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Sample records for demosponge ianthella basta

  1. Determination of the Halogenated Skeleton Constituents of the Marine Demosponge Ianthella basta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberlein, Susanne; Machill, Susanne; Schupp, Peter J; Brunner, Eike

    2017-02-10

    Demosponges of the order Verongida such as Ianthella basta exhibit skeletons containing spongin, a collagenous protein, and chitin. Moreover, Verongida sponges are well known to produce bioactive brominated tyrosine derivatives. We recently demonstrated that brominated compounds do not only occur in the cellular matrix but also in the skeletons of the marine sponges Aplysina cavernicola and I. basta. Further investigations revealed the amino acid composition of the skeletons of A. cavernicola including the presence of several halogenated amino acids. In the present work, we investigated the skeletal amino acid composition of the demosponge I. basta, which belongs to the Ianthellidae family, and compared it with that of A. cavernicola from the Aplysinidae family. Seventeen proteinogenic and five non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected in I. basta. Abundantly occurring amino acids like glycine and hydroxyproline show the similarity of I. basta and A. cavernicola and confirm the collagenous nature of their sponging fibers. We also detected nine halogenated tyrosines as an integral part of I. basta skeletons. Since both sponges contain a broad variety of halogenated amino acids, this seems to be characteristic for Verongida sponges. The observed differences of the amino acid composition confirm that spongin exhibits a certain degree of variability even among the members of the order Verongida.

  2. Determination of the Halogenated Skeleton Constituents of the Marine Demosponge Ianthella basta

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    Susanne Ueberlein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demosponges of the order Verongida such as Ianthella basta exhibit skeletons containing spongin, a collagenous protein, and chitin. Moreover, Verongida sponges are well known to produce bioactive brominated tyrosine derivatives. We recently demonstrated that brominated compounds do not only occur in the cellular matrix but also in the skeletons of the marine sponges Aplysina cavernicola and I. basta. Further investigations revealed the amino acid composition of the skeletons of A. cavernicola including the presence of several halogenated amino acids. In the present work, we investigated the skeletal amino acid composition of the demosponge I. basta, which belongs to the Ianthellidae family, and compared it with that of A. cavernicola from the Aplysinidae family. Seventeen proteinogenic and five non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected in I. basta. Abundantly occurring amino acids like glycine and hydroxyproline show the similarity of I. basta and A. cavernicola and confirm the collagenous nature of their sponging fibers. We also detected nine halogenated tyrosines as an integral part of I. basta skeletons. Since both sponges contain a broad variety of halogenated amino acids, this seems to be characteristic for Verongida sponges. The observed differences of the amino acid composition confirm that spongin exhibits a certain degree of variability even among the members of the order Verongida.

  3. Brominated Skeletal Components of the Marine Demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: Analytical and Biochemical Investigations

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    Eike Brunner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of brominated tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of brominated compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated bromine mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, brominated compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of bromine into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria.

  4. Preparation of chitin–silica composites by in vitro silicification of two-dimensional Ianthella basta demosponge chitinous scaffolds under modified Stöber conditions

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    Wysokowski, Marcin [Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, PL-60965 Poznan (Poland); Behm, Thomas [Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Liepziger 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Born, René [Institute of Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, Helmholtzstraße 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Bazhenov, Vasilii V. [Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Liepziger 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Meißner, Heike; Richter, Gert [Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina [Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, PL-60965 Poznan (Poland); Makarova, Anna; Vyalikh, Denis [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, Helmholtzstraße 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Schupp, Peter [Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Emsstr. 20, 26382 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Jesionowski, Teofil, E-mail: teofil.jesionowski@put.poznan.pl [Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, PL-60965 Poznan (Poland); Ehrlich, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.ehrlich@physik.tu-freiberg.de [Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Liepziger 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Chitin is a biopolymer found in cell walls of various fungi and skeletal structures of numerous invertebrates. The occurrence of chitin within calcium- and silica-containing biominerals has inspired development of chitin-based hybrids and composites in vitro with specific physico-chemical and material properties. We show here for the first time that the two-dimensional α-chitin scaffolds isolated from the skeletons of marine demosponge Ianthella basta can be effectively silicified by the two-step method with the use of Stöber silica micro- and nanodispersions under Extreme Biomimetic conditions. The chitin–silica composites obtained at 120 °C were characterized by the presence of spherical SiO{sub 2} particles homogeneously distributed over the chitin fibers, which probably follows from the compatibility of Si–OH groups to the hydroxyl groups of chitin. The biocomposites obtained were characterized by various analytical techniques such as energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between silica and chitin molecule. The results presented proved that the character and course of the in vitro chitin silicification in Stöber dispersions depended considerably on the degree of hydrolysis of the SiO{sub 2} precursor. - Highlights: • 2D α-chitin scaffolds isolated from marine demosponge can be effectively silicified using Stöber silica. • The chitin–silica composites were obtained under Extreme Biomimetic conditions. • Character and course of the in vitro chitin silicification in Stöber dispersions is discussed.

  5. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

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    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  6. Thermal and sedimentation stress are unlikely causes of brown spot syndrome in the coral reef sponge, Ianthella basta.

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    Heidi M Luter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine diseases are being increasingly linked to anthropogenic factors including global and local stressors. On the Great Barrier Reef, up to 66% of the Ianthella basta population was recently found to be afflicted by a syndrome characterized by brown spot lesions and necrotic tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the role of environmental stressors in this syndrome. Specifically, the effects of elevated temperature and sedimentation on sponge health and symbiont stability in I. basta were examined. Neither elevated temperature nor increased sedimentation were responsible for the brown spot lesions, but sponges exposed to 32°C developed substantial discoloration and deterioration of their tissues, resulting in death after eight days and a higher microbial diversity in those samples. No shifts in the microbial community of I. basta were observed across a latitudinal gradient or with increased sedimentation, with three previously described symbionts dominating the community of all sponges (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from this study highlight the stable microbial community of I. basta and indicate that thermal and sedimentation stress are not responsible for the brown spot lesions currently affecting this abundant and ecologically important sponge species.

  7. Demospongic Acids Revisited

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    Gilles Barnathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32 and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19. Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs. This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

  8. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

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    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  9. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  10. Mr Jaroslav Basta, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Czech Republic.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    CERN welcomed the first deputy-minister of foreign affairs, Jaroslav Basta, from the Czech Republic, for the first time on 20 June. ATLAS spokesperson, Peter Jenni, along with CERN physicist, Ivan Lehraus, accompanied Basta to the ATLAS underground cavern.

  11. Hypercalcified demosponges and the end-Permian extinction

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    Finks, Robert M.

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis is presented here that the hypercalcified demosponges, characterized by a solid, largely external skeleton of spherulitic aragonite, or of high-Mg calcite, had symbiotic cyanobacteria, from the outset of their existence, that enabled them to precipitate their peculiar skeleton, and that both the skeleton and the cyanobacteria enabled them to survive the late and end-Permian extinctions, almost alone among sponge groups. The cyanobacteria would have provided them with photosynthetic oxygen to survive hypoxia (one of the proposed causes of the extinctions), and perhaps also were cropped for food, if the external bacteria, normally fed upon by sponges, were reduced by the hypoxia. The sponges' external skeleton would also have protected them in their shallow-water reefy environment from excess ultraviolet light that may have resulted from hypoxic loss of the ozone layer of the atmosphere. This is supported by the fact that the genus Guadalupia which has a lightly-calcified flat upper surface, died out by the end of the Permian, while 31 other genera of hypercalcified Demospongea as well as 3 genera of hypercalcified Calcarea were the only genera of sponges of any kind to continue from the Permian into the Triassic.

  12. Extreme phenotypic plasticity in metabolic physiology of Antarctic Demosponges

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    Simon Anthony Morley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal measurements of the metabolic physiology of four Antarctic demosponges and their associated assemblages, maintained in a flow through aquarium facility, demonstrated one of the largest differences in seasonal strategies between species and their associated sponge communities. The sponge oxygen consumption measured here exhibited both the lowest and highest seasonal changes for any Antarctic species; metabolic rates varied from a 25% decrease to a 5.8 fold increase from winter to summer, a range which was greater than all 17 Antarctic marine species (encompassing 8 phyla previously investigated and amongst the highest recorded for any marine environment. The differences in nitrogen excretion, metabolic substrate utilisation and tissue composition between species were, overall, greater than seasonal changes. The largest seasonal difference in tissue composition was an increase in CHN (Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen content in Homaxinella balfourensis, a pioneer species in ice-scour regions, which changed growth form to a twig-like morph in winter. The considerable flexibility in seasonal and metabolic physiology across the Demospongiae likely enables these species to respond to rapid environmental change such as ice-scour, reductions in sea ice cover and ice-shelf collapse in the Polar Regions, shifting the paradigm that polar sponges always live life in the slow lane. Great phenotypic plasticity in physiology has been linked to differences in symbiotic community composition, and this is likely to be a key factor in the global success of sponges in all marine environments and their dominant role in many climax communities.

  13. Basta : Validitet i ett regionalt barnhälsovårdsregister

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    Wallby, Thomas; Lagerberg, Dagmar; Magnusson, Margaretha; Sundelin, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To validate a local Child Health Care Quality database (Basta) in the county of Uppsala, Sweden in terms of completeness and agreement with the Child Health Care record (CHCR). Material and methods: The target population for the study consisted of 2-year old children born during 2005 to 2008 and registered as residents in the county of Uppsala Sweden (n= 15 769), each child enrolled at one specific Child Health Centre (CHC, n= 41) in the county. The study population was determined by mea...

  14. Deceptive desmas: molecular phylogenetics suggests a new classification and uncovers convergent evolution of lithistid demosponges.

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    Astrid Schuster

    Full Text Available Reconciling the fossil record with molecular phylogenies to enhance the understanding of animal evolution is a challenging task, especially for taxa with a mostly poor fossil record, such as sponges (Porifera. 'Lithistida', a polyphyletic group of recent and fossil sponges, are an exception as they provide the richest fossil record among demosponges. Lithistids, currently encompassing 13 families, 41 genera and >300 recent species, are defined by the common possession of peculiar siliceous spicules (desmas that characteristically form rigid articulated skeletons. Their phylogenetic relationships are to a large extent unresolved and there has been no (taxonomically comprehensive analysis to formally reallocate lithistid taxa to their closest relatives. This study, based on the most comprehensive molecular and morphological investigation of 'lithistid' demosponges to date, corroborates some previous weakly-supported hypotheses, and provides novel insights into the evolutionary relationships of the previous 'order Lithistida'. Based on molecular data (partial mtDNA CO1 and 28S rDNA sequences, we show that 8 out of 13 'Lithistida' families belong to the order Astrophorida, whereas Scleritodermidae and Siphonidiidae form a separate monophyletic clade within Tetractinellida. Most lithistid astrophorids are dispersed between different clades of the Astrophorida and we propose to formally reallocate them, respectively. Corallistidae, Theonellidae and Phymatellidae are monophyletic, whereas the families Pleromidae and Scleritodermidae are polyphyletic. Family Desmanthidae is polyphyletic and groups within Halichondriidae--we formally propose a reallocation. The sister group relationship of the family Vetulinidae to Spongillida is confirmed and we propose here for the first time to include Vetulina into a new Order Sphaerocladina. Megascleres and microscleres possibly evolved and/or were lost several times independently in different 'lithistid' taxa, and

  15. Feeding in deep-sea demosponges: Influence of abiotic and biotic factors

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    Robertson, Leah M.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2017-09-01

    In shallow benthic communities, sponges are widely recognized for their ability to contribute to food webs by cycling nutrients and mediating carbon fluxes through filter feeding. In comparison, little is known about filter feeding in deep-sea species and how it may be modulated by environmental conditions. Here, a rare opportunity to maintain live healthy deep-sea sponges for an extended period led to a preliminary experimental study of their feeding metrics. This work focused on demosponges collected from the continental slope of eastern Canada at 1000 m depth. Filtration rates (as clearance of phytoplankton cells) at holding temperature (6 °C) were positively correlated with food particle concentration, ranging on average from 18.8 to 160.6 cells ml-1 h-1 at nominal concentrations of 10,000-40,000 cells ml-1. Cell clearance was not significantly affected by decreasing seawater temperature, from 6 °C to 3 °C or 0 °C, although two of the sponges showed decreased filtration rates. Low pH ( 7.5) and the presence of a predatory sea star markedly depressed or inhibited feeding activity in all sponges tested. While performed under laboratory conditions on a limited number of specimens, this work highlights the possible sensitivity of deep-sea demosponges to various types and levels of biotic and abiotic factors, inferring a consequent vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  16. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

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    Małgorzata Norman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC. Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity.

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    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-09-27

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

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    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:27690001

  19. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria

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    Liew, Yi Jin

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera) are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively). Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  20. Transcriptomic Profiling of the Allorecognition Response to Grafting in the Demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica

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    Laura F. Grice

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sponges, despite their simple body plan, discriminate between self and nonself with remarkable specificity. Sponge grafting experiments simulate the effects of natural self or nonself contact under laboratory conditions. Here we take a transcriptomic approach to investigate the temporal response to self and nonself grafts in the marine demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Auto- and allografts were established, observed and sampled over a period of three days, over which time the grafts either rejected or accepted, depending on the identity of the paired individuals, in a replicable and predictable manner. Fourteen transcriptomes were generated that spanned the auto- and allograft responses. Self grafts fuse completely in under three days, and the process appears to be controlled by relatively few genes. In contrast, nonself grafting results in a complete lack of fusion after three days, and appears to involve a broad downregulation of normal biological processes, rather than the mounting of an intense defensive response.

  1. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria.

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    Yi Jin Liew

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively. Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  2. Novel recombinant binary vectors harbouring Basta (bar) gene as a plant selectable marker for genetic transformation of plants.

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    Nada, Reham M

    2016-04-01

    Genetic transformation is one of the most widely used technique in crop improvement. However, most of the binary vectors used in this technique, especially cloning based, contain antibiotic genes as selection marker that raise serious consumer and environmental concerns; moreover, they could be transferred to non-target hosts with deleterious effects. Therefore, the goal of this study was reconstruction of the widely used pBI121 binary vector by substituting the harmful antibiotic selection marker gene with a less-harmful selection marker, Basta (herbicide resistance gene). The generated vectors were designated as pBI121NB and pBI121CB, in which Basta gene was expressed under the control of Nos or CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. The successful integration of the new inserts into both the vectors was confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. Both these vectors were used in transforming Arabidopsis, Egyptian wheat and barley varieties using LBA4404 and GV3101 Agrobacterium strains. The surfactant Tween-20 resulted in an efficient transformation and the number of Arabidopsis transformants was about 6-9 %. Soaked seeds of wheat and barley were transformed with Agrobacterium to introduce the bacteria to the growing shoot apices. The percentage of transgenic lines was around 16-17 and 14-15 % for wheat and barley, respectively. The quantitative studies presented in this work showed that both LBA4404 and GV3101 strains were suitable for transforming Egyptian wheat and barley.

  3. Isolation and identification of chitin from heavy mineralized skeleton of Suberea clavata (Verongida: Demospongiae: Porifera) marine demosponge.

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    Ehrlich, Hermann; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Debitus, Cecile; de Voogd, Nicole; Galli, Roberta; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Wysokowski, Marcin; Meissner, Heike; Bulut, Esra; Kaya, Murat; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-02-07

    Since the discovery of chitin in skeletal structures of sponges (Porifera) in 2007, studies on search of novel species which possess this structural aminopolysaccharide continue up today. The most potential source of chitin is suggested to be localized in the four families of sponges related to the order Verongida (Demospongiae) which nevertheless require further clarification. Here, we report for the first time the isolation and identification of α-chitin from the Suberea clavata demosponge (Aplysinidae: Verongida). Raman spectroscopy, Calcofluor White staining, chitinase test and ESI-MS techniques were used to identify chitin. We suggest that the presence of chitin within fibrous skeletons of diverse species of Verongida order, and, especially in all species of the Aplysinidae family, may be useful for the identification of novel, previously unidentified marine demosponges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical investigations on the lindane bioremediation capability of the demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis.

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    Aresta, Antonella; Nonnis Marzano, Carlotta; Lopane, Chiara; Corriero, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Zambonin, Carlo; Stabili, Loredana

    2015-01-15

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide that has been widely used to treat agricultural pests. It is of particular concern because of its toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we investigated the ability of the demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis to bioremediate lindane polluted seawater during in vitro experimentation. Lindane was extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, we assessed the role exerted in lindane degradation by bacteria isolated from the sponge. Sponges showed low mortality in experimental conditions (lindane concentration 1 μg/L) and were able to remove about 50% of the lindane content from seawater in 48 h. Bacteria isolated from sponges showed a remarkable remediating capacity (up to 97% of lindane removed after 8-days). A lindane metabolite was identified, 1,3,4,5,6-pentachloro-cyclohexene. The results obtained are a prelude to the development of future strategies for the in situ bioremediation of this pollutant.

  5. Adsorption of C.I. Natural Red 4 onto Spongin Skeleton of Marine Demosponge

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    Małgorzata Norman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C.I. Natural Red 4 dye, also known as carmine or cochineal, was adsorbed onto the surface of spongin-based fibrous skeleton of Hippospongia communis marine demosponge for the first time. The influence of the initial concentration of dye, the contact time, and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process was investigated. The results presented here confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for developing a novel dye/biopolymer hybrid material. The kinetics of the adsorption of carmine onto a marine sponge were also determined. The experimental data correspond directly to a pseudo-second-order model for adsorption kinetics (r2 = 0.979–0.999. The hybrid product was subjected to various types of analysis (FT-IR, Raman, 13C CP/MAS NMR, XPS to investigate the nature of the interactions between the spongin (adsorbent and the dye (the adsorbate. The dominant interactions between the dye and spongin were found to be hydrogen bonds and electrostatic effects. Combining the dye with a spongin support resulted with a novel hybrid material that is potentially attractive for bioactive applications and drug delivery systems.

  6. Ultrastructure of oogenesis of two oviparous demosponges: Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Maldonado, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the cytology of the oogenic cycle in two oviparous demosponges, Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata, during 2 consecutive years both by light and electron microscopy. Oocytes of both species were similar in their basic morphological features but differences were noticed in time required to complete oocyte maturation and mechanisms of acquisition of nutritional reserves. The oogenic cycle of A. damicornis extended for 7-8 months in autumn-spring, while that of R. aculeata did it for 3-5 months in summer-autumn. Yolk of A. damicornis was predominantly formed by autosynthesis. Oocytes endocytosed bacteria individually and stored them in groups in large vesicles. Bacteria were digested and lipidic material was added to the vesicles to produce a peculiar granular yolk hitherto unknown in sponges. Scarce cells carrying heterogeneous inclusions were observed in the perioocytic space, and were interpreted as putative nurse cells. Such cells were presumably releasing lipid granules to the perioocytic space. In contrast, large numbers of nurse cells were found surrounding the oocytes of R. aculeata. They transported both lipid granules and heterogeneous yolk bodies to the oocytes. R. aculeata also produced some of their yolk by autosynthesis. The involvement of nurse cells in the vitellogenesis of R. aculeata shortened the oocyte maturation, whereas a largely autosynthetic vitellogenesis in A. damicornis prolonged the duration of oogenesis.

  7. The ontogeny of choanocyte chambers during metamorphosis in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Sogabe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aquiferous body plan of poriferans revolves around internal chambers comprised of choanocytes, a cell type structurally similar to choanoflagellates. These choanocyte chambers perform a range of physiological and developmental functions, including the capture of food and the generation of stem cells. Despite the increasing interest for choanocytes as sponge stem cells, there is limited knowledge on the development of choanocyte chambers. Using a combination of cell lineage tracing, antibody staining and EdU labeling, here we examine the development of choanocytes and the chambers they comprise during metamorphosis in the marine demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Results Lineage-tracing experiments show that larval epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal pluripotent stem cells, resembling archeocytes, within 24 h of initiating metamorphosis. By 36 h, some of these labeled archeocyte-like cells have differentiated into choanocytes that will form the first postlarval choanocyte chambers. Non-labeled cells also contribute to these primary choanocyte chambers, consistent with these chambers being a chimera of multiple transdifferentiated larval cell types and not the proliferation of a single choanocyte precursor. Moreover, cell proliferation assays demonstrate that, following the initial formation of choanocyte chambers, chambers grow at least partially by the proliferation of choanocytes within the chamber, although recruitment of individual cells into established chambers also appears to occur. EdU labeling of postlarvae and juveniles reveals that choanocyte chambers are the primary location of cell proliferation during metamorphosis. Conclusion Our results show that multiple larval cell lineages typically contribute to formation of individual choanocyte chambers at metamorphosis, contrary to previous reports in other species that show sponge choanocyte chambers form clonally. Choanocytes in postlarval and juvenile

  8. 孤雌生殖海带对草丁膦的敏感性%SENSITIVITY OF PARTHENOGENETIC SPOROPHYTES OF LAMINARIA JAPONICA PHAEOPHYTA TO BASTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韵; 邹立红; 姜鹏; 孙国琼; 秦松; 曾呈奎

    2001-01-01

    In the experiment, young sporophytes of parthenogenetic L ami naria japonica were divided into three groups according to their total lengths : a. (5.00±0.06)mm, b. (9.50±0.10)mm and c. (16.10±0.13)mm, and were treated with 13 concentrations of basta solution in each group respectively. Basta dose are 0-21.2μg/ml. LD50 at 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours were calculated. R esults showed that LD50 of sporophytes of parthenogenetic L. japonic a (0.5-1.6)cm to basta is not correlated with its length. The sporophytes of parthenogenetic L. japonica are more sensitive to basta than to chlorampheni col and hygromycin that have been used as selection pressure in genetic engineer ing of L. japonica. Our observation suggests that bar gene which encodes pho sphinothricin-N-acetyltrensferase can be a more efficient selectable marker ge ne.%于1999年4-7月,以孤雌生殖海带为材料,运用统计学方法研究其对 草丁膦的敏感性,以期得到一定剂量和时间范围内草丁膦对不同长度孤雌生殖海带的半数致 死剂 量(LD50)。结果表明,孤雌海带在0.5-1.6cm长度范围内,草丁膦的半数致死剂 量与海带的长度不相关,而与草丁膦的剂量和作用时间相关。孤雌生殖海带对草丁膦比对氯 霉素 和潮霉素更为敏感,提示bar基因有可能成为海带基因工程更为理想的选择标记基因。

  9. It er godt - basta!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    Der er offentlig konsensus om at it i undervisningen fører til øget faglighed. Men it kan lige så godt resultere i ringere undervisning som i bedre - og ofte anvendes it helt traditionelt og fantasiløst....

  10. Basta de indiferencia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Padilla, David Noel; Sánchez Salinas, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    En este eBook presentamos una visión global de la situación actual de nuestra nación y de los grandes desafíos que se nos presentan para transformar a nuestra sociedad, para que todos los mexicanos tengan una vida digna. El objetivo de esta obra es concientizar a los ciudadanos mexicanos y, en especial, a los protagonistas de este país, de la responsabilidad que tenemos de heredar a las nuevas generaciones un mejor hogar, un mejor México. Necesitamos ...

  11. Diversity in a Cold Hot-Spot: DNA-Barcoding Reveals Patterns of Evolution among Antarctic Demosponges (Class Demospongiae, Phylum Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Sergio; Kelly, Michelle; Schnabel, Kareen; Mills, Sadie; Bowden, David; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The approximately 350 demosponge species that have been described from Antarctica represent a faunistic component distinct from that of neighboring regions. Sponges provide structure to the Antarctic benthos and refuge to other invertebrates, and can be dominant in some communities. Despite the importance of sponges in the Antarctic subtidal environment, sponge DNA barcodes are scarce but can provide insight into the evolutionary relationships of this unique biogeographic province. We sequenced the standard barcoding COI region for a comprehensive selection of sponges collected during expeditions to the Ross Sea region in 2004 and 2008, and produced DNA-barcodes for 53 demosponge species covering about 60% of the species collected. The Antarctic sponge communities are phylogenetically diverse, matching the diversity of well-sampled sponge communities in the Lusitanic and Mediterranean marine provinces in the Temperate Northern Atlantic for which molecular data are readily available. Additionally, DNA-barcoding revealed levels of in situ molecular evolution comparable to those present among Caribbean sponges. DNA-barcoding using the Segregating Sites Algorithm correctly assigned approximately 54% of the barcoded species to the morphologically determined species. A barcode library for Antarctic sponges was assembled and used to advance the systematic and evolutionary research of Antarctic sponges. We provide insights on the evolutionary forces shaping Antarctica's diverse sponge communities, and a barcode library against which future sequence data from other regions or depth strata of Antarctica can be compared. The opportunity for rapid taxonomic identification of sponge collections for ecological research is now at the horizon.

  12. Optimisation of tomato Micro-tom regeneration and selection on glufosinate/Basta and dependency of gene silencing on transgene copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Thi Thu Huong; Crété, Patrice; Robaglia, Christophe; Caffarri, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    An efficient protocol of transformation and selection of transgenic lines of Micro-tom, a widespread model cultivar for tomato, is reported. RNA interference silencing efficiency and stability have been investigated and correlated with the number of insertions. Given its small size and ease of cultivation, the tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) cultivar Micro-tom is of widespread use as a model tomato plant. To create and screen transgenic plants, different selectable markers are commonly used. The bar marker carrying the resistance to the herbicide glufosinate/Basta, has many advantages, but it has been little utilised and with low efficiency for identification of tomato transgenic plants. Here we describe a procedure for accurate selection of transgenic Micro-tom both in vitro and in soil. Immunoblot, Southern blot and phenotypic analyses showed that 100 % of herbicide-resistant plants were transgenic. In addition, regeneration improvement has been obtained by using 2 mg/l Gibberellic acid in the shoot elongation medium; rooting optimisation on medium containing 1 mg/l IAA allowed up to 97 % of shoots developing strong and very healthy roots after only 10 days. Stable transformation frequency by infection of leaf explants with Agrobacterium reached 12 %. Shoots have been induced by combination of 1 mg/l zeatin-trans and 0.1 mg/l IAA. Somatic embryogenesis of cotyledon on medium containing 1 mg/l zeatin + 2 mg/l IAA is described in Micro-tom. The photosynthetic psbS gene has been used as reporter gene for RNA silencing studies. The efficiency of gene silencing has been found equivalent using three different target gene fragments of 519, 398 and 328 bp. Interestingly, silencing efficiency decreased from T0 to the T3 generation in plants containing multiple copies of the inserted T-DNA, while it was stable in plants containing a single insertion.

  13. Diversity in a Cold Hot-Spot: DNA-Barcoding Reveals Patterns of Evolution among Antarctic Demosponges (Class Demospongiae, Phylum Porifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vargas

    Full Text Available The approximately 350 demosponge species that have been described from Antarctica represent a faunistic component distinct from that of neighboring regions. Sponges provide structure to the Antarctic benthos and refuge to other invertebrates, and can be dominant in some communities. Despite the importance of sponges in the Antarctic subtidal environment, sponge DNA barcodes are scarce but can provide insight into the evolutionary relationships of this unique biogeographic province.We sequenced the standard barcoding COI region for a comprehensive selection of sponges collected during expeditions to the Ross Sea region in 2004 and 2008, and produced DNA-barcodes for 53 demosponge species covering about 60% of the species collected. The Antarctic sponge communities are phylogenetically diverse, matching the diversity of well-sampled sponge communities in the Lusitanic and Mediterranean marine provinces in the Temperate Northern Atlantic for which molecular data are readily available. Additionally, DNA-barcoding revealed levels of in situ molecular evolution comparable to those present among Caribbean sponges. DNA-barcoding using the Segregating Sites Algorithm correctly assigned approximately 54% of the barcoded species to the morphologically determined species.A barcode library for Antarctic sponges was assembled and used to advance the systematic and evolutionary research of Antarctic sponges. We provide insights on the evolutionary forces shaping Antarctica's diverse sponge communities, and a barcode library against which future sequence data from other regions or depth strata of Antarctica can be compared. The opportunity for rapid taxonomic identification of sponge collections for ecological research is now at the horizon.

  14. Effect of Different Basta Dosage on Seedling Quality and Yield of Herbicide-resistant Early Rice%不同草铵膦用量对耐除草剂水稻秧苗素质及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益善; 唐俐; 蔡卫青; 邓晓湘; 盛夏冰

    2012-01-01

    以含Bar基因的耐除草剂水稻品种和不耐除草剂的水稻不育系为材料,幼苗期喷施不同用量草铵膦,研究了草铵膦对不耐除草剂水稻幼苗的致死剂量以及不同草铵膦用量对耐除草剂水稻生长发育的影响.结果表明:草铵膦对不耐除草剂的不育系的软盘育秧致死剂量≤15mg/m2、厢面湿润育秧致死剂量≤30mg/m2;在幼苗期喷施一定剂量的草铵膦(15 mg/m2~75 mg/m2)对耐除草剂水稻秧苗会产生不同程度的伤害作用,秧苗素质不同程度下降;喷施草铵膦45 mg/m2~75mg/m2后的秧苗移栽大田后,生长发育有所延迟,但产量没有受到显著影响.%The lethal dose of basta to young seedlings of herbicide-susceptive rice and the effect of basta dosage on the growth and development of herbicide-resistant rice were studied by spraying different basta dosage at seedling stage with herbicide-resistant rice containing Bar gene and herbicide-susceptive rice male sterile (MS) lines as materials. The results showed that the lethal dose of basta to young seedlings of herbicide-susceptive rice MS lines was ≤ 15mg/m2 when raised in the trays, and ≤ 30mg/m2 when raised in the wet seedling bed. The seedlings of herbicide-resistant rice were damaged to some extent with seedling quality decreased in some different degree when treated by different dosage of basta with 15 mg/m2~75 mg/m2 at seedling stage. The growth and development of the seedlings of herbicide-resistant rice treated by basta with the dosage of 45mg/m2~75 mg/m2 were delayed to some extent after transplanting, but the grain yield was not effected significantly.

  15. The co-occurrence of the demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis and the edible mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as a new tool for bacterial load mitigation in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Cardone, Frine; Corriero, Giuseppe; Licciano, Margherita; Pierri, Cataldo; Stabili, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Pollutants in marine coastal areas are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, and microorganisms often play a major role in determining the extent of this pollution. Thus, practical and eco-friendly techniques are urgently required in order to control or minimise the pathogenic bacterial problem. The bacterial accumulation of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1919) in the presence or absence of another filter feeder, the demosponge Hymeniacidon perlevis (Montagu 1818) on sewage flowing into the Northern Ionian Sea has been estimated in a laboratory study. On account of the interesting results obtained, we also evaluated the bioremediation capability of the sponges when reared in co-culture with mussels. Specimens of M. galloprovincialis and H. perlevis were collected from the Mar Grande and from the Second Inlet of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy), respectively. In the laboratory, we detected the bacterial abundances in the sewage, in sponge homogenates (both sponges alone and sponges that have been added to sewage with mussels) and in mussel homogenates (both mussels alone and mussels that have been added to sewage with sponges). In the field, we estimated the bacterial concentration in both the seawater within the mussels culture and the seawater collected where mussels were reared in co-culture with sponges. The bacteriological analyses were performed analysing the following parameters: the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 °C on plate count agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli and intestinal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. The study demonstrates a higher efficiency of the sponges in removing all the considered bacterial groups compared to the mussels. Due to the conspicuous bacterial accumulation by the sponge, we can conclude that the co-occurrence of the

  16. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  17. Biomineralization in living hypercalcified demosponges: toward a shared mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilis, Melany; Grauby, Olivier; Willenz, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe; Heresanu, Vasile; Baronnet, Alain

    2013-09-01

    Massive skeletons of living hypercalcified sponges, representative organisms of basal Metazoa, are uncommon models to improve our knowledge on biomineralization mechanisms and their possible evolution through time. Eight living species belonging to various orders of Demospongiae were selected for a comparative mineralogical characterization of their aragonitic or calcitic massive basal skeleton. The latter was prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. SEM results indicated distinctive macro- and micro-structural organizations of the skeleton for each species, likely resulting from a genetically dictated variation in the control exerted on their formation. However, most skeletons investigated shared submicron to nano-scale morphological and crystallographical patterns: (1) single-crystal fibers and bundles were composed of 20 to 100nm large submicronic grains, the smallest structural units, (2) nano-scale likely organic material occurred both within and between these structural units, (3) {110} micro-twin planes were observed along aragonitic fibers, and (4) individual fibers or small bundles protruded from the external growing surface of skeletons. This comparative mineralogical study of phylogenetically distant species brings further evidence to recent biomineralization models already proposed for sponges, corals, mollusks, brachiopods and echinoderms and to the hypothesis of the universal and ancestral character of such mechanisms in Metazoa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Siliceous spicules in marine demosponges (example Suberites domuncula)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, WEG; Belikov, SI; Tremel, W; Perry, CC; Gieskes, WWC; Boreiko, A; Schroder, HC; Mueller, W.E.G.; Schroeder, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    All metazoan animals comprise a body plan of different complexity. Since-especially based on molecular and cell biological data-it is well established that all metazoan phyla, including the Porifera (sponges), evolved from a common ancestor the search for common, basic principles of pattern formatio

  19. Siliceous spicules in marine demosponges (example Suberites domuncula)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, WEG; Belikov, SI; Tremel, W; Perry, CC; Gieskes, WWC; Boreiko, A; Schroder, HC; Mueller, W.E.G.; Schroeder, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    All metazoan animals comprise a body plan of different complexity. Since-especially based on molecular and cell biological data-it is well established that all metazoan phyla, including the Porifera (sponges), evolved from a common ancestor the search for common, basic principles of pattern formatio

  20. Chemotaxonomic study of the demosponge Cinachyrella cavernosa (Lamarck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Naik, B.G.; Al-Fadhli, A.A

    previously been identified in Cinachyrella australiensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 4α-methyl gorgostanol from a sponge and DPA from a marine source. The probable origin and chemotaxonomic importance of some of the metabolites is discussed...

  1. Ya basta ehk kes mõistab hukka kapitalismi kuriteod? = Ya basta or who will condemn the crimes of capitalism? / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    1994. aasta Põhja-Ameerika Vabakaubandusleping keelustas kohalike elanike farmide subsideerimise, millele astusid vastu Chiapa elanikud Mehhikos ning moodustasid Zapatistliku Hea Valitsuse Hunta eesotsas subcomandante Marcosega, kehtestades haldamise detsentraliseerimise

  2. Ya basta ehk kes mõistab hukka kapitalismi kuriteod? = Ya basta or who will condemn the crimes of capitalism? / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    1994. aasta Põhja-Ameerika Vabakaubandusleping keelustas kohalike elanike farmide subsideerimise, millele astusid vastu Chiapa elanikud Mehhikos ning moodustasid Zapatistliku Hea Valitsuse Hunta eesotsas subcomandante Marcosega, kehtestades haldamise detsentraliseerimise

  3. Le parole dell'arte. Ovvero quando l'opera, da sola, non basta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrica Rotili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves from those works of art that include the killing, the ill-treatment and the use of dead animals and therefore it starts from the artifacts whose status of art is difficult to understand in order to discuss the role and power of the theory in the art world. It considers in particular the philosophy of art of Arthur Danto to reflect on the necessity of the relationship between work and interpretation in contemporary art. If the current art has earned (hardly the freedom from formal constraints, from the ethical and aesthetic standards that until the avant-garde art have regulated the activity of the artist, this art turns out to be, at the same time, a kind of art even more dependent from an exegesis, from an explanation and an interpretation that have to shed light on its meaning, its purpose, its intention. Yet if it is true that what makes something a work of art is its relationship with the context formed by the history and by theory of art and if it is true that an interpretation that is based on this type of knowledge allows a physical object to be seen as a work of art, it is also true that the frames that appeal to history tend not to clearly define the "distinctive characteristics" of art, leaving unresolved, in essence, the question posed by the problem of the recognition criteria.

  4. Demosponge diversity from North Sulawesi, with the description of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcinai, Barbara; Bastari, Azzurra; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Bertolino, Marco; Horcajadas, Santiago Bueno; Pansini, Maurizio; Makapedua, Daisy M; Cerrano, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are key components of the benthic assemblages and play an important functional role in many ecosystems, especially in coral reefs. The Indonesian coral reefs, located within the so-called "coral triangle", are among the richest in the world. However, the knowledge of the diversity of sponges and several other marine taxa is far from being complete in the area. In spite of this great biodiversity, most of the information on Indonesian sponges is scattered in old and fragmented literature and comprehensive data about their diversity are still lacking. In this paper, we report the presence of 94 species recorded during different research campaigns mainly from the Marine Park of Bunaken, North Sulawesi. Six species are new for science and seven represent new records for the area. Several others are very poorly known species, sometimes recorded for the second time after their description. For most species, besides field data and detailed descriptions, pictures in vivo are included. Moreover, two new symbiotic sponge associations are described. This work aims to increase the basic knowledge of Indonesian sponge diversity as a prerequisite for monitoring and conservation of this valuable taxon.

