. En algunas situaciones experimentales sólo es posible observar el tiempo completo de falla de una unidad. Sin embargo, para chequear si está o no trabajando basta con un punto del tiempo. Bajo algunos modelos paramétricos se pueden desarrollar análisis estadísticos de estas situaciones encontrando los estimadores de máxima verosimilitud, sus distribuciones asintóticas y los intervalos de confianza. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar una propuesta metodológica para el cálculo del intervalo de confianza de un dispositivo en presencia de doble censura. Se presenta la metodología paramétrica bajo la distribución exponencial, mostrando de manera detallada el cálculo del intervalo de confianza para el tiempo medio de falla. Posteriormente se presentan simulaciones para el cálculo del nivel real y longitud media del intervalo de confianza, se encuentra que los niveles alcanzados en el caso de doble censura son muy similares a cuando se observan los tiempos completos. Los resultados son aceptables y recomendados en situaciones en las que es costosa la observación de la muestra a lo largo del tiempo. To determine the reliability of devices is one of the main tasks of engineering. In some experimental situations it is only possible to observe the full time of a drive failure. However, to check whether or not working just one point of time. Under some parametric models can develop statistical analyzes of these situations by finding the maximum likelihood estimators, their asymptotic distributions and confidence intervals. This paper aims to present a methodology for the calculation of the confidence interval of a device in the presence of double censorship. Parametric methodology under the exponential distribution is presented, showing in detail the calculation of the confidence interval for the mean time to failure. Later

  13. Percursos educativos, formativos e profissionais na Síndrome de Down Educational, formative and professional trajectories in Down Syndrome

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    Maria Elisabeth Soares Pereira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O emprego e a sua manutenção são aspectos fundamentais para todas as pessoas sobretudo para os portadores de deficiência, não só em termos da respectiva autonomia, mas também ao nível da conservação de uma saudável autoestima e bem-estar. Mas, para que estas pessoas se sintam verdadeiramente integradas e felizes com a sua condição de trabalhadores não basta possuírem um emprego. É necessário que se sintam capacitadas para o respectivo posto de trabalho e que nele se sintam felizes. Face a estes considerandos entendemos desenvolver para este estudo o seguinte objetivo principal: conhecer o grau de satisfação dos trabalhadores com Síndrome de Down relativamente à sua integração profissional (satisfação laboral, satisfação com o processo de integração na vida ativa. A amostra desta investigação é constituída por 14 sujeitos com Síndrome de Down, de ambos os sexos com idades compreendidas entre 20 e os 36 anos, todos residentes na zona que abrange Lisboa e Vale do Tejo.Being employed and staying employed are essential aspects in the lives of most people, above all, for those who have a disability, not only in terms of enabling autonomy, but also for maintaining a healthy level of self esteem and wellbeing. However, in order for these persons to feel that they are actually integrated and happy in their work environments, it is not enough merely to have a job. It is necessary that they feel prepared for their respective work placement and that they feel comfortable in their work environments. In light of these considerations, we deemed it important to conduct this study, the main objective of which was to uncover the level of satisfaction of workers with Down syndrome related to their professional integration (work satisfaction, satisfaction with their process of integration in active life. The sample in this investigation was made up of fourteen subjects with Down syndrome, both male and female, with ages ranging

  14. AS INTERFACES ENTRE LINGUAGENS AUDIOVISUAIS E PRÁTICAS PEDAGÓGICAS EM HISTÓRIA E GEOGRAFIA: EXPERIÊNCIAS, POSSIBILIDADES E LIMITES DO CURTA METRAGEM COMO UMA “OUTRA” COMPREENSÃO DO LOCAL E DO VIVIDO

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    Humberto Perinelli Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nota-se especificamente nas práticas de ensino de História e Geografia uma preocupação com a construção de saberes escolares baseados na observância de categorias como ‘cotidiano’ e ‘lugar’, que enfatizam um olhar intensivamente voltado para o contexto local dos alunos – elemento de (ressignificação, num tempo e espaço situados, das representações e as ações dos sujeitos, da (redefinição de suas identidades (individuais e/ou coletivas e dos direitos à cidadania. Contudo, tanto os educadores em História, quanto em Geografia, devem ficar alertas para alguns limites de uma proposta pedagógica estritamente ‘localista’. Quando se fala de uma utilização da linguagem tecnológica audiovisual em consonância com as propostas pedagógicas existentes nos PCN’s de História e Geografia, é preciso ter em mente que não basta redimensionar o cinema à esfera local (seja em sala de aula ou fora dela, nem eleger o ‘localismo’ como a nova panacéia de uma certa ‘pedagogia’ da linguagem audiovisual. Com o anseio de promover o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias do ensino de história e de geografia é que foi elaborado um projeto de pesquisa. Trata-se de oportunizar com os vídeos a possibilidade dos graduandos refletirem sobre o ensino de história e de geografia, segundo a utilização de uma nova linguagem tecnológica e artística (o cinema, a associação com a realidade dos alunos (daí o estudo do local e do urbano, bem como a promoção de um diálogo ativo e critico com as recomendações do PCN (1998.   Palavras-chave: História. Geografia. Cinema. Linguagem tecnológica. Metodologia.

  15. Os alunos de administração estão em sintonia com o mercado de trabalho?

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    Fábio Mosso Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo realiza o levantamento de demandas em relação ao perfil dos profissionais de Administração pelo mercado de trabalho, descreve tais características e analisa como os alunos do curso de Administração da UNESP/Tupã se encontram em relação a tais quesitos. Os pontos levantados demonstram interesses do mercado de trabalho não somente para conhecimentos de formação técnica-acadêmica, como também, conhecimentos e habilidades interpessoais e extracurriculares. Estes pontos foram identificados através de um estudo bibliográfico e da consulta a formulários de vagas de estágio e emprego do projeto de extensão Balcão de Estágios e Empregos, na UNESP/Tupã. A partir da comparação entre estas fontes, foi possível identificar as principais competências procuradas pelas empresas no perfil de um administrador. Com caracterização do objeto de estudo foi possível realizar comparações em relação ao termo em que o aluno se encontrava no curso (3º, 5º e 7º semestres, tanto como em relação ao período (diurno e noturno, verificando se tais competências evoluíam com o passar do curso. O trabalho conclui também que não basta para os alunos de administração restringir sua formação apenas com os conhecimentos acadêmicos, sendo necessário para a formação de um perfil adequado, o desenvolvimento de atividades extracurriculares que incrementem competências como conhecimento de informática e idiomas. Constatações relevantes demonstraram que a formação dos alunos, e a forma como reagem às demandas, estão fortemente conectadas às exigências de mercado.

  16. A (desordem da polêmica na mídia: o caso da pílula do câncer

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    Roberto Leiser Baronas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Em seu último livro Apologie de la polémique, publicado em 2014 pela Presses Universitaires de France – PUF, Ruth Amossy nos chama a atenção para o fato de que, no momento atual, é possível constatar que os conflitos de opinião e seus desdobramentos, geralmente violentos, ocupam um lugar de bastante destaque na cena política. Nesse sentido, as mídias de uma maneira em geral, com base no argumento do interesse público, não cessam de orquestrar e de difundir polêmicas das mais variadas naturezas. Para comprovar tal asserção, basta dar uma espiada, sobretudo nos grandes jornais e revistas brasileiros e/ou estrangeiros, para ver que as menções às polêmicas pululam. No entanto, por meio de comentários nos mais diversos dispositivos midiáticos, distintos sujeitos, inscritos em diferentes posicionamentos ideológicos, têm criticado de maneira contundente essa polemização midiática. Diante desse fenômeno discursivo, do mirante dos estudos discursivos, nossa questão é tentar responder: por qual razão, mesmo sendo tão criticada pelos mais distintos atores sociais, a polêmica, ocupando um lugar bastante privilegiado nas mídias em geral – fenômeno que se acirra no momento atual, mas que já vem de longa data – insiste em se manter viva no espaço público? Para dar conta dessa problemática, tomamos a polêmica midiática envolvendo a liberação, por parte da presidente Dilma Rousseff, do uso da Fosfoetanolamina (pílula do câncer, produzida desde os anos 1990 pelo Instituto de Química da USP-São Carlos e frequentamos um extenso conjunto de matérias publicadas em 2016 acerca dessa temática, em diversos dispositivos midiáticos brasileiros.

  17. Sentimentos de Apego e Perda em Processos de Mudanças OrganizacionaisFeelings of Attachment and Grief in Organizational Change ProcessesSentimientos de Apego y Pérdida en Procesos de Cambios Organizacionales

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    CESAR, Ana Maria Roux Valentini Coelho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOGlobalização, tecnologia e mudanças sociais têm contribuído para a emergência de novos mercados e competidores, gerando maior competitividade. Em contrapartida, exige-se das pessoas flexibilidade para adaptação às constantes mudanças, e minimização de apego a situações passadas. Entretanto, as rupturas exigidas em mudanças podem ser percebidas como mortes simbólicas, face à sua condição de irreversibilidade aos estados anteriores; isto gera estados de luto dentre os envolvidos. Partindo da abordagem etológica em relação ao luto, este estudo analisa a existência de estado de luto junto a 400 funcionários de um banco estatal após um grande processo de reestruturação. O estudo foi feito três anos após as mudanças, vez que após este tempo o sentimento de luto pelas perdas já deveria ter dado lugar a processos de recuperação, com predominância de estados de ânimo positivos. Os dados sugerem a existência de estado de luto patológico, com forte apego às situações anteriores à mudança. Isto sinaliza que não basta preparar pessoas para as mudanças organizacionais que estão por vir e que são inevitáveis. É preciso dar condição às pessoas para que elaborem o sentimento de perda de situações que existiram e fizeram parte de suas vidas. É preciso dar-lhes oportunidade de “despedir-se” do passado para então poder aderir ao novo.ABSTRACTGlobalization, technology and social changes have contributed to the emerging of new markets and competitors, resulting in higher competitive environments. As a counterpoint, people are requested to be more flexible in adapting to constant changes, and minimizing the attachment to past situations. The ruptures required in changes can be perceived as a symbolic death, because of its irreversible condition to past situations; this generates bereavement among the people who are involved. From an ethological approach regarding bereavement, this study analyses the

  18. Distribución de esponjas (Porifera a lo largo de un gradiente de profundidad en un arrecife coralino, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela

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    Mónica Núñez Flores

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Las esponjas son uno de los grupos de animales sésiles más abundantes y diversos de los fondos marinos tropicales, siendo un componente importante en los arrecifes coralinos, aunque poco estudiado a nivel de especies. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la comunidad de esponjas en el gradiente de profundidad de un arrecife coralino en Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela. Se trabajaron siete profundidades (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 y 18m donde se midió la sedimentación neta y bruta, el índice de rugosidad, y se evaluó la riqueza, densidad y cobertura de las esponjas. Se identificaron 17 especies en 10 familias. La mayor densidad y cobertura se encontró a los 6m (6.03ind/m2, 11%, coincidiendo con la mínima sedimentación neta y la máxima rugosidad del sustrato. Las especies más abundantes fueron Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina y Scopalina rueztleri. El análisis de componentes principales arrojó una separación de esta comunidad en 3 zonas, la somera (1 y 3m, donde las esponjas están sometidas a una tensión producida por el oleaje y alta iluminación, y las zonas media (6, 9 y 12m y profunda (15 y 18m, con características más favorables, dada una menor iluminación y sedimentación.Sponges (Porifera distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela. Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18m, 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to

  19. A DISCIPLINA DE BIOÉTICA NA FACULDADE DE ODONTOLOGIA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO

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    NELITA DE VECCHIO PUPLAKSIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza de la bioética promueve el desarrollo de principios que orientan el crecimiento tecnológico, la investigación científica, la resolución de conflictos morales y colabora para la transformación de la sociedad, para que ella se vuelva más justa. A partir del año de 2004, la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de São Paulo (FOUSP, incluyó la disciplina de Bioética en su currículo. Con el objetivo de verificar la contribución de esta disciplina para la formación humanística de los alumnos, fueron realizadas dos pesquisas: estudio 1, en 2004, trabajó con alumnos que no tuvieran clases de Bioética y el estudio 2, en 2007, trabajó con alumnos que cursaron la disciplina. Se aplicó un cuestionario semi-estructurado a 20 alumnos de la graduación de la FOUSP que no tuvieron clases de Bioética y a 20 alumnos que cursaran la disciplina de Bioética en la misma institución. Este cuestionario incluyó la evolución de la relación profesional/paciente, la humanización del atendimiento y ética profesional. Otro cuestionario semi-estructurado fue aplicado a 20 pacientes en el año 2004 y a otros 20 pacientes en el año 2007, interrogando sobre a calidad del tratamiento e a relación profesional/paciente del servicio odontológico ofrecido por los alumnos. Las entrevistas fueron avaluadas cualitativamente, segundo el método de análisis de contenido de Bardin. Los resultados apuntan a que la inserción de la Bioética como disciplina obligatoria representa un paso importante para el cambio de paradigma sobre el valor de la dignidad de la persona humana. Sin embargo, como en esa Institución predomina todavía, en el contexto global del aprendizaje, la fuerte tendencia a la enseñanza centrada en la técnica, acabase por criar en los alumnos, a lo largo del curso, en la práctica, una visión parcial de la persona del paciente, reduciendo todas sus dimensiones apenas al aspecto biológico. No basta ser la Bioética una

  20. Dimensión educativa del cuidado de las personas con enfermedades crónicas Educative dimension of the care of patients with chronic diseases

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    Rosario García González

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló este trabajo para reflexionar sobre las enfermedades no transmisibles en su seguimiento a largo plazo y como situación de aprendizaje. Se discutieron las premisas, desafíos y derivaciones prácticas que impone ese modelo de seguimiento. Si un rápido diagnóstico y terapéutica acertados pueden ser suficientes ante una situación aguda de salud, muy diferente es con los enfermos crónicos, donde el diagnóstico implica cierta frustración y el tratamiento descansa en gran medida en su destreza y motivación, lo cual impone una situación de aprendizaje y, por tanto, nuevos desafíos a la gestión del cuidado. Para prevenir es importante el diagnóstico de salud de la comunidad y el carácter interdisciplinario e intersectorial de los programas de promoción y educación para la salud. Se impone en los proveedores de salud un “saber hacer” donde no basta la actualización clínica, son necesarias determinadas destrezas para ser eficaces en la situación de aprendizaje. Se requiere desarrollar estilos de vida y ambientes saludables; la unidad indisoluble de la gestión de cuidados y educación. Se plantea que el seguimiento a largo plazo impone un paradigma de cuidado diferente que fuerza a los proveedores de salud a sobrepasar la visión fisiológica del órgano dañado para centrarse en el hombre enfermo y ayudarlo a transitar por la vida sin minusvalía innecesaria y sin suplir el papel activo que éste debe desempeñar ante el desarrollo de su estado de salud.This paper is aimed at reflecting on the non-communicable diseases and their long-term follow-up, as well as on the learning problem. The premises, challenges and practical consequences of this follow-up model are discussed. If a rapid diagnosis and a proper treatment may be enough in an acute health situation, it is very different with the chronic patients, where the diagnosis leads to certain frustration and the treatment relies mostly on their ability and

  1. Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile, ¿legalmente suficiente?: La necesidad de cartografiar la ley antes de decidir Biodiversity conservation in Chile, legally enough?: The need for mapping the law before deciding

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    PATRICIO F. PELLET

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El 99,8 % del territorio donde se sustenta la biodiversidad es rural y ha estado tradicionalmente regulado por legislación dispersa, sectorial e inorgánica. La legislación moderna, más holística, como la Ley de Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente adolece de imperfecciones relacionadas con la vigencia, la interpretación y, sobre todo, el que la ley se haga cumplir. En este trabajo argumentamos que la aplicación de modelos tomados de la literatura ecológica buscando apoyar la biología de conservación puede ser complementada fuertemente si es acompañada de una medición de la superficie territorial (cantidad y distribución en el espacio efectivamente afectada por la legislación vigente de protección ambiental. Nuestro trabajo intenta dar respuesta a la pregunta ¿cuánto es lo que efectivamente, en superficie, queda protegido si se hace cumplir la ley? Para esto hemos expresado cartográficamente textos legales relacionados con el bosque nativo, analizamos la complejidad y los efectos de su aplicación y demostramos que basta hacer cumplir la ley para asegurar un mínimo en que, además de aumentar la superficie protegida, aumenta la conectividad y cambian los patrones de fragmentación. La metodología muestra claras ventajas relacionadas con su aplicación para el monitoreo, planificación y control de efectividad de programas socialesAbout 99.8 % of the land sustaining biodiversity in Chile is rural and regulated by legislation, which has been qualified as disperse, too specific or inorganic. Even though modern legislation like (Chilean Law of Environmental Basis tends to be more holistic in nature, serious imperfections connected with applicability, interpretation and, mainly enforcement still prevails. We argue here that any search for, or application of, ecological models as a support for conservation biology could be strongly complemented by a measurement of the land surface (amount and spatial distribution effectively affected

  2. Formas del Estado de Derecho y delimitación del derecho al Buen Gobierno

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    Galán Juárez, Mercedes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the suitable legal and political framework for citizens to exercise their right to good government. After describing the social condition of human beings that leads them to come together and bind themselves to a political organization through a social contract, the different historical forms of the Rule of Law are analyzed up to the Constitutional Rule of Law. The current Constitutionalism combines the principles of legality and legitimacy. This means that the validity of a regulation from a strictly formal perspective is not sufficient; its content must also respect the values, principles and fundamental rights established in the Constitution. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 emphasizes the significance of the individual and individual dignity (Section 10.1 and the instrumental role of the Public Administration as a political organization which shall serve the general interests in a spirit of objectivity (Section 103.1. This is the appropriate legal framework for achieving not only the efficiency and effectiveness of the government, but also the quality of its services. Furthermore, the government has ethical commitments to its citizens, which entails carrying out policies which are consistent with these commitments and avoiding policies which are not. This legal, political and ethical exposition makes it possible to understand good government in all its complexity.