  5. Identification of a suitable sterilisation method for collagen derived from a marine Demosponge

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Iwan; Clarke, Susan A.; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J.; Buchanan, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    Collagen is widely used as a biomedical material, and its importance is likely to grow as research and understanding progresses in this field. As a biomedical material, ensuring the sterility of collagen before use as, or incorporation into, a medical device is paramount. However, common sterilisation techniques can induce changes in the physical structure and protein chemistry of collagen, potentially affecting the performance. In this preliminary study, the influence of autoclaving, gamma i...

  6. Comparative Ultrastructural and Biochemical Studies of Four Demosponges from Gulf of Mannar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramjee Pallela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge explorations at Gulf of Mannar (GoM, India in the past few years (2003-2009 revealed around forty sponge species that lead to various comprehensive studies on chemicobiological molecules including collagens and their applications. Basing on the preliminary evaluations on collagen content, four marine sponges Hyattella cribriformis, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Callyspongia fibrosa and Dysidea fragilis belong to the families Spongiidae, Thorectidae, Callyspongiidae and Dysideidae of the class Demospongiae, were chosen for macromolecular and micro-anatomical comparison. Microscopic examinations were performed to understand the form and arrangement of skeletal components in each sponge, where unique skeletal composition and spongin distribution is typical for all the sponges except D. fragilis, which is highly embedded with diversified oxeae. Biochemical analyses were performed to resolve the macromolecular content for each sponge species. Sponge D. fragilis was found to possess less protein content (57.26±3.36 mg/g freeze-dried sponge wt when compared to other sponges and significantly, C. fibrosa possess high protein (209.55±9.53 mg/g and other macromolecular contents, except pentose (24.12±1.21 mg/g. Different forms of collagens viz., Acid soluble (AS, salt soluble (SS and insoluble (Ins collagens are estimated to understand the variation in collagen make up in their respective tissues. The higher collagen content in C. fibrosa could propose to use this species as a potential model for targeting collagenous molecules towards human health benefits.

  7. New or little known demosponges (Porifera from Espírito Santo coast and seamounts (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hajdu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phorbas capixaba sp. nov. is described from 54 m depth off Guarapari, diagnosed by its two clear-cut categories of isochelae from Phorbas spp. known from the Western Tropical Atlantic. Four nomina nova are proposed for homonyms in Phorbas spp.: P. bergmontae nom. nov. for P. areolatus Bergquist & Fromont, 1988, preoccupied by P. areolatus (Thiele, 1905; P. burtoni nom. nov. for P. arborescens sensu (Burton, 1956, preoccupied by P. arborescens (Ridley, 1884; P. hechteli nom. nov. for P. ramosus (Hechtel, 1983, preoccupied by P. ramosus (Lendenfeld, 1888; in part - composite species; P. tanitai nom. nov. for P. purpureus (Tanita, 1961, preoccupied by P. purpureus (Carter, 1886. Three little known species are redescribed: Aplysina alcicornis Pinheiro et al., 2007; Mycale (Aegogropila escarlatei Hajdu et al., 1995 and Yucatania sphaeroidocladus (Hartman & Hubbard, 1999. All three are new records for Espírito Santo. The first and the last of these are range extensions, while the other fills a distribution gap. A list of sponges hitherto recorded from off Espírito Santo state, with indication of the bibliographic source of the record is given in appendix. In total, 118 species were compiled from 23 publications.

  8. Discovery of 505-million-year old chitin in the basal demosponge Vauxia gracilenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, H; Rigby, J Keith; Botting, J P; Tsurkan, M V; Werner, C; Schwille, P; Petrášek, Z; Pisera, A; Simon, P; Sivkov, V N; Vyalikh, D V; Molodtsov, S L; Kurek, D; Kammer, M; Hunoldt, S; Born, R; Stawski, D; Steinhof, A; Bazhenov, V V; Geisler, T

    2013-12-13

    Sponges are probably the earliest branching animals, and their fossil record dates back to the Precambrian. Identifying their skeletal structure and composition is thus a crucial step in improving our understanding of the early evolution of metazoans. Here, we present the discovery of 505-million-year-old chitin, found in exceptionally well preserved Vauxia gracilenta sponges from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Our new findings indicate that, given the right fossilization conditions, chitin is stable for much longer than previously suspected. The preservation of chitin in these fossils opens new avenues for research into other ancient fossil groups.

  9. Analysis of the Biomass Composition of the Demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica on Heron Island Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabin R. Watson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are a potential source of important pharmaceutical drugs, the commercialisation of which is restricted by the difficulties of obtaining a sufficient and regular supply of biomass. One way to optimize commercial cell lines for production is the in-depth characterization and target identification through genome scale metabolic modeling and flux analysis. By applying these tools to a sponge, we hope to gain insights into how biomass is formed. We chose Amphimedon queenslandica as it has an assembled and annotated genome, a prerequisite for genome scale modeling. The first stepping stone on the way to metabolic flux analysis in a sponge holobiont, is the characterization of its biomass composition. In this study we quantified the macromolecular composition and investigated the variation between and within sponges of a single population. We found lipids and protein to be the most abundant macromolecules, while carbohydrates were the most variable. We also analysed the composition and abundance of the fatty acids and amino acids, the important building blocks required to synthesise the abundant macromolecule types, lipids, and protein. These data complement the extensive genomic information available for A. queenslandica and lay the basis for genome scale modelling and flux analysis.

  10. Demosponge diversity from North Sulawesi, with the description of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Calcinai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are key components of the benthic assemblages and play an important functional role in many ecosystems, especially in coral reefs. The Indonesian coral reefs, located within the so-called “coral triangle”, are among the richest in the world. However, the knowledge of the diversity of sponges and several other marine taxa is far from being complete in the area. In spite of this great biodiversity, most of the information on Indonesian sponges is scattered in old and fragmented literature and comprehensive data about their diversity are still lacking. In this paper, we report the presence of 94 species recorded during different research campaigns mainly from the Marine Park of Bunaken, North Sulawesi. Six species are new for science and seven represent new records for the area. Several others are very poorly known species, sometimes recorded for the second time after their description. For most species, besides field data and detailed descriptions, pictures in vivo are included. Moreover, two new symbiotic sponge associations are described. This work aims to increase the basic knowledge of Indonesian sponge diversity as a prerequisite for monitoring and conservation of this valuable taxon.

  11. Symbiotic interaction between dinoflagellates and the demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis: aquaporin-mediated glycerol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Belikov, Sergey I; Kaluzhnaya, Oxana V; Chernogor, L; Krasko, Anatoli; Schröder, Heinz C

    2009-01-01

    Lake Baikal is rich in endemic sponge species, among them the arborescently growing species Lubomirskia baicalensis. During winter when the lake is covered by ice, this species reproduces sexually, reflecting a high metabolic activity. Throughout the year, L. baicalensis lives in association with dinoflagellates, which - according to the data presented herein - are symbiotic. The dinoflagellates have been determined on the basis of their rDNA/ITS characteristics and were found to display high sequence similarity to Gymnodinium sanguineum. The dinoflagellates give the sponge its characteristic green color, reflecting the high chlorophyll content (chlorophyll-a content in March and September of 3.2 +/- 0.6 microg/g and 1.9 +/- 0.5 microg/g of protein, respectively). With the in vitro cell culture system for sponges, the primmorphs, it could be demonstrated that [(14)C] glycerol is readily taken up by sponge cells; this process can be inhibited by phloretin, an aquaporin channel blocker. In order to prove the effect of cholesterol on the intermediate metabolism of the sponge cells, molecule probes, cDNAs for key enzymes in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, and citric acid, have been applied in Northern blot studies. The data revealed that the genes coding for the enzymes citrate synthase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase are strongly upregulated after exposure of primmorphs to glycerol. This effect is abolished by phloretin. The genes encoding the phosphoglucose isomerase and pyruvate dehydrogenase do not respond to glycerol supply, suggesting that their expression is not under genetic control in L. baicalensis. To prove the assumption that the aquaporin channel is involved in the influx of glycerol in sponge cells, this cDNA was cloned and applied for in situ hybridization studies. The results obtained show that cells surrounding the dinoflagellates become brightly stained after hybridization with the aquaporin this probe. This demonstrates that L. baicalensis cells respond to glycerol, a metabolite which might be supplied by the dinoflagellates and imported via the aquaporin channel into the sponge cells.

  12. Analysis of the biomass composition of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica on Heron Island Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jabin R; Brennan, Timothy C R; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-06-23

    Marine sponges are a potential source of important pharmaceutical drugs, the commercialisation of which is restricted by the difficulties of obtaining a sufficient and regular supply of biomass. One way to optimize commercial cell lines for production is the in-depth characterization and target identification through genome scale metabolic modeling and flux analysis. By applying these tools to a sponge, we hope to gain insights into how biomass is formed. We chose Amphimedon queenslandica as it has an assembled and annotated genome, a prerequisite for genome scale modeling. The first stepping stone on the way to metabolic flux analysis in a sponge holobiont, is the characterization of its biomass composition. In this study we quantified the macromolecular composition and investigated the variation between and within sponges of a single population. We found lipids and protein to be the most abundant macromolecules, while carbohydrates were the most variable. We also analysed the composition and abundance of the fatty acids and amino acids, the important building blocks required to synthesise the abundant macromolecule types, lipids, and protein. These data complement the extensive genomic information available for A. queenslandica and lay the basis for genome scale modelling and flux analysis.

  13. Ontogenetic changes in the bacterial symbiont community of the tropical demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica: metamorphosis is a new beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Fieth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts, which is known in many species of sponge (Porifera, is expected to promote strong fidelity between the partners. Combining 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and electron microscopy, we have assayed the relative abundance of vertically-inherited bacterial symbionts in several stages of the life cycle of Amphimedon queenslandica, a tropical coral reef sponge. We reveal that adult A. queenslandica house a low diversity microbiome dominated by just three proteobacterial OTUs, with a single gammaprotebacterium clearly dominant through much of the life cycle. This ontogenetic perspective has revealed that, although vertical transmission occurs very early in development, the inherited symbionts do not maintain proportional dominance of the bacterial community at every developmental stage. A reproductive bottleneck in the A. queenslandica life cycle is larval settlement, when a free-swimming pelagic larva settles out of the water column onto the benthos and completes metamorphoses into the sessile body plan within just 3 to 4 days. During this dramatic life cycle transition, an influx of environmentally-derived bacteria leads to a major reorganization of the microbiome, potentially challenging the fidelity and persistence of the vertically-inherited symbiotic relationships. However, dominance of the primary, vertically-inherited symbionts is restored in adult sponges. The mechanisms underlying ontogenetic changes in the bacterial community are unknown, including how the dominance of the primary symbionts is restored in the adult sponge – does the host or symbiont regulate this process? Using high-resolution transcriptional profiling in multiple stages of the A. queenslandica life cycle combined with this natural perturbation of the microbiome immediately following larval settlement, we are beginning to identify candidate host genes associated with animal-bacterial crosstalk. Among the sponge host genes upregulated during the times of active microbiome assembly, there is an enrichment of genes potentially involved in innate immunity, including scavenger receptors, and of genes containing eukaryote-like domains, which have elsewhere been implicated in host-symbiont interactions. Intriguingly, we also see an enrichment of sponge genes arising from ancient horizontal transfer events from bacteria, which raises the possibility that host-bacterial associations in the evolutionary past may help to regulate host-bacterial associations in the ecological present.

  14. Synthesis of the Demospongic Compounds, (6Z, 11Z-Octadecadienoic Acid and (6Z, 11Z-Eicosadienoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mamdapur

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A stereoselective synthesis of (6Z, 11Z-octadecadienoic acid (1 and (6Z, 11Z-eicosadienoic acid (2 from easily accessible pentane-1,5-diol (3 is described. Thus, compound 3 on pyranylation and oxidation gave the aldehyde 5 which was converted to the acid 7 by Wittig reaction with a suitable phosphorane. Its depyranylation and oxidation furnished the key aldehyde 9 which upon Wittig reaction with n-heptylidene and n-nonylidene phosphoranes, respectively followed by alkaline hydrolysis afforded the title acids.

  15. "¡Ya basta con la ciudadanía restrictiva!": Undocumented Latina/o Young People and Their Families' Participatory Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Leticia Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a community-based participatory action research project (PAR), "Voces Diversas e Importantes" [Diverse and Important Voices] that the intergenerational Family School Partnership (FSP) collective enacted to support citizenship participation and increase the possibilities undocumented Latina/o students and families…

  16. Textos pedagógicos aprobados para su utilización en las escuelas normales desde su creación basta 1868

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    María Ángeles SOLER BALADA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La investigación sobre las Escuelas Normales de Instrucción primaria en el siglo XIX es un objeto atrayente, dado que en ellas, por una parte, se reflejan las intenciones del Estado liberal en cuanto a la extensión y amplitud que se deseaba dar al primer nivel de la instrucción pública, y, por otra, aparece de un modo oficial, expreso y permanente la necesidad de los conocimientos y práctica pedagógicos en los planes de formación del profesorado primario.

  17. Textos pedagógicos aprobados para su utilización en las escuelas normales desde su creación basta 1868

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Balada, María Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN: La investigación sobre las Escuelas Normales de Instrucción primaria en el siglo XIX es un objeto atrayente, dado que en ellas, por una parte, se reflejan las intenciones del Estado liberal en cuanto a la extensión y amplitud que se deseaba dar al primer nivel de la instrucción pública, y, por otra, aparece de un modo oficial, expreso y permanente la necesidad de los conocimientos y práctica pedagógicos en los planes de formación del profesorado primario.

  18. Querer No Basta: Deberes Éticos en la Práctica, Formación e Investigación en Psicología Comunitaria To Want is Not Enough: Ethical Duties in Practice, Training, and Research in Community Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Winkler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una síntesis de los resultados del proyecto de investigación FONDECYT N° 1080528, en el que se indagó la dimensión ética en la práctica, formación e investigación en psicología comunitaria (PC en Chile. Se utilizó una muestra opinática e intencionada de fuentes primarias (93 participantes -usuarios/as, estudiantes y psicólogos/as- y fuentes secundarias de información (194 documentos -programas de asignaturas, tesis y códigos-. Del empleo de diversas técnicas de recolección de datos y estrategias cualitativas de análisis emerge como resultado relevante el principio de respeto por el otro y la participación de la comunidad para la identificación y enfrentamiento de problemas éticos. Asimismo, se hallaron divergencias respecto del concepto de PC y de los deberes éticos en este campo. Finalmente, se sugieren orientaciones éticas para la práctica, formación e investigación en PC.The article presents a summary of the results of the research project FONDECYT N° 1080528, which explores the ethical dimension in practice, training, and research in community psychology (CP in Chile. An intentional opinatic sample of primary (93 participants-users, students, and psychologists- and secondary information sources (194 documents-programs, courses, theses and codes- was used. The use of various data collection techniques and qualitative analysis strategies led to the identification of two relevant results: the principle of respect for the other and community participation in identifying and addressing ethical issues. Divergences in the concept of CP and ethical duties in this field were also found. Finally, ethical guidelines for practice, training, and research in CP are suggested.

  19. ¿Qué se requiere realmente para contar con compras gubernamentales más eficientes? ¿Basta con modificaciones normativas? Una mirada a los procesos de selección sujetos a la legislación de contrataciones del Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Prudencio Gamio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la formulación de distintas preguntas, se analiza en qué consiste un proceso de selección y cuáles son sus prinicpales características. El artículo se enfoca en explicar que, más allá de ser un conjunto de procedimiento, el proceso de selección implica tener un aparato estatal correctamente capacitado para dar una respuesta rápida y eficiente. Asimismo, se explica la necesidad de encontrar un equilibrio entre el marco normativo que controle las desviaciones de poder y el empoderamiento de los funcionarios encargado de las compras gubernamentales.

  20. ¿Qué se requiere realmente para contar con compras gubernamentales más eficientes? ¿Basta con modificaciones normativas? Una mirada a los procesos de selección sujetos a la legislación de contrataciones del Estado

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Prudencio Gamio

    2011-01-01

    Mediante la formulación de distintas preguntas, se analiza en qué consiste un proceso de selección y cuáles son sus prinicpales características. El artículo se enfoca en explicar que, más allá de ser un conjunto de procedimiento, el proceso de selección implica tener un aparato estatal correctamente capacitado para dar una respuesta rápida y eficiente. Asimismo, se explica la necesidad de encontrar un equilibrio entre el marco normativo que controle las desviaciones de poder y el empoderamien...

  1. 76 FR 2347 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION.... Renowned for its scenic beauty and remarkable productivity, the sanctuary supports a rich diversity of.... Daniel J. Basta, Director, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service, National...

  2. Seventeen new complete mtDNA sequences reveal extensive mitochondrial genome evolution within the Demospongiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Wang

    Full Text Available Two major transitions in animal evolution--the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality--correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13-15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2-27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida. Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements

  3. Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2008-01-01

    Two major transitions in animal evolution–the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality–correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13–15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2–27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida). Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida) including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements, occurred in

  4. Physical and chemical analysis of the siliceous skeletons in six sponges of two groups (demospongiae and hexactinellida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Floyd

    2003-11-01

    The siliceous skeletons of six hexactinellids and demosponges were compared using a series of physical and chemical tests. The sponges were two hermit-crab sponges (Class Demospongiae, family Suberitidae), one from Scotland, Suberites domuncula, and the other, Pseudospongosorites suberitoides, from the Gulf of Mexico, and four hexactinellids, Hyalonema sp., Euplectella aspergillum, Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni, and Aphrocallistes vastus. The operating hypothesis was that differences in the amorphous hydrated silica skeletons in Demosponges and Hexactinellids might prove taxonomically useful. Physical properties studied included SEM, glass density, glass transition temperature (Tg), TG/DTA to determine water content, and FTIR spectra. Chemical determinations were made using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Spicular skeletal material is deposited in concentric layers around the axial canal. With the exception of differences at several bands in the IR spectra, the siliceous skeletons in demosponges and hexactinellids are largely indistinguishable. Density was similar in all sponges (range 2.03-2.13 g/cc) and similar to the density of opal (SiO2 x 1.5H2O) (mean = 2.09 g/cc). IR spectra were similar, with prominent absorption bands at 460-470, 800, and 1,090-1,100 cm(-1) (due to different vibrational modes of Si-O-Si linkages) and at 1,650 and 3,450-3,560 cm(-1) (due to water). The skeletons of all six showed similar spectra to that of silica gel both before and after heating to 1,200 degrees C. Water comprised 10-14% of the skeleton by weight, slightly higher in the demosponges. Average spicule chemical composition was 85.2% SiO2, 12.3% water, and 2.5% other elements (mainly S, Al, K, Ca, and Na). The percent amounts of Si did not differ significantly between the demosponges and the hexactinellids. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Sobre Keynes y su tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo M. Jorge

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available La historia suele ser irónica, paradojal y basta juguetona con el destine de los hombres y de sus ideas. En 1883 se produjo uno de esos cruces que bien valdría resaltar para iniciar estas notas.

  6. 76 FR 23305 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION... between Cape Ann and Cape Cod. Renowned for its scenic beauty and remarkable productivity, the sanctuary...: April 15, 2011. Daniel J. Basta, Director, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service...

  7. Inheritance study on the stable herbicide resistance of transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUMingguo; HUAZhihua; LINJianrong; XUERui; WANGXiaoling; HUANGDanian

    1999-01-01

    The transgene technology showed a potentiality in crop improvement such as disease and insect resistance, anti-adversity, and grain quality. The inheritance of bar gene for herbicide BASTA resistance in stable transformed rice lines was studied for an understanding of the foreign gene inheritance pattern.

  8. Sobre los criterios de divisibilidad i

    OpenAIRE

    Federici Casa, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    0) Sean a y b dos (números) naturales (Nt) y tales que a > b. Para establecer la verdad de la proposición "a es divisible por b" basta ejecutar la división de a por b: si la división indicada tiene residuo nulo la proposición es verdadera, de otra manera es falsa.

  9. Los incómodos derechos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Kesch, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    A casi sesenta y un años de la firma del tratado por la ONU sobre los Derechos Humanos son innumerables los asesinatos, genocidios, y torturas ocurridos en todo el mundo. Basta con ojear un :poco en nuestro pasado histórico para darnos cuenta que la teoría difiere abismalmente de la práctica.

  10. Utility of the pat gene as a selectable marker gene in production of transgenic Dunaliella salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Sun Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop an efficient selectable marker for transgenic Dunaliella salina. Results Tests of the sensitivity of D. salina to the antibiotic chloramphenicol and the herbicide Basta® showed that cells (1.0 × 106 cells/ml treated with 1000 or 1500 μg/ml chloramphenicol died in 8 or 6 days, respectively, whereas D. salina cells (1.0 × 106 cells/ml treated with 5, 10, 20, or 40 μg/ml Basta® died in 2 days. Therefore, D. salina is more sensitive to Basta® than to chloramphenicol. To examine the possibility of using the phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (pat gene as a selectable marker gene, we introduced the pat genes into D. salina with particle bombardment system under the condition of helium pressure of 900 psi from a distance of 3 cm. PCR analysis confirmed that the gene was stably inserted into the cells and that the cells survived in 5 μg/ml Basta®, the medium used to select the transformed cells. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the pat gene can be used as an efficient selectable marker when producing transgenic D. salina.

  11. A chemical view of the most ancient metazoa - biomarker chemotaxonomy of hexactinellid sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Volker; Blumenberg, Martin; Hefter, Jens; Pape, Thomas; Pomponi, Shirley; Reed, John; Reitner, Joachim; Wörheide, Gert; Michaelis, Walter

    2002-02-01

    Hexactinellid sponges are often considered to be the most ancient metazoans. Lipid biomarkers from 23 species were studied for information on their phylogenetic properties, particularly their disputed relation to the two other sponge classes (Demospongiae, Calcarea). The most prominent lipid compounds in the Hexactinellida comprise C28 to C32 polyenoic fatty acids. Their structures parallel the unique patterns found in demosponge membrane fatty acids ('demospongic acids') and strongly support a close phylogenetic association of the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida. Both taxa also show unusual mid-chain methylated fatty acids (C15-C25) and irregular C25- and C40-isoprenoid hydrocarbons, tracers for specific eubacteria and Archaea, respectively. These biomarkers indicate a similar, highly conservative symbiont community, although some shift in the abundance of the associated microbiota was observed. The lack of these features in calcareous sponges further contradicts the still common view that Calcarea and Demospongiae are more closely related to each other than either is to the Hexactinellida.

  12. Identification of Bt-transgenic Rice Plants for Resistance to Stripe Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis) and Genetic Analysis of the Transgenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chang-xiang; YAO Fang-yin; LI Guang-xian; WEN Fu-jiang

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to herbicide Basta was used to identify Bt-transgenic rice plants and the progenies of crosses between the Bt-transgenic rice and the rice varieties cultivated in the Huang Huai area of China. The results demonstrated that the Basta-positive rice plants were highly resistant to stripe stem borer (Chilo suppressalis ) both in the laboratory and field tests. Both cryIA (b) and bar genes were expressed and co-inherited in both selfing and crossing progenies. Mendelian segregation of the marker gene bar was observed in F2 and BC1 progenies. The results implicates that it is possible to transfer cryIA (b) gene into other cultivated varieties through crosses and back crosses.

  13. Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL. Edité par Günter Holtus -Michael Metzeltin - Christian Schmitt. Volume VI,l. Aragones/Navarro, Español, Asturiano/Leonés. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1992, págs. XXXVIII+708

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available El Diccionario enciclopédico de lingüistica románica (LRL es un compendio general de todo el saber romanistico sobre Ia génesis, el desarrollo y el estado actual de las lenguas romanicas. La obra consta de ocho volúmenes, de los cuales han aparecido, hasta ahora, los que tratan de las lenguas románicas desde el Renacimiento basta nuestros dias, con excepción del volumen reservado al gallego y portugués. Esperamos, por tanto, con gran interes la aparición del segundo volumen, dedicado al latín y al desarrollo de las lenguas románicas desde la Edad Media basta el Renacimiento.

  14. Genetic transformation of Platymonas (Tetraselmis)subcordiformis (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta) using particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yulin; JIANG Peng; WANG Jinfeng; LI Fuchao; CHEN Yingjie; ZHENG Guoting; QIN Song

    2012-01-01

    Platyronas (Tetraselmis) subcordiforris is a unicellular marine green alga.It was found to be very sensitive to the herbicide Basta through a sensitivity test indicating it could be employed as a selective agent.The bar gene is a practicable and selectable marker gene.The vector containing the expression cassette of the bar gene was transferred to P.subcordiformis by both particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation and transformants were then selected using Basta.Finally,Southern blotting analysis indicated that the bar gene had been successfully integrated into the nuclear genome of P.subcordiformis using both of the transgenic techniques,with the transformation efficiency of the glass-bead method being slightly higher than that of particle bombardment.This is the first report on stable transformation ofP.subcordiformis,and will improve fundamental research and enlarge application of this alga.

  15. Study on the Obtaining of Transgenic Wheat with GNA Alien Gene by Biolistic Particle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiong-fang; LI Lian-cheng; CHEN Xiao; TIAN Fang; MA You-zhi; YE Xing-guo; ZHANG Zeng-yan; XU Hui-jun; XIN Zhi-yong

    2002-01-01

    The immature embryos of wheat plants, cv. Jing 411, 12 - 14 days after pollination, were cultured on SD2 medium for callus induction. After 10 days culture, 800 wheat calli were bombarded by biolistic particle coated with theDNA of plasmid pBI121-2 harboring both Galanthus nivalis agglutinin gene and bar gene. 67 green plants were finally regenerated from the bombardment calli on selection medium containing 4mg/L Basta. The results of bioassay by both inoculating wheat aphids onto the plants and applying Basta solution of 50 mg/L and 75 mg/L onto the wheat leaves in the field, and the molecular analysis, such as PCR and Southern blotting, indicated that 8 T2 plants contaning the target genes were obtained.

  16. Tuketici Etnosentrizmi ve Davranis Niyetleri Arasindaki Farkliligin Belirlenmesinde CETSCALE Olcegi

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Akin; Recep Cicek; Esen Gurbuz; M. Emin Inal

    2009-01-01

    Son yillarda cok farkli sebeplerle de olsa giderek ulkemizde de yayginlasmaya baslayan kuresellesme karsitligi sonucu olusan lokal milliyetcilik akimlarinin tuketicilerin satin alma karar surecine olan etkisi yadsinamaz bir gercek olarak karsimizda durmaktadir. Son yillarda ozellikle ABD ve AB karsitligi ile bunlarla boy olcusen Cin karsitligi butun dunyada oldugu gibi ulkemizde de hizla yayginlasmaktadir. Bu ve benzer olgularin tuketim ve satin alma aliskanliklarimiza etkisi basta uluslarara...

  17. La cultura de Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovik Osterc

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available La cultura de Cervantes ha constituido un tema de apasionante controversia entre quienes se han ocupado de su vida y de su obra. Unos la niegan y otros se la reconocen. Los primeros se agrupan en torno a los enfoques conservadores, y los segundos reflejan puntos de vista progresistas. Dentro de estas dos corrientes existen distintos matices que van desde los moderados basta los extremistas.

  18. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnos...

  19. Libertà religiosa collettiva, e nuove intese con le minoranze confessionali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Casuscelli

    2011-03-01

    Costituzione al Trattato di Lisbona – 8. Uguali libertà e  “clausola delle religioni più favorite” – 9. “Provare e riprovare”: non basta confidare nella Corte - 10. Effettività delle tutele e ricorso diretto alla Corte delle confessioni religiose – 11. Costituzione materiale e pace religiosa – 12. Principio di equivalenza, di effettività, di adeguatezza e proporzionalità.

  20. Calcular cual es el menor número natural en cuyo factorial se encuentra determinado factor primo elevado a determinado exponente

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Gonzalez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Observemos, ante todo, que, eligiendo los datos al azar, el problema no es siempre resoluble. Basta considerar, por ejemplo, que los respectivos exponentes de 7 en 343 = 73 y en 342 han de diferir entre sí en 3 unidades, de modo que no existirá ningún número en cuyo factorial se encuentre 7 elevado a un exponente intermedio

  1. Il rischio tecnologico vantaggi e svantaggi del progresso scientifico

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, H W

    1995-01-01

    I rischi della vita ; misurare il rischio ; la percezione del rischio ; la politica del rischio ; la valutazione del rischio ; la gestione del rischio ; il valore della vita ; qual è il livello "sufficiente" di sicurezza? ; incertezza, causalità, rilevabilità ; le delusioni della cautela ; sostanze chimiche tossiche ; sostanze chimiche cancerogene ; sicurezza sulle autostrade ; trasporto aereo ; radiazioni ionizzanti ; conbustibili fossili ; l'inverno nucleare ; radiazioni non ionizzanti ; quanto basta di statistica e di teoria delle probabilità ; epilogo : cosa significa tutto questo?.

  2. Efectos de la ingestión de cafeína sobre diversos parámetros fisiológicos y la actividad física

    OpenAIRE

    Olcina Camacho, Guillermo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Se analizan los efectos de la cafeína en la actividad deportiva. Se muestra que la ingesta de cafeína no condiciona un mejor rendimiento deportivo en personas de baja actividad física. Sí se constata un aumento de la producción de adrenalina, que no basta para incrementar la capacidad de resistencia en el ejercicio físico.

  3. Cuento: La Vírgen del Sena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Delgado Nieto

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Después de meditar un rato chupando mi cigarrillo, respondi: "No recuerdo". Yo recordaba muy bien aquel rostro definido y el aire de mujer que se basta así misma, subrayado por un andar amplio y preciso; sin embargo, preferí decirle a mi compañero de viaje que no la conocía para que hablara con mayor libertad.

  4. Efectos de la ingestión de cafeína sobre diversos parámetros fisiológicos y la actividad física

    OpenAIRE

    Olcina Camacho, Guillermo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Se analizan los efectos de la cafeína en la actividad deportiva. Se muestra que la ingesta de cafeína no condiciona un mejor rendimiento deportivo en personas de baja actividad física. Sí se constata un aumento de la producción de adrenalina, que no basta para incrementar la capacidad de resistencia en el ejercicio físico.

  5. Overexpression of glutamine synthetases confers transgenic rice herbicide resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hui; Huang Qiman; Su Jin

    2005-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS, E.C.6.3.1.2) is a key enzyme involved in the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen in higher plants and gram-negative microorganisms. GS is the targeting enzyme of a herbicide phosphinothricin (PPT) or Basta. In order to generate PPT-resistant transgenic rice via overexpression of GS, we constructed a plant expression vector p2GS harboring two different isoenzymes GS1 and GS2 cDNAs under the control of constitutive promoters of rice Act1 and maize Ubiquitin(Ubi) genes. The p2GS was introduced into rice genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. GS-transgene expression was first detected by Northern blot analyses. Results from Basta test indicated that GS-transgenic plants can tolerate as high as 0.3% Basta solution. In addition, our results also demonstrated that GS overexpression conferred transformed rice calli PPT resistance. Thus, GS cassette can serve as a selective marker gene instead of bar cassette for selection of PPT transformants.

  6. [Two cases of homicide from the pre-ceramic neolithic era of Arabia Petraea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrer-Ertl, O; Frey, K W

    1987-01-01

    Human remains from Basta 1 (P PN B, 6. Mill. B.C.) and Sabra 1 (Khiamian, 7. Mill. B.C.) were prepared and studied; the results show that Basta 1 was a permanent settlement and Sabra 1 was a temporary summer camp. Both settlements are located in Arabia Petraea. Basta 1, No. 3477: The calvarium of a boy, aged 8 to 9 a, from Basta 1 was studied. The race can be determined as orientalide, according v. Eickstedt's classification. The boy was killed; as evidence by 2 blows to the skull occurring while he was alive. The cause of death has been reconstructed, using parallels taken from ethnological and forensic medical research. First, the boy received a light blow on the left forehead, with a sharp weapon. The authors present as a working hypothesis that the motivation for the death was rape, taking place as the boy was (probably) in a semi-conscious state. After recovering and rising to his feet, the boy suffered a deadly blow on the back of the skull (rabbit punch). A blunt instrument was used for the second blow. The body lay where it fell over 1 a or more; afterwards it was found by members of his own group. They removed the calvarium and buried it in their permanent settlement. The manner in which burial took place, would seem to indicate, that no further religious or ritual ceremony was involved. This type of crime has been observed e.g. as occurring among purely male groups-such as temporary herdsmen. In case of the boy from Basta 1, this would the earliest evidence for the occurrence of this type of sexual delinquency in prehistoric times. Sabra 1, No. 4088: Skull fragments of 2 individuals were recovered from a camp fire shifted by humans, in Sabra 1. Individual I is a male, aged 25 to 30 a; Individual II is a female of 25 to 30 a (or perhaps even younger). The examination showed that the bone fragments had been subjected to temperatures less than or equal to 200 degrees C (examination of bone material) and around 100 degrees C (evidence of charcoal material

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the sox family in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum: multiple genes with unique expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Sofia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox genes are HMG-domain containing transcription factors with important roles in developmental processes in animals; many of them appear to have conserved functions among eumetazoans. Demosponges have fewer Sox genes than eumetazoans, but their roles remain unclear. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the early evolutionary history of the Sox gene family by identification and expression analysis of Sox genes in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum. Methods Calcaronean Sox related sequences were retrieved by searching recently generated genomic and transcriptome sequence resources and analyzed using variety of phylogenetic methods and identification of conserved motifs. Expression was studied by whole mount in situ hybridization. Results We have identified seven Sox genes and four Sox-related genes in the complete genome of Sycon ciliatum. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that five of Sycon Sox genes represent groups B, C, E, and F present in cnidarians and bilaterians. Two additional genes are classified as Sox genes but cannot be assigned to specific subfamilies, and four genes are more similar to Sox genes than to other HMG-containing genes. Thus, the repertoire of Sox genes is larger in this representative of calcareous sponges than in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. It remains unclear whether this is due to the expansion of the gene family in Sycon or a secondary reduction in the Amphimedon genome. In situ hybridization of Sycon Sox genes revealed a variety of expression patterns during embryogenesis and in specific cell types of adult sponges. Conclusions In this study, we describe a large family of Sox genes in Sycon ciliatum with dynamic expression patterns, indicating that Sox genes are regulators in development and cell type determination in sponges, as observed in higher animals. The revealed differences between demosponge and calcisponge Sox genes repertoire highlight the need to

  8. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an

  9. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  10. Prácticas de mediación para el aprendizaje en cursos Mooc de sustentabilidad energética para promover la innovación abierta

    OpenAIRE

    Riofrío Calderón, Gioconda del Cisne

    2016-01-01

    [ES]Para el desarrollo y progreso de la sociedad un elemento fundamental inherente al conocimiento es la innovación que por sí sola no basta, ya que hace falta que ésta sea abierta, para un verdadero proceso de transformación social. La innovación abierta según Gassman, Enkel y Chesbrough (2010) ha penetrado en los últimos años en varios sectores, especialmente en la industria y organizaciones y se ha convertido en una corriente principal de investigación que promueve el acceso a los conocimi...

  11. Política de modernización agropecuaria y rural 1994-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti del Corral Juan José

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabemos que de tiempo atrás en la sociedad rural colombiana reinan el empleo precario, los bajos ingresos, la violencia y la inseguridad. Por ello la estabilidad de la nación requiere que la actividad agropecuaria sea analizada y entendida más allá de su simple dimensión productiva. Así, para la solución de los problemas de los productores agropecuarios y de los habitantes rurales en general no basta con aumentar la producción o con mejorar la eficiencia.

  12. Celebrar el pasado a la luz del presente: el tratamiento de la historia bíblica en el teatro religioso de Diego Sánchez de Badajoz (1554)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Escribe Covarrubias en su Tesoro que la historia es una «narración y exposición de acontecimientos pasados, y en rigor es de aquellas cosas que el autor de la historia vio por su propios ojos y da fee dellas, como testigo de vista; pero basta que el historiador tenga buenos originales y autores fidedignos de aquello que narra y escrive, y que de industria no mienta o sea floxo en averiguar la verdad antes que la assegure como tal». Y prosigue nuestro lexicógrafo «Qualquiera narración que se c...

  13. Archivio Marini: nuove acquisizioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brunella Casalini,  Rappresentazioni della femminilità, postfemminismo e sessismo. “Iride. Filosofia e discussione pubblica”, 62 (1, 2011, pp. 43-59 Nico De Federicis, Il secolarismo: una ‘tragedia’ nell’ethos moderno? “SiFP-Rivista della società italiana di filosofia politica”, 2011 Martina Fissi, L’economia della felicità: nota su “La misura sbagliata delle nostre vite. Perché il PIL non basta più per [...

  14. Escarabeos de Ibiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La isla de Ibiza ha dado un número relativamente elevado de escarabeos griegos y fenicios, que nos proponemos estudiar, ya que basta el momento presente no han sido objeto de particular estudio en varios trabajos dedicados al tema. Antes de comenzar nuestro trabajo queremos agradecer públicamente a la dirección, así como al restante personal del MAN de Madrid, los datos suministrados para el estudio de estas piezas, que son todas ellas de diaspro, o ágata verde.

  15. Tendencia editorial UR Número 10

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Universidad del Rosario; Beall, Jeffrey; Ramalho, Amanda; King, Christopher; Torres, Ingrith; Luque, Claudia; Valencia, Margarita; Karp, Sayri; Martins Di Renzo, Marcelo Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Los procesos de indexación de los contenidos académicos presentan la evolución natural que la edición académica sufre: ya no basta con generar contenidos y su divulgación, se trasciende a la validación e importancia que brindan en la sociedad. Por eso, en esta edición presentamos la experiencia de SciELO Libros en Brasil y la propuesta de Book Citation Index para Latinoamérica; las editoras de la Universidad del Rosario harán su aporte desde su perspectiva. Tres voces: local, regiona...

  16. Musica, cervello, movimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Dalla Valle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tutti abbiamo provato la sensazione di sentirci "trasportati" dalla musica. Pensiamo a una lunga corsa, a una passeggiata in montagna, a una serie di vasche in piscina... All'inizio i movimenti sono faticosi, rigidi, poco sincroni; ma basta che nella nostra mente riusciamo a creare un ritmo musicale, o immaginiamo di ascoltare una melodia, di lì a poco il respiro si fa più tranquillo e profondo, gli arti acquistano sincronia, la fatica si attenua, diventando addirittura piacevole...

  17. Marketing, Internet, redes sociales y moda

    OpenAIRE

    Cepedano Flórez, María Camino

    2013-01-01

    Si dispone de un ordenador personal con un navegador, puede conectarse a Internet y hacer negocios en línea. Ya no existen más preocupaciones acerca de la programación. Ya no es necesario buscar números de teléfono, pagar altas tarifas con llamadas a larga distancia o tener abierta la tienda hasta altas horas de la noche. Basta con ir a Internet, lanzar una tienda en línea y esperar a que el negocio crezca. Es así de sencillo. Internet es inevitable. Ha invadido nuestras vidas y, poco a poco ...

  18. Estudio de la imagen institucional para diseño de una estrategia metodológica como valor empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, María Trinidad

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente la situación económica nacional ha determinado panoramas y condiciones en donde las PYMES deberán detonar sus áreas de oportunidad desde que aparecen, debido a que no basta con brindar productos o servicios de calidad; sino más bien éstos deberán proporcionar al consumidor un sentido de pertenencia, confianza y valor; para que una PYME logre alcanzar dichos calificativos tendrá que mostrar coherencia entre la manera como se muestra ante sus audiencias, lo que ofrece y cómo lo ofre...

  19. Walter Mignolo y la idea de América Latina. Un intercambio de opiniones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO LASTRA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta entrevista o intercambio de opiniones nació de la necesidad de ampliar la reseña de la edición en castellano de La idea de América Latina. Como los lectores advertirán, la sola lectura no basta y es preciso situar el libro en una difícil «geopolítica del conocimiento». Aunque el acuerdo era de antemano imposible -se trataba de un intercambio, no de un acuerdo-, la conversación no ha terminado. La conversación es, de hecho, interminable.

  20. Interdependencia y optimización en un modelo clásico

    OpenAIRE

    José D. Liquitaya Briceño; Eddy Lizarazu Alanez

    2004-01-01

    En este artículo exponemos una conexión particular de la macroeconomía con la teoría de equilibrio general de los precios. Entre los resultados de este artículo, se destaca el papel de la función de beneficios como característica central de la disciplina. En el modelo clásico la incorporación de la misma da lugar a la propiedad de neutralidad del dinero. Así, en un modelo de interdependencia general, no basta con los supuestos habituales para obtener la proposición de neutralidad del dinero. ...

  1. El modelo de ficción posmodernista de mchale en la novella Española entre 1975 y 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martín

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo del hecho de que en los estudios de literatura comparada contemporánea sobre el posmodernismo, la literatura española apenas figura, el propósito del presente articulo consistirá en averiguar basta qué punto este fenómeno conviene a Ia narrativa española contemporánea entre 1975 y 1990. Y, de ser así, cuáles serían sus rasgos principals. Las novelas seran analizadas en base del concepto del posmodernismo de Brian McHale, expuesto en Postmodernist Fiction ( 1987.

  2. Intertextualidad y cultura de masas: entre la parodia y el pastiche

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1988-01-01

    La parodia ha afectado al género de la Universal Pictures en The Munsters, telefilm de los años sesenta, del mismo modo como el pastiche alcanzó a Vertigo en el caso de Falcon Crest. Pero en realidad ¿nos basta el término parodia para dar cuenta de esta actitud en la que, sin duda, reconocemos algo del pastiche antes estudiado? Cabe, a pesar de todo, suponer que la distinción no ha de ser tan tajante como la formulamos en este texto, que las fronteras no son tan nítidas y que, en todo caso, n...

  3. MAMBLU: Marketing Móvil mediante Posicionamiento Bluetooth por Proximidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Lara, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    La crisis económica actual ha desacreditado a muchas empresas tanto en España como Europa, es por ello que actualmente no basta con tener un comercio y menos aún una PYME (Pequeña Y Mediana Empresa). El potenciar una marca y hacerla llegar a todos los usuarios posibles es una de las expectativas que cualquier empresa desea cumplir. Se necesitan nuevos medios, para nuevos tiempos. Actualmente el marketing ha dado un giro de 180º, la era digital tiene su reflejo en la forma de in...

  4. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  5. La Didáctica Universitaria en el Contexto de la Andragogía: Aprender a Aprender en la Educación de Personas Adultas

    OpenAIRE

    Garita Pacheco, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    La educación de adultos versa sobre cómo los docentesuniversitarios deben aprovechar las experiencias de suseducandos y enseñarles a aprender a aprender en la universidad.Es imprescindible que el joven adulto sepa organizar,seleccionar y convertir los datos y la información enconocimiento, para lo cual se debe conocer cómo aprendey se le debe enseñar a utilizar sus facultades naturales paralograrlo. La andragogía pone de manifiesto que para undocente universitario no solo basta con dar la lec...

  6. Dissociative Symptoms in Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tekin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dissosiyasyon, belirli kosullar altinda herkeste ortaya cikabilecek uyumsal bir mekanizmadir. Baslangicta travmatik yasantilarin ustesinden gelme amaciyla kullanilirken zamanla patolojik bir surece donustugu ve bir bozukluk olarak nitelendirildigi dusunulmektedir. Basta derealizasyon ve depersonalizasyon olmak uzere, cesitli dissosiyatif belirtiler anksiyete bozukluklari arasinda gorulen yaygin semptomlardandir. Bu calisma anksiyete bozukluklarinda eslik eden dissosiyatif belirtilerin ele alinmasini, dissosiyasyonun anksiyete bozukluklarinda klinik seyri nasil etkiledigini, dolayisiyla da tedaviye yonelik kuramsal bilgileri ve bu alanda yapilan calismalarin sonuclarini icermektedir. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 330-339

  7. Mejores prácticas de liderazgo competitivo con valor

    OpenAIRE

    Águila Cervera, Carlos Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    A pesar de la enorme cantidad de literatura disponible sobre el tema de liderazgo, hablar de ello siempre ha sido un ejercicio arriesgado debido a la diversidad y subjetividad de acepciones y terminología asociada. Durante muchos años el liderazgo fue entendido como un proceso de influencia, sin embargo hoy en día comprobamos que no basta influir sino hay que hacer que las cosas sucedan. Este es el objetivo del presente proyecto de investigación: identificar ...

  8. La calidad de la mediación en Nuevo León, México

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Álvarez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    La Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, asegura a todos los habitantes el derecho de acceso a la justicia, como un derecho inherente a la persona humana. Sin embargo, no basta con que la Constitución lo establezca y el Estado se encargue de mantener a los órganos que llevarán a cabo esa función. Es necesario que haya un sistema amplio, mismo que sea capaz de brindar un servicio público eficiente. El acceso a la justicia requiere de los medios necesarios con los que pueda ...

  9. Transformation of elite white maize using the particle inflow gun and detailed analysis of a low-copy integration event

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available M37W was germinated between layers of absor- bent brown paper and cellulose wadding (Multa Seed). The seed- lings were planted in a soil mix consisting of red soil, rough sand and compost (1:1:1) and were watered daily with a soluble fertili- ser... phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) that confers herbicide resistance. PAT in- activates the herbicidal compound phosphinothricin (PPT) by acetylation. L-PPT is the active ingredient in several herbicide for- mulations, such as Basta? (Hoechst AG, Germany...

  10. o papel das TIC no exercício da cidadania dos adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Ana Margarida Domingues

    2011-01-01

    Numa sociedade profundamente marcada pela tecnoogia e pela globalização, novos desafios se colocam aos indivíduos que deverão estar preparados para uma nova cidadania - a cidadania digital. Começámos por enquadrar a sociedade da informação e a transição para a sociedade do conhecimento, no sentido em que não basta ter acesso à informação é preciso transformá-la em conhecimento efetivo. Contudo apesar de todas as oportunidades criadas pela tecnologia, há ainda o problema da exclusão social e d...

  11. Guerra, técnica, eficácia e moral: reflexões de Stockdale sobre a Guerra do Vietnã e os conflitos bélicos do século XX

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Muitos fatores, tais como qualidade e quantidade do contingente de tropas, armamentos, estratégia, justificativa moral, concorrem para a vitória na guerra. Qual desses fatores, porém, é o decisivo? A superioridade da tecnologia dos armamentos basta para garantir uma vitória? É o fator moral, em face disso, menos importante para o resultado de uma guerra? São essas questões que avaliaremos com o auxílio das reflexões de Stockdale sobre a Guerra do Vietnã._______________________________________...

  12. O legado marxista de Hobsbawm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Lopes Xarão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A obra resenhada é a última publicada em vida por Eric Hobsbawm, em 2011, aos 94 anos. Reúne prefácios, artigos, conferências e ensaios produzidos pelo autor no período de 1956 a 2009. É a derradeira contribuição do historiador britânico, falecido em 2012, para o entendimento da mensagem principal da filosofia marxiana: não basta compreender o mundo, é preciso transformá-lo.

  13. Políticas y factores que contribuyen a la transferencia de tecnología en organizaciones del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Roca T

    2014-01-01

    En diversos países en desarrollo, entre ellos el Perú, se cree que basta fomentar el comercio y la inversión para que automáticamente las empresas extranjeras y el libre mercado transfieran en forma espontánea la tecnología. Este trabajo muestra que ello no es así. La transferencia de tecnología es un asunto complejo que requiere de determinación estratégica, políticas públicas, instituciones intermedias y capacidades a nivel de la empresa y de los individuos involucrados. Este estudio revisa...

  14. El reciclaje como alternativa para el manejo de los desechos sólidos

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Sáenz, Natalia; Víquez Alpízar, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    El manejo de los desechos sólidos en Costa Rica, se ha convertido en un problema de grandes proporciones, que lejos de llegar a una solución está cayendo en una crisis que se sale de control. Para comprobarlo, basta con debe echar un vistazo en la prensa nacional donde grandes titulares como: “Basura reina en fiestas de Zapote”, Tibás pide ayuda por basura”, “Montañas de Basura”, “Mar de basura en San Pedro”, “Lotes baldíos se convierten en basureros en cantón de Liberia” se pu...

  15. Modelo de distribución capilar en pymes integrados de áreas comercial y logística

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El cambio es tan válida, como cuando se aplica al contexto logístico donde sus implicaciones sobre la efectividad de las empresas del cual se deben enfrentarse en un mercado global; hoy, no basta con tener un producto “estrella” y un precio competitivo, sino también prestar el mejor servicio al cliente, gerenciando los recursos involucrados en la cadena de abastecimiento. En el proyecto se expone la formulación viable para la logística en la cadena de abastecimiento en la empresa BIMBO, e...

  16. Actualidad y permanencia del 'Tratado de Derecho Administrativo' de Enrique Sayagués Laso

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Más de medio siglo ha transcurrido desde la publicación de los tomos I (noviembre de 1953) y II (noviembre de 1959) del “Tratado”, concebido en cuatro tomos, pero que la trágica muerte de su autor, en 1965, impidió completar.No obstante el tiempo transcurrido, la actualidad y permanencia de sus opiniones son notorias: basta leer los repertorios de sentencias del Tribunal de lo Contencioso Administrativo, de los Tribunales de Apelaciones y de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, para comprobar que so...

  17. Estudio de la imagen institucional para diseño de una estrategia metodológica como valor empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, María Trinidad

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente la situación económica nacional ha determinado panoramas y condiciones en donde las PYMES deberán detonar sus áreas de oportunidad desde que aparecen, debido a que no basta con brindar productos o servicios de calidad; sino más bien éstos deberán proporcionar al consumidor un sentido de pertenencia, confianza y valor; para que una PYME logre alcanzar dichos calificativos tendrá que mostrar coherencia entre la manera como se muestra ante sus audiencias, lo que ofrece y cómo lo ofre...

  18. Nuevos novelistas argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policarpo Varón

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Puede afirmarse que en Argentina existe una verdadera tradición novelística. Basta detenerse un poco en la nueva narrativa y observar cómo en los últimos novelistas se pueden encontrar preocupaciones que fueron comunes a los narradores del cuarenta, o a los del veinte, y que estos (los nuevos, han desarrollado mejor, han completado, podría decirse. Esta relación, este conocimiento que los escritores de hoy tienen de los de ayer (la conciencia del pasado, su conocimiento, y cabal valoración es lo que da sentido y configura una tradición.

  19. Fotografía turística: la visión después de la mirada

    OpenAIRE

    Sidún, Ayelén

    2008-01-01

    Los turistas son viajeros especiales: van en busca de lugares, imágenes, emociones, vivencias, pero, también, del status que da poder reforzar el relato con la certeza irrefutable del registro fotográfico, ese que dice a los demás: “Este lugar existe y yo he estado allí”. Es que para estos espectadores, pareciera que no basta con observar el escenario que se encuentra frente a sus ojos; necesitan compartir, comunicar lo que vieron, con palabras reforzadas por improntas de ese lugar, para que ...

  20. Sociedad, familia y medios de comunicación de masas: jalones para su revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Moguel

    2009-01-01

    El educador actual debe ser testigo y adaptarse a los nuevos cambios sociales. El presente artículo pretende analizar los criterios con que se introducen los medios de comunicación de masas en la sociedad actual, donde la familia juega un papel importante. La sociedad de la información está generando un nuevo modelo y nosotros debemos estudiar los cambios acaecidos, no basta con ser testigos, hay que analizarlos. El texto pretende mostrar algunas reflexiones sobre la sociedad, la familia y lo...

  1. Asegurar el sistema de gestión de calidad de RCN San Gil.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    No basta con lograr cumplir con los procedimientos, sino tener la seguridad de que los resultados obtenidos generen valor a la gestión y por ende a la satisfacción del cliente. Es esta la razón por la que RCN RADIO, pone en marcha en Bogotá, a partir del 2.008 el Sistema de Gestión de Calidad, particularmente la Norma ISO 9001, versión 2000, con el objetivo de mejorar el desempeño y la productividad, la orientación al logro de los proyectos y la calidad de los servicios para sus client...

  2. ALFONSO REYES Y LA CREACIÓN DE SU MUNDO AMERICANO (1906-1924)

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Perea, Alberto Donato

    2012-01-01

    América en la obra de Alfonso Reyes ha sido un tema clásico en los estudios y en los estudiosos alfonsinos. Basta con los siguientes autores y títulos de sus obras para darse cuenta de la importancia que ha tenida la cuestión americana en el pensamiento del escritor y diplomático mexicano: Rafael Gutiérrez Giradort, Premio Internacional Alfonso Reyes (2002), en su estudio pionero, La imagen de América en Alfonso Reyes (1955)1; Ramón Jiménez López, Alfonso Reyes y el descubrimie...

  3. Apresentação

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A produção das condições materiais de existência e do controle de acesso a esses bens, no interior de uma mesma sociedade e na sua interface com outras sociedades, sempre esteve no radar das monografias clássicas da antropologia – basta lembrarmos de Argonautas do Pacífico Ocidental de Malinowski (1978) e Os Nuer de Evans-Pritchard (1978), por exemplo. Na medida em que as etnografias foram se especializando, as questões atinentes à economia tenderam à constituição de um domínio exclusivo, em ...

  4. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  5. Nuevas tecnologías vitícolas y enológicas para la obtención de vinos de calidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Rafael Lizandro

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los principales problemas a los que se enfrentan las bodegas en la actualidad es la gran competencia existente en el mercado del vino. Los consumidores, cada vez más implicados y exigentes, se ven abrumados ante la gran oferta de vinos, bastante uniforme, que el mercado actual les ofrece. Afortunadamente, en la actualidad los vinos que salen al mercado tienden a priorizar la calidad, sin embargo la calidad por sí sola no basta ante un mercado tan competitivo y voraz. Por tanto, la nece...

  6. Epistemes del presente y saberes locales Provocaciones y alternativas: cognición y metacognición

    OpenAIRE

    Mallarino Flórez, Claudia; Universidad de San Buenaventura Cali

    2010-01-01

    La información se sitúa en un lugar subjetivo; es decir, se encarna en un complejo de valores, creencias, lenguaje, deseo, saberes previos, sueños y memoria humanada del trasegar vital para devenir conocimiento como consecuencia de su elaboración, aprehensión, apropiación, aplicación, transferencia y uso crítico y pertinente. Este tránsito sin embargo, es apenas una parte del proceso inteligente de conocer, no basta conocer sin hacer visible la dinámica mental que hace posible tal experiencia...

  7. Nuevas tecnologías vitícolas y enológicas para la obtención de vinos de calidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Rafael Lizandro

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los principales problemas a los que se enfrentan las bodegas en la actualidad es la gran competencia existente en el mercado del vino. Los consumidores, cada vez más implicados y exigentes, se ven abrumados ante la gran oferta de vinos, bastante uniforme, que el mercado actual les ofrece. Afortunadamente, en la actualidad los vinos que salen al mercado tienden a priorizar la calidad, sin embargo la calidad por sí sola no basta ante un mercado tan competitivo y voraz. Por tanto, la nece...

  8. Teatro na enfermagem: ensinando e aprendendo

    OpenAIRE

    Andresa Mercedes Araujo

    2008-01-01

    O ensino das artes é concebido, por muitos, como supérfluo, caracterizado como lazer e recreação. No entanto, o teatro, ao ser vivenciado pelas pessoas, resgata a individualidade ao materializar a capacidade de expressão renovadora das relações entre as pessoas e os grupos sociais. Basta o ser humano aparecer que entrará em cena o teatro, ou seja, o teatro é essencialmente o ser humano. E este é antes de tudo um corpo contendo sensibilidade, emoção, razão e sexualidade, registrando sensações ...

  9. Desarrollo de sistema informático de tablero de mando integral para un sistema de gestión de calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Saltos, Rodrigo Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Las empresas a nivel mundial saben que para proyectarse al futuro y ser realmente competitivas, no basta solamente con el análisis de las ventas durante un período y con la rentabilidad que éstas generan. Hoy en día es necesario analizar todas las variables involucradas en el proceso que origina estas ventas y rentabilidad. Analizar las variables que podrían llevar a una mejor toma de decisiones conllevaría a atacar puntos estratégicos de la empresa, análisis...

  10. ¿Imitadoras de García Márquez? (un mimetismo lucrativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Tocará escribir como García Márquez para alcanzar la celebridad? Esta pregunta, que se formularon hace algunos años ciertas inquietas novelistas, se la siguen formulando hoy en día, con la misma aspiración a convertirse en best sellers sin dejar de hacer buena literatura. ¿Cómo negarlo? Después del rotundo, avasallador éxito de Macondo, ya nadie necesita escoger entre escribir bien y vender bien: basta seguir el ejemplo del Nobel.

  11. Desarrollo del pensamiento covariacional en un ambiente gráfico dinámico. Hacia una génesis instrumental

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La tecnología puede resultar un recurso didáctico para que los estudiantes examinen situaciones y problemas desde diversos ángulos, específicamente, el uso de software dinámico ofrece un medio útil para que ellos visualicen, exploren y construyan relaciones matemáticas. Estos apoyos modifican tan fuertemente el medio ambiente de trabajo que no basta con adaptar situaciones matemáticas clásicas, hay que concebir nuevas situaciones que tomen en consideración las potencialidades y las restriccio...

  12. Occurrence of a silicatein gene in glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremeichik, Galina N; Shkryl, Yuri N; Bulgakov, Victor P; Shedko, Sergey V; Kozhemyako, Valery B; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Kulchin, Yuri N

    2011-08-01

    Silicatein genes are involved in spicule formation in demosponges (Demospongiae: Porifera). However, numerous attempts to isolate silicatein genes from glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) resulted in a limited success. In the present investigation, we performed analysis of potential silicatein/cathepsin transcripts in three different species of glass sponges (Pheronema raphanus, Aulosaccus schulzei, and Bathydorus levis). In total, 472 clones of such transcripts have been analyzed. Most of them represent cathepsin transcripts and only three clones have been found to represent transcripts, which can be related to silicateins. Silicatein transcripts were identified in A. schulzei (Hexactinellida; Lyssacinosida; Rosselidae), and the corresponding gene was called AuSil-Hexa. Expression of AuSil-Hexa in A. schulzei was confirmed by real-time PCR. Comparative sequence analysis indicates high sequence identity of the A. schulzei silicatein with demosponge silicateins described previously. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the AuSil-Hexa protein belongs to silicateins. However, the AuSil-Hexa protein contains a catalytic cysteine instead of the conventional serine.

  13. Molecular phylogenetic position of hexactinellid sponges in relation to the Protista and Demospongiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, L; Powers, D

    1993-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the first multicellular organisms arose from unicellular ancestors, the phylogenetic relationships linking these groups remain unclear. Anatomical, physiological, and molecular studies of current multicellular organisms with relatively simple body organization suggest key characteristics of the earliest multicellular lineages. Glass sponges, the Hexactinellida, possess cellular characteristics that resemble some unicellular protistan organisms. These unique sponges were abundant in shallow seas of the early Cambrian, but they are currently restricted to polar habitats or very deep regions of the world oceans. Due in part to their relative inaccessibility, their potential significance to the early phylogeny of the eukaryotic kingdoms has been largely overlooked. We used sequences of the 18s ribosomal RNA gene of Farrea occa, a representative of the deep-water hexactinellid sponges, and Coelocarteria singaporense, a representative of the more common demosponges, and compared them with selected ribosomal RNA gene sequences available within the Protista. Using four computational methods for phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences, we found that the hexactinellid sponge-demosponge cluster is most closely related to Volvox and Acanthamoeba.

  14. Crouching shells, hidden sponges: Unusual Late Ordovician cavities containing sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jino; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Hong, Jongsun; Choh, Suk-Joo; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Marine cavities harbouring cryptic organisms have been ubiquitous throughout the Phanerozoic. However, our knowledge of early cryptic communities is as yet insufficient, and how metazoans began to utilize such habitats remains unknown. In this study, we document demosponge remains within intraskeletal cavities embedded in the micritic succession of a shallow carbonate platform in the Upper Ordovician (Katian) Xiazhen Formation of South China. Molluscs (gastropods, bivalves, and nautiloids) and corals (the solitary rugosan Tryplasma and colonial agetolitids) within the succession commonly contain patches of "spicular" demosponge remains (11%; n = 45/415), mainly occupying intraskeletal spaces with areas of 1-30 mm2 in thin-section. Sponge occurrence varies according to sedimentary facies: within lime mudstone facies, sponges commonly occur both inside and outside intraskeletal cavities, suggesting that sponges would have inhabited and become preserved within any available space in this environment. In contrast, when other sessile organisms co-occur in wackestone to packstone facies, there are fewer sponge occurrences both inside and outside cavities, possibly due to competition in open habitats and/or their poorer preservation in such environments. Overall, this result suggests that sponges would have exploited cryptic habitats by normal expansion of the open-surface biota. In addition, compared with coeval reef and hardground crypts, the Xiazhen intraskeletal cryptic biota is monotonous in composition, suggesting "decoupled" occupation of cryptic habitats in different environments.

  15. A horizontal gene transfer supported the evolution of an early metazoan biomineralization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synchronous and widespread adoption of the ability to biomineralize was a defining event for metazoan evolution during the late Precambrian/early Cambrian 545 million years ago. However our understanding on the molecular level of how animals first evolved this capacity is poor. Because sponges are the earliest branching phylum of biomineralizing metazoans, we have been studying how biocalcification occurs in the coralline demosponge Astrosclera willeyana. Results We have isolated and characterized a novel protein directly from the calcified spherulites of A. willeyana. Using three independent lines of evidence (genomic architecture of the gene in A. willeyana, spatial expression of the gene product in A. willeyana and genomic architecture of the gene in the related demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, we show that the gene that encodes this protein was horizontally acquired from a bacterium, and is now highly and exclusively expressed in spherulite forming cells. Conclusions Our findings highlight the ancient and close association that exists between sponges and bacteria, and provide support for the notion that horizontal gene transfer may have been an important mechanism that supported the evolution of this early metazoan biomineralisation strategy.

  16. Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria: a new cue to the origin of calcification in metazoa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, Maria J; Agell, Gemma; Blanquer, Andrea; Turon, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2012-10-01

    Sponges show the highest diversity of associated bacteria among marine invertebrates. Immunological evidence traces the origin of the sponge bacterial symbioses to the Precambrian era. Hence, sponges appear to be ideally suited for studying the evolutionary origins of prokaryote-metazoan associations. Sponges produce either calcareous or siliceous skeletons, which only coexist in a relict group of demosponges, the sclerosponges. We report here, for the first time, intensive calcification in nonsclerosponge siliceous demosponges. Calcification is mediated by endosymbiotic bacteria (calcibacteria) located in archeocyte-like sponge cells. These calcibacteria are devoid of bacterial walls and divide within sponge cells until they became surrounded by a calcitic sheet, being subsequently extruded to the sponge subectosomal (subepithelial) zone. Thousands of bacteria-produced calcitic spherules cover the surface of the host sponges, forming a cortex-like structure that mimics a rudimentary peripheral skeleton. Calcibacteria are vertically transferred to the sponge larvae during embryogenesis. Calcium detoxification may have generated this symbiotic association, with some additional benefits for the sponges, such as skeletal formation and deterrence from predation. This unique symbiosis holds implications for sponge biology and may advance discussions on the role of bacteria in early biocalcification processes in metazoans.

  17. Small inverted repeats drive mitochondrial genome evolution in Lake Baikal sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Maikova, Olga O; Pett, Walker; Belikov, Sergey I

    2012-08-15

    Demosponges, the largest and most diverse class in the phylum Porifera, possess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markedly different from that in other animals. Although several studies investigated evolution of demosponge mtDNA among major lineages of the group, the changes within these groups remain largely unexplored. Recently we determined mitochondrial genomic sequence of the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis and described proliferation of small inverted repeats (hairpins) that occurred in it since the divergence between L. baicalensis and the most closely related cosmopolitan freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri. Here we report mitochondrial genomes of three additional species of Lake Baikal sponges: Swartschewskia papyracea, Rezinkovia echinata and Baikalospongia intermedia morpha profundalis (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Lubomirskiidae) and from a more distantly related freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia sp. (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Metaniidae). We use these additional sequences to explore mtDNA evolution in Baikalian sponges, paying particular attention to the variation in the rates of nucleotide substitutions and the distribution of hairpins, abundant in these genomes. We show that most of the changes in Lubomirskiidae mitochondrial genomes are due to insertion/deletion/duplication of these elements rather than single nucleotide substitutions. Thus inverted repeats can act as an important force in evolution of mitochondrial genome architecture and be a valuable marker for population- and species-level studies in this group. In addition, we infer (((Rezinkovia+Lubomirskia)+Swartschewskia)+Baikalospongia) phylogeny for the family Lubomirskiidae based on the analysis of mitochondrial coding sequences from freshwater sponges.

  18. Rapid proliferation of repetitive palindromic elements in mtDNA of the endemic Baikalian sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-04-01

    Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a remarkably compact molecule largely because of the scarcity of noncoding "selfish" DNA. Recently, however, we found that mitochondrial genomes of several phylogenetically diverse species of demosponges contain small repetitive palindromic sequences, interspersed within intergenic regions and fused in protein and ribosomal RNA genes. Here, I report and analyze the proliferation of such elements in the mitochondrial genome of the endemic sponge of Lake Baikal Lubomirskia baicalensis. Because Baikal sponges are closely related to the circumglobally distributed freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri with which they shared a common ancestor approximately 3-10 Ma, both the rate of single nucleotide substitutions and the rate of palindromic repeat insertions can be calculated in this system. I found the rate of nucleotide substitutions in mtDNA of freshwater sponges to be extremely low (0.5-1.6 x 10(-9) per site per year), more similar to that in plants than bilaterian animals. By contrast, the per/nucleotide rate of insertions of repetitive elements is at least four times higher. This rapid rate of proliferation combined with the broad phylogenetic distribution of hairpin elements can make them a defining force in the evolution of mitochondrial genomes of demosponges.

  19. Transdifferentiation is a driving force of regeneration in Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, Ilya E; Adamska, Maja; Tokina, Daria B; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    The ability to regenerate is widespread in the animal kingdom, but the regenerative capacities and mechanisms vary widely. To understand the evolutionary history of the diverse regeneration mechanisms, the regeneration processes must be studied in early-evolved metazoans in addition to the traditional bilaterian and cnidarian models. For this purpose, we have combined several microscopy techniques to study mechanisms of regeneration in the demosponge Halisarca dujardini. The objectives of this work are to detect the cells and morphogenetic processes involved in Halisarca regeneration. We show that in Halisarca there are three main sources of the new exopinacoderm during regeneration: choanocytes, archaeocytes and (rarely) endopinacocytes. Here we show that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) occur during Halisarca regeneration. EMT is the principal mechanism during the first stages of regeneration, soon after the injury. Epithelial cells from damaged and adjacent intact choanocyte chambers and aquiferous canals assume mesenchymal phenotype and migrate into the mesohyl. Together with archaeocytes, these cells form an undifferentiated cell mass beneath of wound, which we refer to as a blastema. After the blastema is formed, MET becomes the principal mechanism of regeneration. Altogether, we demonstrate that regeneration in demosponges involves a variety of processes utilized during regeneration in other animals (e.g., cell migration, dedifferentiation, blastema formation) and points to the particular importance of transdifferentiation in this process. Further studies will be needed to uncover the molecular mechanisms governing regeneration in sponges.

  20. Transdifferentiation is a driving force of regeneration in Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae, Porifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya E. Borisenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regenerate is widespread in the animal kingdom, but the regenerative capacities and mechanisms vary widely. To understand the evolutionary history of the diverse regeneration mechanisms, the regeneration processes must be studied in early-evolved metazoans in addition to the traditional bilaterian and cnidarian models. For this purpose, we have combined several microscopy techniques to study mechanisms of regeneration in the demosponge Halisarca dujardini. The objectives of this work are to detect the cells and morphogenetic processes involved in Halisarca regeneration. We show that in Halisarca there are three main sources of the new exopinacoderm during regeneration: choanocytes, archaeocytes and (rarely endopinacocytes. Here we show that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET occur during Halisarca regeneration. EMT is the principal mechanism during the first stages of regeneration, soon after the injury. Epithelial cells from damaged and adjacent intact choanocyte chambers and aquiferous canals assume mesenchymal phenotype and migrate into the mesohyl. Together with archaeocytes, these cells form an undifferentiated cell mass beneath of wound, which we refer to as a blastema. After the blastema is formed, MET becomes the principal mechanism of regeneration. Altogether, we demonstrate that regeneration in demosponges involves a variety of processes utilized during regeneration in other animals (e.g., cell migration, dedifferentiation, blastema formation and points to the particular importance of transdifferentiation in this process. Further studies will be needed to uncover the molecular mechanisms governing regeneration in sponges.

  1. First evidence of chitin as a component of the skeletal fibers of marine sponges. Part I. Verongidae (demospongia: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Maldonado, Manuel; Spindler, Klaus-Dieter; Eckert, Carsten; Hanke, Thomas; Born, René; Goebel, Caren; Simon, Paul; Heinemann, Sascha; Worch, Hartmut

    2007-07-15

    The Porifera (sponges) are often regarded as the oldest, extant metazoan phylum, also bearing the ancestral stage for most features occurring in higher animals. The absence of chitin in sponges, except for the wall of peculiar resistance bodies produced by a highly derived fresh-water group, is puzzling, since it points out chitin to be an autapomorphy for a particular sponge family rather than the ancestral condition within the metazoan lineage. By investigating the internal proteinaceous (spongin) skeleton of two demosponges (Aplysina sp. and Verongula gigantea) using a wide array of techniques (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray, Calcofluor White Staining, Immunolabeling, and chitinase test), we show that chitin is a component of the outermost layer (cuticle) of the skeletal fibers of these demosponges. FTIR and Raman spectra, as well as X-ray difractograms consistently revealed that sponge chitin is much closer to the alpha-chitin known from other animals than to beta-chitin. These findings support the view that the occurrence of a chitin-producing system is the ancestral condition in Metazoa, and that the alpha-chitin is the primitive form in animals.

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the homoscleromorph Oscarella carmela (Porifera, Demospongiae) reveals unexpected complexity in the common ancestor of sponges and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2007-02-01

    Homoscleromorpha is a small group in the phylum Porifera (Sponges) characterized by several morphological features (basement membrane, acrosomes in spermatozoa, and cross-striated rootlets of the flagellar basal apparatus) shared with eumetazoan animals but not found in most other sponges. To clarify the phylogenetic position of this group, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela (Porifera, Demospongiae). O. carmela mtDNA is 20,327 bp and contains the largest complement of genes reported for animal mtDNA, including a putative gene for the C subunit of the twin-arginine translocase (tatC) that has never been found in animal mtDNA. The genes in O. carmela mtDNA are arranged in 2 clusters with opposite transcriptional orientations, a gene arrangement reminiscent of those in several cnidarian mtDNAs but unlike those reported in sponges. At the same time, phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences from 12 mitochondrial (mt) protein genes strongly support the phylogenetic affinity between the Homoscleromorpha and other demosponges. Altogether, our data suggest that homoscleromorphs are demosponges that have retained ancestral features in both mt genome and morphological organization lost in other taxa and that the most recent common ancestor of sponges and other animals was morphologically and genetically more complex than previously thought.

  3. La reinvención freiriana en la universidad: Paulofreire, el movimiento zapatista, el Psicoanálisis socio Político y La Pedagogía erótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Escobar Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando me despedí de Paulo Freire en Ginebra (Suiza en 1978 , un sue - ño llegó conmigo a México: reinventar a Freire y no solamente repetirlo. Comencé ese mismo año a trabajar en la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, FF y L, Unam. En 1994 me encontré frente al grito de lucha de las comunidades zapatistas “¡Ya Basta!” que le daba vida revolucionaria al pensamiento freiriano. Ese “¡Ya Basta!” me desafió a ir a la praxis desde la práctica y no sólo desde la teoría, lo que permitió definir mejor el proyecto de investigación – La lectura de la realidad en el aula. Pensar la práctica para transformarla . El escrito que aquí se presenta es la síntesis de un caminar, entre profesor y estudiantes, pensando la práctica para transformarla. Proceso que gestó una metodología, MRC y T , la cual ha permitido que quienes participan en el proceso educativo emerjan como sujetos capaces de “pronunciar” su mundo.