    Este artículo analiza cuál es el marco político y jurídico adecuado para que los ciudadanos hagan efectivo su derecho al buen gobierno. Después de exponer la condición social del hombre que le lleva a agruparse con otros hombres y a vincularse a una organización política por medio de un pacto o contrato social, se analizan las distintas formas históricas del Estado de Derecho hasta llegar al Estado Constitucional de Derecho. El Constitucionalismo actual aúna el principio de legalidad y legitimidad, lo que significa que no basta con que una

  3. Dirección de recursos humanos y competitividad

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    Gregorio Calderón Hernandez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available La Dirección de Recursos Humanos (DRH es una capacidad organizacional clasificada dentro de los activos intangibles y como tal puede convertirse en apoyo importante en la construcción de ventaja competitiva sostenida para la empresa. El presente estudio tiene el propósito de establecer hasta qué punto la DRH se constituye en soporte de la empresa colombiana para alcanzar dicha ventaja competitiva. La base empírica para la elaboración del artículo es información proveniente de la investigación "La gerencia de talento humano en las empresas medianas y grandes del occidente colombiano", en la que se encuestaron gerentes de recursos humanos de 257 empresas. Se consideraron las variables: grado de desarrollo de la DRH, ubicación del área en la estructura jerárquica, tamaño de la organización, sector económico, tipo de dirección, políticas de personal, factores claves de éxito y problemas en la gestión de RH. El grado de desarrollo de la DRH se estableció a partir de nueve componentes: percepción de autonomía del director de RH, asignación presupuestal al área, nivel educativo del director, nivel de liderazgo del director, existencia de plan estratégico en el área, estrategias innovadoras que el área ha propuesto en los últimos dos años, tiempo que el director debe dedicar a actividades no operativas ni rutinarias e indicadores de gestión que emplea el área de RH. La revisión de la literatura especializada permite concluir que los RH serán una fuente de ventaja competitiva sostenida siempre y cuando sean valiosos, escasos, relativamente inimitables e insustituibles, pero que no basta con ello si la firma carece de la organización para capitalizar el valor potencial de la gente. Esta es una capacidad que le corresponde a la DRH, que de esta manera se convierte en elemento clave para darle a los RH su característica de ventaja competitiva sostenida. Los hallazgos demuestran que el grado de desarrollo de la DRH est

  4. De la estructura Dom-Inó a Ciudad Bachué: reflexiones en torno a la vivienda progresiva e informal

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    Fabio Enrique Forero Suárez

    2008-12-01

    moradores pudiesen gestar un desarrollo progresivo y por autoconstrucción que beneficiara sus demandas y sentidas necesidades económicas, tal como se aprecia hoy en día cuando se recorren sus dinámicas y variadas calles. Es indudable que la autoconstrucción y la informalidad son parte esencial en el crecimiento de estas ciudades, pero no debe considerarse tampoco o afirmarse que dentro de la arquitectura y el urbanismo modernos hubiese un desconocimiento total de las formas de vivir de cada contexto, basta con hacer una juiciosa lectura de estos proyectos de Le Corbusier y sacar conclusiones que pueden dar al traste con muchas ligeras apreciaciones.

  5. Estructuración del sistema de ataque 2 – 4 en balonmano. [The 2:4 attack in handball. Structuring

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    José Luis Arias Estero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Resumen El balonmano como se conoce en la actualidad ha evolucionado con respecto al balonmano de hace unos años. El balonmano actual ha progresado a causa, principalmente, de la mejora de la calidad individual de los jugadores. Gracias a este desarrollo, las posibilidades de participación de los jugadores han aumentado, tanto en defensa como en ataque. Hoy no sólo basta con destacar en algunos aspectos del juego, sino que además, se exige la utilización de las distintas variables del juego con garantías de éxito expresadas en términos de rendimiento. En este sentido, los sistemas de juego son las estructuras sobre las que se desarrolla el juego. Estas estructuras también son susceptibles a los cambios. No obstante, la literatura encontrada sobre los sistemas de juego en balonmano es escasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue mostrar la estructuración realizada del sistema ofensivo 2:4 en balonmano. El 2:4 es un sistema de juego ofensivo como tal. A parte, dentro del juego con transformación es uno de los sistemas resultantes. Palabras clave: Balonmano, Sistema de ataque 2:4, Estructuración.   Abstract The handball has been evolving for years. The present handball has progressed because of the player’s individual quality

  6. Presentación: Hacia una nueva interculturalidad (educativa

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    Miguel Zapata Ros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Cursos Masivos Online han puesto de relieve un punto que es clave y ya estaba presente en la educación virtual fuese cual fuese su naturaleza: No basta la bondad de los medios tecnológicos ni que los alumnos estén conectados para que se produzca un aprendizaje de calidad, ni a veces un simple aprendizaje relacionado con los objetivos propuestos, ni tan siquiera para que se produzca una experiencia educativa entre los estudiantes. En otras ocasiones (Zapata-Ros, 2013a hemos hablado de la necesidad de una interacción orientada al aprendizaje. En este trabajo vamos a hablar de la comunicación efectiva de los alumnos en situaciones culturales, comunicacionales y vitales distintas. Existe un voluntarismo y un altruismo mal entendido según el cual los MOOCs y los cursos virtuales, con solo ponerlos en marcha, van a hacer posible la integración de estudiantes y profesores en unas situaciones y con unos problemas de comunicación que ya eran complejos aún en casos sencillos de la enseñanza presencial con alumnos que compartían una misma comunidad y unas mismas claves comunicacionales y vitales. Se da la paradoja de que educadores y profesionales de la educación ven los MOOCs como un medio de educar a los estudiantes en todo el mundo y no tiene la voluntad de considerar seriamente lo que pasa cuando miles de estudiantes con un amplio espectro de niveles de competencia, situaciones de aprendizaje, bagajes culturales y antecedentes académicos tratan de aprender todos, cualquiera que sea la parte del mundo donde estén, mediante conferencias grabadas en vídeo. Éste que es un problema clave en los MOOCs, en mayor o menor medida lo es igualmente en la educación virtual. Se produce en el diseño y en el desarrollo de cualquier curso online en cualquier disciplina en este momento. Y sin embargo hay un gran desconocimiento de estos hechos por parte de los organizadores y de los docentes.La idea de este monográfico de RED es poner sobre la

  7. Problemas éticos en el manejo del paciente terminal.

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    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Pocos tópicos existen en medicina más complicados, más controvertidos y más emocionalmente cargados que el tratamiento del enfermo sin esperanza. Aquí la tecnología compite con la compasión.

    Muchos profesionales están en la oscuridad cuando se trata de indagar sobre qué reglas se deberían seguir para la decisión de terminar o no el tratamiento que sostiene la vida de una manera más o menos artificial.

    Antes de seguir adelante es importante precisar los términos a emplear:

    Paciente terminal: es aquel que, dadas las circunstancias en que vive y la enfermedad que padece lo va a llevar inexorablemente a la muerte. No cuenta el tiempo que demore. (Definición adoptada por el Comité “ad hoc” de la Fundación Santafé.

    Un paciente es considerado como enfermo terminal si médicamente se determina que él o ella sufren de un proceso irreversible (o una combinación de estos que llevan a una posibilidad razonable que causarán su muerte en un futuro previsible. (Definición del “Terminal Care Commitee, Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center”.

    Es importante que tengamos claro que no podemos confundir el “MATAR” con el “DEJAR MORIR”, Y que hay que diferenciar un paciente en estado crítico, que puede salvarse en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI y el paciente terminal y que un paciente crítico se puede convertir en paciente terminal.

    y no olvidemos la frase de Montaigne: “La utilidad de vivir consiste no en la duración de los días, sino en el uso del tiempo; un hombre puede vivir mucho tiempo y todavía haber vivido poco”.

    Veamos qué dicen al respecto las diferentes doctrinas civiles y religiosas:

    Legislación Colombiana

    El Código Penal castiga el homicidio por piedad, Art. 326 Y aclara que no es necesario que la víctima solicite la muerte, basta que sus tribulaciones promuevan el sentimiento de

  8. O ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura nos primeiros anos da escolaridade em Timor-Leste The teaching and the learning of reading in the first years of schooling in East Timor

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    Aicha Binte Umar Bassarewan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor-Leste é um novo país do terceiro milênio. Enquanto nação com uma sociedade de tradição oral, e, em sua maioria, ágrafa, enfrenta muitos desafios nesta era de globalização. Tendo em consideração a importância da leitura para a vida do ser humano, o ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura das crianças timorenses devem ser trabalhados desde os primeiros anos de escolaridade, levando em conta a realidade linguística e sociocultural do país. Com um estudo de caso na Escola Pública n° 1 Nularan, em Díli, Timor-Leste, sobre o ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura, nos primeiros três anos de escolaridade, pôde-se verificar que tanto as orientações do programa curricular como os livros de referência aplicados pela escola no trabalho com os alunos não promovem o desenvolvimento da leitura reflexiva nem estimulam situações em que a criança possa expor suas ideias ou comunicar-se tendo o texto para uma discussão coletiva. Dessa forma, sugere-se o acompanhamento e a avaliação constantes do processo de ensino e aprendizagem da leitura nas escolas primárias e do investimento tanto na formação dos recursos humanos quanto na melhoria de materiais didáticos e na infraestrutura das escolas. É de notar que não basta constar na Constituição e nas leis; o importante é a ação das entidades competentes na concretização do ensino de qualidade ao timorense como sujeito ativo nas invenções e nos saberes para que tenha acesso a uma vida melhor para si e para a comunidade da qual faz parte.East Timor is a new country of the Third Millennium. As a nation with a largely illiterate society of strong oral traditions, it faces many challenges in an era of globalization. Considering the importance of reading to human life, its teaching and learning must be developed from the first years of schooling of East Timorean children, taking into account the socio-cultural and linguistic reality of the country. A case study at Nularan Public

  9. HJ-Biplot como herramienta de inspección de matrices de datos bibliométricos

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    Díaz-Faes, Adrián A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the HJ-Biplot in bibliometric studies. It is a simple and intuitive display, similar to a scatterplot, but capturing the multivariate covariance structures between bibliometric indicators. Their interpretation does not require specialized statistical knowledge, but merely to know how to interpret the length of a vector, the angle between two vectors and the distance between two points. With this aim, an analysis has been performed of the scientific output of CSIC's own centres as well as of joint centres during the period 2006-2009, in relation to a series of indicators based on impact and collaboration. Biplot methods are graphical representations of multivariate data. Using HJ-Biplot it is possible to interpret simultaneously the position of the centres, represented by dots; indicators, represented by vectors; and the relationships between them. The position of the centres in the context of their area as well as within the overall CSIC is analysed and those centres with a unique behaviour are identified. We conclude that the Humanities and Social Sciences, and Food Science and Technology are the areas with a greater homogeneous pattern in the performance of their centres, while Physics and Agriculture, are more heterogeneous.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto la utilidad del HJ-Biplot en los estudios bibliométricos. El HJ-Biplot es una representación intuitiva y sencilla, similar a un diagrama de dispersión, pero que captura las estructuras de covariación multivariantes entre los indicadores bibliométricos. Su interpretación no requiere conocimientos estadísticos especializados, basta con saber interpretar la longitud de un vector, el ángulo entre dos vectores y la distancia entre dos puntos. Con este fin, se analiza la actividad científica de los centros propios y mixtos del CSIC durante el período 2006-2009 mediante una serie de indicadores de

  10. A instrumentalidade nas ações de vigilância sanitária em Minas Gerais | Instrumentality in local actions of health surveillance

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    Ana Valesca Fernandes GIlson Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um recorte de tese de doutorado que utilizou o Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e a Teoria Fundamentada dos Dados como método, para compreender as interpretações e os sentidos atribuídos aos instrumentos utilizados nas ações locais de vigilância sanitária e como eles interferem na identificação do risco e nas escolhas das intervenções. O profissional utiliza um conjunto de referências técnicas, empíricas e instrumentais que lhe permite interpretar as possibilidades de ações e as condições situacionais. Utilizando a legislação sanitária, o conhecimento e a experiência, o profissional identifica e avalia o risco. Estes instrumentos estruturam os saberes e as ações, compondo um processo objetivado racionalmente que utiliza o conhecimento técnico e interpretações críticas, mas que envolve decisões subjetivas baseadas na experiência e nas interpretações. A intervenção é a representação da existência do risco e da ação protetora. É definida em um contexto específico, constituindo um sistema com objetivo de modificar uma situação problemática. Não basta identificar o risco, mas definir como e quais meios podem ser mobilizados para controlá-lo. Intervir constitui-se, portanto, em um desafio científico e político para o profissional. ============================================== This article is part of a doctoral thesis that uses both Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework, and Grounded Theory as a method, to understand the interpretations and meanings attributed to the instruments used in local actions of health surveillance; also to comprehend how these instruments interfere with risk identification and decision-making processes of interventions. The professional uses a set of empirical techniques and instrumental references that allow him to interpret possibilities for actions and situational conditions. Using health legislation, knowledge, and experience

  11. ¿Teología para agnósticos?