  4. Economía social y solidaria trabajo y capitalismo.                     Relación entre forma de trabajo y patrón de acumulación en el gobierno de la fuerza de trabajo∗   

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Giavedoni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es bosquejar una reflexión teórica motivada por las recientes experiencias de economía social y solidaria, es decir, nos conduce una preocupación práctica en la indagación teórica sobre el problema del ‘trabajo’ en el capitalismo. De esta manera, se pretende problematizar la vinculación entre gobierno de la fuerza de trabajo, formas de trabajo en la economía social y modos de acumulación del capital. Entendemos que las nuevas modalidades de trabajo que surgen en el capitalismo contemporáneo, no basta con que sean analizadas en términos de disfuncionalidades del mercado a partir de las cuales las comunidades encuentran formas de supervivencia, ni tampoco basta que sean observadas como reductos con la potencialidad de transformarse en formas alternativas de producción. Creemos necesarios dar cuenta de la manera en que es pensado el “trabajo” en la literatura sobre economía social con el fin de apuntar más específicamente algunas relaciones en las formas de trabajo en economía social y los nuevos patrones de acumulación del capital.

  5. Establishment of transgenic acceptor and transformation of barnase gene by particle gun in maize inbred line 18-599(white)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingquan SUN; Ying ZHANG; Tingzhao RONG; Shuting DONG; Dengchao MA; Chunqing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The efficient acceptors for maize transgenic engineering are currently insufficient in China. Seed production by male sterility is the best method for advancing the authenticity of maize hybrid. Maize inbred line 18-599 (white) is an antivirus high-quality maize inbred line in China, which has been used for lots of maize hybrid cultivars. The establishment of high efficiency transgenic acceptors is necessary for advancing the transgenic efficiency in maize transformation work. In this study, the efficient transgenic acceptors were optimized and established. 18-599 (white) was studied in state, types of culture mediums, times of callus regen-eration and concentration of the screening reagent, Basta. The results showed that N6-4 medium was the best in 8 types of mediums for the immature embryo of 18-599 (white), 1.6 mm length was the feasible length of immature embryos for tissue culture in establishing the transgenic acceptor system, and it was within 5 times for suitable callus subculture. With the optimized transgenic acceptors, barnase gene was translated successfully into 18-599 (white) by a particle gun using bar as a marker gene. Basta was used as the screening reagent, its lethal callus regeneration, respectively. In this work, a trans-genic plant with male sterility was obtained through molecule detection and observation in the field. The result has an important significance for the creation of new male sterility inbred lines in maize in the future.

  6. Self-concept in children with attention deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena; Brodin, Jane

    2007-09-01

    This study focuses on the BASTA project (basic skills, social interaction and training of the working memory), which studied children with attention deficits and hyperactive behaviour attending remedial classes in regular schools. The project is interdisciplinary, with research teams from both social science and medicine. Our study is both qualitative and quantitative with a socio-cultural approach, and focuses on the pupil's social interaction, self-concept and the classroom climate. This article reports on the results of the study on self-concept. Our supposition was that the pupil's self-concept should change when they improved their skills in reading, writing and mathematics, but this was not the case. The results showed the dominating pattern to be that the differences between data from the BASTA project and comparison data from a similar study on academic self-concept, social self-concept, personal self-concept and global self-concept are small to nonexistent. Our results indicate that the children studied report higher degrees of self-concept than were warranted and that entering remedial classes was often linked to previous academic failures, social failures or both.

  7. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  8. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  9. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-01-01

    LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural

  10. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM homeobox (Lhx transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. Results We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. Conclusions The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In

  11. Reconstruction of family-level phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) using nuclear encoded housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Malcolm S; Hill, April L; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C; Thacker, Robert W; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E; Collins, Allen G

    2013-01-01

    Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosa(p), Myxospongiae(p), Spongillida(p), Haploscleromorpha(p) (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlavia(p). We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosa(p) and Myxospongiae(p) to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorpha(p)+Spongillida(p)+Democlavia(p). In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillida(p)) are sister to Haploscleromorpha(p) rather than part of Democlavia(p). Within Keratosa(p), we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiae(p), Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlavia(p), Tetractinellida(p), composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlavia(p). Within Tetractinellida(p), we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. These results, using an independent nuclear gene set

  12. Reconstruction of family-level phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera using nuclear encoded housekeeping genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm S Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha, but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosa(p, Myxospongiae(p, Spongillida(p, Haploscleromorpha(p (the marine haplosclerids and Democlavia(p. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosa(p and Myxospongiae(p to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorpha(p+Spongillida(p+Democlavia(p. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillida(p are sister to Haploscleromorpha(p rather than part of Democlavia(p. Within Keratosa(p, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiae(p, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlavia(p, Tetractinellida(p, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis, was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlavia(p. Within Tetractinellida(p, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae, and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. CONCLUSIONS

  13. Siliceous spicules in a vauxiid sponge (Demospongia) from the Kaili Biota(Cambrian Stage 5), Guizhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.-L.; Zhao, Y.-L.; Babcock, L. E.; Peng, J.

    2017-02-01

    Fossils of the sponge Angulosuspongia sinensis from calcareous mudstones of the middle and upper part of the Kaili Formation (Cambrian Stage 5) in the Jianhe area of Guizhou province, South China, exhibit an apparently reticulate pattern, characteristic of the Vauxiidae. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicate the presence of silica in the skeletal elements of these fossils, suggesting that this taxon possessed a skeleton comprised of spicules. This is the first confirmation of siliceous skeletal elements in fossils of the family Vauxiidae, and it lends support to the hypothesis that some early demosponges possessed biomineralized siliceous skeletons, which were subsequently lost and replaced by spongin later in the evolutionary history of this lineage. The new materials provide critical insight into the phylogeny and evolution of biomineralization in the Demosopongiae.

  14. Silicatein: nanobiotechnological and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Boreiko, Alexandra; Natalio, Filipe; Baranowska, Malgorzata; Brandt, David; Wang, Xiaohong; Tremel, Wolfgang; Wiens, Matthias; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Silica-based materials are used in many high-tech products including microelectronics, optoelectronics, and catalysts. Siliceous sponges (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) are unique in their ability to synthesize silica enzymatically. We have cloned the silica-forming enzymes, silicateins, from both demosponges (marine and freshwater sponges) and hexactinellid sponges. The recombinant enzymes allow the synthesis of silica under environmentally benign ambient conditions, while the technical (chemical) production of silica commonly requires high temperatures and pressures, and extremes of pH. Silicateins can be used for the fabrication of highly-ordered inorganic-organic composite materials with defined optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The simple self-assembly properties of silicateins which are able to form silica and other metal oxides in aqueous solution allow the development of novel products in nano(bio)technology, medicine, and dentistry.

  15. CO I barcoding reveals new clades and radiation patterns of Indo-Pacific sponges of the family Irciniidae (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pöppe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding is a promising tool to facilitate a rapid and unambiguous identification of sponge species. Demosponges of the order Dictyoceratida are particularly challenging to identify, but are of ecological as well as biochemical importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we apply DNA barcoding with the standard CO1-barcoding marker on selected Indo-Pacific specimens of two genera, Ircinia and Psammocinia of the family Irciniidae. We show that the CO1 marker identifies several species new to science, reveals separate radiation patterns of deep-sea Ircinia sponges and indicates dispersal patterns of Psammocinia species. However, some species cannot be unambiguously barcoded by solely this marker due to low evolutionary rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We support previous suggestions for a combination of the standard CO1 fragment with an additional fragment for sponge DNA barcoding.

  16. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne

    2014-01-01

    A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late...... Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first...... appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans...

  17. Macrofaunal assemblages associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (Porifera: Demospongiae) at the coasts of Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavloudi, Christina; Christodoulou, Magdalini; Mavidis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset of macrofaunal organisms associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862, collected by scuba diving from two sampling sites: one in Greece (North Aegean Sea) and one in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). This dataset includes macrofaunal taxa inhabiting the demosponge Sarcotragus foetidus and contributes to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. This is the first paper, to our knowledge, where the macrofauna associated with S. foetidus from the Levantine Basin is being recorded. In total, 90 taxa were recorded, from which 83 were identified to the species level. Eight of these species are new records for the Levantine Basin. The dataset contains 213 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. It is accessible at http://lifewww-00.her.hcmr.gr:8080/medobis/resource.do?r=organismic_assemblages_sarcotragus_foetidus_cyprus_greece.

  18. The ancestral gene repertoire of animal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alié, Alexandre; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Sugimura, Itsuro; Manuel, Michaël; Sugano, Wakana; Mano, Akira; Satoh, Nori; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko

    2015-12-22

    Stem cells are pivotal for development and tissue homeostasis of multicellular animals, and the quest for a gene toolkit associated with the emergence of stem cells in a common ancestor of all metazoans remains a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We reconstructed the conserved gene repertoire of animal stem cells by transcriptomic profiling of totipotent archeocytes in the demosponge Ephydatia fluviatilis and by tracing shared molecular signatures with flatworm and Hydra stem cells. Phylostratigraphy analyses indicated that most of these stem-cell genes predate animal origin, with only few metazoan innovations, notably including several partners of the Piwi machinery known to promote genome stability. The ancestral stem-cell transcriptome is strikingly poor in transcription factors. Instead, it is rich in RNA regulatory actors, including components of the "germ-line multipotency program" and many RNA-binding proteins known as critical regulators of mammalian embryonic stem cells.

  19. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-07

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  20. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  1. The unique invention of the siliceous sponges: their enzymatically made bio-silica skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ailin; Hu, Shixue; Gan, Lu; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are sessile filter feeders that, among the metazoans, evolved first on Earth. In the two classes of the siliceous sponges (the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida), the complex filigreed body is stabilized by an inorganic skeleton composed of amorphous silica providing them a distinct body shape and plan. It is proposed that the key innovation that allowed the earliest metazoans to form larger specimens was the enzyme silicatein. This enzyme is crucial for the formation of the siliceous skeleton. The first sponge fossils with body preservation were dated back prior to the "Precambrian-Cambrian" boundary [Vendian (610-545 Ma)/Ediacaran (542-580 Ma)]. A further molecule required for the formation of a hard skeleton was collagen, fibrous organic filaments that need oxygen for their formation. Silicatein forming the spicules and collagen shaping their morphology are the two organic components that control the appositional growth of these skeletal elements. This process starts in both demosponges and hexactinellids intracellularly and is completed extracellularly where the spicules may reach sizes of up to 3 m. While the basic strategy of their formation is identical in both sponge classes, it differs on a substructural level. In Hexactinellida, the initial silica layers remain separated, those layers bio-fuse (bio-sinter) together in demosponges. In some sponge taxa, e.g., the freshwater sponges from the Lake Baikal, the individual spicules are embedded in an organic matrix that is composed of the DUF protein. This protein comprises clustered stretches of amino acid sequences composed of pronounced hydrophobic segments, each spanning around 35 aa. We concluded with the remark of Thompson (1942) highlighting that "the sponge-spicule is a typical illustration of the theory of 'bio-crystallisation' to form 'biocrystals' ein Mittelding between an inorganic crystal and an organic secretion." Moreover, the understanding of the enzymatic formation of the spicules

  2. Comparative analyses of developmental transcription factor repertoires in sponges reveal unexpected complexity of the earliest animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja

    2015-12-01

    Developmental transcription factors (DTFs) control development of animals by affecting expression of target genes, some of which are transcription factors themselves. In bilaterians and cnidarians, conserved DTFs are involved in homologous processes such as gastrulation or specification of neurons. The genome of Amphimedon queenslandica, the first sponge to be sequenced, revealed that only a fraction of these conserved DTF families are present in demosponges. This finding was in line with the view that morphological complexity in the animal lineage correlates with developmental toolkit complexity. However, as the phylum Porifera is very diverse, Amphimedon's genome may not be representative of all sponges. The recently sequenced genomes of calcareous sponges Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata allowed investigations of DTFs in a sponge lineage evolutionarily distant from demosponges. Surprisingly, the phylogenetic analyses of identified DTFs revealed striking differences between the calcareous sponges and Amphimedon. As these differences appear to be a result of independent gene loss events in the two sponge lineages, the last common ancestor of sponges had to possess a much more diverse repertoire of DTFs than extant sponges. Developmental expression of sponge homologs of genes involved in specification of the Bilaterian endomesoderm and the neurosensory cells suggests that roles of many DTFs date back to the last common ancestor of all animals. Strikingly, even DTFs displaying apparent pan-metazoan conservation of sequence and function are not immune to being lost from individual species genomes. The quest for a comprehensive picture of the developmental toolkit in the last common metazoan ancestor is thus greatly benefitting from the increasing accessibility of sequencing, allowing comparisons of multiple genomes within each phylum.

  3. Siliceous sponge spicule dissolution: In field experimental evidences from temperate and tropical waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Marco; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo; Pansini, Maurizio; Santini, Chiara; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Sponge siliceous spicules are considered a sink in the silica balance of the oceans as their dissolution rate seems to be negligible, but no field data are available about this process. The aim of this study was a first evaluation of the quantitative dissolution rates of some demosponge and hexactinellid spicules (collected in different localities at different latitudes), left at sea for six months in two localities characterised by different water average temperatures: Mediterranean Sea and Celebes Sea. The effects of silica dissolution on the experimented spicules, studied by SEM analysis, produced an enlargement of the axial canal sometimes resulting in empty spicules. While in demosponges the axial canal wall of eroded spicules was perfectly smooth or slightly rough, the hexactinellid Rossella racovitzae showed a cavernous, well recognisable pattern of dissolution. The dissolution rates were determined evaluating the decrease in outer diameter and in the expansion of the axial channel of about 300 spicules for each considered species and locality. The spicules from the Mediterranean Geodia cydonium did not show any detectable dissolution in both localities, while those from Tethya citrina showed a loose of silica of about 23% in the Mediterranean and 47% in the Celebes Sea. Paratetilla bacca from the Red Sea decreased the silica content of about 30% in both the localities. Tetilla leptoderma from Mar del Plata lost about 8% and 42% of silica respectively in Mediterranean and Celebes Sea. Finally, the hexactinellid spicules from the Antarctic Rossella racovitzae showed highest dissolution rates in both experimental sites (37% and 66% in the Mediterranean and Celebes Sea, respectively). The different levels of dissolution can be related to the different taxonomic position in terms of specular structures as well as to the temperatures at which the spicules have been deposited and exposed. In fact, spicules from the same species showed a dissolution rate generally

  4. Aggregated clumps of lithistid sponges: a singular, reef-like bathyal habitat with relevant paleontological connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Maldonado

    Full Text Available The advent of deep-sea exploration using video cameras has uncovered extensive sponge aggregations in virtually all oceans. Yet, a distinct type is herein reported from the Mediterranean: a monospecific reef-like formation built by the lithistid demosponge Leiodermatium pfeifferae. Erect, plate-like individuals (up to 80 cm form bulky clumps, making up to 1.8 m high mounds (1.14 m on average on the bottom, at a 760 m-deep seamount named SSS. The siliceous skeletal frameworks of the lithistids persist after sponge death, serving as a complex 3D substratum where new lithistids recruit, along with a varied fauna of other sessile and vagile organisms. The intricate aggregation of lithistid mounds functions as a "reef" formation, architecturally different from the archetypal "demosponge gardens" with disaggregating siliceous skeletons. Leiodermatium pfeifferae also occurred at two additional, close seamounts (EBJ and EBS, but, unlike at SSS, the isolated individuals never formed accretive clumps. The general oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll, and oxygen revealed only minimal between-seamount differences, which cannot explain why sponge abundance at SSS is about two orders of magnitude higher than at EBJ or EBS. Large areas of the dense SSS aggregation were damaged, with detached and broken sponges and a few tangled fishing lines. Satellite vessel monitoring revealed low fishing activity around these seamounts. In contrast, international plans for gas and oil extraction at those locations raise serious concerns over the need for protecting urgently this unique, vulnerable habitat to avoid further alteration. Modern lithistids are a relict fauna from Jurassic and Cretaceous reefs and the roots of the very genus Leiodermatium can be traced back to those fossil formations. Therefore, understanding the causes behind the discovered lithistid aggregation is critical not only to its preservation, but also to

  5. Gene recruitment--a common mechanism in the evolution of transfer RNA gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of alloacceptor transfer RNAs (tRNAs) has been traditionally thought to occur vertically and reflect the evolution of the genetic code. Yet there have been several indications that a tRNA gene could evolve horizontally, from a copy of an alloacceptor tRNA gene in the same genome. Earlier, we provided the first unambiguous evidence for the occurrence of such "tRNA gene recruitment" in nature--in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the demosponge Axinella corrugata. Yet the extent and the pattern of this process in the evolution of tRNA gene families remained unclear. Here we analyzed tRNA genes from 21 mt genomes of demosponges as well as nuclear genomes of rhesus macaque, chimpanzee and human. We found four new cases of alloacceptor tRNA gene recruitment in mt genomes and eleven cases in the nuclear genomes. In most of these cases we observed a single nucleotide substitution at the middle position of the anticodon, which resulted in the change of not only the tRNA's amino-acid identity but also the class of the amino-acyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) involved in amino-acylation. We hypothesize that the switch to a different class of aaRSs may have prevented the conflict between anticodon and amino-acid identities of recruited tRNAs. Overall our results suggest that gene recruitment is a common phenomenon in tRNA multigene family evolution and should be taken into consideration when tRNA evolutionary history is reconstructed.

  6. Cambrian Series 3 carbonate platform of Korea dominated by microbial-sponge reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongsun; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Choh, Suk-Joo; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Metazoans have been considered as negligible components of Cambrian Series 3 and Furongian microbial-dominated reefs, in contrast to their presence in earlier Terreneuvian-Cambrian Series 2 microbial-archaeocyath reefs. However, recent discoveries of sponges in Cambrian Series 3-Furongian reefs of Australia, China, Iran, USA, and Korea have raised question regarding their contribution in terms of carbonate platform development, which have never been assessed. This study examines Cambrian Series 3 deposits of the Daegi Formation, Korea to elucidate this question. The 100-m-thick middle part of the Daegi Formation is dominated by boundstone facies, which occupies 45% of the study interval, as well as bioclastic wackestone to packstone, bioclastic grainstone, and ooid packstone to grainstone facies. The Daegi reefs are primarily thrombolitic in composition, with 90% (n = 26/29) of the reefs containing an average of 9% sponges in aerial percentage calculated from thin sections. Lithistid sponges composed of peloidal fabrics, some desma spicules, and spicule networks commonly occupy the interstitial space in microbial clusters, are encrusted by mesoclots and Epiphyton, and are surrounded by micrite. Subordinate non-lithistid demosponges occur within clusters of microbial elements. The middle Daegi Formation can be largely subdivided into shoal environment dominated by grainstone to packstone facies and shallow subtidal platform interior environment located behind shoal with wackestone to packstone facies. The microbial-sponge reefs mainly developed around platform interior as patch reefs. The current study indicates that metazoans in the form of lithistid and non-lithistid demosponges are nearly ubiquitously incorporated in Daegi reefs and contributed greatly to the formation of microbial-sponge reefs as well as carbonate platform during the time. Study of these microbial-sponge reefs and their distribution within the carbonate platform may help us to understand how

  7. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrov Dennis V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial (mt genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp.

  8. Estratégias para a composição litúrgica luterana contemporânea

    OpenAIRE

    Fruhauf, Lucas Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Em meados do século XVI Matinho Lutero (1483-1546) propôs novos horizontes para a igreja e para a vida espiritual das pessoas. Esse movimento deu origem à Reforma Protestante. A música feita nas igrejas protestantes, como também na católica, sempre foi de rico interesse estético mesmo fora do ambiente eclesiástico. Basta lembrarmos de Palestrina, Victória, Bach, Brahms, Messiaen e tantos outros compositores. No entanto, ao longo dos séculos, a composição musical, e a vocação artística...

  9. Comerciantes-empresarios en el medio rural argentino a comienzos del siglo XX. El estudio de caso de los Hnos. Vulcano y su Casa de Comercio ‘El Progreso’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Palavecino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el rol que desempeñaron los comerciantes rurales en la administración de sus casas comerciales en el sur bonaerense, durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. A partir de la basta producción teórica e historiográfi ca ligada a los conceptos de empresa y empresario, se plantean algunas cuestiones teórico-metodológicas que permiten comprender la utilización de estos conceptos en el caso estudiado. Se analizará la relación comerciante–cliente, el papel del crédito en la conformación de las carteras de clientes, y los lazos extra-comerciales que vincularon a estos empresarios con su entorno.

  10. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  11. Las leyes del deporte de la democracia: bases para una Ley del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco Vela, Rafael; Blanco Pereira, Eduardo; Carretero Lestón, José Luis; Gómez-Angulo Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Palomar Olmeda, Alberto; Bermejo Vera, José; Cabrera Domínguez, José María; Plata Caballero, Nicolás Francisco de la; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Real Ferrer, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    El deporte español merece más, los deportistas y cuantos desempeñamos un papel en este maravilloso mundo merecemos más. Es cierto, basta con detenernos a profundizar en la actividad de una semana deportiva para determinar que el marco jurídico actual requiere retoques, que varias áreas necesitan regulación y que a otras bien les vendría modificarles la existente. Se ideó comenzar la ilusionante tarea de observar cómo debe ser la futura Ley del Deporte de España, a través de la organización de...

  12. Huellas en el agua: las políticas de la memoria en Un cautivo enamorado de Jean Genet

    OpenAIRE

    Balcázar Moreno, Melina

    2010-01-01

    Frente a la gestión de las prácticas del duelo por el Estado —como los monumentos, las ceremonias de conmemoración que clausuran el acontecimiento y hacen olvidar a los muertos y su sufrimiento—, Jean Genet se rehúsa a elaborar el duelo y somete su escritura a un “deseo de memoria”. ¿Cómo conservar las huellas del amigo muerto? ¿Cómo transformar su muerte en una afirmación de la vida que no implique una negación de la muerte? Ya que, para él, no basta con recordar a los muertos, con regresar ...

  13. Ethics, design and planning of the built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Moroni, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes a set of original contributions in research areas shared by planning theory, architectural research, design and ethical inquiry. The contributors gathered in 2010 at the Ethics of the Built Environment seminar organized by the editors at Delft University of Technology. Both prominent and emerging scholars presented their researches in the areas of aesthetics, technological risks, planning theory and architecture. The scope of the seminar was highlighting shared lines of ethical inquiry among the themes discussed, in order to identify perspectives of innovative interdisciplinary research. After the seminar all seminar participants have elaborated their proposed contributions. Some of the most prominent international authors in the field were subsequently invited to join in with this inquiry. Claudia Basta teaches "Network Infrastructures and Mobility" at Wageningen University. Between 2009 and 2011 she worked as Coordinator of the 3TU Centre of Excellence for Ethics and Technology of Delft Un...

  14. Introduction of cecropin B gene into rice (Oryza sativa L.) by particle bombardment and analysis of transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大年; 朱冰; 杨炜; 薛锐; 肖晗; 田文忠; 李良材; 戴顺洪

    1996-01-01

    An expression vector pCBl suitable for rice transformation, harboring a synthesized cecropin B gene and a selectable marker gene (bar), was constructed. It was introduced into immature embryos of two japonica varieties by particle bombardment, and several transgenic plants were obtained. The results from Basta treatment, PCR analysis, dot and Southern blot analysis of cecropin B gene in transgenic plants indicated that both bar and cecropin B gene were integrated into the genome of transformed plants. Northern blot analysis of transgenic plants showed the expression of cecropin B gene at transcriptional level. Some of transgenic plants revealed improved resistances to two types of bacterial diseases, rice bacterial blight and rice bacterial streak to different extent.

  15. Sonidos del Silencio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Rodríguez Carranza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La novela ha muerto, afirmaba Alberto Moravia, popularizada, anexada y banalizada por el cine, la televisión, la prensa, la sicología y la sociología. Para Carlos Fuentes en cambio - quien cita a Moravia en 1969 – « lo que ha muerto es sólo la forma burguesa de la novela, el realismo » (17. Basta un viaje rápido por la red para verificar, sin embargo, que la víctima goza de buena salud y que no está confinada en la cultura de masas o en las ciencias sociales : el modelo realista del siglo XIX – y particularmente la creación de tipos representativos de una época, sean éstos promediales o excepcionales - constituye aún la principal preocupación de los escritores y críticos literarios del siglo XXI.

  16. Sognando Shadow Moses. Grafica, gameplay e reiterazione come strumenti narrativi metareferenziali

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    Luca Papale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un campo innevato, un eliporto, container metallici, telecamere di sorveglianza. Basta una rapida occhiata alla schermata e il giocatore di Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots fa un salto indietro nel tempo di dieci anni, tornando ancora una volta ad infiltrarsi nella base militare di Shadow Moses. La grafica è quella della prima PlayStation, una grafica che all’epoca era lo stato dell’arte, e che ora mostra tutte le sue grossolane imperfezioni. I dieci anni trascorsi hanno visto susseguirsi due generazioni di console e innumerevoli cambiamenti dell’estetica e dei linguaggi videoludici. Il mondo è cambiato nella vita reale così come nel gioco.

  17. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  18. La estrategia basada en el conocimiento en el ámbito territorial. Revisión teórica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Bañegil Palacios

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se está produciendo un profundo cambio en la gestión local. Ya no basta con gestionar con excelencia los elementos tangibles (urbanismo, transportes, suministros, etc.; cada vez más, los elementos intangibles (imagen, formación del personal, relaciones, etc. son los que marcan el diferencial de competitividad de un territorio. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar las diferentes iniciativas que se están llevando a cabo en todo el mundo relacionando la estrategia basada en el conocimiento con el ámbito territorial. Tanto naciones como regiones y ciudades están experimentando con proyectos piloto extremadamente innovadores que intentan gestionar los elementos intangibles de la estrategia de la comunidad.

  19. La familia y la comunidad campesinas de las regiones altas. Características y tendencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ortíz Rescaniere

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo trata de presentar un perfil de la familia y de la comunidad campesinas de la sierra peruana, de 1os modos de insercibn a la vida nacional y de 1os cambios que en ellas se operan. La perspectiva recoge la experiencia y la bptica del antropólogo y esta dirigida a un publico no especialista.Por la naturaleza panoramica del propósito, se busca la sintesis, mas que la exposición detallada de casos y de excepciones. Por lo mismo, las apreciaciones que se hacen pareceran bastas, pero matizadas. En fin, el trabajo es genérico porque trata de captar un sistema y el movimiento que lo anirna, y no el de sus ricas como variadisimas realizaciones.

  20. Inheritance and Expression of Potato Proteinase Inhibitor Gene Ⅱ (pinⅡ) in Transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhong-yi; XUE Qing-zhong

    2003-01-01

    The inheritance and expression of bar gene and pinⅡ gene were studied in three transgenic ricelines and their F2 hybrid populations, which were created through hybridization with a PGMS line, ZAU11S.By Basta painting, PCR analysis and determining of the inhibitory trypsin activity, the results show that bargene and pinⅡ gene in rice F2 population fit the simple Mendel's low of inheritance and close linkage, but afew plants in F2 have not sufficiently expressed. The wound inducible pin Ⅱ gene has an expression regulatedspatially and temporally, and the signal transduction pathway is not only upward, but also downward. The in-ducible expression of pinⅡ in different rice transgenic lines is not completely coincident.

  1. Continuous renal replacement therapy circuit failure after antidote administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jinwoo

    2014-12-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred to the emergency department (ED). He was found unconscious in his house along with an empty 200-mL bottle of Basta(™), a herbicide containing 18% glufosinate. He was comatose with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3. As his blood pressure dropped to 60/30 mmHg despite fluids and norepinephrine, 20% intravenous fat emulsion product was injected. He experienced repeated cardiopulmonary arrests during his first 4 h in the ED. When the arrests occurred, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed, and boluses of fat emulsion were given. He was given a total of 1500 mL of 20% fat emulsion. In an attempt to correct the acidosis, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was started. Within 5 min of starting CRRT, the transmembrane pressure increased sharply and the machine stopped.

  2. Symmetry and size of membrane protein polyhedral nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Di; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    In recent experiments [T. Basta et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 670 (2014)] lipids and membrane proteins were observed to self-assemble into membrane protein polyhedral nanoparticles (MPPNs) with a well-defined polyhedral protein arrangement and characteristic size. We develop a model of MPPN self-assembly in which the preferred symmetry and size of MPPNs emerge from the interplay of protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations, topological defects in protein packing, and thermal effects. With all model parameters determined directly from experiments, our model correctly predicts the observed symmetry and size of MPPNs. Our model suggests how key lipid and protein properties can be modified to produce a range of MPPN symmetries and sizes in experiments.

  3. Las redes sociales virtuales como detonadoras de los movimientos sociales contemporáneos y su certidumbre jurídica en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Teresa Montalvo Romero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La sociedad de inicios del siglo XXI ha acelerado mucho sus procesos a partir de la presencia de las Tecnologías de la Información y de Conocimiento (TIC’S. A su vez, el espacio público ha atravesado una serie de modificaciones fundamentales, en la medida en que los procesos de interacción social minimizan el contacto físico para su realización, por ejemplo, solo basta con el uso de las nuevas herramientas de información para sostener una “reunión de trabajo” o realizar transacciones comerciales multimillonarias, el uso del teléfono celular, los video chats, el twitter, y el comercio electrónico han cambiado el sentido de la comunicación entre las personas.

  4. O paciente com transtorno mental grave no hospital geral: uma revisão bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fernandes do Prado

    Full Text Available A atenção integral em saúde mental é um desafio para os serviços de saúde, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao acompanhamento não psiquiátrico. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica acerca do atendimento ofertado ao paciente com transtorno mental grave, internado no hospital geral devido a complicações clínico-cirúrgicas. Como resultado, verifica-se que as publicações, ainda que escassas, indicam que o louco é considerado perigoso, violento e imprevisível. Assim, conclui-se que não basta criar no hospital geral leitos de atenção integral a pacientes com transtorno mental sem que se promova espaços de elaboração das representações negativas associadas à loucura.

  5. Aprovechar la web social en clase de E/LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soler Albiñana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta comunicación es presentar una experiencia personal acerca de cómo podemos, los profesores de ELE, incorporar la web social a nuestras clases de español, mediante la adaptación de tareas comunicativas. Todos sabemos ya, que actualmente se hallan a nuestra disposición en internet multitud de herramientas gratuitas y relativamente fáciles de utilizar, incluso para los emigrantes digitales, es decir, aquellos que estamos en el mundo desde antes de la llegada de la era digital. Por esta razón, ni el profesor ni el alumno necesitan ya ser expertos en nuevas tecnologías para hacer uso de la web social o web 2.0., basta con tener un poco de curiosidad y ganas de aprender, como las que dieron origen a esta presentación.

  6. Estudio contrastive del orden de constituyentes en construcciones no transitivas: del latín al Castellano*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Cabrillana

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El orden de palabras es cuestión que suscita un gran interés en la investigación lingüistica; este interés se acrecienta, si cabe, cuando se abordan las transformaciones constatables en el proceso evolutivo de una lengua originaria basta su resultado final: es el caso del latín y las lenguas romances. En efecto, este aspecto ha sido considerado por diversos estudiosos como uno de los tres cambios fundamentales que ha tenido lugar en el nivel de la organización del periodo y de la oración, ya desde la etapa latina. La evolución de este aspecto se ha realizado en una dirección que va de una libertad "no indiferente", a una fijación de posiciones por parte de los diversos constituyentes.

  7. El Cortijo del Ahorcado (Baeza, Jaén : estudio de los restos arquitectónicos de época ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Lucas Pellicer

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dedicadas en los últimos años a la arqueología del mundo ibérico han contribuido notablemente a ampliar los conocimientos sobre la arquitectura funeraria y sobre los relieves y esculturas vinculados a excepcionales monumentos erigidos en honor a los difuntos. La publicación de M. Almagro Gorbea Arquitectura y Sociedad en la Cultura Ibérica, aparecida en 1983, es, junto con otros trabajos más recientes, buena prueba de los logros alcanzados. Basta contrastar las actuales teorías y la documentación hoy disponible con la síntesis que sobre arte ibérico trazara García y Bellido en 1953, para hacernos una idea cabal del progreso alcanzado en los últimos años.

  8. A Córdoba, la andaluza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Evaristo Gómez Pescador

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paseando por tus calles, me requiebran tus naranjos, tu mezquita hermosa y enhiesta, con ese olor a tiempos memorables ya pasados. Poco más allá la judería, por la que tantas veces cuando niño me perdí callejeando hasta encontrar la plaza perfecta, para escribirte a ti mi bella ciudad, estos versos que me nacen del alma.   Por tu calles me enamoré y por tus calles encontré a mis musas, y encontré a las más bellas gentes que jamás yo conociera, Córdoba, que mal o bien albergaste tres culturas amplias y bastas, que mal o bien supieron convivir y que mal o bien me han hecho un cordobés orgulloso de serlo.   Felipe Evaristo Gómez Pescador (1945 - Poeta Español

  9. La verdad histórica: una verdad que se establece y legitima desde el punto de vista de las victimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rincón-Covelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximarse al concepto de verdad no es una tarea fácil. Supone, entre otras cosas, asumir e incursionar en la basta discusión que existe sobre el concepto. Sin embargo, lo que pretendo en este escrito es algo muy modesto: explorar una aproximación a un concepto particular y muy situado de verdad: el concepto de verdad histórica, inserto en el contexto de sentido que brindan las sentencias de los tribunales internacionales de derechos humanos, y, más concretamente, las sentencias de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. Por tanto, no pretendo incursionar en la discusión más amplia de lo que es la verdad, sino sólo aproximarme a un concepto de verdad que opera en un contexto normativo estrictamente acotado. Ese contexto determina el uso que se hace del concepto.

  10. Acceso a Datos con DataSets en Visual Web Developer 2008/2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Rivera Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener acceso a una base de datos almacenada en un servidor SQL utilizando Visual Studio .Net 2008 o 2010 con DataSets, existen diversas maneras de realizarlo, la mayor parte de ellas basadas en programación compleja. En este artículo se describe una manera de realizarlo. Solo basta con agregar la carpeta ASP.NET App_Code, añadir un nuevo elemento del tipo DataSet, anexar la o las tablas de la bases de datos, crear las consultas SQL, diseñar los Webforms y escribir el código para llamar a las consultas para el usuario.

  11. The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

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    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

  12. Lidar com a variância em produção conserveira

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão e Estratégia Industrial Nos tempos actuais, não basta ser rentável, há que criar uma cultura de melhoria contínua de forma a garantir a sustentabilidade futura do negócio. O Projecto proposto pretende pois estudar métodos e técnicas de planeamento e controlo da produção em ambientes de incerteza numa indústria conserveira de atum, de modo a maximizar o cumprimento do plano de produção e optimizar os recursos disponíveis. Deste modo integraram-se algumas incertezas no MRP...

  13. Temporalidad y estructura de los géneros discursivos en un programa de español para extranjeros

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    Clara Inés Fonseca Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A menudo se cree que para obtener logros en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera, basta con la inmersión de los estudiantes en contextos significativos. La gramática usualmente se circunscribe al nivel de la oración y es vista como "carga pesada". Estas apreciaciones pueden limitar al profesor e impedirle explorar recursos que asociados a los diferentes géneros discursivos procuren en sus estudiantes mejores resultados. Bajo estos supuestos, el objetivo de este artículo es comentar y ejemplificar algunos rasgos estructurales propios de los textos narrativos y expositivos, con énfasis en el tiempo y las formas verbales, para que los profesores de español como lengua extranjera consideren su inclusión en sus prácticas docentes, y así incrementar en sus estudiantes habilidades de lectura y escritura de esos tipos de texto.

  14. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Embryogenic Calli of Anliucheng and Regeneration of Plants Containing the Chimaeric Ribonuclease Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-dong; SHI Wei; DENG Xiu-xin

    2003-01-01

    Anliucheng (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), a very seedy and widely spread acidless sweet orange cultivar in south of China, was transformed by the strain of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens EHA105 carrying pTA29-barnase gene, which will induce pollen sterility in transgenic plants. The embryogenic calli of Anliucheng were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for 3 days, and then transferred to selective medium containing 50 mg L-1 basta (a kind of herbicide) for 5 weeks. The resistant calli were recovered and regenerated 118 embryoids. A total of 13 entire plants were obtained after micro-grafted on trifoliate orange. These regenerated plants were verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by PCR-Southern blotting analysis.

  15. Study on Effect of Antibiotics in Flax Transformation%亚麻转基因中抗生素应用效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康庆华

    2005-01-01

    在利用农杆菌介导法进行亚麻抗除草剂草丁膦(Basta)目的基因(Bar)导入工作中;对选择培养基内加入500 mg/l克拉维酸钾(timentin进口)+200 mg/l头孢噻肟(claforan进口)的抗菌素来取代500 mg/l头孢噻肟(Cefotaxime国产)不仅脱菌效果彻底,期效长,且不影响亚麻愈伤形成和芽的分化;同时对再生植株进行了盆栽Basta抗性筛选试验,获得不同抗性的植株和种子.

  16. Study on Effect of Antibiotics in Flax Transformation%亚麻转基因中抗生素应用效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康庆华

    2005-01-01

    在利用农杆菌介导法进行亚麻抗除草剂草丁膦(Basta)目的基因(Bar)导入工作中;对选择培养基内加入500mg/l克拉维酸钾(timentin进口)+200mg/l头孢噻肟(claforan进口)的抗菌素来取代500mg/l头孢噻肟(Cefotaxime国产)不仅脱菌效果彻底,期效长,且不影响亚麻愈伤形成和芽的分化;同时对再生植株进行了盆栽Basta抗性筛选试验,获得不同抗性的植株和种子.

  17. Study on Transferring Gene of Salt Tolerance and Drought Resistance into Corn Inbred Line by Pollen Tube Path%用花粉管通道法将抗旱耐盐基因导入玉米自交系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春林; 张明义; 林忠平; 张彦芹; 杨丽莉; 梁改梅; 孙洁

    2011-01-01

    Using the improved pollen tube path method, trehalose synthase gene (TPS) was transferred into corn inbred line Zheng 58.In the 3 ~ 5 leaf stage, the selection of spraying Basta (0.7%)solution was combined with PCR test, the new gene had been imported into the plants and integrated into the plant chromosomes.The initial drought-tolerance investigation in fields confirmed that the drought-tolerance of transgenic plants was higher than the non-transformed.The results showed that the new corn drought resistance germplasm could be gained by pollen tube path,and it is a new feasible and effective way for corn drought resistance breeding.%采用改进的花粉管通道法,将海藻糖合酶基因(TPS)导入玉米自交系郑58中.3~5叶期时喷雾Basta(0.7%)溶液筛选,进行PCR检测,结果表明,目的基因已导入转化植株并整合到植株染色体上.田间初步抗旱性检测显示,转化植株(株系)的抗旱性高于对照植株.应用改进的花粉管通道法导入抗旱目的基因,可以得到玉米抗旱新资源,是一种切实有效的抗旱育种新方法.

  18. Sponges of the Permian Upper Capitan Limestone Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.K.; Senowbari-Daryan, B.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    Demosponge "sphinctozoans" and inozoid calcareous sponges are major constituents of the Upper Permian, Upper Capitan Limestone in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico and Texas. Systematic description, taxonomy, and the stratigraphic distribution of these sponges are documented in collections from exposures of the Upper Capitan Limestone in the vicinity of Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. The fauna appears diverse on a local scale, but when compared to diversity of assemblages of similar age in Tunisia and in Southern China, the assemblage is species poor, with 34 species of "calcareous" sponges and demosponges. Whether this is a local time or geographic gradient must wait additional investigations of sponge faunas from older parts of the Guadalupian series in the Guadalupe Mountains, as well as in localities southward in Texas and Mexico. Upper Capitan exposures near Carlsbad Caverns are at the northernmost end of the long Delaware Basin that was restricted by the Hovey channel to the south. As a consequence of either that restricted ecologic limitation or a time stratigraphic factor, Late Capitan assemblages are characterized by abundant individuals of only a few endemic species, and by relatively primitive cosmopolitan genera and species that were able to persist beyond the ranges of more specialized forms. Species in the collections include the ceractinomorphid porate "sphinctozoans" Cystothalamia guadalupensis (Girty, 1908a), Amblysiphonella cf. A. merlai Parona, 1933, Amblysiphonella species A, Amblysiphonella species B, Discosiphonella mammilosa (King, 1943), Tristratocoelia rhythmica Senowbari-Daryan and Rigby, 1988, Exaulipora permica (Senowbari-Daryan, 1990), type species of the new genus Exaulipora, Parauvanella minima Senowbari-Daryan, 1990, and Platythalamiella(?) sp., all from the families Sebargasiidae Steinmann, 1882, and Colospongiidae Senowbari-Daryan, 1990. The family Solenolmiidae Engeser, 1986 is represented by the new species Preverticillites

  19. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SORGHUM USING TISSUE CULTURE-BASED AND POLLEN-MEDIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkonin L.A.

    2012-08-01

    from 4.5% to 5.4%. Cultivation conditions increasing embryogenic potentials of cultured tissues were the key factors for obtaining of transgenic plants. In the Milo-10, transgenic plants were regenerated also from established embryogenic cultures after their co-cultivation with agrobacterial cell suspension, their frequency was 1.7%. Immature embryos of KVV-114 did not produce embryogenic callus, and in this line transgenic plants were obtained by inoculation of flowering panicles at anthesis. In the progeny of each inoculated panicle the frequency of fertile PCR-positive transgenic plants survived BASTA application was approx. 1%. In the progeny of the [9E] Milo-10 panicle, which was obtained by its pollination with the Milo-10 pollen following agrobacterial inoculation, the frequency of PCR-positive plants survived BASTA application was 3.4%. In the self-pollinated progeny (T1 of KVV-114 and Milo-10 transgenic plants (T0, the seedlings that grew on the GA-containing medium were found, while the leaves of adult plants were sensitive to BASTA application. Nevertheless, PCR analysis confirmed the inheritance of the transgene.

  20. Multifrequency radar imaging of ash plumes: an experiment at Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Franck; Freret-Lorgeril, Valentin; Delanoë, Julien; Vinson, Jean-Paul; Peyrin, Frédéric; Hervier, Claude; Caudoux, Christophe; Van Baelen, Joël; Latchimy, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic ash emissions in the atmosphere are hazardous to aviation while ash fallout affects people and human activities and may cause damage to infrastructures and economic losses. In the framework of the French Government Laboratory of Excellence ClerVolc initiative, an experiment was carried out on Stromboli volcano (Italy), between 28 September and 4 October 2015. The aim was to retrieve various physical properties of the ash plumes, especially the mass loading parameters which are critical for the modelling of ash dispersal. We used a complementary set of cutting edge techniques recording in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The innovative instrument setup consisted in three radars, hyperspectral thermal infrared and dual-band UV cameras, a mini DOAS-Flyspec and a multigas sensor. A drone equipped with differential GPS was flown near the ash plumes with several sensors including SO2, CO2 and particle counter. We mainly focus on radar measurements of over 200 ash plumes and present some preliminary comparisons at three frequencies. The BASTA Doppler radar at 95 GHz, originally designed for atmospheric studies, was deployed at about 2.2 km in slant distance from the eruptive craters. It was configured to observe volumes above one of the active craters with a spatio-temporal resolution of 12.5 m and 1 s. From the same location, a 1.2 GHz volcano Doppler radar (VOLDORAD) was recording the signature of ballistics and small lapilli at 0.15 s in 60 m-deep volumes. In addition, a commercial 24 GHz micro rain Doppler radar (MRR) simultaneously recorded activity from the Rochette station, at 400 to 650 m from the active craters with a sampling rate of 10 s and a resolution of 25 m. The latter was pointing almost perpendicularly to the other radar beams. Reflectivity factors were measured inside the ash plume above the source vent by the BASTA radar (3 mm wavelength) spanning -9 to +21 dBZ. Fallout could sometimes be tracked during several minutes within

  1. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY AND NITROGEN DEFICIENCY ON THE CHANGES IN SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLEUS VULGARIS L. GROWN IN HYDROPONIC CULTURES

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    Jacek Wróbel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the physiological activity of common bean grown under the conditions of stress being induced by salinity and nitrogen deficiency and its lack in substrate. Three series of two-factorial hydroponic experiment with the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Basta were carried out from May to July in 2013–2014. The first experimental factor was three levels of nitrogen content in a Hoagland hydroponic medium (level 1 – a complete medium, level 2 – without 50% N, level 3 – without 100% N. The second experimental factor was three levels of medium salinity (level 1 – no NaCl addition, level 2 – 30 mM NaCl addition, level 3 – 50 mM NaCl addition. Nitrogen deficiency in a Hoagland hydroponic medium, together with increased salinity level, significantly affected the changes in the physiological parameters of the common bean cultivar Basta being tested, i.e. assimilation pigment concentration (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and chlorophyll-a+b and carotenoids, assimilation and transpiration intensities, and RWC (relative water content. The 50% nitrogen deficiency in medium induced a significant increase in the concentration of all assimilation pigments in common bean leaves and was by far the highest among the experimental variants being tested. A significant decrease in the content of assimilation pigments was observed in the hydroponic mediums without nitrogen and salined with 30 and 50 mM sodium chloride. The interaction of these two experimental factors being analysed, i.e. nitrogen deficiency and its lack in a Hoagland hydroponic medium and its salinity, significantly decreased the intensity of assimilation in bean leaves, while a significant increase in transpiration was observed in the variant without nitrogen and with 50 mM NaCl. The experimental variants being tested had a significant effect on the changes in leaf water balance of the common bean cultivar being tested. Salinity, in interaction with

  2. [Sponges (porifera) distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Flores, Mónica; Rodríguez-Quintal, José Gregorio; Cristina Díaz, María

    2010-10-01

    Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela) fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 m), 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to 6 m of depth (6.03ind/m2; 11%), that coincides with the lowest net sedimentation and highest substrate heterogeneity. Most abundant species were Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina and Scopalina rueztleri. Principal component analysis divided this community in three zones according to depth. The shallow zone of the reef (1 and 3 m), where wave force and high irradiance exert a constant stress sponges, shows the lowest density and coverage by sponges. In contrast, medium depth (6, 9 y 12 m) and deep zone (15 y 18 m) with lower light and sedimentation levels seem to enhance sponge growth and survival that are reflected on the higher densities and coverage of sponges.

  3. Nanostructural Organization of Naturally Occurring Composites—Part II: Silica-Chitin-Based Biocomposites

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    Hermann Ehrlich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the micro- and nanostructures and chemical composition of the sponge skeletons as examples for natural structural biocomposites are of fundamental scientific relevance. Recently, we show that some demosponges (Verongula gigantea, Aplysina sp. and glass sponges (Farrea occa, Euplectella aspergillum possess chitin as a component of their skeletons. The main practical approach we used for chitin isolation was based on alkali treatment of corresponding external layers of spicules sponge material with the aim of obtaining alkali-resistant compounds for detailed analysis. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physicochemical properties of spicules of the glass sponge Rossella fibulata. The structural similarity of chitin derived from this sponge to invertebrate alpha chitin has been confirmed by us unambiguously using physicochemical and biochemical methods. This is the first report of a silica-chitin composite biomaterial found in Rossella species. Finally, the present work includes a discussion related to strategies for the practical application of silica-chitin-based composites as biomaterials.

  4. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Daniel B.; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2014-03-01

    A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth.

  5. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of a downslope accretion history: From coralgal-coralline sponge rubble to mud mound deposits (Eocene, Ainsa Basin, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    In the Lutetian intraslope Ainsa sub-basin, small, sub-spherical, carbonate mud mounds occur associated with hemipelagic marls and mixed gravity flow deposits. The studied mud mounds consist of a mixture of allochthonous, parautochthonous and autochthonous components that show evidences of reworking, bioerosion, and accretion by different fossil assemblages at different growth stages. The crusts of microbial-lithistid sponges played an important role stabilizing the rubble of coralgal-coralline sponges and formed low-relief small benthic patches in a dominant marly soft slope environment. These accidental hard substrates turned into suitable initiation/nucleation sites for automicrite production (dense and peloidal automicrites) on which the small mud mounds dominated by opportunistic epi- and infaunal heterozoan assemblages grew. A detailed microfacies mapping and paleoenvironmental analysis reveals a multi-episodic downslope accretion history starred by demosponges (coralline and lithistid sponges), agariciid corals, calcareous red algae, putative microbial benthic communities and diverse sclerobionts from the upper slope to the middle slope. The analyzed mud mound microfacies are compared with similar fossil assemblages and growth fabrics described in many fossil mud mounds, and with recent deep-water fore reefs and cave environments.

  6. Sterols in a unicellular relative of the metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodner, Robin B.; Summons, Roger E.; Pearson, Ann; King, Nicole; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular clocks suggest that animals originated well before they first appear as macroscopic fossils, but geologic tests of these hypotheses have been elusive. A rare steroid hydrocarbon, 24-isopropylcholestane, has been hypothesized to be a biomarker for sponges or their immediate ancestors because of its relatively high abundance in pre-Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils. Biolipid precursors of this sterane have been reported to be prominent in several demosponges. Whether 24-isopropylcholestane can be interpreted as a sponge (and, hence, animal) biomarker, and so provide clues about early metazoan history, depends on an understanding of the distribution of sterol biosynthesis among animals and their protistan relatives. Accordingly, we characterized the sterol profile of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, a representative of the unicellular sister group of animals. M. brevicollis does not produce a candidate sterol precursor for 24-isopropylcholestane under our experimental growth conditions. It does, however, produce a number of other sterols, and comparative genomics confirms its biosynthetic potential to produce the full suite of compounds recovered. Consistent with the phylogenetic position of choanoflagellates, the sterol profile and biosynthetic pathway of M. brevicollis display characteristics of both fungal and poriferan sterol biosynthesis. This is an example in which genomic and biochemical information have been used together to investigate the taxonomic specificity of a fossil biomarker. PMID:18632573

  7. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge Halichondria okadai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, Halichondria okadai. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for N-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with N-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  8. Mesozoic (Lower Jurassic) red stromatactis limestones from the Southern Alps (Arzo, Switzerland): calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    The Broccatello lithological unit (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian to lower parts of Upper Sinemurian) near the village of Arzo (southern Alps, southern Switzerland) is a mound-shaped carbonate deposit that contains patches of red stromatactis limestone. Within the largely bioclastic Broccatello unit, the stromatactis limestone is distinguished by its early-diagenetic cavity system, a relatively fine-grained texture, and an in-situ assemblage of calcified siliceous sponges (various demosponges and hexactinellids). A complex shallow subsurface diagenetic pathway can be reconstructed from sediment petrography in combination with comparative geochemical analysis (carbon and oxygen isotopes; trace and rare earth elements, REE + Y). This pathway includes organic matter transformation, aragonite and skeletal opal dissolution, patchy calcification and lithification, sediment shrinkage, sagging and collapse, partial REE remobilization, and multiple sediment infiltration. These processes occurred under normal-marine, essentially oxic conditions and were independent from local, recurring syn-sedimentary faulting. It is concluded that the stromatactis results from a combination of calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation. The natural stromatactis phenomenon may thus be best explained by maturation processes of particulate polymer gels expected to form in fine-grained carbonate sediments in the shallow subsurface. Conditions favorable for the evolution of stromatactis appear to be particularly frequent during drowning of tropical or subtropical carbonate platforms.

  9. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  10. Symbiophagy and biomineralization in the "living fossil" Astrosclera willeyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Wörheide, Gert

    2014-03-01

    Representatives of all major metazoan lineages form biominerals. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this widespread and evolutionarily ancient ability are gradually being revealed for some lineages. However, until a wider range of metazoan biomineralization strategies are understood, the true diversity, and therefore the evolutionary origins of this process, will remain unknown. We have previously shown that the coralline demosponge, Astrosclera willeyana, in some way employs its endobiotic bacterial community to form its highly calcified skeleton. Here, using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that an ortholog of ATG8 (most likely a GABARAPL2/GATE-16 ortholog) is expressed in cells that construct the individual skeletal elements of the sponge. In TEM sections sponge cells can be observed to contain extensive populations of bacteria, and frequently possesses double-membrane structures which we interpret to be autophagosomes. In combination with our previous work, these findings support the hypothesis that the host sponge actively degrades a proportion of its bacterial community using an autophagy pathway, and uses the prokaryotic organic remains as a framework upon which calcification of the sponge skeleton is initiated.

  11. Symbiophagy and biomineralization in the “living fossil” Astrosclera willeyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Wörheide, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Representatives of all major metazoan lineages form biominerals. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this widespread and evolutionarily ancient ability are gradually being revealed for some lineages. However, until a wider range of metazoan biomineralization strategies are understood, the true diversity, and therefore the evolutionary origins of this process, will remain unknown. We have previously shown that the coralline demosponge, Astrosclera willeyana, in some way employs its endobiotic bacterial community to form its highly calcified skeleton. Here, using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that an ortholog of ATG8 (most likely a GABARAPL2/GATE-16 ortholog) is expressed in cells that construct the individual skeletal elements of the sponge. In TEM sections sponge cells can be observed to contain extensive populations of bacteria, and frequently possesses double-membrane structures which we interpret to be autophagosomes. In combination with our previous work, these findings support the hypothesis that the host sponge actively degrades a proportion of its bacterial community using an autophagy pathway, and uses the prokaryotic organic remains as a framework upon which calcification of the sponge skeleton is initiated. PMID:24343243

  12. Comparative bioaccumulation kinetics of trace elements in Mediterranean marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Cachet, Nadja; Oberhänsli, François; Noyer, Charlotte; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While marine organisms such as bivalves, seagrasses and macroalgae are commonly used as biomonitors for the environment pollution assessment, widely distributed sponges received little attention as potential helpful species for monitoring programmes. In this study, the trace element and radionuclide bioaccumulation and retention capacities of some marine sponges were estimated in a species-comparative study using radiotracers technique. Six Mediterranean species were exposed to background dissolved concentrations of (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn allowing the assessment of the uptake and depuration kinetics for selected elements. Globally, massive demosponges Agelas oroides, Chondrosia reniformis and Ircinia variabilis displayed higher concentration factor (CF) than the erectile ones (Acanthella acuta, Cymbaxinella damicornis, Cymbaxinella verrucosa) at the end of exposure, suggesting that the morphology is a key factor in the metal bioaccumulation efficiency. Considering this observation, two exceptions were noted: (1) A. acuta reached the highest CF for (110m)Ag and strongly retained the accumulated metal without significant Ag loss when placed in depuration conditions and (2) C. reniformis did not accumulate Se as much as A. oroides and I. variabilis. These results suggest that peculiar metal uptake properties in sponges could be driven by specific metabolites or contrasting biosilification processes between species, respectively. This study demonstrated that sponges could be considered as valuable candidate for biomonitoring metal contamination but also that there is a need to experimentally highlight metal-dependant characteristic among species.

  13. Inducible ASABF-Type Antimicrobial Peptide from the Sponge Suberites domuncula: Microbicidal and Hemolytic Activity in Vitro and Toxic Effect on Molluscs in Vivo

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    Werner E. G. Müller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since sponges, as typical filter-feeders, are exposed to a high load of attacking prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, they are armed with a wide arsenal of antimicrobial/cytostatic low-molecular-weight, non-proteinaceous bioactive compounds. Here we present the first sponge agent belonging to the group of ASABF-type antimicrobial peptides. The ASABF gene was identified and cloned from the demospongeSuberites domuncula. The mature peptide, with a length of 64 aa residues has a predicted pI of 9.24, and comprises the characteristic CSαβ structural motif. Consequently, the S. domuncula ASABF shares high similarity with the nematode ASABFs; it is distantly related to the defensins. The recombinant peptide was found to display besides microbicidal activity, anti-fungal activity. In addition, the peptide lyses human erythrocytes. The expression ofASABF is upregulated after exposure to the apoptosis-inducing agent 2,2'-dipyridyl. During the process of apoptosis of surface tissue of S. domuncula, grazing gastropods (Bittium sp. are attracted by quinolinic acid which is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway by the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAD. Finally, the gastropods are repelled from the sponge tissue by the ASABF. It is shown that the effector peptide ASABF is sequentially expressed after the induction of the HAD gene and a caspase, as a central enzyme executing apoptosis.

  14. Sessile invertebrate coelobite communities from reefs of Bermuda: Species composition and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, A.; Mathers, S. M.; Thomas, M. L. H.

    1984-04-01

    Sessile invertebrate coelobite communities attached to the walls and roof of cavities in coralgal reefs on the annular rim of the Bermuda platform near North Rock (4 sites) and in the algal cup reef tract on the south shore (3 sites) have been studied by belt photo-transects and direct sampling. Irradiance measurements reveal a light gradient which appears to exert a strong influence on the composition, relative coverage and zonation of the attached biotic communities. Two main communities are recognised from cluster analysis and relative areal coverage data. Near the cavity entrances is a community dominated by crustose coralline algae, with subsidiary ascidians, demosponges, bryozoans and Foraminifera. Species richness is high and there is total biotic coverage of walls and roof. This community grades laterally into an exclusively animal community characterised by encrusting sponges and Foraminifera, with subsidiary bryozoans and unidentified branching organisms. Coverage varies from 100% to 30%, the substrate often exhibiting high micro-relief from the branching growth forms of the Foraminifera. Species richness is high at North Rock sites, less so on the south shore. The distribution of coelobite species is compared with that described from previous studies in Bermuda, Grand Cayman and Madagascar.

  15. Freshwater sponges have functional, sealing epithelia with high transepithelial resistance and negative transepithelial potential.

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    Emily D M Adams

    Full Text Available Epithelial tissue - the sealed and polarized layer of cells that regulates transport of ions and solutes between the environment and the internal milieu - is a defining characteristic of the Eumetazoa. Sponges, the most ancient metazoan phylum, are generally believed to lack true epithelia, but their ability to occlude passage of ions has never been tested. Here we show that freshwater sponges (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida have functional epithelia with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER, a transepithelial potential (TEP, and low permeability to small-molecule diffusion. Curiously, the Amphimedon queenslandica sponge genome lacks the classical occluding genes [5] considered necessary to regulate sealing and control of ion transport. The fact that freshwater sponge epithelia can seal suggests that either occluding molecules have been lost in some sponge lineages, or demosponges use novel molecular complexes for epithelial occlusion; if the latter, it raises the possibility that mechanisms for occlusion used by sponges may exist in other metazoa. Importantly, our results imply that functional epithelia evolved either several times, or once, in the ancestor of the Metazoa.

  16. Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae: The Importance of Having Good Neighbors

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    Bernard Banaigs

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report temporal, geographical, and intra-individual variation in sponge metabolite yields. However, the internal and/or external factors that regulate the metabolite production remain poorly understood. Dysidea avara is a demosponge that produces sesquiterpenoids (avarol and derivatives with interesting medical properties, which has prompted addressed studies to obtain enough amounts of these metabolites for research on drug discovery. Within this framework, specimens of Dysidea avara from a population of the Northwest Mediterranean were sampled and their secondary metabolites quantified to assess their variability and the possible relationship with external (seasonality, interactions with neighbors and internal (reproductive stages factors. The results show a variation of the amount of both avarol and its monoacetate derivative with time, with no clear relationship with seawater temperature. A trade-off with sponge reproduction was not found either. However, our results showed for the first time that sponges are able to increase production or accumulation of secondary metabolites in their peripheral zone depending on the nature of their neighbors. This finding could explain part of the high variability in the amount of secondary metabolites usually found in chemical ecology studies on sponges and opens new biotechnological approaches to enhance the metabolite yield in sponge cultures.

  17. Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria across sponge species and oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Leire; Sureda, Jan; Agell, Gemma; Uriz, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sponges are ideal targets to study marine symbioses as they are the most ancient living metazoans and harbour highly diverse microbial communities. A recently discovered association between the sponge Hemimycale columella and an intracellular bacterium that generates large amounts of calcite spherules has prompted speculation on the possible role of intracellular bacteria in the evolution of the skeleton in early animals. To gain insight into this purportedly ancestral symbiosis, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria in Mediterranean and Caribbean sponges. We found four new calcibacteria OTUs belonging to the SAR116 in two orders (Poecilosclerida and Clionaida) and three families of Demospongiae, two additional OTUs in cnidarians and one more in seawater (at 98.5% similarity). Using a calcibacteria targeted probe and CARD-FISH, we also found calcibacteria in Spirophorida and Suberitida and proved that the calcifying bacteria accumulated at the sponge periphery, forming a skeletal cortex, analogous to that of siliceous microscleres in other demosponges. Bacteria-mediated skeletonization is spread in a range of phylogenetically distant species and thus the purported implication of bacteria in skeleton formation and evolution of early animals gains relevance. PMID:28262822

  18. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions.

  19. The role of G protein-coupled receptors in the early evolution of neurotransmission and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-02-15

    The origin and evolution of the nervous system is one of the most intriguing and enigmatic events in biology. The recent sequencing of complete genomes from early metazoan organisms provides a new platform to study the origins of neuronal gene families. This review explores the early metazoan expansion of the largest integral transmembrane protein family, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which serve as molecular targets for a large subset of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in higher animals. GPCR repertories from four pre-bilaterian metazoan genomes were compared. This includes the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, which have primitive nervous systems (nerve nets), the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, which lack nerve and muscle cells. Comparative genomics demonstrate that the rhodopsin and glutamate receptor families, known to be involved in neurotransmission in higher animals are also widely found in pre-bilaterian metazoans and possess substantial expansions of rhodopsin-family-like GPCRs. Furthermore, the emerging knowledge on the functions of adhesion GPCRs in the vertebrate nervous system provides a platform to examine possible analogous roles of their closest homologues in pre-bilaterians. Intriguingly, the presence of molecular components required for GPCR-mediated neurotransmission in pre-bilaterians reveals that they exist in both primitive nervous systems and nerve-cell-free environments, providing essential comparative models to better understand the origins of the nervous system and neurotransmission. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The Insect Chemoreceptor Superfamily Is Ancient in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hugh M

    2015-11-01

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily consists of 2 gene families, the highly diverse gustatory receptors (GRs) found in all arthropods with sequenced genomes and the odorant receptors that evolved from a GR lineage and have been found only in insects to date. Here, I describe relatives of the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, specifically the basal GR family, in diverse other animals, showing that the superfamily dates back at least to early animal evolution. GR-Like (GRL) genes are present in the genomes of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, an anemone Nematostella vectensis, a coral Acropora digitifera, a polychaete Capitella teleta, a leech Helobdella robusta, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (and many other nematodes), 3 molluscs (a limpet Lottia gigantea, an oyster Crassostrea gigas, and the sea hare Aplysia californica), the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and the sea acorn Saccoglossus kowalevskii. While some of these animals contain multiple divergent GRL lineages, GRLs have been lost entirely from other animal lineages such as vertebrates. GRLs are absent from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, and 2 available chaonoflagellate genomes, so it remains unclear whether this superfamily originated before or during animal evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece.

  2. Structural and functional characterization of ribosomal protein gene introns in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Drago; Korolija, Marina; Mikoč, Andreja; Roller, Maša; Pleše, Bruna; Imešek, Mirna; Morrow, Christine; Batel, Renato; Ćetković, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are a powerful tool for studying intron evolution. They exist in all three domains of life and are much conserved. Accumulating genomic data suggest that RPG introns in many organisms abound with non-protein-coding-RNAs (ncRNAs). These ancient ncRNAs are small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) essential for ribosome assembly. They are also mobile genetic elements and therefore probably important in diversification and enrichment of transcriptomes through various mechanisms such as intron/exon gain/loss. snoRNAs in basal metazoans are poorly characterized. We examined 449 RPG introns, in total, from four demosponges: Amphimedon queenslandica, Suberites domuncula, Suberites ficus and Suberites pagurorum and showed that RPG introns from A. queenslandica share position conservancy and some structural similarity with "higher" metazoans. Moreover, our study indicates that mobile element insertions play an important role in the evolution of their size. In four sponges 51 snoRNAs were identified. The analysis showed discrepancies between the snoRNA pools of orthologous RPG introns between S. domuncula and A. queenslandica. Furthermore, these two sponges show as much conservancy of RPG intron positions between each other as between themselves and human. Sponges from the Suberites genus show consistency in RPG intron position conservation. However, significant differences in some of the orthologous RPG introns of closely related sponges were observed. This indicates that RPG introns are dynamic even on these shorter evolutionary time scales.

  3. Structural and functional characterization of ribosomal protein gene introns in sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perina

    Full Text Available Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs are a powerful tool for studying intron evolution. They exist in all three domains of life and are much conserved. Accumulating genomic data suggest that RPG introns in many organisms abound with non-protein-coding-RNAs (ncRNAs. These ancient ncRNAs are small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs essential for ribosome assembly. They are also mobile genetic elements and therefore probably important in diversification and enrichment of transcriptomes through various mechanisms such as intron/exon gain/loss. snoRNAs in basal metazoans are poorly characterized. We examined 449 RPG introns, in total, from four demosponges: Amphimedon queenslandica, Suberites domuncula, Suberites ficus and Suberites pagurorum and showed that RPG introns from A. queenslandica share position conservancy and some structural similarity with "higher" metazoans. Moreover, our study indicates that mobile element insertions play an important role in the evolution of their size. In four sponges 51 snoRNAs were identified. The analysis showed discrepancies between the snoRNA pools of orthologous RPG introns between S. domuncula and A. queenslandica. Furthermore, these two sponges show as much conservancy of RPG intron positions between each other as between themselves and human. Sponges from the Suberites genus show consistency in RPG intron position conservation. However, significant differences in some of the orthologous RPG introns of closely related sponges were observed. This indicates that RPG introns are dynamic even on these shorter evolutionary time scales.

  4. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

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    Johan Gardères

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  5. The hypothetical ancestral animal. the Urmetazoa: telomerase activity in sponges (Porifera

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    ISABEL M. MÜLLER

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Sponges (Porifera represent the lowest metazoan phylum, characterized by a pronounced plasticity in the determination of cell lineages, and they are the closest related taxon to the hypothetical ancestral animal, the Urmetazoa, from which the metazoan lineages diverged. In a first approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the switch from the cell lineage with a putative indefinite growth capacity to senescent, somatic cells, the activity of the telomerase as an indicator for immortality has been determined. The studies were performed with the marine demosponges Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium, in vivo with tissue but also in vitro using the primmorph system. Primmorphs are formed from dissociated cells which have retained their proliferation potency. It was found that the activity of telomerase in tissue of both sponges is high. Based on this and additional findings it is assumed that the separation of the senescent sponge cell lineage from the immortal germ-/somatic cell lineage is triggered by the loss of contact to cell adhesion factors. First evidence is included which suggests that the final progress of the senescent, telomerase-negative cells to cell death is caused by apoptosis.

  6. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

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    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  7. Involvement of aquaporin channels in water extrusion from biosilica during maturation of sponge siliceous spicules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins are a family of small, pore-forming, integral cell membrane proteins. This ancient protein family functions as water channels and is found in all kingdoms (including archaea, eubacteria, fungi, plants, and animals). We discovered that in sponges aquaporin plays a novel role during the maturation of spicules, their skeletal elements. Spicules are synthesized enzymatically via silicatein following a polycondensation reaction. During this process, a 1:1 stoichiometric release of water per one Si-O-Si bond formed is produced. The product of silicatein, biosilica, is a fluffy, soft material that must be hardened in order to function as a solid rod. Using the model of the demosponge species Suberites domuncula Olivi, 1792, which expresses aquaporin, cDNA was cloned and the protein was heterologously expressed. The sponge aquaporin is grouped with the type 8 aquaporins. The function of the sponge aquaporin can be blocked by Mn-sulfate (MnSO4) and mercury chloride (HgCl2). Microscopic and functional studies suggest that aquaporin is involved in removal of the reaction water at the site where siliceous spicules are formed. Another molecule that is likely to be involved in biosilica maturation is the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide. cDNA has also been cloned from S. domuncula. Experimental studies suggest that water extrusion/suctioning from biosilica after enzymatic synthesis during spicule formation involves both aquaporin-mediated water channeling and "polymerization-induced phase separation" facilitated by the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide.

  8. Exploring cultivable Bacteria from the prokaryotic community associated with the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea.

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    Dupont, Samuel; Carre-Mlouka, Alyssa; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Vacelet, Jean; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2014-04-01

    Combining culture-dependent and independent approaches, we investigated for the first time the cultivable fraction of the prokaryotic community associated with the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea. The heterotrophic prokaryotes isolated from this tiny sponge were compared between specimens freshly collected from cave and maintained in aquarium. Overall, 67 isolates obtained in pure culture were phylogenetically affiliated to the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. This cultivable diversity was lower than the prokaryotic diversity obtained by previous pyrosequencing study and comparable to that of another Mediterranean demosponge, the filter-feeding Phorbas tenacior. Furthermore, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we visualized bacterial and archaeal cells, confirming the presence of both prokaryotes in A. hypogea tissue. Approximately 16% of the bacterial isolates tested positive for chitinolytic activity, suggesting potential microbial involvement in the digestion processes of crustacean prey by this carnivorous sponge. Additionally, 6% and 16% of bacterial isolates revealed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, respectively. One Streptomyces sp. S1CA strain was identified as a promising candidate for the production of antimicrobial and antioxidant secondary metabolites as well as chitinolytic enzymes. Implications in the context of the sponge biology and prey-feeding strategy are discussed.

  9. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

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    Nickel Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. Results We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-μCT image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM.

  10. Giant basal spicule from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni: synthesis of the largest bio-silica structure on Earth by silicatein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong WANG; Xue-hua ZHANG; Heinz C.SCHR(O)DER; Werner E.G.M(U)LLER

    2009-01-01

    Like all sponges (phylum Porifera), the glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are provided with an elaborate and distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Schulze described the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, collected during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899). This species develops an equally large bio-silica structure, the giant basal spicule (3 m × 10 mm). Using these spicules as a model, one can obtain the basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of silica skeletal elements. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silica, endowing it with unusual optophysical properties, which are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments suggest that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. The spicules are also provided with exceptional mechanical properties. Like demosponges, the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically via the enzyme silicatein (27 kDa protein). This enzyme is located in/embedded in the silica layers. This knowledge will surely contribute to a further utilization and exploration of silica in biomaterial/biomedical science.

  11. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  12. Sources of secondary metabolite variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): the importance of having good neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caralt, Sonia; Bry, Delphine; Bontemps, Nataly; Turon, Xavier; Uriz, Maria-Jesus; Banaigs, Bernard

    2013-02-18

    Several studies report temporal, geographical, and intra-individual variation in sponge metabolite yields. However, the internal and/or external factors that regulate the metabolite production remain poorly understood. Dysidea avara is a demosponge that produces sesquiterpenoids (avarol and derivatives) with interesting medical properties, which has prompted addressed studies to obtain enough amounts of these metabolites for research on drug discovery. Within this framework, specimens of Dysidea avara from a population of the Northwest Mediterranean were sampled and their secondary metabolites quantified to assess their variability and the possible relationship with external (seasonality, interactions with neighbors) and internal (reproductive stages) factors. The results show a variation of the amount of both avarol and its monoacetate derivative with time, with no clear relationship with seawater temperature. A trade-off with sponge reproduction was not found either. However, our results showed for the first time that sponges are able to increase production or accumulation of secondary metabolites in their peripheral zone depending on the nature of their neighbors. This finding could explain part of the high variability in the amount of secondary metabolites usually found in chemical ecology studies on sponges and opens new biotechnological approaches to enhance the metabolite yield in sponge cultures.

  13. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of collagens of marine sponge, Ircinia fusca (Porifera: Demospongiae: Irciniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee; Bojja, Sreedhar; Janapala, Venkateswara Rao

    2011-07-01

    Collagens were isolated and partially characterized from the marine demosponge, Ircinia fusca from Gulf of Mannar (GoM), India, with an aim to develop potentially applicable collagens from unused and under-used resources. The yield of insoluble, salt soluble and acid soluble forms of collagens was 31.71 ± 1.59, 20.69 ± 1.03, and 17.38 ± 0.87 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Trichrome staining, Scanning & Transmission Electron microscopic (SEM & TEM) studies confirmed the presence of collagen in the isolated, terminally globular irciniid filaments. The partially purified (gel filtration chromatography), non-fibrillar collagens appeared as basement type collagenous sheets under light microscopy whereas the purified fibrillar collagens appeared as fibrils with a repeated band periodicity of 67 nm under Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The non-fibrillar and fibrillar collagens were seen to have affinity for anti-collagen type IV and type I antibodies raised against human collagens, respectively. The macromolecules, i.e., total protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents within the tissues were also quantified. The present information on the three characteristic irciniid collagens (filamentous, fibrillar and non-fibrillar) could assist the future attempts to unravel the therapeutically important, safer collagens from marine sponges for their use in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

  14. The fatty acids of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Andrea; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-nine specimens of calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea, Phylum Porifera), covering thirteen representative species of the families Soleneiscidae, Leucaltidae, Levinellidae, Leucettidae, Clathrinidae, Sycettidae, Grantiidae, Jenkinidae, and Heteropiidae were analysed for their fatty acids. The fatty acids of Calcarea generally comprise saturated and monounsaturated linear (n-), and terminally methylated (iso-, anteiso-) C(14)-C(20) homologues. Furthermore, polyunsaturated C(22) fatty acids and the isoprenoic 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid were found. The most prominent compounds are n-C(16), iso-C(17), iso-C(18), n-C(18), n-C(20). In addition, a high abundance of the exotic 16-methyloctadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(19)) appears to be a characteristic trait of Calcarea. Long-chain 'demospongic acids', typically found in Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, are absent in Calcarea. The completely different strategy of calcarean fatty acid synthesis supports their phylogenetic distinctiveness from a common Demospongiae/Hexactinellida taxon. Both intraspecific and intraclass patterns of Calcarea showed great similarity, suggesting a conserved fatty acid composition that already existed in the last common ancestor of Calcinea and Calcaronea, i.e. before subclasses diverged.