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    Sotelo Martínez, Igancio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Pretendo exponer de la manera más breve unas pocas razones que muestren que la teología concierne también al agnóstico. Por teología entiendo la reflexión sistemática en torno a la fe cristiana y por agnóstico, también en sentido muy amplio, aquel que no participa de esta fe. La tesis que defiendo es que no es necesaria la fe para interesarse por la teología; tiene sentido ocuparse de Dios sin creer en su existencia.
    ¿Por qué el agnóstico habría de ocuparse de la teología cuando el creyente parece que no la necesita? Cree antes de examinar reflexivamente su fe, que no depende de argumentos ni de demostraciones. Lo cierto es que la teología no conduce a la fe y hasta puede dudarse de si la fortalece. Conozco personas profundamente creyentes que huyen de las disquisiciones teológicas como de la peste. Viven la fe en una experiencia de amor al prójimoque no precisa de argumentos. Les basta acompañarse con las Sagradas Escrituras y de algunos libros piadosos o de espiritualidad. Cabría ampliar el horizonte de este artículo y preguntarse por el alcance y sentido que tenga la «reflexión sistemática» sobre Dios para aquellos que creen.
    En todo caso, no deja de ser paradójico intentar una defensa de la teología, cuando parece que les sobra, tanto a agnósticos como a creyentes; incluso la Iglesia ha encerrado a los teólogos en un gueto en el que, si bien gozan de mucha mayor libertad que en el pasado, la disfrutan en buena parte porque se han quedado sin audiencia. Escriben exclusivamente para los colegas que son los únicos que los leen. Claro que, dada la fragmentación actual de los saberes, lo mismo les ocurre a los demás especialistas.
    Si una buena parte de los creyentes se desentienden de la teología, ¿por qué habría de ocupar al agnóstico? Barrunto que una vindicación de la teología valga tanto para los unos como para los otros, pero en esta ocasión considero tan sólo las

  12. Fontes de informação on line em Arquivologia: uma avaliação métrica

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    Ely Francina T. de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento é elemento fundamental na sobrevivência das espécies. A informação é necessária para formar o conhecimento que constrói a ciência. Esse fluxo beneficia os que produzem informação, bem como aqueles que a consomem. Não basta apenas pesquisar para se ter um novo domínio e conhecimento, é fundamental a publicação e validação pela comunidade científica. A ampla exposição das informações ao julgamento da comunidade é necessária para que a informação seja disseminada, exercendo assim sua principal função, que é de produzir conhecimento. A comunicação científica é importante indicador do desenvolvimento de uma área do conhecimento, pois possibilita a verificação e análise da comunidade na qual foi realizada. Por essa razão, o processo de atividade científica é dependente de um intrincado sistema de comunicação eficaz, que compreende canais formais e informais, que são utilizados tanto para comunicar os resultados obtidos como para informar os resultados alcançados por outros pesquisadores. Assim, toda pesquisa envolve atividades diversas de comunicação e disseminação. As informações publicadas variam de formatos, suporte e função. Podem ser veiculadas por meio impresso ou meio eletrônico, quer sejam artigos, livros, atas, conferências e revistas. O objetivo desta pesquisa é levantar as fontes de informação por meio eletrônico, através da Internet, os sites que têm revistas eletrônicas que publicam textos, artigos, teses, dissertações, projetos e trabalhos de pesquisa de estudiosos na área de Arquivologia. Considerando a informática como um fator fundamental no processo de recuperação da informação e a grande quantidade de informações abrangidas pela Internet, muitas vezes há dificuldade de localização de uma fonte específica, mesmo porque o meio eletrônico possui um espaço ilimitado de disponibilizar informação, não existindo limite para se pesquisar

  13. Evaluación del aprendizaje universitario Avaliagáo da aprendizagem universitária Assessment of University Learning

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    Flor Alba Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ, un instrumento de evaluación de la calidad de la docencia, y se discuten las experiencias obtenidas con la aplicación del mismo en la Escuela de Ciencias Humanas de la Universidad del Rosario, de Bogotá, Colombia, entre los años 2003 y 2005. El objetivo del análisis de los datos resultantes de la aplicación del CEQ es establecer si constituye un instrumento de evaluación adecuado, cuya capacidad de expresión es suficiente para medir confiablemente las características de asignaturas que tienen influencia en la calidad del aprendizaje estudiantil, por un lado, y para discriminar diferencias entre asignaturas individuales y conjuntos de asignaturas, por el otro. Los currículos de la Escuela de Ciencias Humanas, por su alto grado de estructuración y su diversidad de contenidos y métodos, mostraron ser un campo de investigación ideal para la puesta en prueba de instrumentos de evaluación de asignaturas. En efecto, la investigación realizada mostró no solo que el CEQ es un instrumento expresivo y diferenciador, sino que existen correlaciones interesantes entre los factores "buena enseñanza", "carga de trabajo apropiada" y "competencias".Neste artigo é apresentado o Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ, uma ferramenta de avaliação da qualidade da docência, e são analizadas asexperiências resultantes da sua aplicação na Escuela de Ciencias Humanas da Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colômbia, entre 2003 e 2005. Os dados obtidos da aplicacáo do CEQ são analisados afim de determinar si eles constituem um instrumento de avaliação apropriado, cuja capacidade de expressão basta para medir com confiança as características de matérias que influenciam na qualidade da aprendizagem do estudante e para diferenciar entre matérias individuais e conjunto de matérias. Os currículos da Escuela de Ciencias Humanas, por seu alto grau de estruturação e sua

  14. La Informatización en el desarrollo de habilidades del manejo de la información para los estudiantes de la carrera Licenciatura en Cultura Física

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    Yusleivis Márquez Montesino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Nuevas Tecnologías de la Información y de la Comunicación (NTIC ocupan un papel central en el desarrollo de las modernas economías y de las sociedades, lo que tiene profundas implicaciones en la educación. Sin embargo, la incorporación de las NTIC en el entorno escolar no es un proceso sencillo ni lineal. No basta con enviar ordenadores a los centros docentes, sino que es necesario tener muy en cuenta el contexto social y familiar de los alumnos, las condiciones de las escuelas, los modelos de enseñanza, aprendizaje y evaluación existentes, los programas y materiales informáticos disponibles y las competencias de los profesores. La irrupción de la informática en la educación cubana abre nuevas posibilidades para lograr este objetivo de trabajo de la educación cubana, al plantearnos la posibilidad de superar al docente desde su puesto de trabajo. Si tenemos en cuenta las nuevas situaciones educativas que supone la universalización en la formación de profesores y maestros, esta variante se convierte también en una alternativa viable para acometer dicho proceso. La inserción de la informática como recurso didáctico es un problema esencialmente pedagógico y por tanto hay que abordarla desde la perspectiva del proceso docente educativo con transformaciones sucesivas de carácter innovador, entendiendo ésta como un tipo especial de cambio o "como un esfuerzo deliberado con vistas a obtener mejoras importantes en el sistema" o también "un trabajo novedoso y de envergadura tendiente a completar. Informática no puede ser una asignatura más, sino la herramienta que brinda ser útil a todas las materias, a todos los docentes y a la escuela misma, en toda institución que necesita organización para identificarse con la comunidad. Los profundos cambios que en todos los ámbitos de la sociedad se han producido en los últimos años exigen una nueva formación de base para los jóvenes y una formación continua a lo largo de la

  15. Aspectos da Reologia e da Estabilidade de Suspensões Cerâmicas. Parte III: Mecanismo de Estabilização Eletroestérica de Suspensões com Alumina Aspects of Rheology and Stability of Ceramic Suspensions. Part III: Electrosteric Stabilization Mechanism of Alumina Suspensions

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    F. S. Ortega

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta terceira e última parte da revisão sobre os aspectos reológicos e de estabilização de suspensões com pós cerâmicos vem reunir a aplicação dos conhecimentos adquiridos nas primeiras duas partes publicadas anteriormente. Aqui, os fenômenos eletrostático devido à dupla camada elétrica, e estérico, relacionado à adsorção de moléculas poliméricas, são combinados para explicar o mecanismo eletroestérico de estabilização de suspensões cerâmicas. Os defloculantes que atuam através desse mecanismo abrangem uma classe específica de polímero denominada polieletrólitos, a qual é constituída por macromoléculas ionizáveis quando em solução. O estudo da forma com que os polieletrólitos atuam justifica-se devido à larga utilização desta classe de polímeros na indústria cerâmica. Os ácidos poliacrílico (PAA e polimetacrílico (PMAA são exemplos de polieletrólitos amplamente utilizados no processo de materiais à base de alumina. Dá-se destaque à influência do pH do meio e da presença de íons, sendo novamente aqui importante o conceito de força iônica da suspensão. Como aplicação prática, apresenta-se a estabilidade do sistema alumina-PMAA, reportando-se sobre o comportamento da viscosidade e da efetiva defloculação da suspensão. Este estudo é concluído apresentando resultados do efeito do peso molecular sobre a viscosidade, chamando atenção para o fato de que não basta definir apenas a classe de polímero a ser usada, sendo também fundamental especificar o peso molecular médio do polímero selecionado.The third and last part of this review about stabilization and rheological aspects of ceramic suspension gathers the knowledge in the two parts previously published. Here, the electrostatic and steric phenomena, related to the electrical double layer and polymeric molecules adsorption, respectively, are combined to explain the electrosteric stabilization mechanism of ceramic suspensions. The

  16. Conhecimento sobre o transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade no Brasil Knowledge about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Brazil

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    Marcelo Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o conhecimento da população sobre o transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH e de médicos, psicólogos e educadores sobre aspectos clínicos do transtorno. MÉTODOS: 2.117 indivíduos com idade > 16 anos, 500 educadores, 405 médicos (128 clínicos gerais, 45 neurologistas, 30 neuropediatras, 72 pediatras, 130 psiquiatras e 100 psicólogos foram entrevistados pelo Instituto Datafolha. A amostra da população foi estratificada por região geográfica, com controle de cotas de sexo e idade. A abordagem foi pessoal. Para os profissionais (amostra aleatória simples, os dados foram coletados por telefone em Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba e Porto Alegre. resultados: Na população, > 50% acreditavam que medicação para TDAH causa dependência, que TDAH resulta de pais ausentes, que esporte é melhor do que drogas como tratamento e que é viável o tratamento psicoterápico sem medicamentos. Dos educadores, > 50% acreditavam que TDAH resulta de pais ausentes, que tratamento psicoterápico basta e que os esportes substituem os medicamentos. Entre psicólogos, > 50% acreditavam que o tratamento pode ser somente psicoterápico. Dos médicos, > 50% de pediatras e neurologistas acreditavam que TDAH resulta de pais ausentes. CONCLUSÕES: Todos os grupos relataram crenças não respaldadas cientificamente, que podem contribuir para diagnóstico e tratamento inadequados. É urgente capacitar profissionais e estabelecer um programa de informação sobre TDAH para pais e escolas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of the general population concerning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and of physicians, psychologists and teachers concerning clinical aspects of the disorder. METHODS: 2,117 individuals (age > 16 years, 500 teachers, 405 physicians (128 general practitioners, 45 neurologists, 30 neuropediatricians, 72 pediatricians, 130

  17. ¿La experiencia es la única forma de mejorar el discurso público en la ciencia?

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    Pablo del Monte-Luna

    2015-01-01

    dimensiones del lenguaje verbal, no verbal y aptitud del individuo durante el DP, pero menos en la dimensión de la entrega del mensaje. Discusión o Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los alumnos, independientemente de la experiencia con la que inician el módulo, pueden mejorar su desempeño en el DP y desarrollar presentaciones orales eficientes si se les instruye apropiadamente con los conocimientos básicos del DP. Si a esto se le suma una práctica constante, el resultado será un dominio profesional de las presentaciones orales. Sin embargo, debe reconocerse que para que los alumnos transmitan eficientemente las ideas principales de su discurso científico, no basta con manejar adecuadamente el lenguaje verbal, no verbal y la aptitud general en el DP, sino que es indispensable comprender a fondo su propio trabajo de investigación; para ello se recomienda que los tutores académicos trabajen más estrechamente con sus alumnos. En la comunidad científica son pocos los que desarrollan en forma natural habilidades para el DP, por lo que resulta recomendable para la mayoría recibir una apropiada instrucción sobre los aspectos científicos fundamentales del DP.

  18. “Höss, Stroop y Stangl: verdugos profesionales. Estudio comparativo sobre los perpetradores del Holocausto a la luz de sus propias palabras.”

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    Martín Félix Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio comparativo sobre perpetradores del Holocausto. Luego de una breve introducción sobre el fenómeno nazi en su contexto, se analizan los casos de tres de sus protagonistas: Rudolf Höss, Jürgen Stroop y Franz Stangl; comandante del campo de exterminio Auschwitz, responsable de la liquidación del gueto de Varsovia y comandante del campo de exterminio de Treblinka respectivamente. El caso de Höss es estudiado a partir de su autobiografía, mientras que los dos restantes a partir de las entrevistas e investigaciones de Kazimierz Moczarski y Gitta Sereny. Höss, Stangl y Stroop fueron condenados por las muertes de 1.100.000, entre 750.00 y 900.00 y 350.000 personas respectivamente. En este sentido una premisa de este trabajo es que ninguno de ellos puede ser considerado hombre corriente o persona común; por el contrario siguiendo a Raul Hilberg se los piensa como sujetos totalmente identificados e impregnados de la cosmovisión y la ideología del nacionalsocialismo y las SS que desde un marco de referencia previo agresivo y violento eventualmente fueron transformándose en asesinos en masa. Como sostiene Gustavo Cosacov estos sujetos serían dueños de una “santidad maligna o invertida” que había reemplazado sus valores éticos y morales cristiano-occidentales; permitiéndoles cometer crímenes en forma sistemática. A pesar de que la cuestión de los victimarios ha sido menos abordada que la de las victimas, en el campo historiográfico existen sólidos aportes. Basta nombrar a Christopher Browning, Peter Longerich o Raul Hilberg para explicitar la corriente de investigación a la que este texto reconoce y aspira. En este sentido el objetivo de las siguientes páginas primero es describir y explicar algunos de los mecanismos históricos, psicológicos y sociológicos que producen a perpetradores de asesinatos en serie de personas tan distantes como desconocidas; como así descifrar a también su marco de

  19. Flecha en forjados

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    de Miguel, José Luis

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available To calculate the sag in pieces of reinforced concrete, it is only necessary to integrate the curve of its various sections. The curve is expressed as the deformation quotient of any one of the edges —it is easier to do it with one under tension— between that fractions of the edge which is the distance from the edge to the neutral fiber. Deformation under tension can be estimated on the basis of the moment, leverage and section of reinforcement. Deflection as a double integration of the curve is obtained, in symmetrical pieces supported at both ends, as the product of average expansion multiplied by the fraction of span represented by the distance between the centre of gravity of the average-span strain diagram and the end of the piece. It can be said definitively that, for a given configuration, sag is proportional to the maximum expansion of the steel and the relation of the span to the edge of the piece. The numerical factor of the expression includes the relation between average and maximum expansion (from 0.50 to 1.00, that of the fraction of span between the centre of deformation to the end (which varies correlatively to the previous figures between 0.33 and 0.25, and the fraction of edge under tension, around 50 % in rectangular-sectioned pieces and up to 90 % in T sections. If there is surplus reinforcing this reduces sag almost proportionately. The numerical factor must take account of the incidence of non-fissured parts, which, when deflection in critical, is relatively low.

    Para el cálculo de la flecha en piezas de hormigón armado, basta integrar la curvatura de sus diversas secciones. La curvatura se expresa como cociente de deformación de uno cualquiera de los bordes —siendo más fácil hacerlo con el fraccionado—, entre la fracción de canto que mide la distancia del borde a la fibra neutra. La estimación de deformación en tracción puede hacerse a partir del momento, brazo de palanca, y sección de armadura

  20. Ways to live history. Or philosophy, culture, and architecture in the origins of the museum Altes in Berlín Formas de habitar la historia. O la filosofía, la cultura y la arquitectura en la fundación del Museo Altes de Berlín Modos de habitar a história ou Filosofia, cultura e arquitetura na fundação do Altes Museum de Berlim

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    Fabiano Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From the beginnings of what we now know as our modernity, man has been surprised with his own finitude. The 18th and 19th  century bourgeois needed to formulate complex ways of preserving the past and of linking with it. In the philosophes’ circle, time concept starts to double itself in the idea of origin, that, for them, had become opaque. We just need to think of the broad-range process of structuring museums and restructuring natural history collections in cities such as Paris and Berlin, around the turn to the 19th century, so that we can be convinced that the surprise with that origin that one cannot recognize anymore, that becomes object of popular and scientific interest, leads each and all of the decisions in this process. Museum is just one of the institutions in which man, through a complex series of idealizations of space, show himself the spectacle of a lost time and, thus, of a culture whose educational thrive can only be understood by associating to these institutions. Our task is to investigate – and the case study of the grounding of the Altes Museum in Berlin, between 1822 and 1830, will perform this concretely – which educational policy made the emergence of this new ideological model possible, and , on the opposite way, which conceptual elaborations confirmed or legitimated the new pragmatic topography of time in modernity within the institution that had as aim, precisely, articulate and administrate past and memory. Desde los albores de la modernidad tal como la entendemos hoy en día, el hombre se espanta por su finitud. El burgués de los siglos XVIII y XIX tuvo que crear mecanismos complejos para la preservación del pasado y su relación con él. En el círculo de philosophes, la noción del tiempo comienza a replicarse en la idea de origen, que para ellos se convirtió en opaca. Basta pensar en el amplio

  1. ACADÉMICO DE NÚMERO. GUSTAVO RESTREPO URIBE (1931- 2016

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    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2016-12-01

    suficiente para ocuparse de temas históricos que le apasionaban como de qué causa morían reyes y otros miembros de la realeza europea. Sobre el tema escribió cuatro conocidos libros: Historias Clínicas de la Corte de Francia (1996, Historias Clínicas de la Corte Inglesa (1998, Historias Clínicas de la Corte de España (2000 y Males de Famosos y Poderosos (2005, todos bajo el sello de la Editorial Planeta. En su última obra, reflexionó sobre las extrañas dolencias de Alejandro Magno, Catalina La Grande, Napoleón, Marat, Beethoven y otros personajes más. En una nota aparecida en el diario capitalino El Tiempo se lee:

    El médico Gustavo Restrepo Uribe descubrió la pasión por las letras a raíz de su estadía en Francia. Así nació Males de poderosos y famosos, un libro que narra de manera anecdótica las patologías que han sufrido los grandes protagonistas de la historia. En el texto se cuenta, por ejemplo, la porfiria del rey Jorge III de Inglaterra y la locura del famoso pintor holandés Vincent Van Gogh.