  15. Evidence of unique and generalist microbes in distantly related sympatric intertidal marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Silva, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp) from the isolates (n = 31) and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp) from clone libraries (n = 349), revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (~81%), Spirochaetes (~7%) and Chloroflexi (~3%), which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges.

  16. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  17. Phylogeny of Tetillidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spirophorida) based on three molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szitenberg, Amir; Becking, Leontine E; Vargas, Sergio; Fernandez, Júlio C C; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Wörheide, Gert; Ilan, Micha; Kelly, Michelle; Huchon, Dorothée

    2013-05-01

    Tetillidae are spherical to elliptical cosmopolitan demosponges. The family comprises eight genera: namely, Acanthotetilla Burton, 1959, Amphitethya Lendenfeld, 1907, CinachyraSollas, 1886, CinachyrellaWilson, 1925, Craniella Schmidt, 1870, Fangophilina Schmidt, 1880, Paratetilla Dendy, 1905, and Tetilla Schmidt, 1868. These genera are characterized by few conflicting morphological characters, resulting in an ambiguity of phylogenetic relationships. The phylogeny of tetillid genera was investigated using the cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA (C1-D2 domains) genes in 88 specimens (8 genera, 28 species). Five clades were identified: (i) Cinachyrella, Paratetilla and Amphitethya species, (ii) Cinachyrella levantinensis, (iii) Tetilla, (iv) Craniella, Cinachyra and Fangophilina and (v) Acanthotetilla. Consequently, the phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of Tetilla, a genus lacking any known morphological synapomorphy. Acanthotetilla is also recovered. In contrast, within the first clade, species of the genera Paratetilla and Amphitethya were nested within Cinachyrella. Similarly, within the fourth clade, species of the genera Cinachyra and Fangophilina were nested within Craniella. As previously postulated by taxonomists, the loss of ectodermal specialization (i.e., a cortex) has occurred several times independently. Nevertheless, the presence or absence of a cortex and its features carry a phylogenetic signal. Surprisingly, the common view that assumes close relationships among sponges with porocalices (i.e., surface depressions) is refuted.

  18. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  19. Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria across sponge species and oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Leire; Sureda, Jan; Agell, Gemma; Uriz, Maria J.

    2017-03-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, sponges are ideal targets to study marine symbioses as they are the most ancient living metazoans and harbour highly diverse microbial communities. A recently discovered association between the sponge Hemimycale columella and an intracellular bacterium that generates large amounts of calcite spherules has prompted speculation on the possible role of intracellular bacteria in the evolution of the skeleton in early animals. To gain insight into this purportedly ancestral symbiosis, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria in Mediterranean and Caribbean sponges. We found four new calcibacteria OTUs belonging to the SAR116 in two orders (Poecilosclerida and Clionaida) and three families of Demospongiae, two additional OTUs in cnidarians and one more in seawater (at 98.5% similarity). Using a calcibacteria targeted probe and CARD-FISH, we also found calcibacteria in Spirophorida and Suberitida and proved that the calcifying bacteria accumulated at the sponge periphery, forming a skeletal cortex, analogous to that of siliceous microscleres in other demosponges. Bacteria-mediated skeletonization is spread in a range of phylogenetically distant species and thus the purported implication of bacteria in skeleton formation and evolution of early animals gains relevance.

  20. Diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a model crop to study transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna; Pietrusinska, Aleksandra; Binka-Wyrwa, Agnieszka; Kuc, Dominik; Orczyk, Wacław

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for two diploid breeding lines of potato, and gives a detailed analysis of reporter gene expression. In our lab, these lines were also used to obtain tetraploid somatic hybrids. We tested four newly prepared constructs based on the pGreen vector system containing the selection gene nptII or bar under the 35S or nos promoter. All these vectors carried gus under 35S. We also tested the pDM805 vector, with the bar and gus genes respectively under the Ubi1 and Act1 promoters, which are strong for monocots. The selection efficiency (about 17%) was highest in the stem and leaf explants after transformation with pGreen where nptII was under 35S. About half of the selected plants were confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis to be transgenic and, depending on the combination, 0 to 100% showed GUS expression. GUS expression was strongest in multi-copy transgenic plants where gus was under Act1. The same potato lines carrying multi-copy bar under Ubi1 were also highly resistant to the herbicide Basta. The suggestion of using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of diploid lines of potato as a model crop is discussed herein.

  1. del tango argentino desde un estudio de recepción

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    María de los Ángeles Montes Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sociosemiótica realizada en Córdoba, Argentina, en torno a las interpretaciones que realizan los actuales consumidores de tango argentino para apropiarse de una poesía popular, edificada sobre una moral que tiene fuertes puntos de contraste con la de la clase media. Para ello, se realizaron dos ruedas de entrevistas a una muestra teórica compuesta de 26 personas, con el fin de indagar sobre sus preferencias y creencias en las que sustentan sus selecciones. Se ofrece, finalmente, una hipótesis que nos permite comprender por qué la poesía romántica del tango es la selección preferencial: el prototipo de amor que han incorporado es, en parte, coherente con estos poemas y, cuando no lo es, les basta juzgar ese caso particular como menos adecuado al tópico —en lugar de revisar el prototipo interpretativo.

  2. O outro, o mesmo: A corrida de touros espanhola como objeto da etnologia francesa entreguerras

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    Luís Felipe Sobral

    Full Text Available Resumo Durante a missão etnográfica e linguística Dacar-Djibuti (1931-1933, o escritor e etnógrafo Michel Leiris demonstrou interesse, em uma carta endereçada à sua esposa em Paris, em realizar uma etnografia da corrida de touros espanhola. Tal ideia jamais se concretizou. Este artigo, orientado por um raciocínio conjectural, descreve os fatores que impediriam a realização desta ideia no âmbito da etnologia francesa, caso ela fosse colocada em prática. Mas não basta para tanto compreender somente quais eram os métodos etnográficos então vigentes e a posição de Leiris diante deles; é preciso examinar também o estatuto marginal e ambíguo da Espanha tanto na epistemologia etnológica como no regime identitário europeu, dois sistemas simbólicos que se encontram profundamente imbricados.

  3. PINOCHO: ¿APRENDIZ DE INVESTIGADOR?

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    Omar Parra Rozo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un marco referente para explicar la relación entre los procesos investigativos, los planes y las hipótesis con el camino que transita un héroe narrativo en búsqueda de la verdad, de la esencia de su proyecto, de la razón de su vida. Para efectuar la investigación, para alcanzar la meta, no sólo en un proceso didáctico o científico, sino en el diario transcurrir, se tiene que desear, que inmiscuirse en el asunto. No basta fijar los ojos en el horizonte, ni agudizar la vista alimentándola con la curiosidad; hay que llenarse de argumentos y de herramientas como la perseverancia, la insistencia, el diseño, la viabilidad. La búsqueda y la producción del conocimiento suponen contemplar las variables permanentes mínimas en cualquier proyecto investigativo: tiempo, espacio, presupuesto y personaje (investigador. Pinocho, el héroe narrativo, símbolo del aprendiz de investigador es títere y titiritero, personaje central de la obra que él mismo construye y reconstruye, espectador y actor, única ficha del juego con el poder de observar y participar en el juego de la investigación.

  4. La scrittura musicale come prerogativa della composizione musicale occidentale

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    Manfred Hermann Schmid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nel mondo occidentale, saper scrivere signífica il massimo della competenza. Perfino nella percezione popolare il ruolo che in musica spetta alla scrittura è percepito come una sfida. Nel marzo 2010, in una trasmissione televisiva equivalente a “Scommettiamo che”, un anchorman tedesco ha chiesto ad Anna Netrebko, sua ospite, se nella carriera di una cantante sia necessario saper leggere perfettamente la musica. “No”, è stata la risposta, istantanea, “basta avere bella voce e buona memoria”. Accostatasi poi al pianoforte per intonare un Lied di Rimskij-Korsakov, mentre l’accompagnatrice apriva lo spartito, la Netrebko aggiungeva scherzosamente: il pianista sì che deve saper leggere la musica! Per l’esperto, questa maliziosa risposta a doppio senso richiama l’antica distinzione erudita tra sapere pratico e teorico, rappresentati rispettivamente dalla voce umana, di cui ciascuno dispone in natura, e da uno strumento tecnico tradizionalmente adibito alla teoria, erede del monocordo antico, sulla cui tastiera le divisioni della corda erano indicate con lettere alfabetiche: lettere che sono le primissime testimonianze di una scrittura musicale.

  5. Serología en hepatitis virales = Serology in viral hepatitis

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    Jaramillo Aristizábal, María Clara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuando ocurre infección por el virus de hepatitis A (VHA, virus de hepatitits B (VHB, virus de hepatitis C (VHC virus de hepatitis D o virus de hepatitis E (VHE el cuadro clínico y bioquímico es similar, por lo que se hace necesario recurrir a pruebas de laboratorio diferentes a las de función hepática para identificar con certeza el agente etiológico; dentro de estas se encuentran: la serología, que permite detectar antígenos virales o anticuerpos contra estos y las pruebas moleculares que permiten detectar el genoma viral. Para diagnosticar la existencia de una infección actual por alguno de estos virus basta con la realización de pruebas serológicas, excepto en el caso del infección por VHC para la que es necesario realizar detección del genoma viral. Las pruebas moleculares son de gran utilidad para el seguimiento y la toma de decisiones terapéuticas en los pacientes con infección crónica por VHB o VHC.

  6. Perfil psicologico del adolescente de quince años

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    Ma. Josefa Lafuente

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio es la descripción del comportamiento típico del adolescente español de 15 años, mostrando al mismo tiempo sus características más evolucionadas y sus rasgos más retardatarios, en las esferas física, afectiva, intelectual, social, sexual y de los intereses. . ...El presente trabajo se inscribe dentro de un proyecto de mayor alcance, cuyo objetivo final es la construcción de una Escala Observacional de Desarrollo, que abarque desde el nacimiento basta la juventud. Tomando como punto de partida una Escala Experimental, fue aplicada esta a 2003 sujetos de ambos sexos y se depuraron los datos obtenidos de acuerdo con tres eriterios:observabilidad, edad y sexo, para elaborar la Escala Observacional definitiva. Además, para ohtener una síntesis de la edad estudiada, se sometieron 108datos a procedimientos de análisis múltiple, dimensionales y factoriales

  7. Isolation of Persicaria minor sesquiterpene synthase promoter and its deletions for transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Aimi Farehah; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2016-11-01

    Sesquiterpene synthase (SS) catalyzes the formation of sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) via carbocation intermediates. In this study, the promoter region of sesquiterpene synthase was isolated from Persicaria minor to identify possible cis-acting elements in the promoter. The full-length PmSS promoter of P. minor is 1824-bp sequences. The sequence was analyzed and several putative cis-acting regulatory elements were identified. Three cis-acting regulatory elements were selected for deletion analysis which are cis-acting element involved in wound responsiveness (WUN), cis - acting element involved in defense and stress responsiveness (TC) and cis-acting element involved in ABA responsiveness (ABRE). Series of deletions were conducted to assess the promoter activity producing three truncated fragments promoter; Prom 2 1606-bp, Prom 3 1144- bp, and Prom 4 921-bp. The full-length promoter and its deletion series were cloned into the pBGWFS7 vector which contain β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter gene. All constructs were successfully transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana based on PCR of positive BASTA resistance plants.

  8. Apuntes sobre el 'teatro civile'. Entrevista a Daniele Biacchessi

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    Daniele Biacchessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unas pocas líneas no bastan para presentar la figura del periodista, escritor y dramaturgo Daniele Biacchessi. Su amplia labor como periodista en algunos de los medios de difusión más relevantes de Italia y su constante producción como divulgador y creador  del llamado teatro civil hacen de él una figura que no puede dejarse de lado a la hora de hablar del teatro de inspiración cívica de la última década. Interesado en denunciar desde desastres medioambientales como en La fabbrica dei profumi o las matanzas nazis en Sant'Anna di Stazzema y Marzabotto a finales de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, basta dar un vistazo a algunos de sus títulos para tener una idea de la amplitud de temas tratados por Biacchessi, entre los que destacan Giovanni e Nori. Una storia di amore e di resistenza (2014, Passione reporter (2009, Il paese della vergogna (2007, Una stella a cinque punte. Le inchieste D'Antona e Biagi e le nuove Br (2007. Completan la entrevista hecha por Massimiliano Vellini dos pequeños fragmentos de uno de los manuales fundamentales sobre el llamado teatro de carácter cívico, Teatro civile, nei luoghi dell'inchiesta e della narrazione (Milán: Edizioni Ambiente, 2010.

  9. Una obra de aliento: el "Diccionario de artistas en Colombia"

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    Jorge Moreno Clavijo

    1965-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocho años de lucha se resumen en el libro Diccionario de artistas en Colombia que acaba de lanzar doña Carmen Ortega Ricaurte en las cada vez mejor acreditadas "Ediciones Tercer Mundo". En Colombia y no de Colombia, quiso su autora para que en sus páginas cupiera un buen número de pintores y escultores que han trabajado durante mucho tiempo entre nosotros, basta el punto que sus obras los acreditan casi como nuestros compatriotas. Generosidad apenas concebible en una mujer de talento, una real investigadora, que supo conservar en todo momento una imparcialidad a toda prueba, rasgo difícil en este lugar donde las pasiones y las simpatías siempre suelen manifestarse al rojo vivo, máxime cuando se tocan los predios del arte, donde se pasean los pontífices intocables y los que se creen genios, mejor dicho, todos los que han empu ñado en alguna oportunidad lápiz, pincel, cinceles o tocado el barro, no importa con qué resultados en la opinión general.

  10. Lactancia Materna y VIH/SIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeria Cortés, F.; Jaime Pérez, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Rosina Cianelli, A.; Báltica Cabieses, V.

    2009-01-01

    Resumen VIH/SIDA es una pandemia que afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños, pero que presenta una tendencia hacia la feminización, afectando especialmente a mujeres jóvenes. Su consecuencia es el aumento de la transmisión vertical, durante el embarazo, parto o lactancia materna. Este estudio bibliográfico describe la relación entre VIH/SIDA y lactancia materna, explicitando factores que influyen en la elección de la modalidad de alimentación de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA. Se describen causas de morbimortalidad infantil asociada y recomendaciones internacionales de lactancia en mujeres con VIH/SIDA. En un mundo globalizado con constantes migraciones poblacionales, estos resultados representan un llamado de atención para profesionales de salud quienes deben considerar factores sociales que influenciarán la toma de decisión de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA al escoger la modalidad de lactancia. No sólo basta conocer el riesgo de transmisión vertical, sino que se debe tomar conciencia de aquellos factores dinámicos y específicos de cada comunidad. PMID:20046815

  11. Comunicar con los visitantes: una 'nueva' faceta profesional para los conservadores-restauradores

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    Santos M. Mateos Rusillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos patrimoniales están más expuestos que nunca a la interacción con los visitantes. Por tanto, ya no basta con trasladar a un público mayoritario unos determinados contenidos culturales, pues la actual situación demanda la inclusión de un tipo de mensajes que fomenten y favorezcan la relación recurso-visitante de forma sostenible. Y es precisamente la Difusión preventiva, entendida como una estrategia de sensibilización para informar y persuadir a los visitantes de la extrema fragilidad de los recursos patrimoniales, la que lo permite de forma óptima. Además, utilizar esta estrategia es una magnífica herramienta al servicio de la identidad corporativa de los propios recursos patrimoniales y de sus conservadores-restauradores. Normalmente, muchas cuestiones relacionadas con las políticas y acciones de conservación preventiva no se explicitan a los visitantes, pero al integrarse en el discurso que se les traslada, permite que estos tengan una idea cabal de esos esfuerzos, lo que redunda en la imagen que tienen del recurso en cuestión y, por extensión, de sus conservadores-restauradores.

  12. La educación superior en México, una demanda con compromiso social

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    Nancy Jaimes Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Encontrar respuesta a los diferentes planteamientos con respecto a la importancia y calidad de la educación superior, y comprobar la hipótesis de que solo y a través de la educación se puede construir el futuro cognitivo que la sociedad demanda —en el sustento de que lograr un alto nivel de enseñanza se traduce en pertinencia y equidad para dicho nivel—, nos llevó a analizar la pertinencia de la educación superior, la forma como se relaciona con la economía y su función social. En general, se encontró una realidad virtual inacabada; basta observar la equidad y la oportunidad para encontrar serias inequidades en términos de oportunidades para todos, nos referimos a los que no tienen acceso a disfrutar de la función social de la educación en general y a la educación superior en particular, lo que por excelencia debería ser el más elevado de los valores y la más significativa e inteligente inversión con futuro sustentable.

  13. La Didáctica Universitaria en el Contexto de la Andragogía: Aprender a Aprender en la Educación de Personas Adultas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Garita Pacheco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La educación de adultos versa sobre cómo los docentesuniversitarios deben aprovechar las experiencias de suseducandos y enseñarles a aprender a aprender en la universidad.Es imprescindible que el joven adulto sepa organizar,seleccionar y convertir los datos y la información enconocimiento, para lo cual se debe conocer cómo aprendey se le debe enseñar a utilizar sus facultades naturales paralograrlo. La andragogía pone de manifiesto que para undocente universitario no solo basta con dar la lección; elprofesor debe compenetrarse con el estudiante, con los procesosy, sobre todo, con la vocación que todos los docentesdebemos tener.   ABSTRACT Adult education concerns how university professorsshould benefit from their students’ experience and howto teach them learn in the university. It is imperative thatthe young adult knows how to organize, select, and convertdata and information into knowledge; to that end theteacher has to know how they learn, and teach them how touse their natural capacities to obtain it. Andragogy showsthat it is not enough for a university professor to give lessons;he or she must work together with the students, withtheir thought processes and above all to conduct themselveswith the calling that all teachers must have.

  14. Los Relatos Zapatistas y su Vínculo con la Oralidad Tradicional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Maldonado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina, en la primera parte, la presencia inherente de una tradición oral en las literaturas indias. Una oralidad que permite en el 2001 no sólo la continuidad cul tural en el seno comunitario sino que, en su forma escrita, trasmite relatos e historias que atrapan a escuchas y lectores sin demeritar planos estéticos. En la segunda parte se ejemplifica esta persistente oralidad en los relatos de El Viejo An tonio a través de variados recursos estilísticos: uso de frases recurrentes, trastocamiento de tiempo y espacio, improvisación, sentido de hu mor, ausencia de un orden cronológico etcétera. En sentido estricto, se habla de literatura in dia aquella relatada y escrita por los propios indios; sin em bargo, en el presente caso, Marcos será la voz, el comunicador o “traductor” de An tonio. El ¡Ya basta! indio de 1994 abrió sendas inéditas e impulsó la voz de los sin rostro en el pan orama de la literatura nacional.

  15. Breve estudio sobre las Patentes y su utilización como fuente de Información.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liset Pentón Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo acelerado de la producción demanda constantemente de nuevas técnicas, vinculadas directamente al avance de la ciencia y la tecnología, como respuesta del hombre al desafío de la vida, y dentro de ellas las innovaciones, como frutos específicos, tienen gran importancia, por lo que se hace necesario dejar bien claro que no basta con generar ideas, sino que han de ser protegidas, así como a los creadores de estas ideas, que también merecen encontrar protección a sus derechos, considerando de vital importancia realizar una revisión bibliográfica, tratando de familiarizar al mundo empresarial, con esta temática, exponiéndoles qué son las patentes, su importancia, y cómo el conocimiento de este tipo de información y su uso efectivo se ha hecho indispensable en el quehacer creativo del movimiento científico e innovador.

  16. Batería de silos para la conservación del maíz, Venezuela

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    Guinand & Brillembourg, C. A., Ingenieros

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available A factory for maize by products has been recently built at Encrucijada de Chivacoa, Yaracuy state. A special feature is the set of reinforced concrete silos, placed in a row. They have been built according to the standard methods normally adopted for this type of structure. It is planned to build finally 16 silos, each with a capacity of 2000 tons. There is a large site available, where ample room has been found for the workshops, services and offices. Both the row of silos and the nearby industrial buildings constitute a modem and attractive architectural feature.Recientemente se ha construido una fábrica de productos derivados del maíz en la Encrucijada de Chivacoa, estado de Yaracuy, en la que destaca la batería de cuatro silos, de hormigón armado, colocados en fila; para su construcción se han seguido los procedimientos tradicionales corrientemente empleados esta clase de obras. Se prevé una ampliación, basta totalizar 16 unidades de 2.000 cada una. Este conjunto industrial dispone de un gran solar, en el que se han colocado las instalaciones anexas, tales como talleres, servicios y oficinas. Tanto la batería de silos propiamente dicha como cada uno de los edificios del conjunto, presentan una línea arquitectónica moderna y agradable.

  17. Calcinación técnica racional del yeso en el año 1964

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    Eipeltaner, E.

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSi siempre es difícil formular opiniones justificadas acerca de la perfección o eficacia que tienen las instalaciones industriales de calcinación de yesos en un país determinado, esta dificultad se acrecienta cuando queremos extender nuestras deducciones a todo el ámbito europeo, ya que las estructuras económicas son muy diversas en los distintos países. Mientras que en .el centro de. Europa el problema de los operarios es, a veces, insoluble por la carestía de la mano de obra; existen otros muchos países europeos en que este problema puede resolverse fácilmente. Pero, aun en este caso, no debe hacerse la suposición gratuita de que el desarrollo económico va a. ser análogo en países de distintas características y que no basta que la baratura de mano de obra sea efectiva para que el capital extranjero acuda de un modo intensivo para instalar industrias.

  18. El contenido de los mensajes icónicos (3º: El significado denotado

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    Dr. Raymond Colle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos visto que los códigos icónicos son múltiples pero que, mientras más simples, menos se prestan a una variedad de interpretación. En la gráfica, el significado va precisado -por regla- en otro mensaje adjunto. En la señalética, basta conocer el código, que es monosémico. La ideografía pretende lo mismo, aunque no siempre lo logra. Pero en el caso de los códigos pictóricos es posible una cierta polisemia, que se evita o, más bien, se reduce recurriendo al lenguaje verbal. Rara vez se encuentra un icono no acompañado de algún mensaje escrito (leyenda o pie de foto, frase sugestiva o -al menos- marca de un producto o servicio en publicidad, etc.. Pero una buena composición (yuxtaposición selectiva de múltiples iconemas en un mismo icono también puede lograr una reducción de la polisemia.

  19. Los idiomas iberorromances en una publicación Italiana reciente La formazione dell'Europa linguistica. Le lingue dell'Europa tra la fine del I e del II millennio (Coli. Lingue d'Europa, a cura di E. Banfi, Firenze, La Nuova Italia, 1993

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    Pavao Tekavčić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Race dos años apareció en Florencia, en la editorial La Nuova Italia y bajo la dirección del grecista y balcanólogo Emanuele Banfi, el volumen La formazione dell 'Europa linguistica. Le lingue dell 'Europa tra Ia fine dell e dell II millennia que forma parte de la colección Lingue d 'Europa, dirigida por el rnismo autor. El libro describe la formación de los idiomas escritos en nuestro continente, dentro del segundo milenio, pero con miradas retrospectivas (basta la antigüedad. La materia es vista desde un punto de vista sociolingüístico-variacionístico-estandardológico pero no exclusivamente, ya que incluye también a los dialectos así como la historia interna y externa, los factores socioculturales, los geolingüísticos y otros. El volurnen se divide en dos partes principales: la primera trata de las lenguas indoeuropeas y la segunda de las no indoeuropeas (lenguas ugrofímicas y samoiedas, vasco, turco, calmuco, maltés.

  20. Latinoamérica en busca de su ‘hermanita perdida’: un proyecto alternativo para recuperar Malvinas

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    Carlos Sebastián Ciccone

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo presenta como primer objetivo, a través de una revisión de los argumentos geográficos e históricos que permiten al país sudamericano reclamar su soberanía sobre las islas, demostrar la complejidad que posee dicha problemática. A partir de esto, propondremos una estrategia política alternativa, tendiente a obtener resultados a mediano y largo plazo, basada en tres puntos: la política de acercamiento a la población; la elaboración de un proyecto de integración influenciado por las medidas implementadas por el Estado argentino a fines de los ’60 y principios de los ’70; y la reforma de la Constitución argentina, basada en el caso de Hong Kong, reconociendo que en el archipiélago se encuentra en vigencia una Carta Magna impulsada por el Reino Unido. Para llevar adelante nuestro análisis utilizamos herramientas de diferentes ciencias (historia, política, derecho, entre otras porque creemos que no basta con abordar la temática de Malvinas desde la perspectiva de una sola de ellas.

  1. Da oralidade à escrita: algumas impressões sobre a concepção de palavras em crianças do segundo ano do Ensino Fundamental = Orality to writing: some impressions on the design of words in children’s second year of Elementary School

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    Barbosa, Viviane do Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa apresentar algumas impressões sobre a concepção de palavras em crianças do segundo ano do Ensino Fundamental. O estudo busca apresentar questões sobre a conceituação de vocábulo formal livre e dependente e de vocábulo fonológico, bem como o conceito de morfemas seguindo ideias da vertente estruturalista da morfologia. Além disso, demonstrou-se ainda, sob a ótica da Psicogênese da escrita (FERREIRO, 1995, as fases pelas quais os exemplos trabalhados neste artigo podem estar respaldados em sua essência. Foram coletadas 24 (vinte e quatro produções, as quais sustentaram a necessidade de que o encaminhamento do professor alfabetizador deverá pautar-se em prol da conscientização dos participantes de que a relação monogâmica para cada letra um som não se basta. Assim, evidencia-se a necessidade de um modelo de intervenção pedagógica para prevenir lacunas de aprendizagem da linguagem escrita, possibilitando aos alfabetizandos maior apropriação da norma-padrão e compreensão das prescrições da ortografia

  2. Reflections for a healthy development of PEMEX; Reflexiones para un sano desarrollo de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon M, Francisco [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a company badly administered, with excess of personnel, on the brink of financial collapse and straggler in technology, to verify this is enough to compare the oil potential of the country and the financial results of PEMEX with oil companies of the world - considered here -. To revert those present tendencies and still to satisfy the future demand of hydrocarbons PEMEX will have, on its own, evolve its infrastructure whereas the legislative power must grant greater autonomy to PEMEX as well as approve a new fiscal regime that gradually allow the company more financial resources and not on indebtedness. [Spanish] Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) es una empresa mal administrada, con exceso de personal, al borde del colapso financiero y rezagada en tecnologia, para comprobarlo basta comparar el potencial petrolero del pais y los resultados financieros de PEMEX con empresas petroleras del mundo -aqui estimados-. Para revertir esas tendencias actuales y aun satisfacer la futura demanda de hidrocarburos PEMEX debera, por su parte, evolucionar su infraestructura mientras que el poder legislativo debera otorgar mayor autonomia a PEMEX asi como aprobar un nuevo regimen fiscal que le permitan a la empresa gradualmente mas recursos financieros y no un sobre endeudamiento.

  3. El efecto knobe: asimetrías en la atribuición de intencionalidad y sus causas

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    Alejandro Rosas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo proponemos una explicación novedosa del efecto Knobe. El efecto Knobe es una asimetría peculiar en la atribución de intencionalidad a un agente con relación a los efectos colaterales previstos de su acción, dependiendo sólo de la valoración moral del efecto y sin que nada más cambie en la situación juzgada: los efectos colaterales malos, pero no los buenos, se consideran intencionalmente producidos. Nos enfocamos aquí en la pregunta por la explicación de esa peculiar asimetría ¿basta la valencia moral del efecto colateral para explicarla? Hacemos un análisis sistemático de una gran variedad de viñetas presentes en los estudios experimentales y de sus resultados. Intentamos así aislar los factores explicativos. Proponemos que la asimetría se explica por concordancia o discordancia entre la valencia moral del efecto colateral y la actitud moral del agente, juzgada por los espectadores.

  4. Un caso de seudología.

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    José María Villagrán Moreno

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia un caso de seudología fantástica, trastorno de la personalidad incluido en los trastornos no especificados (DSM-III-R y que podría ser definido, siguiendo a CASTILLA DEL PINO, como una caracterosis impositiva del self intelectual. El síntoma fundamental, en el caso que comentamos, está constituido por la personalidad del paciente, que se cimenta en un un falso self -expresado éste en los numerosos engaños y mentiras que giran, principalmente, alrededor de su identidad intelectual-. Como consecuencia de estas conductas mendaces, el paciente manifiesta, además, conductas desadaptivas (alcoholismo, endeudamientos en cadena, etc. A diferencia del fantasioso, el seudólogo opta por la acción: su intención es imponer el self fantaseado a los demás, por lo que no le basta la simple fantasía si ésta no es llevada a la práctica. Asímismo, es preciso diferenciar el cuadro seudólogo de las neurosis histéricas, estados hipomaníacos y psicosis paranoides crónicas de exaltación intelectual. El abordaje psicoterapéutico suele verse dificultado por la actitud del paciente.

  5. Garantías independientes y cartas de patrocinio: las mejores alternativas para el comercio internacional.

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    Diego Fernando García Vásquez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La contratación mercantil se desarrolla con preponderancia en el contexto internacional. Ello impone a los agentes contratantes la obligación de constituir mecanismos de garantía eficaces, que les brinden certeza sobre le ejecución de sus derechos de garantía, sin depender para dichas ejecuciones de la incertidumbre y costos que entraña debatir los derechos al interior de un proceso judicial. De igual manera, los establecimientos de crédito precisan de la constitución a su favor de mecanismos de garantía idóneos para conceder crédito a los grupos económicos. Las garantías independientes y las cartas de patrocinio son mecanismos de garantía que satisfacen las necesidades de eficacia y eficiencia que demanda el tráfico mercantil internacional en la constitución de garantías para sus relaciones contractuales, las primeras porque basta el requerimiento del beneficiario para hacer exigible la obligación del garante, y las segundas por la confianza que las matrices generan al mercado financiero para conceder créditos a sus filiales.

  6. Garantías independientes y cartas de patrocinio: las mejores alternativas para el comercio internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando García Vásquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La contratación mercantil se desarrolla con preponderancia en el contexto internacional. Ello impone a los agentes contratantes la obligación de constituir mecanismos de garantía eficaces, que les brinden certeza sobre le ejecución de sus derechos de garantía, sin depender para dichas ejecuciones de la incertidumbre y costos que entraña debatir los derechos al interior de un proceso judicial. De igual manera, los establecimientos de crédito precisan de la constitución a su favor de mecanismos de garantía idóneos para conceder crédito a los grupos económicos. Las garantías independientes y las cartas de patrocinio son mecanismos de garantía que satisfacen las necesidades de eficacia y eficiencia que demanda el tráfico mercantil internacional en la constitución de garantías para sus relaciones contractuales, las primeras porque basta el requerimiento del beneficiario para hacer exigible la obligación del garante, y las segundas por la confianza que las matrices generan al mercado financiero para conceder créditos a sus filiales.

  7. Studies of Improving the Frequency of Indica Rice Transformation by Biolistic Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the frequency of indica rice transformation by biolistic bombardment, suitable culture conditions for embryonic calli,an optimal selection scheme for resistant calli and seedlings, and optimum bombardment parameters a investigated by using 14 commercially important indica rice cultivars. The main results show that the CC medium with 36g/L mannitol is a scheme subculture medium in which the browning of indica rice calli can be mitigated significantly; The concentration of 30~40mg/L Hyg or 150~200mg/L G418 or 10~20 mg/L Basta is suitable for selection of resistant calli; The transformation parameters of 100μg gold powder absorbing 0.2μg DNA per shot and 900 psi helium pressure and 6 cm bombardment distance and bombarded twice for each plate give the best result; Keeping the target calli on osmotic medium containing 60g/L mannitol from 12 ~24h before bombardment to 24~48h after it can increase the efficiencies of transformation . Furthermore, some transgenic indica rice plants are obtained using this optimized transformation system.

  8. De recuerdos y memorias en los últimos Episodios nacionales de Galdós

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    Francisco Francisco Muñoz Marquina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Así se expresa el narrador cuando Santiaguito Ibero, protagonista de Prim y La de los tristes destinos, intenta recordar el nombre de una persona cuyas facciones ha reconocido, y no hay que esperar mucho a que ese nombre llegue de forma efectiva a los labios del personaje ("la memoria le dio con fulgor de relámpago el nombre del sujeto", se dice en el párrafo siguiente. Igual, seguramente, le aconteció a Galdós más de una vez en la composición de los últimos ocho episodios nacionales, que relatan los años finales del reinado de Isabel II, el posterior sexenio revolucionario y los albores de la Restauración. Y no es sólo que muchos de los eventos históricos que tienen lugar en ellos sean acontecimientos ya vividos por el joven Galdós, a quien, por tanto, le basta con recuperarlos de su memoria, sino que numerosos personajes secundarios y sucesos menores deben de proceder, como es lógico, de recuerdos del propio escritor: es lo que sucede, sin duda, con las abundantes referencias a periodistas y redacciones de prensa de una época en que él comenzaba a hacer sus primeros pinitos en una profesión en la que pronto destacó, llegando a ser director de El Debate.

  9. Actualidad y permanencia del 'Tratado de Derecho Administrativo' de Enrique Sayagués Laso

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    Daniel Hugo Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Más de medio siglo ha transcurrido desde la publicación de los tomos I (noviembre de 1953 y II (noviembre de 1959 del “Tratado”, concebido en cuatro tomos, pero que la trágica muerte de su autor, en 1965, impidió completar.No obstante el tiempo transcurrido, la actualidad y permanencia de sus opiniones son notorias: basta leer los repertorios de sentencias del Tribunal de lo Contencioso Administrativo, de los Tribunales de Apelaciones y de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, para comprobar que son numerosas las citas de la obra del maestro; lo mismo ocurre en los trabajos publicados por los profesores uruguayos y latinoamericanos.El secreto de la actualidad y permanencia de sus opiniones consiste en que las mismas fueron formuladas luego de profundos estudios del derecho comparado y del derecho positivo y jurisprudencia nacionales.

  10. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arbitraje internacional y toma de medidas cautelares

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    Liliana Etel Rapallini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sin lugar a dudas, la evolución del arbitraje de Derecho Privado Comercial Internacional tanto como Regional ha evidenciado progresos técnicos como jurídicos. Sólo basta con reparar en la influencia cada vez más notoria de la “lex mercatoria”, en el avance en el uso de la video conferencia y otros medios de comunicación virtual, hasta llegar hoy día a la instalación progresiva del arbitraje “on-line” .Pese a ello, y a la difusión del procedimiento arbitral, el mismo coexiste con áreas aún discutidas que operan como un velo u obstáculo sobre su celeridad y eficacia .Las áreas que adolecen son conocidas y una de ellas responde a la toma de medidas cautelares sin recurrencia a la justicia estadual. Pese a tratarse de una medida de cooperación jurídica, escaso ha sido el avance en las fuentes normativas.

  12. EL POSICIONAMIENTO ESTRATÉGICO DEL AUTOR EN ARTÍCULOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN: UNA PROPUESTA PARA SU ESTUDIO

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    Paulina Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Artículo de Investigación se define, frecuentemente, como un texto especializado en el que se comunican los resultados de una investigación. Esta concepción es, a nuestro parecer, neutra e ingenua, pues no da cuenta del hecho de que escribir y publicar un Artículo de Investigación es siempre una acción estratégico–persuasiva: no basta con señalar ciertos resultados, sino que también es fundamental persuadir a la audiencia de su relevancia en el contexto del conocimiento ya establecido, y de que son resultados que merecen ser considerados. Sobre la base de un trabajo de corte teórico, bibliográfico y reflexivo, nuestro objetivo es proponer una alternativa para el estudio del Artículo de Investigación, basada en nuestra concepción del fenómeno. Como principal resultado, proponemos la noción de posicionamiento estratégico del autor como una opción más acabada y exhaustiva para explicar los aspectos sociales y discursivos que subyacen a la transmisión del conocimiento.

  13. Consideraciones para un Mejor Estudio del Suelo y Aclimatación de Cultivos.

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    Bernal. Guillermo

    1940-09-01

    Full Text Available Al hacer el estudio de una zona dada, se hace preciso conocer todos aquellos factores que de una manera u otra, influyen ya directa o indirectamente en la vida vegetal. Sucede muy a menudo entre nosotros, que se tiene el suelo como el único factor que influye favorable o desfavorablemente en el producido de un cultivo, el que éste se mantenga en buenas condiciones. No basta, pues, en considerar el suelo; hay que fijarse en presente el clima, entrando aquí la precipitación, la temperatura, el viento, hay que fijarse en las condiciones que presente el suelo para el desarrollo de bacterias. Todos estos puntos se encuentran influyendo de una manera precisa en los cultivos. Cada uno de ellos hay que considerarlo primero separadamente y luego agruparlos para estudiar el conjunto; solamente así puede obtenerse un conocimiento bastante completo de la zona que se estudia y así se podrá saber con mayores datos si ella sirve.

  14. Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer.

  15. O que os usuários pensam e falam do Sistema Único de Saúde? Uma análise dos significados à luz da carta dos direitos dos usuários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Stein Backes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo é fruto de um projeto ampliado de pesquisa-ação que tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir as opiniões, percepções e/ou experiências de um grupo de usuários do SUS sobre a cartilha dos direitos dos usuários. Os encontros foram realizados semanalmente e, posteriormente, a coleta seguiu-se com os procedimentos de análise dos dados das pesquisas qualitativas, até alcançar as unidades temáticas. Os resultados demonstram que não basta garantir o acesso ao sistema público de saúde. É preciso criar uma consciência política para que os usuários não se tornem meros receptores ou interlocutores das propostas governamentais. É preciso que todos os atores sociais estejam engajados e comprometidos, por meio de seus direitos e deveres, na luta pela transformação da sociedade.

  16. Sonidos del Silencio

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    Luz Rodríguez Carranza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2009v9n14p4 La novela ha muerto, afirmaba Alberto Moravia, popularizada, anexada y banalizada por el cine, la televisión, la prensa, la sicología y la sociología. Para Carlos Fuentes en cambio - quien cita a Moravia en 1969 – « lo que ha muerto es sólo la forma burguesa de la novela, el realismo » (17. Basta un viaje rápido por la red para verificar, sin embargo, que la víctima goza de buena salud y que no está confinada en la cultura de masas o en las ciencias sociales : el modelo realista del siglo XIX – y particularmente la creación de tipos representativos de una época, sean éstos promediales o excepcionales -  constituye aún la principal preocupación de los escritores y críticos literarios del siglo XXI.

  17. Los pasos perdidos de Ernesto Volkening

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    Juan Guillermo Gómez García

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available El abogado Renano El abogado Renano -con estudios de derecho en las universidades de Hamburgo, Frankfort, Berlín, Heidelberg y Erlangen- Ernesto Volkening (1908-1983, que había llegado a Colombia en 1934, al iniciarse el primer gobierno de Alfonso López Pumarejo, cumplió durante su larga estancia en el país hasta su muerte un papel que no es difícil calificar de modesto. Pues, si bien no se sumó al carnaval de los profetas de todas las tendencias que empezaron a hacer su agosto ideológico en la profunda crisis que se vivió en los decenios posteriores a su llegada - basta pensar en los poco recomendables Viktor Frankl y Alfredo Trendall- , lo cierto es que Volkening prefirió mantenerse al margen de la formación institucional de la vida académica del país --que fue el caso contrario de su compatriota el notable geógrafo Ernesto Guhl, autor de la obra estándar Colombia: bosquejo de su geografía tropical (1975- y permaneció muy alejado del escenario crítico-cultural que animaría un poco más tarde polémicamente, entre otras, la argentino-colombiana Marta Traba.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴明良; 汪炳良; KIMJae-yeoul; LEEJong-min; KIMDoo-hwan

    2003-01-01

    Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis palustris Huds. ) cv. Regent and colonial bentgrass ( Agrostis Tenuis Sibth. F1. Oxen. ) cv. Tiger. The embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404,which contains plasmid vector-pSBGM harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) coding region and matrix attachment region (MAR) . After 3 days of co-cultivation, the calli were washed thoroughly and transferred to MS medium containing 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D, 12-15 mg/L phosphinothricin (PPT) and 250 mg/L of cefotaxime. After 2-3 months of selection, the actively growing calli of ‘Regent' and ‘Ti-ger' were transferred to MS medium with 12-15 mg/L PPT and 250 mg/L cefotaxime for regeneration. The putative transformants were maintained on MS medium with 3 mg/L PPT for long period but control died within 1 month. After establishing in greenhouse, the transformants also showed strong resistance to 0.4 % of herbi-cide Basta but control plants died within 2 weeks. Under confocal microscope, both young leaves and roots showed significant GFP expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of a DNA fragment of GFP gene at the expected size (380 bp) in the transformants and its absence in a randomly selected control plant.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) cv. Regent and colonial bentgrass (Agrostis Tenuis Sibth. Fl. Oxen.) cv. Tiger. The embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404, which contains plasmid vector-pSBGM harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) coding region and matrix attachment region (MAR). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the calli were washed thoroughly and transferred to MS medium containing 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D, 12-15 mg/L phosphinothricin (PPT) and 250 mg/L of cefotaxime. After 2-3 months of selection, the actively growing calli of 'Regent' and 'Tiger' were transferred to MS medium with 12-15 mg/L PPT and 250 mg/L cefotaxime for regeneration. The putative transformants were maintained on MS medium with 3 mg/L PPT for long period but control died within 1 month. After establishing in greenhouse, the transformants also showed strong resistance to 0.4% of herbicide Basta but control plants died within 2 weeks. Under confocal microscope, both young leaves and roots showed significant GFP expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of a DNA fragment of GFP gene at the expected size (380 bp) in the transformants and its absence in a randomly selected control plant.

  20. Sobre conceptos primitivos - atomismo informacional

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    Manuel Rodríguez Tudor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se intenta una defensa de la teoría de conceptos, en el campo de la ciencia cognitiva, denominada Atomismo Informacional, basado en el análisis de la base conceptual primitiva que toda teoría de conceptos debe asumir. La tesis aquí defendida dice que el contenido intencional de los conceptos se determina completamente de una forma causal, en base a relaciones informacionales que se sustenta en leyes del mundo y, por tanto, permanece estable a través de los individuos y en el mismo individuo (cumpliendo así el requisito de publicidad; y que, por otra parte, al nivel de las tareas cognitivas relevantes atribuidas a la mente (como la categorización, no es el contenido sino las capacidades epistémicas las que desempeñan un rol fundamental. Por tanto, que el contenido no basta para individuar conceptos, de allí la impotencia del AI cuando toma contenido=concepto.

  1. Uma apresentação da Revista de Cultura Vozes

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    Sandra Helena Sprícigo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte dos periódicos culturais brasileiros tem como uma de suas características a efemeridade. Surgem em algum momento especial da história e, devido a tensões políticas ou econômicas, ou mesmo tensões internas, o periódico se extingue. Para provar tal fato, basta analisar a duração de grande parte dos periódicos pesquisados dentro do projeto “Poéticas Contemporâneas”. Contrariando essa característica, a Revista de Cultura Vozes permanece ininterruptamente no mercado desde 1907, com os seus dez números anuais. Mesmo não tendo oportunidade de conhecer toda a trajetória da revista, o contato que tive com alguns números publicados durante a década de 70, me permitiu perceber que o periódico procura destacar em seus artigos fatos pertinentes à época de circulação de cada número. Sobre esse aspecto, pode-se destacar a discussão de vários movimentos literários e culturais, por exemplo, o Concretismo, o Poema/Processo, o Neo-Concretismo, as semanas afro-brasileiras, ou ainda, considerações sobre o cenário político, como a ditadura e a censura no regime militar.

  2. La descentralización: una mirada desde las políticas públicas y las relaciones intergubernamentales en Baja California

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    Martha Cecilia Jaramillo Cardona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Otorgar autonomía política a los gobiernos no basta para asegurar o mejorar los servicios públicos, así lo muestra el análisis teórico de la presente investigación. Es necesario considerar la descentralización desde otros enfoques, porque sólo así se abren espacios para establecer relaciones francas, y tomar decisiones conjuntas entre Estado y sociedad para lograr las metas. Por tanto, el objetivo aquí es analizar la importancia del concepto descentralización y sus implicaciones, a partir de las políticas públicas y relaciones intergubernamentales. La descentralización constituye la oportunidad para que las administraciones locales diseñen políticas públicas acordes a las necesidades reales de sus regiones, y para que establezcan relaciones coordinadas entre los diversos ámbitos de gobierno. La investigación se realizó de 2003 a junio de 2006 en el estado de Baja California.

  3. Medición de la pobreza más allá del ingreso: El método AF

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    Adriana Conconi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nadie duda de la necesidad de luchar contra la pobreza. Tanto a nivel individual como a nivel de políticas públicas, en el marco nacional e internacional, hay una gran aceptación de la idea de que cada persona tiene el derecho a gozar de una vida digna. Tal consenso y la importancia que se le da a su erradicación se ponen de manifiesto, por ejemplo, a nivel global en lo que han sido los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM, ahora Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable (ODS en donde, precisamente, el objetivo número uno es terminar con la pobreza en todas sus formas. Tales metas acordadas por los países miembros de las Naciones Unidas (ONU tienen una importancia fundamental en el delineamiento de las políticas en materia de desarrollo y ayuda internacional. Tampoco pareciera existir demasiado debate a la hora de pensar en la pobreza como un fenómeno multidimensional. Basta con ver la realidad de las personas que viven en situación de pobreza o escuchar sus propias experiencias para reconocer que sus privaciones se manifiestan de diferentes formas. Generalmente, éstas se relacionan con la falta de acceso a salud, condiciones precarias de vivienda y servicios, bajo nivel de educación, limitadas posibilidades de empleo, inadecuada alimentación, inseguridad, humillaciones que sufren, violencia, falta de empoderamiento, etc.

  4. El Rakin, conteo mapuche, un conocimiento con valor de uso

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    Gloria Quidel Catrilaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio está referido al sistema de numeración y las formas de conteo del pueblo mapuche. La necesidad de cuantificar hizo que este pueblo creara su propia forma de conteo ( Rakin , dando origen a un sistema de numeración decimal perfecto q ue se ha traspasado oralmente de generación en generación, por lo que no tiene símbolos para representar los números. El Rakin como práctica social de l pueblo mapuche encuentra valor en su uso , es un conocimiento situado producto de la construcción social de un pueblo en un contexto específico. Este sistema de numeración tiene una lógica decimal en donde basta saber con tar hasta diez para poder continuar contando . Para esto utiliza principios agregativos y repetitivos o multiplicativos. Es de interés de est e estudio sistematizar y visibilizar un conocimiento de origen social como alternativa epistémica que permita validar otros conocimientos más allá del conocimiento cient ífico y cooperar a la generación de una relatividad epistémica que reconozca distintos tipos de conocimiento de los seres humanos organizados en sociedades. El método de análisis utilizado es cualitativa etnográfica y los instrumentos que se utilizaron fueron entrevistas.

  5. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  6. Tránsitos invisibles: juventud, familia y cultura

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    Sonia Muñoz

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available “Para conocer una vida real y concreta debe subsanarse la razón biográfica convencional. No basta con tratar de compensarla mediante una biografía alternativa. Para ver lo que una convención dominante impide ver, hay que trasladarse a la perspectiva que no se halla dominada ni por la razón ni por la ilusión biográfica. Para entendernos conceptualmente denominaré “antibiografía” a esa parte de vacío o negación biográfica, pero susceptible de revelarnos aspectos importantes del trato que una civilización tiene con las personas concretas. Este reverso aparece precisamente en las vidas menos visibles biográficamente y sin embargo más patentes y significativas en su imposibilidad biográfica, en su antibiografía. (... La antibiografía nos revela el silencio, el vacío y el caos que una civilización ha proyectado sobre una persona, haciéndola convencionalmente insignificante”.

  7. Establishment of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation System in peanut%根癌农杆菌介导花生遗传转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 谭化; 王云鹏; 陈雪艳; 刘艳芝

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was performed in the peanut variety‘Silihong’ using hypocotyl as explants.After co-culture,bacteria restraining and selection,sixty-seven resistant regenerated plants were obtained on the medium with 0.8mg/L Basta.Five PCR-positive plants were tested by Quick-Strip Kit and at least two of them showed positive.The results showed that this protocol was an easy and high efficient,and will provide a practical method for the further genetic improvement of peanut.%通过农杆菌介导法以花生下胚轴为外植体转化花生品种四粒红.经过共培养、抑菌和筛选培养,在含有0.8 mg/L Basta的培养基获得67株抗性再生植株.经PCR检测,获得5株阳性植株,bar试纸条检测至少有2株转基因植株为阳性.该体系操作简易、高效,可作为利用基因工程对花生进行研究和遗传改良的一种技术手段.

  8. Los nuevos desafíos de la educación superior y de la investigación turística en México

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    Salvador Gómez Nieves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito sostiene que no basta una reforma fragmentada en el turismo, sino que se necesitan nuevas organizaciones e ideas creativas y viables que reemplacen los métodos obsoletos de enseñanza. En un primer momento, se busca interpretar de manera contextual los desafíos que implican para las instituciones de Educación Superior (ies la situación social, económica y global, el ambiente empresarial, las transformaciones tecnológicas, el tránsito hacia la llamada "sociedad del conocimiento" o la "era de la información" y los avances científicos. En la segunda parte, se describen los retos de la educación superior y las demandas educativas en turismo. En tercer término, se presenta un breve diagnóstico de la investigación en este campo. En el cuarto y último se intenta trazar las necesidades de profesionales y de investigadores en turismo.

  9. A comparative investigation of the metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate in cell cultures of transgenic glufosinate-resistant and non-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Monika; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Pawlizki, Karlheinz

    2002-10-01

    To obtain information on differences between the metabolic pathways of the herbicide glufosinate (trade names: BASTA, LIBERTY) in non-transgenic, glufosinate-sensitive plants and in transgenic, glufosinate-resistant plants, the metabolism of 14C-labeled glufosinate and its enantiomers L- and D-glufosinate was studied using cell cultures of oilseed rape and corn. Transformation of glufosinate in both sensitive and transgenic rape cells remained at a low rate of about 3-10% in contrast to corn cells, where 20% was transformed in sensitive and 43% in transgenic cells after 14 days of incubation, the rest remaining as unchanged glufosinate. In sensitive rape and corn cells the main metabolite was 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxo-butanoic acid (PPO) with 7.3 and 16.4%, respectively, together with low amounts of 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (MPP), 4-methylphosphinico-2-hydroxybutanoic acid (MHB), 4-methylphosphinicobutanoic acid (MPB) and 2-methylphosphinicoacetic acid (MPA). An additional metabolite formed in transgenic cell cultures was 2-acetamido-4-methylbutanoic acid (N-acetyl-L-glufosinate, NGA), which was formed at rates of 3.2% in rape and 16.1% in corn. A further minor metabolite, not yet identified, was detected in both cell types. The liberation of 0.2% 14CO2 indicates further metabolic steps prior to a limited mineralization in plant cell cultures. L-glufosinate was transformed into the same metabolites as the glufosinate racemate. D-glufosinate was not metabolized.

  10. Mobilità ubiquitaria con i telefoni cellulari in contesto scolastico formale – un approccio al mobile learning basato su una cultura ecologica

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    Ben Bachmair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non basta limitarsi ad aggiungere i telefoni cellulari alla lunga lista dei media che sono entrati nel mondo nella scuola per migliorare l’offerta formativa. In quest’ottica, il contributo qui presentato si sofferma sui telefoni cellulari considerandoli come una nuova risorsa culturale emergente in un sistema massmediale connotato da personalizzazione, mobilità e convergenza. Inoltre, un simile approccio che vede i cellulari come risorse culturali, sollecita la scuola ad affrontare un dibattito sulle risorse in chiave ecologica. Per individuare soluzioni di impiego di queste nuove risorse culturali, funzionali ai curricoli scolastici, viene prima di tutto suggerita un’analisi dei telefoni cellulari da una prospettiva teorica, considerandoli in rapporto alle strutture sociali, che si riferiscono all’«agency» degli utenti e alle pratiche culturali di uso dei media e dell’apprendimento. In secondo luogo, attraverso questa analisi triangolare delle strutture, dell’agency e delle pratiche, viene esplorato il complesso mobile (mobile complex al fine di collocare la scuola al suo interno. Successivamente viene descritta un’esperienza di impiego del cellulare per la didattica della matematica in contesto scolastico. Dall’analisi di questo progetto dovrebbero emergere le opportunità offerte dai contesti generati dagli utenti, i quali dovrebbero facilitare l’integrazione dell’apprendimento informale nella scuola. Questa investigazione ha condotto alla messa a punto di linee guida per il mobile learning articolate in tre punti1.

  11. Acerca de los procesos de autoevaluación, evaluación y acreditación: Reflexiones, interrogantes y propuestas

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    MSc. Regla Caridad Díaz Macías

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La calidad en las instituciones de la Educación Superior requiere del diseño de un sistema de gestión y autoevaluación mediante los instrumentos del Sistema Universitario de Programas de Acreditación. El sistema de evaluación y acreditación establecido por este Ministerio, dígase maestrías, doctorados, carreras, instituciones parte de la autoevaluación respectiva y transita hacia la evaluación externa, la valoración final por la Junta de Acreditación Nacional y la divulgación de sus resultados. Para satisfacer tales demandas resulta necesario trabajar porque los procesos que se llevan a cabo en la institución respondan al patrón de calidad instaurado. En los documentos establecidos se plantea la necesidad de gestionar tales procesos. En el presente trabajo, se defiende la tesis de que no basta con gestionarlos, se hace necesario liderarlos y se ofrece un punto de vista al respecto, unido a una propuesta para conseguirlo.

  12. Inheritance and expression of multiple disease and insect re- sistance genes in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    2-3 anti-fungal disease genes are coinserted with hygromycin phosphotransferase in the same vector. Two insecticidal genes and PPT acetyl transferase genes are placed in another one. The vectors are co-delivered to rice embryonic cellus tissue at a molar ratio of 1︰1 using the particle gun method. 55 independent regenerated lines have been obtained through screening for hygromycin resistance. Of these, 70% transgenic plants harbor 6-7 foreign genes. The genes on the same vectors are always co-delivered to rice plant. Northern blot analysis has indicated that the multiple foreign genes give stable expression. In the 6 transgenic plan-ts carrying 6-7 foreign genes, multiple foreign genes tend to integrate in 1 or 2 genetic loci. Progeny segregation is consis-tent with Mendel's 3︰1 segregation law. 8 homozygous R1 transgenic plants harboring 2-3 anti-fungal and 2 insectici-dal genes are selected from large number of transgenic progeny screening for hygromycin and Basta resistance.

  13. ORGANISMOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS: um estudo sob a ótica do Direito à informação do Consumidor 1

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    Ana Paula Rodrigues Lorenzini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca observar a problemática do consumo de organismos geneticamente modificados no contexto da atual incerteza científica que permeia as relações humanas – a sociedade de risco. Diante disso, a abordagem do tema é realizada com base no Princípio da Precaução – oriundo do direito ambiental – e o Princípio da Vulnerabilidade – que advêm da legislação consumerista – visto que, em conjunto, os mesmos  ponderam o desconhecimento científico envolvido na questão, conferindo supremacia ao direito de informação do consumidor. Nesse contexto, constata-se que para a real liberdadede escolha do consumidor, não basta o rótulo mencionar que há OGM’s na composição do produto.Assim, finaliza-se defendendo o amplo direito de informação do consumidor através da adoção de rótulos que alertem para a incerteza científica acerca dos possíveis efeitos do uso de produtos que contêm OGM’s.

  14. Rupturas urgentes em educação Rupturas urgentes en la educación Urgent ruptures in education

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    Pedro Demo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inovar a educação é promessa eterna, porque - segundo se crê - educação é uma das fontes principais de mudança, com o toque ulterior de ser mudança apropriada, aquela mais bem feita. Inspirando-se em Christensen, o texto discute armadilhas da inovação, entre elas: pretender inovar sem inovar-se; buscar controlar o processo de inovação; viver de promessas impossíveis ou de promessas mesquinhas. Os dados sugerem que nosso sistema educacional é inepto: as crianças não aprendem, os professores tendem a ser muito mal formados e mal pagos, a escola está ficando para trás, novas tecnologias não têm chance, e os alunos reclamam cada vez mais. Assim, "reformar" este sistema já não é o caso, porque o sistema já não possui razão suficiente para continuar existindo. Imprescindível seria mudar profundamente, quase começar de novo, em parte para poder estar à altura das necessidades dos alunos em novos tempos, em parte para corresponder aos cuidados pedagógicos da aprendizagem reconhecida crescentemente como desafio continuado. Referência fundamental é o professor, que, afinal, é o agente principal da mudança. Mudar o professor é crucial, porque praticamente todas as mudanças na escola são mudanças docentes. Criticar apenas não basta (nunca basta. É fundamental garantir novas oportunidades.Innovar en el campo de la educación es promesa eterna, porque - según se cree - la educación es una de las fuentes principales de cambio, con el toque ulterior de ser cambio apropiado, el mejor hecho. Inspirándose en Christensen, el texto discute trampas de la innovación, tales como pretender innovar sin innovarse; buscar controlar el proceso de innovación; vivir de promesas imposibles o mezquinas. Los datos sugieren que nuestro sistema educacional es inepto: los niños no aprenden, los maestros o profesores tienden a ser muy mal formados y mal pagados, la escuela está quedándose atrás, nuevas tecnologías no tienen

  15. De metrificação e poesia latina

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    Alceu Dias Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A distinção fonética x fonologia é decisiva no estudo da prosódia latina, pois propicia o estudo dos versos dessa língua sem recurso à pronúncia em voz alta dos seus fonemas. Assim, para que o a inicial da Eneida cumpra seu papel, basta contar-se com que ele contém, por sua abertura máxima, todas as vogais da língua. O tempo, como unidade da língua, é importante na constituição do verso latino. Mas é preciso insistir em que tempo, aí, não é sílaba, portanto o verso latino t em constituição diferente do verso em idiomas modernos. Por isso, em latim, versos são realidade em grande parte psíquica, pouco importando se, para os romanos, eram também física. Só no conceito greimasiano de efeito de ou dos sentidos é que se tem um indicador seguro para a leitura de versos latinos.

  16. Algumas reflexões sobre ética nas organizações

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    Maria Virgínia Llatas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoje, para que uma empresa consiga credibilidade junto ao mercado, não basta só auferir qualidade a seus produtos ou serviços. Embora esse fator seja primordial e o público consumidor esteja cada vez mais exigente nesse sentido, a conquista da credibilidade é mais ampla. Ela engloba outros itens relacionados ao portfólio da empresa e a ética é um desses itens. Nossa sociedade vive na atualidade uma redescoberta da ética. Há exigências de valores morais em todas as instâncias sociais. Nossa sociedade passa por uma grave crise de valores, identificada por alguns como falta de decoro e por outros como falta de respeito. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a importância da ética dentro das organizações, de maneira a contribuir para a reflexão das práticas administrativas atuais. A motivação para este estudo fundamenta-se na premissa de que a ética, entendida como a ciência dos costumes ou dos atos humanos, passa a ser uma questão de sobrevivência para organizações submetidas a pressões constantes, nos setores mais dinâmicos da empresa.

  17. La violencia en centros educativos de Norteamérica y diferentes países de Europa. Medidas políticas tomadas para la convivencia escolar.

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    Antonio García Correa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los temas y fenómenos educativos que más preocupa a la política educativa de varios paísesoccidentales es la violencia, agresión y maltrato físico y psíquico que se producen en los centros escolares.Basta ver como cada día se investiga, publica y escribe más sobre este hecho.Tenemos que reconocer que los profesores e investigadores y la misma política educativa ha esta-do más preocupada por el rendimiento académico, fracaso escolar, que por la violencia escolar. Pero nosestamos dando cuenta que cada día hay menos analfabetos académicos pero más analfabetos emocionales,sociales y sentimentales.El autor nos ofrece en este trabajo un recorrido breve de la violencia escolar y medidas políticastomadas en países occidentales y los resultados obtenidos con estas medidas.

  18. Crecimiento y políticas económicas en Colombia: 1970-1984

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    Zerda Alvaro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    EI periodo 1970-1984 trajo grandes transformaciones para la economía colombiana. A nivel agregado, la economía creció a un ritmo más bien rápido basta 1980, cuando el país comenzó a sentir la recesión mundial. EI proceso de urbanización continuo a paso firme aunque moderado, y se consolidó el cambio de una economía predominante rural a otra urbana, al punto que dos tercios de la población residían en áreas urbanas en 1980. Simultáneamente se incremento la participación del sector moderno de servicios en el Producto Interno Bruto, a expensas de la agricultura, en particular. La economía subterránea se consolidó muy rápidamente, mientras que la producción de drogas ilegales se convirtió en una actividad muy importante en el país.

  19. El acompañamiento terapéutico: una intervención dentro de la clínica psicoanalítica de las psicosis

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    Alberto Montoya Hernandez

    Full Text Available El abordaje clínico esta determinado por la gravedad del paciente; de esta forma tenemos pacientes con los cuales se puede trabajar mediante un psicoanálisis tradicional, en otros casos implica el trabajar en colaboración con un medico psiquiatra y un psicoanalista, donde el medicamento pone en condiciones de análisis al paciente. En casos mas graves, se incluye al acompañante terapéutico, buscando la reconstitución del lazo social cuando el paciente se aisla ya que el medio ambiente se le ha vuelto demasiado hostil. El hospital será otro recurso donde también le permitirá al pa- ciente recuperarse de una situación aguda donde no basta solo el psicoanálisis ni la medicación en muchos casos. Una intervención múltiple y una discusión de caso por caso en un trabajo en equipo es la propuesta terapéutica.

  20. LITERATURA NA ESCOLA: ENTRE O REAL E O POSSÍVEL

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    Flávia Brocchetto Ramos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As práticas de leitura literária geralmente não respeitam as especificidades deste texto, basta observar o tratamento que a literatura recebe, por exemplo, na maioria dos livros didáticos. Além disso, pesquisa realizada com estudantes de 3ª série sinaliza que essas crianças conhecem, predominantemente, literatura de massa. Frente a essa situação, como parte de estudos do projeto “Formação do leitor: o processo de mediação docente”, apresenta-se Machado de Assis como um autor que pode fazer parte do repertório de estudantes do Ensino Fundamental. Se Machado é um expoente da Literatura Brasileira, deveria estar presente nos planejamentos dos docentes das escolas brasileiras. Neste artigo, elegem-se algumas narrativas curtas do autor para adentrar as práticas de educação literária.

  1. Discutindo a relação entre espaço e aprendizagem na formação de profissionais de saúde

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    Norma Carapiá Fagundes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a relação entre espaço e aprendizagem, como uma forma de pensar modificações ou inovações curriculares a partir de demandas da prática. Analisam-se experiências com comunidades desenvolvidas pelos cursos de enfermagem, odontologia e medicina. A metodologia tem como substratos as teorias da complexidade e da multirreferencialidade. O estudo revelou aprendizagens significativas para os sujeitos e trouxe a questão de que não basta definir novos locais de ensino; é preciso exercitar a reflexão sobre a prática, para que esta possa ser uma referência para interpelação e transformação das formas tradicionais de conceber currículo. Revelou, ainda, que repensar o currículo significa o desenvolvimento de uma nova relação com o saber, implicando mudanças nas relações entre a universidade e os diversos saberes existentes e na valorização da aprendizagem (reconstruída na experiência. Como conclusão, destaca-se que a universidade deve instituir "escutas" das práticas desenvolvidas e investir numa formação cultural sólida e crítica dos estudantes.

  2. Responsabilidad penal del profesional en medicina en casos de esterilización

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    Bernan Luis Salazar Ureña

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión bibliográfica de la esterilización y se le compara con las leyes de Costa Rica. La esterilización es la operación quirúrgica realizada en un ser humano en procura de que pierda la capacidad de engendrar o concebir. En el hombre basta un sencillo "vasoligamento", en la mujer el procedimiento procura el "bloqueo del oviducto". Quien la realiza puede ocultar tras un fin médico-social un comportamiento doloso que tiene a la eliminación de un grupo de personas por razones étnicas, políticas, etc., situación que podría configurar el delito de genocidio; o bien, pretender lesionar a otra persona, comportamiento que configuraría el delito de lesiones gravísimas en la legislación costarricense.The subject of sterlization is analysed base on the literature and compared with Costa Rican Law. Sterilization is an operation designed to eliminate reproductive capacity. In man, it implies a simple duct closing, and in woman the oviduct is blocked. The operating professional may hide, behing a "medical ando social"motivation, a criminal purpose of eliminating a particular group for ethnic or plitical rasons, wtc., which can be qualified as genocide, or simply may wish to hurt another person, which according to Costa Rican legislaiton qualifies as "very serious damage".

  3. Cuidado compartilhado: uma perspectiva de cuidar do idoso fundamentada na educação em saúde

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    Maria Luiza de Oliveira Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación convergente asistencial con el objetivo de identificar los conocimientos y las prácticas de los acompañantes de los ancianos hospitalizados acerca de los cuidados con la prevención y tratamiento de úlceras por presión, integrarlos a un plan de cuidados y discutir su efectividad. En el marco teórico se abordó la cultura de las prácticas y conocimientos sobre el cuidado en salud y sus relaciones con la educación en salud. Participaron diecinueve acompañantes de ancianos hospitalizados. Se realizaron entrevistas en grupo e individuales, y observación participativa. Se analizó el contenido temático. En el intercambio de conocimientos con la investigadora, los sujetos elaboraron, implementaron y evaluaron un plan de cuidados de prevención y tratamiento de las úlceras por presión. Reflexionaron críticamente y participaron del cuidado. Se concluyó que no basta reconocer la existencia del sistema profesional y popular de salud, sino proponer estrategias para un cuidado congruente con las reales necesidades de los clientes y acompañantes tornándolos copartícipes. La dialogicidad propició la construcción compartida del cuidado.

  4. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy as a Delayed Complication with a Herbicide Containing Glufosinate Ammonium in a Suicide Attempt: A Case Report

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    Keiichiro Tominaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glufosinate ammonium has a famous delayed complication as respiratory failure, however, delayed cardiogenic complication is not well known. Objectives. The aim of this study is to report a takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a delayed complication of glufosinate ammonium for suicide attempt. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman ingested about 90 mL of Basta, herbicide for suicide attempt at arousal during sleep. She came to our hospital at twelve hours after ingesting. She was admitted to our hospital for fear of delayed respiratory failure. Actually, she felt down to respiratory failure, needing a ventilator with intubation at 20 hours after ingesting. Procedure around respiratory management had smoothly done with no delay. Her vital status had been stable, however, she felt down to circulatory failure and diagnosed as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy at about 41 hours after ingestion. There was no trigger activities or events to evoke mental and physical stresses. Conclusion. We could successfully manage takotsubo cardiomyopathy resulted in circulatory failure in a patient with glufosinate poisoning for suicide attempt. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy should be taken into consideration if circulatory failure is observed for unexplained reasons.

  5. O SOFRIMENTO PSÍQUICO ENTRE HOMOSSEXUAIS NUMA PERSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA E LITERÁRIA

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    Alex Ney Diógenes Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como assunto o sofrimento psíquico dos homossexuais, sendo uma tarefa árdua e delicada abordar tema de tanta relevância e polêmica. O mundo globalizado onde vivemos mudou vários conceitos, sobretudo, os conceitos da família e sua constituição. O objetivo deste estudo é abordar as questões oriundas da desmistificação de que o homossexual ou homoerótico - conforme é o termo escolhido para designar pessoas que mantém relacionamentos afetivos com outras do mesmo sexo – de viver em constante sofrimento psíquico. Esse sofrimento que tantos psicanalistas insistem em infligir aos homossexuais são dúvidas e tormentos que corroem a alma de qualquer ser humano, em um dado momento de sua vida, não escolhendo, raça, sexo, cor, etnia, etc., basta que seja um ser humano e seja provido de razão para estar aberto a aflições e sofrimentos, assim como a alegrias e felicidade. Foram os vários os autores utilizados para a revisão bibliográfica que norteou a metodologia de pesquisa, inclusive o romance naturalista “Bom Crioulo” (1895 do escritor Adolfo Caminha.

  6. La educación para la salud en el curriculum escolar

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    Miguel-C SÁNCHEZ-BARBUDO RUIZ-TAPIADOR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo que aquí comprendo con el título «La educación para la salud en el curriculum escolar» intenta ser una reflexión de la misma desde el punto de vista de la función importantísima del profesor de E.G.B.La sociedad está demandando la inclusión de los temas de Educación para la salud en los contenidos programáticos de la Escuela. Es una necesidad que siente una sociedad pluralista, como la nuestra, para saber y poder vivir en libertad. Basta abrir las páginas de los periódicos para encontrarnos noticias que detectan esta necesidad. Así, en noviembre de 1985 la Comisión Antidroga del Congreso en el capítulo tercero dedicado a la prevención de la demanda de la droga, expuso entre sus conclusiones la siguiente: «Una de las actuaciones claves para la prevención primaria de la drogodependencia es la introducción de la educación para la salud en todos los niveles de la enseñanza obligatoria y secundaria. La actitud de los padres y educadores es decisiva».

  7. El problema de los conversos en América

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    Juan Friede

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la participación de los conversos en la empresa americana ocupa actualmente la atención de varios historiadores. Basta decir que la cantidad de judíos y conversos que hubo en España a fines del siglo XV y principios del XVI, varía según los historiadores, entre 5.000.000 (es decir, casi 50% de la población total y 180.000 judíos, solamente. Algunos consideran como conversos a Cristóbal Colón, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo, Cieza de León, Pedrarias D'Avila, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, etc.; a más de otros, cuyo estatuto de conversos se puede constatar documentalmente. Ultimamente, Américo de Castro incluye entre los descendientes de judíos al famoso protector de indios, Bartolomé de las Casas; tesis que acepta el conocido investigador sevillano, Manuel Giménez Fernández, autor de varios trabajos sobre la vida de Las Casas.

  8. Acessibilidade e inclusão de cadeirantes na Universidade Federal do Pará

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    Marisa Fernanda Leão da Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a acessibilidade na Universidade Federal do Pará considerando a experiência locomotora de uma aluna cadeirante desta instituição. Especificamente, identificou as principais barreiras físicas e arquitetônicas presentes no Campus Universitário do Guamá com base na aplicação das instruções normativas oficiais que tratam da acessibilidade. Participaram da pesquisa de campo, de cunho quanti-qualitativo, do tipo Estudo de Caso, 25 alunos, sendo uma cadeirante. Os resultados obtidos através de entrevista semi-estruturada, questionários e registros fotográficos, indicaram várias adaptações nos espaços de circulação do campus adequadas às normas de acessibilidade. Ao mesmo tempo em que existem barreiras físicas e arquitetônicas dificultando e/ou impedindo a mobilidade de cadeirantes. A análise destas condições sugere que não basta às pessoas com deficiência física ou com mobilidade reduzida, garantir o acesso às universidades, também é necessário dar-lhes condições de permanência. O total cumprimento das normas de acessibilidade é um dos fatores que viabiliza a inclusão no ensino superior com qualidade e dignidade.

  9. Presentación

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    Eutopía Revista de Desarrollo Económico

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EUTOPÍA es una revista nueva dentro de las ciencias sociales de la región y busca, tal como su nombre lo evoca, la reflexión sobre lo que sucede en nuestra sociedad tomando como eje de análisis el territorio. Eu- topia proviene del griego: eu, bueno y topos lugar, literalmente significaría buen lugar y es justo sobre lo que buscamos reflexionar tanto a nivel de Ecuador como de América Latina. No basta con la teoría de moda del “buen vivir”, si no se dispone de un “buen lugar” para implementar una nueva forma de hacer economía, de recrear las relaciones de reciprocidad, de hacer política participativa, en concreto de construir una sociedad más justa y solidaria. La construcción de un “buen lugar”, no como una Utopía sino como algo real y viable es un reto en el cual es necesaria la incorporación activa del pensamiento social de avanzada en la región.