    Se trataba de obras de agradable lectura, como corresponde a recopilaciones de anécdotas.

    Fue un hombre de estudio, culto, caballeroso, creyente católico, distinguido colega. Para él fue duro el día en el que en su segunda casa, la Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, le dijeron: Ya basta de cateterismos, Doctor Restrepo, es hora de que descanse. Y así, muy a su estilo, descansó en paz. La Academia Nacional de Medicina lamenta su deceso.

  2. Avaliação de híbridos de milho obtidos do cruzamento entre linhagens com diferentes níveis de degradabilidade da matéria seca Performance of corn hybrids obtained from crosses of lines with different dry matter degradabilities

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    Marcelo Cruz Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Na recomendação de um híbrido para produção de silagem, não basta apenas considerar a produção de matéria seca; é necessário também que a silagem tenha alta degradabilidade efetiva (DEF da matéria seca da planta inteira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características agronômicas, bromatológicas e de degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca de híbridos comerciais de milho recomendados para a produção de silagem e de híbridos experimentais provenientes do cruzamento entre linhagens de alta e baixa degradabilidade. Foi avaliado o desempenho de 23 híbridos de milho, sendo dezoito híbridos experimentais e cinco comerciais, indicados para silagem. O experimento foi instalado no ano agrícola 2003/2004, com delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e a parcela experimental constituída de quatro linhas de 5,0 metros. As plantas foram colhidas a 20 cm do solo, no estádio da linha de leite na metade do grão (farináceo/duro. As silagens foram incubadas in situ por 0, 6, 12, 24 e 96 horas, no rúmen de três vacas fistuladas e a degradabilidade efetiva foi calculada assumindo taxa de passagem de -0,05%/hora. Foi observado que entre as cultivares avaliadas, há híbridos com grande potencial para a produção de silagem de qualidade com alta degradabilidade da matéria seca de planta inteira (DEF, independentemente da textura do grão; é correto o uso da estratégia de sintetizar híbridos visando à alta degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca da planta inteira (DEF utilizando linhagens que apresentam alta DEF. A baixa correlação da degradabilidade efetiva com características agronômicas e bromatológicas, evidencia a necessidade de maior utilização da DEF na seleção de híbridos de milho, visando à produção de silagem de qualidade.In order to recommend corn hybrids for silage it is not enough to have high dry matter. It is also necessary that the silage presents high effective

  3. Experiências de adubação do amendoim em campos da região de Botucatu Fertilizer experiments with peanuts on two «campo» soils of the botucatu region

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    José Luiz V. Rocha

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a viabilidade da cultura do amendoim nos campos limpos e campos cerrados da região de Botucatu (SP, instalaram-se, em 1960-61, áreas de observação nas glebas Estrada (solo argilo-arenoso e Rincão (solo arenoso da fazenda Morrinhos. A área utilizada em cada gleba foi dividida em parcelas, que receberam os seguintes tratamentos: a sem adubo; b 2 t/ha de calcário; c 30-60-30 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O; d calcário + NPK. Em 1961-62, as parcelas diversamente tratadas no ano anterior foram subdivididas para a aplicação, ou não, de novas doses de calcário e de NPK (com diferentes níveis de cada elemento, bem como de uma mistura de micronutrientes. Em 1960-61, as respostas a NPK foram elevadas nas duas glebas, mas o efeito imediato da calagem só foi satisfatório na gleba Estrada. Todavia, os efeitos residuais da calagem e da adubação, observados em 1961-62, foram grandes nas duas glebas. Nesse ano, os resultados obtidos nos canteiros que não receberam calcário ou NPK no ano anterior, mostraram que a calagem e a adubação fosfatada foram os principais fatores do aumento de produção. Para evidenciar a pobreza dos solos estudados e a facilidade com que pôde ser corrigida, basta dizer que, na gleba Estrada, a produção de vagens, de 476 kg/ha nos canteiros que ficaram sempre sem calcário e sem adubo, elevou-se a 1.655 kg/ha, naqueles que só tinham resíduos de calcário e NPK aplicados no ano anterior, e atingiu 2.096 kg/lia, naqueles que receberam, sôbre êsses resíduos, nova adubação com 30-45-30 kg/ha de N-P2O5_K2O. Na gleba Rincão, a produção foi de apenas 333 kg/ha, nos canteiros sem qualquer tratamento, mas alcançou 2.065 e 2.224 kg/ha, respectivamente, nos que só tinham os citados resíduos e nos readubados com NPK. A influência do calcário e da adubação com NPK sôbre a qualidade das vagens também foi muito grande. Enquanto a proporção de sementes nas vagens variou, nas duas glelias, entre 70 e 73% nos

  4. Choque de gestão ou choque de racionalidades? O desempenho da administração pública em questão Management shock or rationality shock? The performance of public administration put into question

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    Vanessa Brulon

    2013-04-01

    preocupação com a qualidade de vida ou com o atendimento das demandas sociais e, por isso, guia-se por uma visão de futuro que representa um Estado em que estão presentes as duas categorias aqui trabalhadas. Entretanto, o conceito de desempenho em que está pautado, engloba aspectos predominantemente instrumentais, já que se acredita que para que a administração pública mineira melhore seu desempenho basta que ela adote medidas como a redução de custos ou o foco em resultados. Portanto, conclui-se que o conceito de desempenho em que se pauta o programa Choque de Gestão não compreende as diferentes dimensões de desempenho de forma equilibrada, apesar de se guiar por um conceito de desenvolvimento que envolve elementos substantivos e instrumentais.Since the management reform process spread worldwide, other reform proposals following the same logic were put into practice, most of them at the state level. The Management Shock program, implemented in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is one example of such a proposal and deserves to be highlighted due to the very positively evaluations it received in specialized literature. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze to what extent the program Management Shock, implemented by the Government of Minas Gerais, incorporates the different dimensions inherent to the concept of performance. For the analysis of this program, we propose a theoretical model that relates the concepts of instrumental rationality and substantive rationality, as analyzed by Ramos (1989, with the multidimensional paradigm, proposed by Sander (1995. For the latter, the notion of performance should be broadened, incorporating the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness and relevance. The concepts of efficiency and effectiveness are related to instrumental rationality or the utilitarian calculation of consequences; while effectiveness and relevance are related to substantive rationality, based on values. The relationship

  5. La masificación del ajedrez y la asistencia de las personas de la tercera edad a los círculos de abuelos de la comunidad Sandino

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    Ángel Agustín Izquierdo Núñez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro  comandante  en  jefe, como  impulsor  de  las  obras  de  la  batalla  de   ideas,  no dejo de ver  la necesidad de  que nuestros   niños aprendan el ajedrez  actividad deportiva  que  ayuda  grandemente  al  desarrollo  psíquico  del  individuo.  “Masificar   el ajedrez  colocaría  a este  país con  mucha  más  capacidad  de  pensar,  más  eficiente. Es   como  saber     una    asignatura básica.  EL  ajedrez esta    instrumentado    para desarrollarse  en  todos  los  centros  educacionales  del  país  así  como  en  todas  las esferas  de  la  vida. Constituye  el  ajedrez  una  de  las  más  interesantes  creaciones  del ingenio  humano. Sus  elementos  finitos, un  tablero  de  64  cuadros  por  el  que  desplazan 32  piezas  blanquinegras,  ofrecen  posibilidades  extraordinarias  de  creación  por  eso cada  vez  son  más  en  todo  el  mundo  los que  de  una  u  otra  forma, por  motivaciones muy  diversas, se  acercan  a  esta  disciplina para estudiarla y practicarla.Todos  sin  excepción  podemos  obtener  beneficios  y  desarrollar  cualidades  a  partir  del conocimiento y la practica del    ajedrez, una   de las actividades mas  antiguas  y carismáticas que existen. Para  ello no   es preciso    ser    un   experto,  basta    con comprender  la  esencia  de  su  desarrollo  para  poder  utilizar  sus  aportes  en  la  vida diaria. Vivimos en un tiempo que nos exige de gran  adaptabilidad  a los cambios y de un aprendizaje permanente .Cada vez resulta más necesario administrar información, valorar opciones y tomar decisiones acertadas en un universo crecientemente complejo y variable. Así  mismo  es  importantísimo utilizar  óptimamente  los  recursos  de  que  disponemos  y potenciamos

  6. EDITORIAL

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    Jesús Alberto Andrade

    2008-01-01

    medio que nos permite ser críticos de la realidad del conocimiento. La sociedad de la información es la sociedad del no conocimiento, porque con la presión de las tecnologías de información y la abrumadora cantidad de datos por procesar, pretendemos interpretar todos los fenómenos como problemas derivados del desconocimiento. De manera que la sociedad de la informaciónes también la sociedad del desconocimiento.La autoridad para el conocimiento pareciera centrarse no en el conocimiento mismo, sino en las fuentes de información. Internet es una prueba del lugar donde la credibilidad del conocimiento se cuestiona en forma más aguda. No importa mucho el grado de verdad que el conocimiento genera,sino que la confianza esté centrada en las fuentes de información. Por supuesto, esto ofende la moral científica del conocimiento. La ética debe aprender a convivir con la cada vez menor jerarquía de los valores.Se buscan mecanismos de validación (o contrastación del conocimiento a través de fuentes de información más confiables que aquellas dictaminadas por el mercado. De allí la importancia de los sistemas que registran a las fuentes hemerográficas. En Enl@ce, nos empeñamos en ser un referente confiable para la ciencia. No nos basta con publicar la verdad del conocimiento, tenemos que validar nuestras fuentes, para que la revista sea confiable en la producción científica de conocimiento.No nos ha hecho falta comercializar el conocimiento para hacer de la revista un punto referencial en los sistemas de difusión científica. La visibilidad de Enl@ce ha crecido exponencialmente sin tener que recurrir al mercado. Hemos sentado las bases para el desarrollo de aspectos asociados a programas de investigación, en particular a los aspectos concernientes a la difusión del conocimiento.Cada vez son más los índices que reconocen a Enl@ce como una fuente válida de conocimiento.Hemos sido incluidos en el Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ y en Hispanic

  7. Comentario a la presentación del Libro "Los Versos Melánicos"

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    Alberto Gómez Vesga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apreciados señoras y señores, académicos: Todos plenos de títulos y honores nos reunimos hoy -menos endémicos- esquivando las funciones de doctores en torno a la obra de Efraím Otero y su relación un tanto iconoclasta de una vida que vivió por el alero de la medicina nuclear, que no le basta para hacer feliz su alma de poeta a Dios gracias, o gracias a algún hado y su saeta.

    Como ven no fallé ni un ápice en la rima pero sí -y totalmente- en la mesura aún así, contrario un tris la compostura y procedo a saludar a la Junta Directiva. Al Secretario Perpetuo que tiene un apellido muy difícil de rimar en nuestro idioma lo llamaré Hernando-como hemos convenido- Además … él sabe que es en broma. Sigue ahora nuestro augusto Presidente cuyo caso es todo lo contrario pues rimar con Juan en este horario bien merece un elogio del ausente. El Vicepresidente -aquí si estoy desamparado- fue para mí casi imposible, y “doy lo” que me pidan, aún doy mi doctorado, por rimar por fin con Cuellar o con Zoilo.

    A Germán Peña -Secretario- ahora elijo, por él siento especial y muy curiosa inclinación, por un lado, porque conocí bien a su hijo y por otro, a causa del vinito que tomamos al final de cada reunión. El último en la lista es Es guerra el Tesorero de Marly, muy activo calculista ha resultado con él no parece que nos faltará el dinero para darle buen sentido a las políticas de estado. Ahora bien, más que conceptos eruditos de un sesudo estudio literario quiero leerles mis versos favoritos a manera de muy corto comentario. El libro de Efraím, que he disfrutado tiene forma de auto-biografía como Juan de Castellanos ha rimadocada evento y sentimiento de su vida.

    Capítulo primero

    Inicia recordando lecturas escolares e incluye medievales y renacentistas repasando luego versos populares y algunas ocurrencias de amigos repentistas. Entre éstas leeré un verso muy sabroso que nos dice

  8. Frequency Spectrum of Liquids and Cold Neutron Scattering; Spectre de frequences des liquides et diffusion de neutrons froids; Chastotnyj spektr zhidkostej i rasseyanie kholodnykh nejtronov; Espectro de frecuencias de los liquidos y dispersion de neutrones frios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singwi, K S; Sjolander, A; Rahman, A [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1963-01-15

    neutrons lents par les liquides comme l'ont souligne Egelstaff et ses colllaborateurs. Les auteurs calculent, a l'aide d'un modele stochastique, le spectre des frequences f({omega}) de la fonction d'auto-correlation des vitesses dans l'eau a 300{sup o}K et dans le plomb liquide a 620{sup o}K. Dans le cas de l'eau ils prevoient un maximum de la fonction f({omega}) correspondant a {Dirac_h} {omega}75{sup o}K. Dans le plomb, le maximum se manifeste a une valeur a peu pres analogue. II existe aussi un minimum de la fonction f({omega}) dans les deux cas. Larsson et Dahlborg ont observe un maximum de la fonction f({omega}) a la valeur d'{omega} prevue ci-dessus. Des observations faites recemment dans du plomb liquide par Cotter et al. confirment vraisemblablement les previsions des auteurs. (author) [Spanish] Una cuestion importante que se plantea respecto de la dispersion de neeutrones lentos por los liquidos es la siguiente: Existe un espectro de frecuencia de los liquidos analogo al de los solidos? para contestar a esta pregunta, basta demostrar que la funcion de amplitud {gamma}(t) de la funcion gaussiana de autocorrelacion espacio G{sup s}(r,t) puede expresarse, utilizando el espectro de frecuencias de la funcion de autocorreclation de velocidad, en form identica a la correspondiente a un solido armonico. Es decir, si se conoce el especro de frecuencias de la funcion de autocorrelacion de velocidad, se debe poder calcular la dispersion de neutrones lentos por los liquidos, como han senalado Egelstaff y colaboradores. Los autores calculan, utilizando un modelo estocastico de liquido, el espectro de frecuencia f({omega}) de la funcion de autocorrelacion de velocidad, en el caso del agua a 300{sup o}K y del plomo liquido a 620{sup o}K. Predicen para la primera un maximo de f({omega}) correspondiente a {Dirac_h}{omega} 75{sup o}K. Enel caso del plomo, el maximo se presenta tambien para el mismo valor de oj, aproximadamente. Ademas, en ambos casos f({omega})pasa por un minimo

  9. Características sensoriais da carne ovina Sensorial characteristics of sheep meat

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    José Carlos da Silveira Osório

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a tendência mundial é produzir o que se consome e que a ciência da carne busca o mais alto grau de satisfação do consumidor, o estudo aborda as características que propiciam essa satisfação na carne ovina. A utilização dos órgãos dos sentidos humanos na percepção das características que propiciam a mais alta satisfação do consumidor, passou a ser definição de "qualidade"; que aponta como características sensoriais importantes da carne ovina a suculência (capacidade de retenção de água, cor, textura (dureza ou maciez, odor e sabor e o flavor (odor + sabor. Estas características variam de acordo com a espécie, raça, idade, sexo, alimentação, manejo pós-mortem e as condições e tempo de conservação do produto. Sendo que á maioria das investigações relacionam estas características direta ou indiretamente com as do produto cárnico cozido. O produtor, a indústria e os segmentos da cadeia devem ter em conta que as propriedades sensoriais aceitáveis são fundamentais no momento da venda e consumo. No agronegócio da carne, todos os segmentos da cadeia são responsáveis e participam direta ou indiretamente na máxima satisfação do consumidor, quer através dos atributos do produto ou pelo preço. Assim, o aperfeiçoamento dos processos de produção, industrialização e comercialização para obter um produto de qualidade serão consolidados se existirem técnicas claras e práticas para descrever os caracteres relacionados com a qualidade da carne, que possam ser medidos na carcaça e que tenham relação biológica com uma avaliação in vivo. A carne de qualidade é a que provoca o mais alto grau de satisfação do consumidor e as características sensoriais estão relacionadas à porção comestível, principalmente a relação músculo/gordura e composição e valor biológico destes. Porém, não basta somente estudar o alimento, é importante ter presente que a meta é o consumidor e

  10. O brincar na infância: considerações a partir de uma pesquisa / Playing in the childhhood: considerations though a research

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    Cláudia Inês Horn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Ensino - Brinquedoteca do Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado/RS/Brasil, do qual participaram crianças na faixa etária de 0 a 10 anos e seus professores. Buscamos investigar de que modo umbanco de atividades lúdicas, organizadas com materiais de baixo custo, pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da criança e subsidiar professores em serviço e em formação para uma proposta pedagógica inovadora. A investigação é de caráter qualitativo e a metodologia utilizada é Análise de Conteúdo, proposta por Bardin, 1977. Pretendemos possibilitar aos sujeitos envolvidos na pesquisa a discussão sobre o valor de alguns jogos e brinquedos, analisando sua relação com a criança. Inicialmente estudamos, através de referencial teórico e de observações diretas junto às crianças, quais eram seusinteresses em relação aos jogos e brinquedos. Diante disso, foi possível construir 20 jogos com materiais de baixo custo, onde determinamos objetivos, função, tema, faixa etária e regras junto às crianças. Este banco de atividades foi testado com 150 crianças e11 professores, a fim de verificar a validade destas propostas. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, as quais foram gravadas e transcritas para análise. Ao término deste trabalho, concluímos que, quando o brincar alcançar um maior espaço nas atividades desenvolvidas em sala de aula ou as atividades apoiarem-se no brincar livremente, não será necessária a preocupação do professor no desenvolvimento da parte intelectiva das crianças. Acreditamos que não basta “dar” às crianças o direito de brincar. Para ser uma atividade significativa, é preciso despertar e manter seu desejo pelo brincar.Abstract Playing in the Childhood: Considerations through a Research – The present work was developed at the Laboratory of Teaching –Toy library (Brinquedoteca of theUnivates Academical Center

  11. Las Afecciones Prostáticas y su Tratamiento

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    Jorge Cavelier Gaviria

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En la actualidad se sabe que el cáncer de la próstata se presenta aproximadamente en el 25% de todos los hombres mayores de 50 años, lo cual significa que esta neoplasia es aún más frecuente que el cáncer del pulmón o del colon. Este aumento y su hallazgo se deben a una mejor metodología para diagnosticar y reportar los casos, lo cual a su vez permite a los hombres vivir hasta una edad más avanzada.

    Debido a esto, se recomienda en la actualidad las evaluaciones anuales en todos los hombres mayores de 50 años. Sin embargo, como este cáncer ocurre con más frecuencia en hombres jóvenes de la raza negra, se recomienda que éstos se sometan a una temprana evaluación tan pronto han cumplido los 40 años. Igualmente quienes tienen una historia clínica de cáncer de la próstata en la familia también deben hacerse los debidos controles desde los 40 años.

    El cáncer de la próstata a menudo se desarrolla sin que haya síntomas que lo delaten hasta que ya está bastante avanzado. Hasta hace poco, los médicos confiaban en el tacto rectal para detectarlo, pero hoy sabemos que esta prueba no basta ya que la totalidad de la próstata no puede ser examinada exactamente. Aunque las áreas de tejido denso y endurecido suelen revelar la existencia de un tumor, también hay protuberancias anormales que se desarrollan sin que haya cambios en la textura de los tejidos y por ser blandas pueden escapar así al tacto rectal.

    Hace tres años comenzó a utilizarse un sencillo análísis de la sangre, el de los antígenos específicos de la próstata. Este análisis mide los niveles de la proteína o enzima prostática que producen tanto las células sanas como las cancerosas. Las células malignas, por naturaleza, se reproducen rápidamente de modo que producen mayores cantidades de antígenos específicos de la próstata, elevando los niveles citados más allá del máximo que se considera normal.

    Sin embargo, en los hombres

  12. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade

    2006-09-01

    la toma de decisiones oportunas. Para ello, los valores organizacionales deberían estar alineados con lasnecesidades de cambio que tienen que ver con los valores de las instituciones.Esos son algunos de los retos que hoy enfrentamos y que son tratados en este nueva entrega de Enl@ce, de la mano de expertos que reconocen la necesidad de confrontar sus experienciasy esfuerzos académicos, a través de la publicación de interpretaciones y resultados de análisiscientíficos.Vale la pena recordar que las modificaciones del pensamiento, expresadas en situacionesespaciales y temporales que se presentan en forma de conocimiento, responden a la necesidad detrascender a la tradicional fragmentación de la realidad del conocimiento científico referencial einstrumental, que inspira a buena parte de los trabajos que se publican en revistas limitadas porlos espacios “naturales” de la especialización. Es así como Enl@ce brinda una ventana para elencuentro del amplio conocimiento de la tecnología y la información, que permite confrontar lascontradicciones propias de la mundialización y discusión del conocimiento. Basta revisar el índiceacumulado de este número, para constatar que Enl@ce es una tribuna abierta a la discusión delpensamiento crítico en materia de tecnología, información y conocimiento.Deseo agradecer a los autores que durante este año 2006 confiaron en Enl@ce, porque se sumaron con verdadero entusiasmo a este proyecto editorial, garantizando, una vez más, la calidaddel contenido de esta publicación. Al Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONACIT por valorarnuestro esfuerzo, y al Vicerrectorado Académico de la Universidad del Zulia que durante este añoconfió en nuestro trabajo académico e hizo posible la continuidad y la consolidación de Enl@ce.

  13. The effective lifetime and temperature coefficient in a coupled fast-thermal reactor; Temps de vie effectif et coefficient de temperature dans un reacteur a couplage neutrons rapides-neutrons thermiques; Ehffektivnyj srok zhizni i temperaturnyj koehffitsient nejtronov v dvoyakom reaktore na bystrykh i teplovykh nejtronakh; Vida efectiva y coeficiente de temperatura en un reactor con acoplamiento rapido-termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W. [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    thermique. Le probleme est etudie avec un groupe de neutrons retardes (au sens habituel). Un formalisme exprime le temps de vie effectif et le coefficient de temperature aux differents stades de la saute de puissance. L'auteur indique les sautes de puissance pour differentes valeurs de {alpha}{sub 0} jusqu'a ce que soit atteinte la limite de la cinetique du reacteur a neutrons rapides. (author) [Spanish] La teoria de los sistemas acoplados fue ampliamente desarrollada por Avery y sus colaboradores en el Argonne National Laboratory. Una de las caracteristicas mas interesantes de los sistemas acoplados es la prolongacion de la vida efectiva de los neutrones. La componente termica actua como una especie de retardador neutronico. Como en la teoria de los neutrones retardados, el efecto retardador desaparece cuando la reactividad adquiere un valor suficientemente elevado para que la componente rapida alcance la criticidad independientemente . El autor examina un reactor con acoplamiento en el que la componente rapida sufre un salto instantaneo de reactividad {alpha}{sub 0}. La temperatura aumenta como consecuencia del incremento del nivel de potencia y comienzan a actuar dos coeficiente termicos: el que corresponde a la componente rapida y el coeficiente de temperatura de la componente termica. El problema se estudia en relacion con un grupo de neutrones retardados (en el sentido corriente del termino). El autor presenta una serie de formulas que expresan la vida efectiva de los neutrones y el coeficiente de temperatura en las diferentes etapas del salto de reactividad. El autor indica esos saltos para distintos valores de {alpha}{sub 0}, basta alcanzar el limite correspondiente a la cinetica de los reactores de neutrones rapidos. (author) [Russian] Teoriya dvoyakikh sistem byla podrobno razrabotana R. Ehjveri i sotrudnikami v Argonskoj natsional'noj laboratorii. Odnim iz osnovnykh interesnykh momentov v sparennoj sisteme yavlyaetsya bol'shij ehffektivnyj srok zhizni nejtronov

  14. HERNANDO GROOT LIÉVANO (1917-2016 IN MEMORIAM. HOMENAJE AL PROFESOR HERNANDO GROOT LIÉVANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Torres

    2016-12-01

    la revista Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía de Bogotá un estudio sobre la Frecuencia de los parásitos intestinales en los enfermos del Hospital San Juan de Dios y, en la Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, otro sobre la Frecuencia con que se encuentran los huevos infecundados de Ascaris lumbricoides. Al año siguiente, 1939, se gradúa de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia con la tesis denominada Estudios sobre fosfatasa, calcio y fósforo inorgánico en el suero de los leprosos. Tales trabajos fueron el inicio de una profusa serie de publicaciones de gran valor investigativo, respaldadas por su condición de Máster en Higiene Pública, título alcanzado por él en 1942 con la palma Cum laudem en la Universidad de Harvard. En ellas se ocupa de la Bartonella, del Balantidium coli, del tifo exantemático, de la sífilis, de la leishmaniasis, del Trypanosoma ariarii, del Trypanosoma rangeli, del virus de la encefalitis equina, del de la fiebre amarilla, de los virus transmitidos por artrópodos, del dengue, del virus guaroa productor de infecciones en humanos, siendo él quien primero lo aisló. También, fue el primero en hallar la Haemobartonella tyzzeri en Colombia y realizó un estudio sistemático sobre las enterobacterias causantes de la diarrea.

    Pero no basta con registrar lo que hizo como científico, se hace necesario destacar la forma como lo hizo. Hernando Groot es el supérstite de aquella pléyade de investigadores románticos que iban, a manera de apóstoles de la salud, en plan de exploradores −conquistadores− a internarse en las selvas y en los campos inhóspitos, soportando las inclemencias de la naturaleza, tras la huella de mosquitos y garrapatas portadores de las enfermedades propias del trópico. De esa pléyade formaron también parte los profesores Luis Patiño Camargo, Ernesto Osorno Mesa, Augusto Gast Galvis y Jorge Boshell Manrique...

  15. Determination of Radiotracer Stability of Tritium-Labelled Compounds in Biological Studies; Determination de la Stabilite des Composes Trities Employes comme Indicateurs en Biologie; 041e 043f 0440 0435 0434 0414 043b ; Determinacion de la Estabilidad de los Compuestos Tritiados en los Estudios Biologicos Mediante Indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, G. T.; Spratt, J. L. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Pharmacology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-02-15

    compuestos marcados hasta lograr una actividad especifica constante no excluye la posibilidad de que en los organismos vivos se produzca un intercambio entre atomos de tritio y de hidrogeno. La estabilidad radiotrazadora puede demostrarse mediante diversos metodos, una vez que se haya efectuado una purificacion radioquimica meticulosa de la sustancia marcada. En la memoria se describen tres metodos diferentes utilizados para determinar la estabilidad radiotrazadora de los compuestos de tritio. Uno de ellos consiste en comparar el periodo biologico de un compuesto de {sup 3}H con el de un compuesto similar marcado con {sup 14}C. Este metodo es aplicable especialmente a las sustancias endogenas que sufren una dilucion isotopica al ser administradas a los animales. La estabilidad de los compuestos exogenos puede comprobarse mediante un segundo metodo, con arreglo al cual basta demostrar que no se produce disminucion de la actividad especifica cuando la sustancia marcada se aisla de nuevo de las muestras biologicas. Un tercer metodo, mas rapido que el primero, y aplicable tanto a las sustancias endogenas como exogenas, consiste en determinar la razon isotopica {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C en una mezcla del mismo compuesto marcado con ambos isotopos. La constancia de las razones isotopicas antes de administrar la sustancia doblemente marcada y despues de aislarla de nuevo de organos o excreta constituye una prueba de su estabilidad radiotrazadora. Este metodo es aplicable especialmente en los casos en que el aislamiento de vestigios de sustancia exige el empleo de un portador inactivo. En la memoria se presentan datos relativos al empleo de estos metodos para la comprobacion de la estabilidad radiotrazadora, con especial referencia al colesterol, la morfina y la digitoxina marcadas, como ejemplos de los tres metodos mencionados. (author) [Russian] Rasprostranivsheesja za poslednee vremja v biologicheskih issledovanijah shirokoe primenenie mechen- nyh tritiem soedinenij vyzyvaet

  16. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Triest.let's finish—aus basta Some move atoms around to hear how they sound.Karl-Heinz Rieder, Erice, 6 April 1998 From reciprocal space to real space in surface science contents From reciprocal space to real space in surface scienceLudwig Bartels and Karl-Heinz Ernst Karl-Heinz Reider: the quiet pioneerGiorgio Benedek Scattering of CO and N2 molecules by a graphite surfaceJunepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura, W W Hayes and J R Manson Helium, neon and argon diffraction from Ru(0001)M Minniti, C Díaz, J L Fernández Cuñado, A Politano, D Maccariello, F Martín, D Farías and R Miranda Enhanced charge transfer in a monolayer of the organic charge transfer complex TTF-TNAP on Au(111)T R Umbach, I Fernandez-Torrente, J N Ladenthin, J I Pascual and K J Franke Extended pattern recognition scheme for self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo simulationsSyed Islamuddin Shah, Giridhar Nandipati, Abdelkader Kara and Talat S Rahman Acetylene on Cu(111): imaging a molecular surface arrangement with a constantly rearranging tipYeming Zhu, Jonathan Wyrick, Kamelia D Cohen, Katie Marie Magnone, Connor Holzke, Daniel Salib, Quan Ma, Dezheng Sun and Ludwig Bartels Coulomb attraction during the carpet growth mode of NaClFriederike Matthaei, Sarah Heidorn, Konrad Boom, Cord Bertram, Ali Safiei, Jörg Henzl and Karina Morgenstern Molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface: interplay between substrate templating and intermolecular interactionsMarkus Kittelmann, Philipp Rahe and Angelika Kühnle Vertical manipulation of native adatoms on the InAs(111)A surfaceJ Yang, C Nacci, J Martínez-Blanco, K Kanisawa and S Fölsch Charge transfer between isomer domains on n+-doped Si(111)-2 × 1: energetic stabilizationR M Feenstra, G Bussetti, B Bonanni, A Violante, C Goletti, P Chiaradia, M G Betti and C Mariani Probing the properties of metal-oxide interfaces: silica films on Mo and Ru supportsLeonid Lichtenstein, Markus Heyde, Stefan Ulrich, Niklas Nilius

  17. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientí­cas, que se propõem a torná-los acessí­veis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equí­vocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mí­dia para os

  18. A IGREJA DIANTE DA CRISE ANTROPOLÓGICA CONTEMPORÂNEA: O QUE FAZER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Jérôme Gagey

    2014-01-01

    contemporânea. Neste contexto, a primeira missão é reconhecer e despertar a simples fé humana que nos permite engajar-nos na vida. Deve ser reinventada a própria maneira de sermos humanos, trabalhar a “simples fé humana” que é necessária para viver. Vincent Miller propõe práticas sociais alternativas, que implicam outra relação com as coisas. Segundo Rodney Stark não basta moralizar, devem ser inventadas e operacionalizadas novas práticas. Como resistir ao “consumir mais”, a não ser aprendendo a “consumir bem”? A invenção de novas práticas sociais é a via longa, mas via curta não há! ABSTRACT: The Catholic Church and the great historical churches lost their plausibility in the lands of ancient Christianity: “exculturation of Catholicism”. The Church faces the same crisis that most of our societies face by the fact that we are going through a world change. Modernity has managed a definitive victory over the tradition, stripping her of her undisputed authority. In the Middle Ages, reading Aristotle leads the intellectuals of that time (S. Thomas to discover the possibilities of autonomous reason to open the paths to knowledge. Descartes sets out the principle of “methodical doubt.” Kant denounces that most of humanity renounces the use of their autonomy in understanding. In the Wars of Religion the unity of Western Europe that Christianity had guaranteed falls apart! Many found the need for a higher principle, and that principle is rationality. It was the beginning of de-Christianization. From the methodical doubt of Descartes to the audacity to think for yourself of Kant there comes a culture where “everything is debatable”. Fabulous mutation of the material conditions, the possibilities of access to culture and to the practical exercise of freedom. Cultural revolution, causing the generalization of individualism, the solitary mass. Today it is no longer possible to rely on some stable evidences: emancipation before

  19. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología. (III Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1987-04-01

    ha comenzado a concentrar esfuerzos en tareas que se consideran triviales para cualquier adulto normal: lenguaje, sentido común, aprendizaje por experiencias pasadas.

    En cuanto al lenguaje se refiere, el mayor problema reside en que la gente entiende mucho más de lo que el léxico literalmente expresa; en lo atinente al sentido común, no basta el conocimiento de una gran cantidad de cosas sino se requiere su aplicación a una variedad de situaciones. En cambio el aprendizaje de experiencias pasadas tiene como base la memoria que facilita la aplicación de ese conocimiento en situaciones relevantes, lo que sí representaría un avance hacia verdadera inteligencia. Entonces se repite la pregunta: ¿para qué sirve la lA? Los autores mencionados responden que el concepto popular de lA se ha enfocado erróneamente hacia lo artificial o sea hacia los computadores. En realidad estos ejecutan tareas nunca antes imaginadas. Científicos e ingenieros constantemente están aumentando su utilidad y poder; pero esto no es lA; su concepto se debe enfocar por el aspecto inteligencia. Ponen como ejemplo el popular programa “Expertos” rotulado como “rulebased” en donde no hay razonamiento en la forma como lo hace un experto humano (hecho anotado en la la. parte; pues si bien es cierto que realizan tareas interesantes, no son modelos de inteligencia porque no pueden decir qué hay que hacer cuando algo no cuadra en sus reglas basadas en éxito o fracaso. Agregan que la lA es una ciencia mucho más básica de lo que generalmente se cree. Un producto hecho posible por una idea de lA tiene mérito si funciona con éxito útil, no simplemente porque sea fruto de una idea de lA.

    ¿Entonces cuáles serían las aplicaciones de la 1A? Según Schank y Hunter si ganamos en conocimiento profundo (insight o entendimiento de cómo piensa el ser humano, esos hallazgos ayudarían a la misma gente a pensar mejor y constituirían la más importante aplicación. Me explico: si

  20. Il popolo tra realtà politica e finzione ideologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gatti

    2012-10-01

    , un passato però quanto mai presente e del quale proprio un succinto esame del problema-popolo consente di illuminare alcuni aspetti rilevanti.Si dirà che la sottolineatura del carattere impolitico del moderno fa parte di una posizione di pensiero, tutto sommato, non certo nuova: minoritaria sicuramente, ma non inedita né particolarmente originale. E, per documentarlo – si aggiungerà – basta evocare i nomi dei cosiddetti nostalgici della polis, da Arendt, a Strauss, a Voegelin, e via procedendo. Saremmo alla solita contrapposizione tra sostenitori di modelli normativi di politica in alternativa l’uno rispetto all’altro, ognuno dei quali accusa l’avversario di fallacia o di tentazione ideologica. Così, però, almeno in questo saggio, non dovrebbe essere. E non solo perché queste poche pagine sono all’insegna della convinzione che argomentare (e non solo contrapporre dogmaticamente è possibile. Ma soprattutto perché l’obiettivo non è tanto di mettere a confronto modelli, quanto di operare entro quelli che la modernità ci offre e di criticarli iuxta propria principia, facendone risaltare la contraddittorietà o i vari aspetti problematici a partire dal loro interno, dalla loro logica, dalla loro struttura, più o meno sistematica. La critica di impoliticità può quindi esercitarsi in un confronto diretto con i “classici” moderni della politica e può tentare di porre in luce l’impasse nella trama teorica che essi, pur in diverso modo e anche spesso con intenti molto differenti, elaborano.Diciamo, allora, che prima di cimentarsi sul piano normativo, questo saggio si muove sul piano ermeneutico, che certo, come ben sappiamo tutti, privo di presupposti normativi non è mai. Ma chi si colloca su tale piano cerca (o dovrebbe farlo di avvicinarsi, per quanto possibile, all’oggetto e di comprenderlo in profondità, assottigliando il più possibile le pretese normative – con la consapevolezza, comunque, che, come ci ha insegnato prima di tutti

  1. Diversidad étnica e identidad en la llanura costera del istmo oaxaqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanga Villagómez Velázquez

    2004-01-01

    to communication and commercial networks, as well as exercising political influence among the ethnic groups, while other ethnic groups are excluded from these luxuries, not only due to their indigenous stature, but because they are subordinated by the domination that other ethnic groups exercise. Key to the current discussion about this area of Oaxaca is the exploitation and appropriation of the considerable range of natural resources found in the isthmus. Not only are the system of lakes in the Tehuantepec Gulf, the nature reserves in Chimalapas and the cattle ranching in the Mixe important sites of economic exploitation that have strengthened the power of local groups, but they are also sites of strategic control for the future development of Mexico. In the Oaxacan Isthmus exists valuable natural resources in water, forests, and endemic species that can play an important role in the regional and national economy. The question remains to understand which social or legal mechanisms have been put in place in order to define the beneficiaries of the natural riches found in the isthmus.En este artículo se desarrollan una serie puntos para entender al istmo oaxaqueño como una zona de convergencia cultural diversa, múltiple y por lo tanto diferenciada tanto en el ámbito de la historia de los pueblos que en ella viven, como en el ámbito de la estructura económica que permite su reproducción no sólo como grupos étnicos, sino como comunidades. El autor plantea que las manifestaciones culturales de cada grupo se confunden, se entrelazan se influencian mutuamente y en una lógica asociada a la perdurabilidad de dichos procesos, terminan por imponerse. Para comprender las relaciones interétnicas no basta con dar cuenta de las características generales de estos grupos sino que es necesario actualizar la información que se ha obtenido de ellos, sobre todo ahora que nuevos procesos nacionales o internacionales están afectando de manera irreversible la composición y

  2. La Medicina en la Obra Literaria de Gabriel García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Torres

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Es sabido que los temas médicos han tenido marcada atracción para muchos escritores reconocidos como tales por la crítica literaria mundial. No ha sido condición sine qua non que simultáneamente hayan pertenecido a la familia médica; basta que hayan sido escritores, y sobre todo escritores románticos: novelistas, cronistas o cuentistas. En algunos de ellos el amor y la medicina han ido de brazo. Y el amor, para el personaje de quien voy a ocuparme, es, según sus palabras, el motor de sus libros, su único argumento, su ideología exclusiva (1. No es de extrañar, como que su venerado maestro Lope de Vega ya lo decía:

    “Amor, divina invención
    … extraños efetos son
    los que de tu ciencia nacen,
    pues las tinieblas deshacen,
    pues hacen hablar los mudos;
    pues los ingenios más rudos
    sabios y discretos hacen”. (2

    Está bien, el amor ha servido de acicate, de inspiración, al laureado escritor colombiano. Pero, ¿y la medicina? No es difícil demostrar que ha sido una ciencia muy afin a él. En 1981, en Crónica de una muerte anunciada, pone en boca del narrador, que se supone era él mismo, que “en una época incierta en que trataba de entender algo de mí mismo vendiendo enciclopedias y libros de medicina por los pueblos de la Goajira…” (3. Tal noticia es corroborada por Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda (4, a quien el mismo escritor le confesó en alguna ocasión que había sido vendedor de libros (enciclopedias de la Editorial Uteha por lados de Valledupar y la Guajira.

    Por su parte, Dasso Saldívar -buen biografista de Gabo- refiere que éste, en los pueblos, “visitaba a los médicos, jueces, notarios, alcaldes” para convencerlos de la bondad de los libros técnicos que ofrecía (5; de seguro antes los

  3. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade

    2011-01-01

    íticas que hacen muchos expertos en materia de ciencia y tecnología, abogan por un regresoa las estructuras científicas del pasado. Sin embargo, la hipocresía no ha dejado de existir. Desde los másaferrados detractores del gobierno nacional, hasta quienes defienden la gran “política nacional” en materia de Ciencia y Tecnología acudieron al llamado realizado por el ONCTI con el fin de participar en el nuevo PEI, cuyo incentivo se centra casi exclusivamente en los aspectos monetarios. Como política científica apunta, al igual que lo hacía el PPI, a la promoción del investigador y no de la investigación. No se trata, en principio, de elevar los niveles de hacer ciencia, sino más bien de realizar ajustes al deteriorado ingreso que reciben los investigadores del país. Se trata por lo tanto, de políticas de estímulo para que quienes se dediquen a las actividades de investigación, lo hagan con un ingreso adicional al que perciben en sus centros de trabajos, siempre y cuando el proyecto de investigación que desarrollen esté enmarcado dentro del Plan Nacional Simón Bolívar.Una de las contradicciones de mayor peso es la que concierne a las publicaciones científicas. En el anterior PPI, se calificaba la calidad de las publicaciones realizadas por los participantes. Un criterio, por ejemplo, era que la publicación científica para ser aceptada debía ser hecha en una revista que al menos estuviera registrada en uno de los siguientes índices: Latindex Catálogo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Biosis, Med Line/Pub-Med, Scielo Internacional, CLASE, Mathematical Review, Cover to Cover o Compedex, y ello servía como un criterio de calidad. Con el PEI, no existe un parámetro que señale la calidad de la publicación; el instructivo indica que se considerará prioritaria si la revista es venezolana, no se indica nada en relación con su calidad. Basta con que el trabajo sea arbitrado para ser aceptado como un producto de investigación e innovación. Quizás por

  4. Tritium in underground-water studies; Emploi du tritium dans les etudes sur les eaux souterraines; Tritij v isledovaniyakh podzemnykh vod; Empleo del tritio en el estudio de las aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, F A; Gol' bek, G R; Sojfer, V N; Vasil' eva, N A; Majdebor, V N; Sokolovskij, Eh V; Shan' gin, N N

    1962-01-15

    : infiltracion del agua a traves de los sectores mas permeables del estrato, a velocidades comprendidas entre 10 y 30 m por dia, y avance del contorno basico de agua bombeada en una parte relativamente homogenea del estrato, a una velocidad de 2 m por dia. Este ultimo desplazamiento corresponde a las velocidades (1,9 a 2,2 m por dia) calculadas teoricamente para un estrato homogeneo. Es posible evaluar cuantitativamente el flujo en los desplazamientos de ambos tipos. Se ha ideado un metodo que emplea tritio para observar la comunicacion entre las aguas presentes en los distintos sectores intercalados en el estrato productivo de una vena petrolifera. Los autores proponen un metodo nuevo para controlar la explotacion de yacimientos petroliferos gracias al tritio natural contenido en las aguas superficiales inyectadas en el estrato, tanto en el interior como en el exterior del contorno. El lento desplazamiento del contorno de yacimientos petroliferos grandes, en los que se hayan realizado pocas perforaciones, puede ser estudiado durante periodos largos (unos 10 anos). De la cantidad de tritio desintegrado que contenga el agua subyacente a 1a. capa petrolifera de un pozo en explotacion pueden deducirse los tiempos y velocidades de desplazamiento del agua de contorno con una exactitud de {+-} 1 ano. Basta un numero reducido de analisis (no mas de 300 a 500 analisis por ano en un gran yacimiento) para seguir el desplazamiento del contorno. Se ha ideado un aparato sumamente sensible para medir el tritio en las aguas superficiales con contadores contrastados llenos de liquido. La mayor parte de las organizaciones industriales puede disponer de aparatos de este tipo. (author) [Russian] Izlagaetsya razvitie metoda vodnogo indikatora s ispol'zovaniem iskusstvennogo i prirodnogo tritiya pri izuchenii dvizheniya podzemnykh vod. Ustanovleno dva vozmozhnykh tipa dvizheniya zhidkosti po plastu, protiv vody po naibolee pronitsaemym uchastkam plasta so skorostyami 10/30 m/sutki i prodvizhenie

  5. Construction, Cost and Use of an Enriched Uranium, Light-Water Subcritical Assembly; Assemblage Sous-Critique a Uranium Enrichi et Eau Legere; Realisation, Cout et Application; Realizatsiya i stoimost' podkriticheskoj sborki na obogashchennom urane i legkoj vode; Construccion, Coste y Aplicacion de un Conjunto Subcritico de Uranio Enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoz, B.; Berthet, P.; Gavin, P.; Mandrin, C.; Robert, P.; Thurnheer, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1964-02-15

    ecuaciones de dispersion en teoria de dos grupos. Basta conocer las caracteristicas de un solo plano de barras para prever el flujo neutronico debido a los n planos. Estas caracteristicas se determinan experimentalmente teniendo en cuenta la variacion vertical del flujo neutronico. El estudio se prosigue por evaluacion de la influencia de la distancia entre las banas pertenecientes a un mismo plano. (author) [Russian] Prednaznachennaja dlja jeksperimental'nogo izuchenija reshetok umnozhitelja podkriticheskaja sborka ispol'zuetsja takzhe dlja celej obuchenija. Ustanovka obladaet bol'shimi vozmozhnostjami ispol'zovanija. Izlagajutsja prichiny, po kotorym laboratorija jadernoj tehniki Politehnicheskoj shkoly Lozannskogo universiteta reshila realizovat', naskol'ko jeto vozmozhno, podkriticheskuju sborku svoimi sobstvennymi sredstvami i izbrat' reshetku slaboobogashennyj uran-legkaja voda. Daetsja opisanie principa i realizacii ustrojstv, kotorye pozvoljajut udobno i bystro izmenjat' parametry reshetki i nejtronnogo pitanija: 1. Uranovye sterzhni podveshivajutsja vertikal'no, i kazhdaja tochka podveski imeet dva gradusa svobodnogo hoda bez ogranichenija samogo processa. Jetot princip pozvoljaet, naprimer, var'irovat' posledovatel'no shag reshetki. 2. Nejtronnoe pitanie obespechivaetsja pjat'ju istochnikami, kotorye pomeshajutsja v grafitovom cokole. Rasstojanie jetih istochnikov mozhet takzhe regulirovat'sja posledovatel'nym obrazom. Rassmatrivajutsja problemy bezopasnosti, kotorye sozdaet ustanovka, tem. chto reaktivnost' mozhet sil'no izmenjat'sja ot odnoj konfiguracii k drugoj. Nakonec, privodjatsja rashody po stroitel'stvu i jekspluatacii jetoj podkriticheskoj sborki. S pomoshh'ju podkriticheskoj sborki izuchalas' neperiodicheskaja reshetka, kogda byla predprinjata popytka poluchit' odnorodnyj potok. S jetoj cel'ju ispol'zovana geterogennaja teorija Fajnberga i Horninga. Vnachale rassmatrivaetsja reshetka sterzhnej, raspolozhennyh odinakovym obrazom v n-parallel'nyh planah na

  6. Criteria for Special Nuclear Materials Inventory and Control Procedures; Criteres a Suivre Pour Proceder a l'Inventaire des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales et aux Mesures de Controle; Kriterii dlya inventarizatsii spetsial'nykh yadernykh materialov i metody ucheta; Criterios a Que Deben Ajustarse los Procedimientos de Inventario y Control de los Materiales Nucleares Especiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinderman, E. M.; Tarrice, R. R. [Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    nucleares se emplearan en grandes cantidades: basta senalar que un reactor de 500 MW, moderado por agua ligera, necesitara de 50 a 75 toneladas de material enriquecido al 3% y que es probable que en 1980 funcionen en el mundo de 200 a 300 reactores de esta potencia. La experiencia ha permitido elaborar procedimientos y practicas especiales para el control comercial de grandes cantidades de materiales baratos, como el carbon o el mineral de hierro, y de pequenas cantidades de materiales caros, como los metales preciosos. Aunque sus precios son similares a los de estos ultimos, los materiales nucleares especiales son de distinta clase y se utilizaran en cantidades mucho mayores. De todas formas, aunque quiza sea necesario recurrir a tecnicas especiales o adaptar tecnicas antiguas, en la mayoria de los casos bastara utilizar convenientemente los procedimientos ya conocidos de control de las existencias para proteger en forma adecuada las inversiones nacionales o individuales en esos materiales tan caros. En la memoria se exponen algunos criterios para el control de los materiales. Se estudian especialmente las tecnicas de control de las existencias (desde el balance contable anual hasta el inventario ffsico efectuado a diario) que resultan mas apropiadas dado el valor especffico y la cantidad total de los materiales nucleares especiales. Se presenta una matriz de soluciones para la administracion y el control de esas existencias. Se evalua la multiplicidad y la eficacia relativa de diversas tecnicas en momentos decisivos del suministro, el empleo y la regeneracion de los materiales. (author) [Russian] Odnoj iz samyh vazhnyh problem, s kotoroj stolknutsja predprinimateli, rukovoditeli i operatory v oblasti atomnoj jenergii, i osobenno v oblasti promyshlennoj jadernoj jenergetiki, javljaetsja ustanovlenie nadlezhashhego kontrolja inventarizacii jadernyh materialov, stoimost' kotoryh k 1980 godu prevysit 5 mlrd. doll. SShA. Special'nye jadernye materialy dorogi po sravneniju s

  7. A 256-channel measuring and recording system; Un systeme de mesure et d'enregistrement a 256 canaux; Sistema izmerenij i registratsii na 256 kanalov; Sistema de medicion y registro de 256 canales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, I S; Kuronkin, S S; Pasechnikova, I P; Safonovi, O A; Tuchina, A S

    1962-04-15

    sistema, que consiste fundamentalmente en un dispositivo de registro de 256 canales con una capacidad de 2{sup 16} por canal y en un dispositivo de mando, esta constituido por nucleos de ferritas y transistores. El elemento aritmetico del dispositivo de registro permite efectuar operaciones de adicion y sustraccion. La duracion de un ciclo completo basta la ''memoria'' es de 20 {mu}s. En el dispositivo de mando, el registro, el recuento y la inscripcion pueden ajustarse y combinarse en el orden que se desee; esto da al nuevo sistema un campo de aplicacion mucho mas amplio que el del equipo corrientemente utilizado. Un generador de cuarzo de 4 MHz establece la frecuencia para el dispositivo de mando. En el sistema se utilizan los siguientes dispositivos de medicion: un convertidor de amplitud de impulsos en clave de computo numerico con un tiempo de conversion de 0,25 {mu}s por canal, una desviacion de linealidad integral inferior a 0,1 por ciento, una desviacion de linealidad diferencial inferior al 4 por ciento, una deriva del cero inferior a 0,2 V y una inestabilidad a largo plazo de anchura de canal inferior a 0,4 por ciento. Para el circuito de conversion se utilizan valvulas. El selector de tiempo, para el que se emplean transistores, tiene una anchura de canal variable entre 1 y 64 {mu}s; la inestabilidad de esta anchura es inferior a 10{sup -4}. El circuito esta concebido de forma que permite registrar en el canal impulsos incompletos para anchuras de canal superiores a 8 {mu}s. El convertidor utilizado para expresar intervalos breves de tiempo (10{sup -9} a 10{sup -7} s) en una clave de computo numerico simple tiene un tiempo de resolucion del orden de 2 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} s y una estabilidad de anchura de canal superior a 10{sup -2}. La informacion acumulada en la ''memoria'' puede transmitirse en forma analogica a un tubo oscilografico y, en clave de computo numerico, a un aparato impresor y a lamparas indicadoras. (author) [Russian] V doklade obsuzhdaetsya

  8. Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horber, E. [Swiss Experimental Station for Agriculture, Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)

    1963-09-15

    observe une certaine diminution des larves en b) et c), due a la secheresse qui regnait dans toute la region. Il a ete demontre que la methode du lacher de males steriles peut etre appliquee avec succes dans la lutte contre un insecte nuisible qui se trouve dans une region qui n'est pas strictement isolee du point de vue geographique, dont les femelles s'apparient plusieurs fois et dont l'elevage en masse est impossible en raison de la duree du cycle evolutif. (author) [Spanish] Ensayos realizados en laboratorio indicaron que para esterilizar a los abejorros machos basta con una dosis de rayos X de 3000 roentgens. Durante dos periodos de vuelo se soltaron machos esterilizados en una region agricola del noroeste de Suiza con objeto de erradicar las larvas. En 1950 esta plaga habia sido combatida con procedimientos quimicos. Entre 1953 y 1962 se observo la actividad en todos los vueles. En 1959 se seleccionaron cinco zonas de 30 hectareas cada una que sirvieron de: a) Zona de tratamiento, en la que se capturaron, irradiaron y soltaron machos; b) Zona de reserva, en la que se recogieron abejorros y se irradiaron machos que se soltaron en a); c) Zonas de control, en las que se observo la actividad normal. Los machos fueron irradiados con un aparato terapeutico de rayos X. Despues de la irradiacion se les puso una marca de color para poder calcular su porcentaje mediante la tecnica de dilucion isotopica. En 1959, durante el primer tratamiento, se soltaron en la zona a unos 6 l de machos esterilizados, lo que representaba aproximadamente el 50% del total de machos de dicha zona. La cantidad de larvas recogidas en los prados despues del tratamiento represento unos 2/3 de la correspondiente a las zonas de control. La razon de reproduccion solo fue inferior a la unidad en la zona a). Cuando se calculo, en 1962, el numero de abejorros supervivientes se observo que en la zona a habia disminuido hasta 1/10 en comparacion con las zonas b) y c). De 1959 a 1962 la cifra mas elevada de

  9. Magnesium Cermets and Magnesium-Beryllium Alloys; Cermets au magnesium et au magnesium-beryllium; Metallokeramicheskie magnievye i magnievo-berillievye splavy; Cermets de magnesio y aleaciones de magnesio y berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Zelenskij, V. F.; Fajfer, S. I.; Zhdanov, S. M.; Maksimenko, V. I.; Savchenko, V. I. [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Institut an USSR, Khar' kov, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-11-15

    {sup o}C une forte resistance a l'oxydation pendant plus de 12 000 a 14000 heures. La duree de leur resistance a la chaleur est determinee avant tout par leur teneur en beryllium et augmente avec celle-ci. Les alliages PMB se distinguent egalement par leur forte resistance a une surchauffe de courte duree. Les cermets au magnesium et au magnesium-beryllium, dont une des particularites caracteristiques est la resistance accrue a la chaleur, peuvent trouver une large application dans differents domaines de la technique. (author) [Spanish] Los autores exponen algunos resultados de sus estudios sobre cermets de magnesio-oxido de magnesio y sobre aleaciones superrefractarias de magnesio y berilio, preparadas mediante procedimientos pulvimetalurgicos. La incorporacion de proporciones insignificantes de oxido de magnesio finamente disperso al magnesio basta para provocar un aumento de resistencia cuya magnitud crece con la concentracion del primero, aunque las variaciones de concentracion del oxido entre el 0,3 y el 5% en peso solo influyen ligeramente en las correspondientes variaciones de la tension de rotura (ensayo rapido) en todo el intervalo de temperaturas estudiado. Para los cermets se observan los valores siguientes a 20{sup o}C: {sigma}{sub {beta}} = 28 a 31 kg/mm{sup 2} y {delta} = 3,5 a 4,5%, mientras que a 500{sup o}C resulta {sigma}{sub {beta}} = 2,6 a 3,2 kg/mm{sup 2} y {delta} = 30 a 40%. El efecto positivo de la fase oxido finamente dispersa se manifiesta sobre todo en los ensayos prolongados. Para los cermets de magnesio, {sigma}(300)/100 adopta el valor 2,2 kg/mm{sup 2}. Caracteriza particularmente a estas mezclas la constancia de las propiedades de resistencia al variar la temperatura, que se debe ante todo a la estabilidad termodinamica, dentro de la matriz metalica, de la fase oxido que acrecienta la resistencia. El empleo de los metodos pulvimetalurgicos ha permitido obtener aleaciones d e magnesio y berilio superrefractarias con elevada concentracion

  10. Saúde em retrospectiva e prospectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Borges Jacques

    2017-12-01

    , bebês com microcefalia, vitimados pelo terrível vírus zica, lutam bravamente por reabilitação e tratamento, enquanto a Saúde corre atrás de diagnóstico, prevenção, monitoramento e tratamento. Nesse ínterim, o mosquito transmissor continua causando problemas e permanece em latência aguardando o período chuvoso, cabendo ainda divulgar para as gestantes e a população em geral como podem se proteger das picadas do mosquito, bem como do crescimento e reprodução exagerados(10. Basta um breve olhar em notícias da Organização Panamericana de Saúde (OPAS/OPS e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS, por exemplo, para a apreensão de um dos maiores desafios do ano: o enfrentamento à depressão(11. Infelizmente, houve aumento no índice de suicídios entre jovens e adolescentes, mas, em toda a parte e nas redes sociais, muito se veicula sobre a prevenção da depressão. Não apenas no Brasil, mas também nas Américas e demais países, campanhas se alastram em prol do bem-estar do paciente e de como a família pode ajudar. A ajuda tem nome e sobrenome. Com uma simples pergunta veiculada nas redes sociais da OPS-Paho: “Como você pode ajudar alguém com depressão?”, seguida por frases de efeito instruindo a como proceder. Estima-se auxílio e ajuda semeada em todos os lugares(12. Por meio do esporte, da música, da prática de meditação, de grupos de jovens que, pela religiosidade e espiritualidade, tudo e todos auxiliam, o enfrentamento do paciente depressivo à falta de alegria e da vontade de estar vivo, sendo lenta e gradualmente substituído pelo retorno ao normal. A Saúde, então, se beneficia das boas notícias, da rede de apoio e de alternativos substitutos para medicalização e tratamentos invasivos, trazendo à tona métodos que poderão beneficiar outras tantas pessoas. Por meio do saber científico divulgado em seus artigos, a RBPS auxiliou na Promoção da Saúde por meio do básico, como a alimentação. Veiculou nesse ano estudos

  11. Short-Lived Isotopes Used as Tracers in Industry (with Special Reference to Swedish Industry); Emploi de Radioindicateurs de Courte Periode a l'Echelle Industrielie dans les Usines Suedoises; ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ В КАЧЕСТВЕ МЕЧЕНЫХ АТОМОВ; Isotopos de Periodo Corto Utilizados Como Indicadores en la Industria Sueca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwall, L. G.; Forsberg, H. G.; Ljunggren, K. [Isotoptekniska Laboratoriet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1963-03-15

    transporte de solidos en instalaciones industriales (hornos giratorios, altos hornos, digestores para celulosa, torres de blanqueo, espesadores Dorr); determinacion del caudal de liquidos en tuberias y canales abiertos, por ejemplo, para medir el consumo total de agua en una fabrica; determinacion de tiempos de permanencia y de volumenes bloqueados para liquidos en diversas instalaciones, por ejemplo, en las industrias de la pulpa y del papel; 'determinacion de pesos' por medio de tecnicas de dilucion isotopica, por ejemplo, para evaluar la cantidad de escoria presente en hornos de hogar abierto; determinacion del origen de inclusiones no metalicas en el acero, para perfeccionar revestimientos y hallar las tecnicas optimas de colada; marcacion para identificar la calidad (en las industrias del hierro y del acero se estan identiticando con certeza absoluta bafios experimentales y materiales especificos); determinacion del rendimiento de mezcladoras en la industria delhoimigon; determinacion de las corrientes en tanques receptores de aguas servidas con miras a encontrar el lugar optimo para la boca de salida del liquido; y deteccion y localizacion de fugas. Los indicadores de periodo corto han sido esenciales en muchos de estos estudios para reducir a un minimo la contaminacion del producto final. En la mayoria de los casos, la marcacion es fisica, pudiendo elegirse el indicador de forma que su periodo de semidesintegracion y las caracteristicas de las radiaciones que emiten sean adecuados. Si el nuclido radiactivo que se emplea tiene una elevada seccion eficaz de activacion neutronica, como es el caso de los nuclidos mencionados, el flujo neutronico de un reactor de investigacion basta para obtener indicadores de algunos curies de actividad, siempre que no sea imprescindible una actividad especifica elevada. En 1960 se creo en Suecia un instituto industrial central, el Laboratorio de Tecnicas Isotopicas, cuya mision es llevar a cabo trabajos de investigacion y desarrollo y

  12. A Theory of Radioisotope Scanning Systems; Une Theorie des Systemes de Scintigraphoe au Moyen des Radioisotopes; Teoriya sistem radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Teoria de los Sistemas de Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R. N. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    entre si sistemas diversos. El autor discute indices de calidad basados en la percepcion Visual y en la teorfa de la informaeion, y adopta uno basado en la estadistica. Este indice es una function de la sensibilidad y del poder de resolucion del detector; los dos son estudiados detalladamente. El autor analiza la respuesta del colimador a fuentes radiactivas puntuales, planas y tridimensionales. La respuesta total [E{sub t} = E(l+P+S)] de un detector colimado dirigido sobre una fuente de gran extension es la suma de tres ccmponentes debidos a los rayos gamma que penetran en el colimador a) 'geometricamente' o de una manera normal (E); b) atravesando los tabiques del colimador (EP); c) por dispersion en la fuente o en el colimador (ES). Las ecuaciones exaetas de estos componentes son muy complejas para los colimadores multicanales. En la memoria se dan valores aproximados de interes practico para E, P y S, y se discuten las condiciones en que estos valores pueden utilizarse. El poder de resolucion del colimador, definido por una fraeeion de la anebura de la curva de respuesta a una fuente puntual, no basta para prever la respuesta a una fuente tridimensional externa. En optica se produce una situaeion aniloga y 'cadavezsehace mas patente que las ventajas del poder de resolucion como criterio de la calidad son en gran parte ilusorias'. Inspirandose en esta consideracion el autor introduce el concepto de la 'respuesta a una onda sinusoidal' para definir el poder de resolucion de los detectores de centelleo colimados para fuentes no puntuales. (author) [Russian] Glavnoj cel'ju obshhej teorii sistem skennirovanija javljaetsja predskazanie i ocenka harakteristiki gipotetiches- kih sistem, optimal'no prednaznachennyh dlja konkretnyh celej primenenija skennirovanija; naprimer dlja obnaruzhenija opuholej mozga. Takaja teorija dolzhna dat' kolichestvennye otvety na vopros: ''Kak sravnivat' sistemu skennirovanija, prednaznachennuju dlja joda-131 s sistemoj, prednaznachennoj dlja

  13. Energía y cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    ésticos eficientes en materia de energía hasta la ayuda a los países para que eliminen las barreras de acceso al uso de energías renovables. También promueve una transición a largo plazo hacia formas de transporte con bajas emisiones de carbono y sostenibles. El potencial acumulado de calentamiento del planeta que se ha evitado como resultado de la labor del PNUD en materia de sustancias que agotan el ozono en todo el mundo, asciende a 24,5 millones de toneladas métricas de CO2 (4. La clave, entonces, es influir sobre la conducta de las instituciones y las personas y alentar las inversiones en empresas y actividades inocuas para el medio ambiente. La Unión Europea, asumiendo el liderazgo mundial en la lucha contra el cambio climático y a la vez en su afán de protegerse de energía ante eventuales crisis internacionales, ha emprendido como reto una gran reforma energética común, considerada histórica, con énfasis en la protección del medioambiente a través de la energía renovable. Sus líderes, en marzo de 2007, se comprometieron a alcanzar la estrategia energética, conocida como 20-20-20, hasta el año 2020. Esta estrategia implica el cumplimiento de tres grandes objetivos: 1 reducir 20% el consumo energético mediante una mayor eficiencia energética; 2 incrementar el uso de energías renovables hasta alcanzar 20% el consumo energético total, y 3 reducir en 20% las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en relación con las emisiones de 1990. De acuerdo con las tendencias de consumo energético, todo parece indicar que el cambio climático es y será inevitable, y la Tierra continuará calentándose. Solo basta imaginar que de llegar el incremento del consumo energético al 83,7% hasta el año 2025, tal como está previsto desde 1990, el planeta recibirá el 76,4% más de CO2 en este lapso (5. Mientras más tardemos en asumir las decisiones y en modificar nuestros patrones dominantes de generación y uso de energía, más altos serán los costos por adaptaci

  14. Aquifer overexploitation: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio

    2002-02-01

    actividades humanas y por la propia explotación del acuífero. Sin embargo, en la práctica se suele considerar que hay sobreexplotación cuando se observan o se perciben ciertos resultados negativos de la explotación, tales como un descenso continuado del nivel del agua, un deterioro de su calidad, un encarecimiento del agua extraída, o daños ecológicos. Pero estos efectos no están necesariamente relacionados con el hecho de que la extracción sea mayor que la recarga, puesto que pueden ser simplemente el resultado de interferencias o del dilatado período transitorio que sigue a los cambios en los términos del balance de agua, y cuya duración depende del tamaño del acuífero, y de su permeabilidad y coeficiente de almacenamiento. Las extracciones del acuífero suponen una disminución del almacenamiento de agua subterránea durante este periodo transitorio. Para decidir que grado de "sobreexplotación del acuífero" es aconsejable o admisible hace falta la consideración detallada y actualizada de los efectos de la explotación y las medidas de corrección que se adopten. Para esa decisión no basta con reglas generales y el apoyo de algunas observaciones indirectas. Se necesitan observaciones de control, buen conocimiento del acuífero y cálculos o modelación del comportamiento, y todo ello en el marco de un conjunto de objetivos y políticas establecidas por una institución de gestión, con la implicación de aquellos que tienen un interés en el agua subterránea, y teniendo en cuenta los condicionantes ambientales y sociales. La sobreexplotación de acuíferos, que con frecuencia suele asociarse a algo éticamente malo, no tiene por qué ser necesariamente así durante cierto tiempo, sino una etapa en la evolución hacia un desarrollo sustentable. En la realidad la designación de sobreexplotación de acuíferos es principalmente un adjetivo que trata de calificar a una evolución preocupante bajo determinados puntos de vista, sin que tenga una significaci

  15. La derrota de la agronomía, romper un camino a través del bosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Enrique

    2002-12-01

    agronomía debemos subirnos al tren del pensamiento molecular, tanto en el desempeño investigativo como en la formación de profesionales y en su fase avanzada de investigadores. Una mirada comparativa a la larga y compleja historia de la agricultura y a la más breve y lineal de las ciencias agronómicas basta para damos cuenta que mientras éstas avanzan y se acrecientan a un ritmo vertiginoso, aquella presenta una mayor estabilidad, atribuible a la aversión al riesgo que caracteriza a productores agrícolas grandes y pequeños.

     

    Tal diferencia en velocidad de progreso no debe ser obstáculo para que la agronomía siga abriendo caminos, fortalecida con nuevas y potentes herramientas científicas y tecnológicas. Este debe ser el rumbo de la Facultad de Agronomía, o al menos de su programa curricular en ingeniería agronómica y en formación avanzada, a no ser que optemos por sentarnos a ver pasar la agricultura y seguir siendo sus narradores, a la manera de los grandes cronistas de hace dos milenios.

     

    REFERENCIAS

    Rapid Estimation of Fast-Neutron Doses following Radiation Exposure in Criticality Accidents: The S{sup 32}(n, p)P{sup 32} Reaction in Body Hair; Prompte Evaluation des Doses de Neutrons Rapides apres une Exposition au Rayonnement a la Suite d'Accidents de Criticite: Reaction {sup 32}S(n, p){sup 32}P dans le Systeme Pileux; 0411 042b 0421 0414 ; Evaluacion Acelerada de Dosis de Neutrones Rapidos Despues de una Irradiacion Consecutiva a un Accidente de Criticidad: La Reaccion {sup 32}S(n, p){sup 32}P en el Pelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, D. F. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1965-06-15

    han deducido para cada caso, concordaban satisfactoriamente con las determinaciones independientes de las fisiones totales efectuadas por procedimientos analiticos clasicos. Para obtener rapidamente la dosis aproximada de neutrones rapidos, basta multiplicar por 0,49 la actividad del {sup 32}P, expresada en des/min. g de pelo a T = 0 y medida con cualquier sistema de recuento de rendimiento conocido, para obtener la dosis neutronica en rad correspondiente al 'nivel azufre'. (author) [Russian] Sochetanie unikal'nogo himicheskogo sostava, opredelennogo anatomicheskogo stroenija i dostupnosti, delaet chelovecheskij volos poleznym materialom dlja bystroj ocenki doz bystryh nejtronov, poluchaemyh personalom, svjazannym s rabotoj v avarijnyh uslovijah v kriticheskom sostojanii. V chelovecheskom volose otmechaetsja odno i to zhe soderzhanie sery, nezavisimo ot pola, cveta ili raspredelenija. Velichina 0,048 {+-} 0,005g sery na 1 g volosa ukazyvaet, chto 5 % mogut byt' ispol'zovany v kachestve standartnoj cifry dlja harakteristiki soderzhanija sery pri predvaritel'nyh ocenkah dozy bez vnesenija popravok na analiz soderzhanija sery v volosah otdel'nyh lic. Pri otsutstvii legko udaljaemogo vneshnego zagrjaznenija v volosah soderzhitsja menee 0,025 procentov fosfora. Poskol'ku poperechnye sechenija aktivacii fosfora i sery odinakovy, fakticheskoe otsutstvie fosfora daet vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' volos v kachestve porogovogo detektora dlja biologicheskoj sery pri izmerenii potoka nejtronov s jenergiej svyshe 2,5 Mjev s pomoshh'ju reakcii S{sup 32}(n, p)P{sup 32}. Razrabotany metody dlja bystrogo vydelenija radiohimicheski chistogo R{sup 32} s cel'ju obespechenija klinicheski poleznyh ocenok obluchenija bystrymi nejtronami postradavshih vo vremja avarij v kriticheskom sostojanii. Pri otsutstvii bol'shogo zagrjaznenija produktami delenija predvaritel'nye ocenki mozhno provesti v techenie dvuh chasov. Dlja osushhestvlenija bolee shirokoj procedury po udaleniju produktov delenija

  16. Editorial | Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    , tomando alguns trabalho de Alfredo Volpi para análise. Finalmente, Leila Darin examina o potencial babélico de alguns programas de softwares usados para tradução entre lí­nguas, refazendo, assim, as interligações entre as linguagens e as lí­nguas. Na sessão Entrevista, Galáxia conseguiu recuper uma das últimas conversas do professor e poeta Philadelpho Menezes num programa de televisão onde discutiu temas de sua paixão teórica: a cultura em tempo de globalização e a conseqüente inserção da poesia produzida no encontro com as tecnologias da comunicação contemporânea. Para complementar a entrevista, e também para homenagear Menezes, a sessão abriu um espaço para uma rápida apreciação do trabalho sobre a poesia sonora e para um levantamento de sua produção crí­tico-criativa, nacional e internacional, realizado pelo também poeta e seu ex-aluno Jorge Luiz Antonio. A poesia continua tendo seu espaço reservado nessa edição de Galáxia. Na sessão Diálogo, J. L. Antonio colheu segmentos de uma longa conversa do e-group Webartery sobre poesia digital. O tema que move esse debate é nada mais do que o código da poesia criada em ambiente digital ou de rede. Com isso, o mecanismo semiótico fundamental da linguagem é aqui submetido a interpretações conflitantes. Afinal, em última análise, é o fazer poético segundo as interferências no código é que está em jogo. Quem quiser um exemplo claro do que motiva essa discussão, basta olhar com merecida atenção a capa deste segundo número de Galáxia: a foto de um deserto que Gilbertto Prado produziu em ambiente digital. Ao fazê-lo, o artista interferiu no código para obrigá-lo a servir a seus propósitos. Essa é uma importante contribuição para a compreensão de como as tecnologias emergentes são dotadas de diferentes potencialidades de linguagem. Duas novas sessões, previstas no projeto editorial mas não incluí­das no primeiro número de Galáxia, surgem agora. As sessões Not

  17. Perspectives for the Use of Ionizing Radiation in the Decontamination (Salmonella Radicidation) of Some Frozen Proteinaceous Foods and Dry Mixed Feed Ingredients; Perspectives de l'Emploi des Rayonnements pour la Decontamination (Radicidation de Salmonella) de Certains Aliments Proteiques Congeles et des Constituants de Melanges Alimentaires Secs pour Animaux; Perspektivy ispol'zovaniya ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya dlya unichtozheniya bakterij (Gruppy Salmonella) nekotorykh zamorozhennykh belkovykh osnovnykh pishchevykh produktov i sukhikh komponentov smeshannogo'fura; Radiodescontaminacion (Radicidacion de la Salmonella) de Algunos Alimentos Proteicos Basicos Congelados y de Componentes de Alimentos Secos para Animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research T.N.O., Zeist (Netherlands)

    1966-11-15

    utiliser avec succes des sources de 50 000 Ci au cobalt-60 ou un appareil a rayons X d'une puissance analogue. On a d'ores et deja elabore et verifie dans des installations-pilotes des methodes d'evaluation microbiologiques permettant de controler regulierement l'efficacite de ces traitements par irradiation. Enfin, toutes les fois ou cela se revele possible, les avantages de ces traitements par radicidation devraient faire l'objet de comparaisons experimentales avec les methodes de traitement classiques competitives telles que rechauffement par agglomeration dans le'cas de la decontamination des constituants de produits alimentaires pour animaux; cette maniere de proceder permettra en outre aux industries interessees de prendre leurs decisions apres achevement des premiers essais a l'echelle commerciale. (author) [Spanish] La radiodescontaminacion de los alimentos proteicos basicos de escaso contenido de agua residual parece ser una de las primeras aplicaciones interesantes de las radiaciones al tratamiento de los alimentos del hombre y de los animales debido a las pocas alteraciones radioquimicas producidas en los alimentos tratados, a la ausencia de una proliferacion microbiana subsiguiente a la irradiacion, y a ciertasiventajas tecnologicas inherentes a ese procedimiento: la posibilidad de tratar productos ya empaquetados (mezclas de ingredientes de alimentos para animales) y la eficacia de la decontaminacion sin que los alimentos dejen de ser frescos, como en el caso de la carne roja y de la carne blanca. Para empezar se efectuaron experimentos de laboratorio con objeto de determinar la escala de las dosis y se llevaron a cabo algunos ensayos sobre comestibilidad. Como los resultados experimentales fueron muy prometedores, se hicieron ensayos en planta piloto y los estudios sobre comestibilidad se extendieron a dos anos utilizando tres generaciones de ratas. Estos ensayos confirmaron que una dosis del orden de 0,7 {+-} 0,1 Mrad basta para eliminar las Salmonellae de

  18. Respect for life and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Querubina Bringel Olinda

    2011-03-01

    sofrimento nos hospitais, orientam-se aspessoas sobre os fatores de risco das doenças crônicas. Tudo pensando no homem.Luta-se na rede de saúde para que as pessoas não morram cedo, para que vivammais e com dias mais bem vividos, dando-lhes qualidade positiva de vida.Não dá para fechar os olhos que o século XXI teve a sua primeira décadamarcada por tragédias ambientais em todo o mundo. Basta fazer uma retrospectivana mente em busca dos fatos ocorridos na Europa, África, América onde, nesteúltimo continente, citamos, por dever, o nosso Brasil. A natureza já mostrou que temimenso poder destruidor: furacões, inundações, desmoronamentos, deslizamentos,chuvas em excesso, morte e desabrigados, que deixa um lastro de sofrimento e deprejuízos todas as vezes em que catástrofes ambientais acontecem. A OrganizaçãoMundial de Saúde vem, oficialmente, se preocupando com o tema desde 2007,quando foi criada a Plataforma Global para Redução do Risco de Desastres, queobjetiva melhorar a situação de saúde de milhões de pessoas em situações de risco,integrando recuperação de áreas atingidas e reconstrução da saúde(2. O próximoencontro ou fórum dessa Plataforma Global está agendado para maio deste ano, eesperam-se ações ativas pautadas em iniciativas locais.Quantas vidas poderiam ser salvas se as medidasfossem preventivas? Quantas crianças ficaram órfãs naúltima catástrofe ambiental, no Brasil? Quantos prejuízosao patrimônio público e ao particular, que custam osacrifício de uma vida inteira de trabalho e de renúncia aolazer, poderiam ter sido evitados? Por que o homem sempreprocurou dominar a natureza? Por que acreditar que anatureza tem dono? Por que o homem não age com ética aolidar com o ambiente? São questões que merecem tomadade decisões... Pessoas sofrem com estes acidentes, famíliasinteiras são evacuadas de suas casas e ficam amontoadas emabrigos públicos. Doenças são disseminadas nos aguaceirosonde o lixo contaminado, o esgoto e

  19. Nuclear Materials Management in Relation to Safety and Criticality Control: A Study of Non-Inherently Safe Systems; La Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans ses Rapports avec la Securite et le Controle de la Criticite; Etude des Systemes a Securite Non Inherente; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami s uchetom bezopasnosti i kontrolya za kritichnost'yu. izuchenie sistem dopolnitel'noj avarijnoj zashchity; La Administracion de Materiales Nucleares y sus Relaciones con la Seguridad y el Control de la Criticidad; Estudio de los Sistemas de Seguridad No Inherente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France)

    1966-02-15

    control, enteramente basada en la administracion de los materiales, resulta imposible. Examinemos las relaciones que existen entre la administracion y la seguridad nuclear en el caso especial de una planta de tratamiento por via acuosa de combustibles irradiados (combustibles a base de uranio natural). Desde el punto de vista del control de la criticidad, una planta de esta clase puede dividirse en tres partes: En la primera, donde se tratan soluciones bastante diluidas, lo que hay que controlar es la concentracion. Este control es facil (analisis y contadores neutronicos) pero resulta en cambio dificil asegurarse de que no se forman depositos: aunque la experiencia haya demostrado que no son muy peligrosos, el hecho bien conocido de un balance de materiales deficitario sigue siendo una preocupacion en lo que respecta a la criticidad. En esta primera parte, la administracion de los materiales, aun imperfecta, tiene una importancia primordial para la seguridad. En la segunda parte se tratan soluciones concentradas y precipitados humedos. Es la parte donde debe aplicarse una geometria segura. La administracion de los materiales tiene menos interes directo pero sigue siendo un factor importante de seguridad (en caso de intervencion, de limpieza de los aparatos, etc.). En la tercera parte, donde se tratan productos secos, es preciso controlar la masa. La administracion no presenta dificultades especiales. A este esquema se superpone una parte menos espectacular pero que desde el punto de vista de la seguridad tiene muchisima importancia: es la parte donde se efectuan los reciclados y el tratamiento de los desechos. Basta examinar la lista de los accidentes de criticidad en los Estados Unidos para comprobar que de cada seis, cinco estan mas o menos directamente relacionados con el tratamiento de desechos. Si examinamos estos accidentes con mas atencion comprobaremos que en la mayoria de los casos una de sus causas ha sido un defecto en la administracion de los materiales