  10. Alfabetismo científico, misión de la universidad y ciudadanía: ideas para su construcción en los países en vías de desarrollo Scientific literacy, mission of the university and citizenship: ideas for their construction in developing countries

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    Francisco López Segrera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta un análisis del nuevo concepto de alfabetismo científico como competencia requerida para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía en el siglo XXI y como complemento y ampliación del alfabetismo tradicional. Ya no basta con enseñar a leer y escribir, es necesario también hacer realidad la educación permanente para todos y el acceso universal a las Tics en un marco de pertinencia e inclusión social.The present article is an analysis of the new concept of scientific literacy as a requirement for the exercise of citizenship in the 21st century and as complement and extension of traditional literacy. It is no longer enough to teach how to read and write, it is necessary also to make lifelong education for all and the universal access to the ICTs a reality in a frame of relevancy and social inclusion.

  11. En torno a las relaciones entre la república de Ragusa y la corona Española en el siglo XVI: lo hecho y lo que queda por hacer

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    Mirjana Polić Bobić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre la corona de España y Ia que basta los comienzos del siglo XIX fue la República de Ragusa son un tema explotado entre nosotros a varios niveles. La condicional soberanía de la minúscula república, vigente casi tres siglos después de que la perdieran otras ciudades-estados mediterráneos y de que el modelo político dado desaparecieral, han dado ocasión a investigaciones vastas, así como a la diversidad de interpretaciones y consideraciones, de manera que sus relaciones intemacionales, sobre todo con las grandes potencias, han servido de punto de partida para la investigación de las influencias y climas políticos, tanto como de prueba de diversas tesis, muchas veces preconcebidas.  Las relaciones que mantuvo Ragusa con las tierras que a partir de la unión de las coronas de Castilla y Aragón vienen a formar parte del imperio más poderoso del mundo también han sido sea tocadas, sea elaboradas en diversos trabajos de historiadores extranjeros. Está ya publicada una parte considerable de la documentación archivada, sobre todo la que se refiere a las relaciones entre la República y la corona de Aragón.

  12. TRANSITOS INVISIBLES: JUVENTUD, FAMILIA Y CULTURA

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    Sonia Muñoz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer una vida real y concreta debe subsanarse la razón biográfica convencional. No basta con tratar de compensarla mediante una biografía alternativa. Para ver lo que una convención dominante impide ver, hay que trasladarse a la perspectiva que no se halla dominada ni por la razón ni por la ilusión biográfica. Para entendernos conceptualmente denominaré «antibiografía» a esa parte de vacío o negación biográfica, pero susceptible de revelarnos aspectos importantes del trato que una civilización tiene con las personas concretas. Este reverso aparece precisamente en las vidas menos visibles biográficamente y sin embargo más patentes y significativas en su imposibilidad biográfica, en su antibiografía. (... La antibiografía nos revela el silencio, el vacío y el caos que una civilización ha proyectado sobre una persona, haciéndola convencionalmente insignificante.

  13. Perfil Sazonal dos Enterococcus e E. coli nos mananciais do Distrito Federal - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v5i1.417

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    Ana Flavia Correia Heringer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a eficácia de um indicador microbiológico não basta verificar sua ação como fato isolado. O ambiente externo tem seu papel designado de acordo com as variações climáticas. No Distrito Federal duas estações são aparentes: o período da seca e da chuva. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os valores obtidos aplicando-se as técnicas do substrato enzimático para E. coli e dos tubos múltiplos para Enterococcus, comparando-os para se obter aquele que apresenta-se como melhor indicador de contaminação e determinar a influência do clima sobre a população de bactérias presentes nos mananciais. Valores demonstraram que os Enterococcus foram tão ou mais resistentes à ação do meio externo que a E. coli, embora não se possa concluir que exista um indicador mais eficaz. A avaliação sazonal determina quando podemos utilizar os indicadores devido às adversidades do meio conferindo mais segurança para a qualidade da água e, conseqüentemente, a saúde humana.

  14. Necesidad de las tecnologías de la información y comunicaciones en la ciudad

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    Roberto Lira Olmo

    2015-03-01

    La implementación de estas tecnologías, está muy difundida en otros países y es de relativamente fácil estructuración, aunque laboriosa en la primera etapa. Es más, algunas comunas chilenas y regionales ya lo han implementado aunque en grados diversos. Un ejemplo es la Municipalidad de Concepción, cuya Dirección de Obras contrató a la Universidad del Bío Bío un sistema -al que se puede acceder desde su página web institucional- y que en palabras de sus profesionales "acortó ciertas tareas desde 15 días a 15 minutos". Hoy, por ejemplo, en vez de ir a la municipalidad para saber qué se puede construir en un sitio, basta acceder desde la página web y obtener la información territorial correspondiente. La sola mantención del catastro municipal ya lo justifica. Más aún, una vez que se tiene una base cartográfica bien desarrollada, ella puede ser usada para múltiples otras funciones, estudios y análisis.

  15. Notas sobre la recepcion del “lanzarote” Español en el siglo XVI (Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, ms. 9.611

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    José Manuel Lucía Megías

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Libra del cavallero Zifar (romance Castellano de principios del siglo XIVI se alude al lai Lanval de María de Francia en un curioso episodio que está llamado a ser uno de los primeros reclamos literarios explícitos de la materia artúrica en la Península Ibérica. Detengámonos en él unos instantes: Roboán, hijo del Cavallero Zifar, es enviado por el emperador de Trigrida al Otro Mundo, a las Islas Dotadas. En un "batel sin gobernalle" arriba a una tierra protegida por rocas tan altas que llegan basta el cielo. El infante entra por un "postigo" que abre las puertas ante su presencia y después de recorrer algo más de "seis migeros" por un caño, llega "a la otra parte" y se encuentra con dos doneelias "muy bien vestidas e muy apuestas" que le informan sobre la naturaleza encantada del lugar, el nombre de su señora -Nobleza-, y la historia de su madre -Señora del Parescer-, de su padre -Lanval. Mientras que el grupo se encamina al encuentro de la emperatriz, una doncella comienza a leer Ia historia de Lanval (Yván en el Zifar.

  16. CFD Numerical simulations of Francis turbines

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    Santiago Laín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la simulación numérica del flujo en el interior de una turbina Francis. La metodología a seguir para la simulación del flujo en una turbina Francis depende de los objetivos perseguidos: mientras que para determinar la curva característica y las pérdidas de energía en los diferentes componentes basta una aproximación estacionaria, para investigar las interacciones rotor - estator o las fluctuaciones de presión en el rodete se requiere realizar un cálculo transitorio. Ambas estrategias se presentan en este artículo aplicadas a una turbina Francis en explotación en Colombia. La simulación se realiza por medio del paquete computacional Ansys CFX v. 11. Los resultados de la simulación comparan satisfactoriamente con las medidas experimentales realizadas sobre la máquina, especialmente en el caso de la curva característica.

  17. Violência na teoria psicanalítica: ruptura ou modalidade de laço social?

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    Tania Coelho dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Haverá uma teoria psicanalítica da violência? Basta associar aviolência à pulsão de morte para explicar o crescimento destefenômeno no laço social contemporâneo? Se nos baseamos na teorialacaniana dos discursos, a violência é um sintoma ou é a rupturado laço social? O crescimento desse fenômeno deve ser analisadoa partir dos efeitos do objeto “a” em posição de ideal de nossacivilização ou como o efeito da abolição do Real como impossívelque o discurso do capitalismo promove? Essas hipóteses sãoexcludentes ou devemos articular uma à outra? Nossa reflexãoressalta os efeitos subjetivos da disjunção entre os elementos emjogo na estrutura dos discursos, verdadeira causa de fenômenoscontemporâneos como a violência.

  18. Diccionarios “de uso” y diccionarios monolingües para usuarios extranjeros

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    Humberto Hernández

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Un genero centenario ya en otras tradiciones lexicográficas pero de corta vida en el ámbito hispánico es el de la lexicografía monolingüe para usuarios extranjeros. Tan breve es nuestra historia que a mí mismo me cupo la misíon de poner en evidencia Ia notable laguna existente y exponer el modelo del que se suponia debía de ser ese diccionario tan ausente como demandado. Aunque se habían publicado algunas obras que sin ser propiamente diccionarios para estudiantes extranjeros se anunciaban como tales, bubo que esperar basta 1966 para encontrar el primer precedente consciente de este género lexicográfico: el Diccionario de uso del español de María Moliner. Vinieron luego otros repertorios que presentaban aspectos posi­ tivos, aunque de insuficiente nomenclatura unos, como e1 Diccionario básico Sapena idio­ mático y sintdctico, y más extensos, otros, pero necesitados de una exhaustiva revisión en sus métodos y planteamientos.

  19. Genetic transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) cultures via Agrobacterium-mediated and particle bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie; Hossain, Md Anowar; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.

  20. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb. Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

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    Evra Raunie Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L. Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.

  1. Una Meditación de la Ciencia

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    Raúl Fornet-Betancourt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Haciendo una crítica intercultural a la ciencia moderna, el autor del artículo proponepensar la ciencia como un pensar meditativo que recobra el sentido y que se percata del significado de su tarea ante la ciencia, por ello toma conciencia de que debe ir más allá de la crítica. Para esta crítica no basta con censurar o poner de manifiesto las desviaciones de la ciencia en sus aplicaciones, sino que hay que sobrepasar este horizonte, poniendo a la ciencia en su lugar. Saber, sin embargo, qué lugar le corresponde a la ciencia, implica saber qué sentido tienen el conocimiento humano y la actividad cognitiva del ser humano en general dentro del desarrollo de la vida, es decir, saber qué nos corresponde ser, cómo y dónde nos corresponde estar. En síntesis, se trata de saber nuestro lugar y el sentido que dimana de él, esto es necesario para decidir qué lugar debe ocupar la ciencia en la vida humana.

  2. The Largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni

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    Xiaohong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873–1876 treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition “Valdivia” (1898-1899, Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm. With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  3. A post-synaptic scaffold at the origin of the animal kingdom.

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    Onur Sakarya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolution of complex sub-cellular structures such as the synapse requires the assembly of multiple proteins, each conferring added functionality to the integrated structure. Tracking the early evolution of synapses has not been possible without genomic information from the earliest branching animals. As the closest extant relatives to the Eumetazoa, Porifera (sponges represent a pivotal group for understanding the evolution of nervous systems, because sponges lack neurons with clearly recognizable synapses, in contrast to eumetazoan animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica possesses a nearly complete set of post-synaptic protein homologs whose conserved interaction motifs suggest assembly into a complex structure. In the critical synaptic scaffold gene, dlg, residues that make hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions with the PDZ ligand are 100% conserved between sponge and human, as is the motif organization of the scaffolds. Expression in Amphimedon of multiple post-synaptic gene homologs in larval flask cells further supports the existence of an assembled structure. Among the few post-synaptic genes absent from Amphimedon, but present in Eumetazoa, are receptor genes including the entire ionotropic glutamate receptor family. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Highly conserved protein interaction motifs and co-expression in sponges of multiple proteins whose homologs interact in eumetazoan synapses indicate that a complex protein scaffold was present at the origin of animals, perhaps predating nervous systems. A relatively small number of crucial innovations to this pre-existing structure may represent the founding changes that led to a post-synaptic element.

  4. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

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    Germer, Juliane; Mann, Karlheinz; Wörheide, Gert; Jackson, Daniel John

    2015-01-01

    The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges) hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM), and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify.

  5. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

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    Juliane Germer

    Full Text Available The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM, and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify.

  6. Sponge biosilica formation involves syneresis following polycondensation in vivo.

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    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Brandt, David; Wiens, Matthias; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Schlossmacher, Ute; Wang, Shunfeng; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-10-17

    Syneresis is a process observed during the maturation/aging of silica gels obtained by sol-gel synthesis that results in shrinkage and expulsion of water due to a rearrangement and increase in the number of bridging siloxane bonds. Here we describe how the process of biosilica deposition during spicule ("biosilica" skeleton of the siliceous sponges) formation involves a phase of syneresis that occurs after the enzyme-mediated polycondensation reaction. Primmorphs from the demosponge Suberites domuncula were used to study syneresis and the inhibition of this mechanism. We showed by scanning electron microscopy that spicules added to primmorphs that have been incubated with manganese sulfate fuse together through the deposition of silica spheres and bridges. Energy-dispersive X-ray mapping of the newly formed deposits showed high silicon and oxygen content. These biosilica deposits contain a comparably higher percentage of water than mature/aged spicules. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the addition of silicate to primmorph cultures resulted in a marked upregulation of the expression of the aquaporin gene and of the genes encoding the silica anabolic enzyme silicatein-α and the silica catabolic enzyme silicase. On the other hand, addition of manganese sulfate, either alone or together with silicate, caused a strong reduction in the level of aquaporin transcripts, although this metal ion did not essentially affect the silicate-induced increase in silicatein-α and silicase gene expression. We conclude that the secondary silica deposits formed on spicules under physiological conditions in the presence of silicate fuse together and subsequently undergo syneresis, which is facilitated by the removal of water through aquaporin channels. In growing spicules, these processes of biosilica formation and syneresis in the lamellar monolithic structures precede the final step of "biosintering" during which the massive biosilica rods of

  7. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of microbial mud mound derived boulders from gravity-flow polymictic megabreccias (Visean, SW Spain)

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    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Moreno-González, I.; Mas, R.; Reitner, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Upper Visean outcrops from the Guadiato Valley (Córdoba, SW Spain) provide a well-preserved record of the mud mound factory, which was developed in a mainly siliciclastic synorogenic foreland basin during the oblique sinistral collision of two terranes (Ossa Morena and Central Iberian blocks). The first onset of mud mound development has been recorded as microbial mud mound-derived boulders in polymictic megabreccias as result of strong tectonic activity. The Upper Visean record from the Mississippian central band at Guadiato Valley starts with lower heterolithic units (up to 180 m thick) and shows two major tectonically-controlled cycles: a fining upwards interval (FU) followed by a coarsening upwards interval (CU). These cycles are linked to two active margins with gravelly fan delta development and different source areas. Mud mound-derived boulders occur in the CU interval and are formed by peloidal primary and secondary (reworked) automicrites and allomicrites, showing a diverse faunal and floral assemblage, although never as the main skeletal framebuilders. However, the observed coeval richness in sponges (lyssacinose hexactinellids and non-lithistid demosponges) and the diverse calcareous algae assemblage in mud mound derived boulders are not common in other Visean buildups. The growth cavities display changes in the geopetal relationships between fillings and the secondary cavities containing sand to gravel fillings reflecting a complex pre-boulder and mud mound derived boulder history. Detailed mapping, sampling, stratigraphic and microfacial analyses have allowed the reconstruction of the mud mounds sedimentary environment prior to the collapse, transport and emplacement as boulders with polymictic gravels.

  8. Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.

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    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja

    2014-10-30

    Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.

  9. Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes?

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    Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

  10. Biofacies evolution in the Triassic platforms of the Dolomites, Italy

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    Franco Russo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Triassic of the Dolomites includes many carbonate platform generations, ranging in age from the Anisian to the Norian-Rhaetian. After the Permian-Triassic biological crisis, “reef” communities reappeared during the Anisian time. These buildups were generally characterized by a limited relief, lacking any primary skeletal framework and evidence of syndepositional cementation. The microfacies are dominated by micrites, mainly allochthonous or detrital in origin. The sparse biota are generally binder and buffler organisms, such as dasycladacean algae, sphinctozoans and briozoans.The second generation of carbonate buildups (late Anisian–early Ladinian, Sciliar Fm are dominated by syndepositional cements (e.g. Marmolada Platform. These cements represent the main component of margin and upper slope facies. They form more or less isolated or laterally linked bodies: the “evinosponges”. During the late Ladinian and Carnian p.p., the post-volcanic platforms developed (Cassian Dolomite. The microfacies of these platforms manly consist of micrites, cements and skeletons. The automicrites constitute more than 50% of the rock volume, the cements the 20%, and the skeletal organisms less than the 10%. The metazoan contribution is subordinated to that of skeletal cyanobacteria, like Cladogirvanella cipitensis and microproblematica, like Tubyphites. The primary marine cements provide evidence of a widespread early syndepositional lithification. Towards the top of Julian Substage (Carnian, at the base of the Heiligkreutz/Dürrenstein Formation (i.e. Alpe di Specie, small calcareous bioconstructions, interpreted as patch-reefs, show a much more “modern” faunal association. For the first time in the Triassic, a primary skeletal framework developed, largely formed by calcified demosponges and scleractinians. Corals were still subordinated to sponges. Taxonomic diversity increases greatly and the skeletal component exceeds the 50% of the rock volume

  11. The elemental composition of demospongiae from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba.

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    Boaz Mayzel

    Full Text Available Trace elements are vital for the growth and development of all organisms. Little is known about the elemental content and trace metal biology of Red Sea demosponges. This study establishes an initial database of sponge elemental content. It provides the necessary foundation for further research of the mechanisms used by sponges to regulate the uptake, accumulation, and storage of metals. The metal content of 16 common sponge species was determined using ICP measurements. A combination of statistical methods was used to determine the correlations between the metals and detect species with significantly high or low concentrations of these metals. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to compare sponge metal content to local sediment. Theonella swinhoei contained an extremely high concentration of arsenic and barium, much higher (at least 200 times than all other species and local sediment. Hyrtios erecta had significantly higher concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ti and V than all other species. This is due to sediment accumulation and inclusion in the skeleton fibers of this sponge species. Suberites clavatus was found to contain significantly higher concentration of Cd, Co, Ni and Zn than all other species and local sediment, indicating active accumulation of these metals. It also has the second highest Fe concentration, but without the comparably high concentrations of Al, Mn and Ti that are evident in H. erecta and in local sediment. These differences indicate active uptake and accumulation of Fe in S. clavatus, this was also noted in Niphates rowi. A significantly higher B concentration was found in Crella cyatophora compared to all other species. These results indicate specific roles of trace elements in certain sponge species that deserve further analysis. They also serve as a baseline to monitor the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on Eilat's coral reefs.

  12. Rare sponges from marine caves: discovery of Neophrissospongia nana nov. sp. (Demospongiae, Corallistidae from Sardinia with an annotated checklist of Mediterranean lithistids

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    Renata Manconi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new record of lithistid demosponges is reported from a western Sardinian karstic cave. The new specimen matches the trait of the genus Neophrissospongia (Corallistidae for an ectosomal skeleton of radial dichotriaenes, a choanosomal skeleton as a network of dicranoclone desmas, and streptaster/amphiaster microscleres with short spiny rays bearing blunt tips. The cave-dwelling N. nana nov. sp. diverges from the other species of the genus in diagnostic characters such as the large irregular plate-like growth form, the topographic distribution of inhalant and exhalant apertures, and a smaller size of all spicular types. Moreover it displays an additional rare second type of dichotriaenes with smooth cladomes, shared with other genera of Corallistidae but never reported before for the genus Neophrissospongia. In addition N. nana nov. sp. bears style-like sub-ectosomal spicules shared with N. microstylifer from deep water of New Caledonia. As for the latter trait, a present in-depth analysis of N. nolitangere from the Atlantic Ocean contrasts with previous historical records reporting monaxial spicules as oxeas/anisoxeas. The diagnosis of the genus Neophrissospongia is therefore emended for the growth form and for the micro-traits of dichotriaenes and monaxial sub-ectosomal spicules. Morphological data indicate that the new species is allied to N. nolitangere and N. microstylifer from Eastern Atlantic and New Caledonian deep water, respectively, and confirm the highly disjunct geographic range of the genus Neophrissospongia in the Lusitanian-Macaronesian-Mediterranean area and the Pacific Ocean supporting the relic condition of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea. This discovery stresses the key status of Mediterranean palaeoendemics as possible remnants of an ancient Tethyan fauna and focuses the need to plan conservation measures for these rare cave-dwelling taxa.

  13. Evidence of unique and generalist microbes in distantly related sympatric intertidal marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae.

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    Anoop Alex

    Full Text Available The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp from the isolates (n = 31 and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp from clone libraries (n = 349, revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (~81%, Spirochaetes (~7% and Chloroflexi (~3%, which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges.

  14. Approaches for a sustainable use of the bioactive potential in sponges: analysis of gene clusters, differential display of mRNA and DNA chips.

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    Breter, H J; Grebenjuk, V A; Skorokhod, A; Müller, W E G

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, analyses of the genome organization of marine sponges have begun that have led to the elucidation of selected genes and gene arrangements that exist in gene clusters (e.g. the receptor tyrosine kinase cluster and the allograft inflammatory factor cluster). Most of these studies were performed with the demosponge Suberites domuncula; but Geodia cydonium (Demospongiae), Aphrocallistes vastus (Hexactinellida) and Sycon raphanus (Calcarea) were also investigated. Both S. domuncula and G. cydonium possess a surprisingly large genome of approximately 1.7 pg DNA per haploid set. Taking the high gene density in these sponges into account and considering that predominantly single-copy DNA exists, the gene number of S. domuncula and G. cydonium was estimated to be approximately 300,000. Presumably, the large gene number in the sponge genome is due to regional gene duplication; so far evidence for a transposition in sponges has been presented. Data indicate that only 0.25 % of the total sponge genome comprises CA/TG microsatellites, and until now also no SINEs/transposable elements have been identified. Due to the rapid progress in the field of molecular biology of sponges the application of sponge genes for expression studies by DNA-array techniques (microarray) has become possible. These achievements will be further supported by the systematic analysis of the expressed genome of sponges; the results will be (partially) released (http://spongebase.uni-mainz.de/cgi-bin/blast/blastserver.cgi). In our efforts employing the results from the analysis of the genome to molecular biotechnology, we applied the technique of differential display of mRNA. One example, the effect of silicate on gene expression in S. domuncula, is outlined here. Future results will allow the identification of the genes involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds from sponges [Porifera]. This progress will contribute considerably to a fruitful and fast development in the field of

  15. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

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    Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

    2014-05-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

  16. Early sponges and toxic protists: possible sources of cryostane, an age diagnostic biomarker antedating Sturtian Snowball Earth.

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    Brocks, J J; Jarrett, A J M; Sirantoine, E; Kenig, F; Moczydłowska, M; Porter, S; Hope, J

    2016-03-01

    The period 800-717 million years (Ma) ago, in the lead-up to the Sturtian Snowball glaciation, saw an increase in the diversity of eukaryotic microfossils. To afford an independent and complementary view of this evolutionary period, this study presents the distribution of eukaryotic biomarkers from three pre-Sturtian successions across the supercontinent Rodinia: the ca. 780 Ma Kanpa Formation of the Western Australian Officer Basin, the ca. 800-740 Ma Visingsö Group of Sweden, and the 740 Ma Chuar Group in Arizona, USA. The distribution of eukaryotic steranes is remarkably similar in the three successions but distinct from all other known younger and older sterane assemblages. Cholestane was the only conventional structure, while indigenous steranes alkylated in position C-24, such as ergostane, stigmastane, dinosterane and isopropylcholestane, and n-propylcholestane, were not observed. This sterane distribution appears to be age diagnostic for the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. It attests to the distinct evolutionary state of pre-Snowball eukaryotes, pointing to a taxonomic disparity that was still lower than in the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma). All three basins also show the presence of a new C28 sterane that was tentatively identified as 26-methylcholestane, here named cryostane. The only known extant organisms that can methylate sterols in the 26-position are demosponges. This assignment is plausible as molecular clocks place the appearance of the earliest animals into the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. The unusual 26-methylsterol may have protected sponges, but also other eukaryotes, against their own membranolytic toxins. Some protists release lytic toxins to deter predators and kill eukaryotic prey. As conventional membrane sterols can be the site of attack for these toxins, sterols with unusual side-chain modification protect the cell. This interpretation of cryostane supports fossil evidence of predation in the Chuar Group and promotes hypotheses about the

  17. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera mitochondria

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    Ilan Micha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria, in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera. Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida. This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis.

  18. Evolution of group I introns in Porifera: new evidence for intron mobility and implications for DNA barcoding.

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    Schuster, Astrid; Lopez, Jose V; Becking, Leontine E; Kelly, Michelle; Pomponi, Shirley A; Wörheide, Gert; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Cárdenas, Paco

    2017-03-20

    Mitochondrial introns intermit coding regions of genes and feature characteristic secondary structures and splicing mechanisms. In metazoans, mitochondrial introns have only been detected in sponges, cnidarians, placozoans and one annelid species. Within demosponges, group I and group II introns are present in six families. Based on different insertion sites within the cox1 gene and secondary structures, four types of group I and two types of group II introns are known, which can harbor up to three encoding homing endonuclease genes (HEG) of the LAGLIDADG family (group I) and/or reverse transcriptase (group II). However, only little is known about sponge intron mobility, transmission, and origin due to the lack of a comprehensive dataset. We analyzed the largest dataset on sponge mitochondrial group I introns to date: 95 specimens, from 11 different sponge genera which provided novel insights into the evolution of group I introns. For the first time group I introns were detected in four genera of the sponge family Scleritodermidae (Scleritoderma, Microscleroderma, Aciculites, Setidium). We demonstrated that group I introns in sponges aggregate in the most conserved regions of cox1. We showed that co-occurrence of two introns in cox1 is unique among metazoans, but not uncommon in sponges. However, this combination always associates an active intron with a degenerating one. Earlier hypotheses of HGT were confirmed and for the first time VGT and secondary losses of introns conclusively demonstrated. This study validates the subclass Spirophorina (Tetractinellida) as an intron hotspot in sponges. Our analyses confirm that most sponge group I introns probably originated from fungi. DNA barcoding is discussed and the application of alternative primers suggested.

  19. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria

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    Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée

    2006-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis. PMID:16972986

  20. The megazoobenthos of the Scotia Arc islands

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    Ana Ramos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Megabenthic epifauna composition and distribution from the Scotia Arc islands based on data collected during the Antarctic summer of 1986-87 is presented. Samples were taken from bottom trawl catches at 345 stations (29 at Shag Rocks, 104 at South Georgia, 8 at the South Sandwich Islands, 93 at the South Orkney Islands, 46 at Elephant Island, and 65 at the South Shetland Islands, from 26 to 643 m depth. Among the most striking features of the faunistic composition of the area, pointed out by multivariate analysis, are the singularity of Shag Rocks, closer to the Magellan region, and of the volcanic South Sandwich Islands, as well as the similarity of South Georgia and the South Orkney Islands and that of the islands nearest to the Antarctic continent, especially Elephant Island and the South Shetlands Islands. This similarity is due to the higher frequency and abundance of the most characteristic taxa in the Antarctic epibenthos, such as sessile suspension feeders (sponges, calcareous bryozoans, pennatulids, crinoids, and motile fauna with a wide variety of trophic strategies (asteroids, holothurians, pycnogonids, large isopods and gammarids. These data confirm the fact that the long-lived suspension-feeder communities, demosponges and hexactinellids, characteristic of the Antarctic epibenthos stretch to the eastern shelf of South Georgia without reaching the north-west of this island, the South Sandwich Islands, and Shag Rocks. Some of the zones with rich communities of sessile filter-feeders, long-lived sponges or reef formations of calcareous bryozoans or serpulids should be proposed as Specially Protected Areas.

  1. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

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    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  2. First documentation of tidal-channel sponge biostromes (upper Pleistocene, southeastern Florida)

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    Cunningham, K.J.; Rigby, J.K.; Wacker, M.A.; Curran, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges are not a common principal component of Cenozoic reefs and are more typically dominant in deep-water and/or cold-water localities. Here we report the discovery of extensive upper Pleistocene shallow-marine, tropical sponge biostromes from the Mami Limestone of southeastern Florida built by a new ceractinomorph demosponge. These upright, barrel- to vase-shaped sponges occur in monospecific aggregations constructed within the tidal channels of an oolitic tidal-bar belt similar to modern examples on the Great Bahama Bank. The biostromes appear to have a ribbon-like geometry, with densely spaced sponges populating a paleochannel along a 3.5 km extent in the most lengthy biostrome. These are very large (as high as 2 m and 1.8 m in diameter), particularly well-preserved calcified sponges with walls as hard as concrete. Quartz grains are the most common particles agglutinated in the structure of the sponge walls. Where exposed, sediment fill between the sponges is commonly a highly burrowed or cross-bedded ooid-bearing grainstone and, locally, quartz sand. It is postulated that the dense, localized distribution of these particular sponges was due to a slight edge over competitors for food or energy supply and space in a stressed environment of tidal-influenced salinity and nutrient changes, strong currents, and frequently shifting submarine sand dunes. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of sponge biostromes composed of very large upright sponges within high-energy tidal channels between ooid shoals. The remarkably well-preserved accumulations provide an alternative example of sponge reefs for comparative paleoenvironmental studies. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  3. First evidence of the presence of chitin in skeletons of marine sponges. Part II. Glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera).

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    Ehrlich, Hermann; Krautter, Manfred; Hanke, Thomas; Simon, Paul; Knieb, Christiane; Heinemann, Sascha; Worch, Hartmut

    2007-07-15

    Sponges (Porifera) are presently gaining increased scientific attention because of their secondary metabolites and specific skeleton structures. In contrast to demosponges, whose skeletons are formed from biopolymer spongin, glass sponges (hexactinellids) possess silica-organic composites as the main natural material for their skeletal fibres. Chitin has a crystalline structure and it constitutes a network of organized fibres. This structure confers rigidity and resistance to organisms that contain it, including monocellular (yeast, amoeba, diatoms) and multicellular (higher fungi, arthropods, nematodes, molluscs) organisms. In contrast to different marine invertebrates whose exoskeletons are built of chitin, this polysaccharide has not been found previously as an endogenous biopolymer within glass sponges (Hexactinellida). We hypothesized that glass sponges, which are considered to be the most basal lineage of multicellular animals, must possess chitin. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of skeletal fragments of the glass sponge Farrea occa. We show that these fibres have a layered design with specific compositional variations in the chitin/silica composite. We applied an effective approach for the demineralization of glass sponge skeletal formations based on an etching procedure using alkali solutions. The results show unambiguously that alpha-chitin is an essential component of the skeletal structures of Hexactinellida. This is the first report of a silica-chitin's composite biomaterial found in nature. From this perspective, the view that silica-chitin scaffolds may be key templates for skeleton formation also in ancestral unicellular organisms, rather than silica-protein composites, emerges as a viable alternative hypothesis.

  4. Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).

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    Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-03-01

    During evolution and with the emergence of multicellular animals, the need arose to ward off foreign organisms that threaten the integrity of the animal body. Among many different receptors that participate in the recognition of microbial invaders, toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in mediating the innate immune response. After binding distinct microbial components, TLRs activate intracellular signaling cascades that result in an induced expression of diverse antimicrobial molecules. Because sponges (phylum Porifera) are filter feeders, they are abundantly exposed to microorganisms that represent a potential threat. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and deduced protein sequence from 3 major elements of the poriferan innate response (to bacterial lipopeptides): the TLR, the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4-like protein (IRAK-4l), and a novel effector caspase from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Each molecule shares significant sequence similarity with its homologues in higher Metazoa. Sequence homologies were found in particular within the family-specific domains toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TLR family), Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase domain (IRAK family), and CASc (caspase family). In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistological analyses revealed an abundance of SDTLR (TLR) transcripts in epithelial layers of the sponge surface (exopinacoderm and endopinacoderm). Furthermore, it is shown that both SDTLR and SDIRAK-4 like (IRAK) are expressed constitutively, regardless of treatment with synthetic triacyl lipopeptide Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4). In contrast, SDCASL (caspase) expression is highly Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4) inducible. However, blocking of the lipopeptide with recombinant TLR prior to its application completely prevented the induced expression of this poriferan caspase. These results underscore that the phylogenetically oldest extant metazoan phylum is provided already with the signaling pathways of the antimicrobial

  5. Expansion, diversification, and expression of T-box family genes in Porifera.

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    Holstien, Kay; Rivera, Ajna; Windsor, Pam; Ding, Siyu; Leys, Sally P; Hill, Malcolm; Hill, April

    2010-12-01

    Sponges are among the earliest diverging lineage within the metazoan phyla. Although their adult morphology is distinctive, at several stages of development, they possess characteristics found in more complex animals. The T-box family of transcription factors is an evolutionarily ancient gene family known to be involved in the development of structures derived from all germ layers in the bilaterian animals. There is an incomplete understanding of the role that T-box transcription factors play in normal sponge development or whether developmental pathways using the T-box family share similarities between parazoan and eumetazoan animals. To address these questions, we present data that identify several important T-box genes in marine and freshwater sponges, place these genes in a phylogenetic context, and reveal patterns in how these genes are expressed in developing sponges. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that sponges have members of at least two of the five T-box subfamilies (Brachyury and Tbx2/3/4/5) and that the T-box genes expanded and diverged in the poriferan lineage. Our analysis of signature residues in the sponge T-box genes calls into question whether "true" Brachyury genes are found in the Porifera. Expression for a subset of the T-box genes was elucidated in larvae from the marine demosponge, Halichondria bowerbanki. Our results show that sponges regulate the timing and specificity of gene expression for T-box orthologs across larval developmental stages. In situ hybridization reveals distinct, yet sometimes overlapping expression of particular T-box genes in free-swimming larvae. Our results provide a comparative framework from which we can gain insights into the evolution of developmentally important pathways.

  6. Carbonate production and deposition in a warm-temperate macroalgal environment, Investigator Strait, South Australia

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    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2011-08-01

    The prolific macroalgal forests in shallow (red algae that are grazed by herbivorous gastropods, 2) an intermediate, 5-20 cm-high community of fleshy red algae, and 3) a 20-100 cm+-high canopy of large phaeophytes (especially Ecklonia, Cystophora and Xiophora) whose blades are locally encrusted with bryozoans, such as Membranipora membranacea, and spirorbids. Concealed surfaces of subvertical rock walls and cryptic habitats behind the macroalgal curtain have two tiers; 1) a cornucopia of encrusting plants and animals, especially crustose and geniculate corallines in shallow water, that give way in water depths > 4 m to numerous bryozoans (especially fenestrates), serpulid worms, numerous and diverse demosponges, ascidians, small solitary corals, epifaunal echinoids, and gastropods, and 2) a veil of macroalgae (mainly Cystophora and Ecklonia) that drapes down and shades the rock walls. Most carbonate sediment production does not come from calcareous epiphytes on the macroalgae but comes from the coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates living on the rock walls and in concealed depressions. Mollusks (gastropods and bivalves) and geniculate coralline algae with numerous lithoclasts, crustose coralline fragments, barnacle plates, serpulid worms, bryozoans, and large benthic foraminifers (especially Amphistegina) dominate the resultant gravels and sands; but there is little or no mud. This is because carbonate sediment is the result of production not only in the macrophyte factory but also in adjacent seagrass factories. Particles produced in the macroalgal factory are shed onto the adjacent seafloor, where they form the requisite sandy substrates for quick colonization by seagrasses. Thus, over time the sediment in this shallow but hydrodynaically energetic environment becomes a mixture of materials from the two sources with seagrasses contributing gastropods, large benthic foraminifers, spirorbids, bryozoans and articulated corallines to the sediment milieu. If

  7. Determining the biomass composition of a sponge holobiont for flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jabin; Degnan, Bernard; Degnan, Sandie; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-01-01

    The first step on the path of flux analysis of a new organism with little available literature is the determination of the biomass composition. Once the content of the macromolecular components (protein, RNA, DNA, carbohydrates, lipids) and their composition is known, this composition can be converted into a biomass equation. The biomass equation is an important part of metabolic flux analysis. This equation provides the information about the precursor and energy needs for growth. In many experiments the determination of the growth rate is the simplest flux to be determined, yet this rate determines the net fluxes of a whole range of anabolic pathways in the system and often is used as the objective function in FBA analysis. The challenge for the scientist is to create a biomass equation that represents the organisms of choice under the conditions studied. This chapter outlines basic protocols that can be applied to the quantification of the macromolecular components, using the marine demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica as a case study. As is true for all other sponges and indeed marine animals, A. queenslandica is a holobiont, comprising an animal host plus symbiotic and other associated microbial cells. We show how this complexity can be overcome by developing a fast, yet robust, method for biomass quantification of sponges using the displacement volume. The analytical protocols we describe herein are widely applicable not only to other organisms sampled from complex environments but also to cell cultures. The second part of the chapter highlights the procedures needed to convert a macromolecular composition into a biomass equation.

  8. The dialogic life-death in care delivery to adolescents with cancer La dialógica vida-muerte en el cuidado al adolescente con cáncer A dialógica vida/morte no cuidado do adolescente com câncer

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    Maria José Menossi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the experience of adolescents with cancer, family and the health team regarding death in the healthcare context, in the light of Edgar Morin's proposed theoretical framework of complexity. Participants were 12 adolescents, 14 relatives and 25 health professionals. The interview was used for data collection. The discussion of data was guided by the dialogic life-death in the context of care to adolescents with cancer. It was observed that the singularity in the way the adolescent experiences time and faces death and the possibility that the family will lose a loved one may not be in accordance with the care the health team offers, considering structural, organizational and affective aspects. It is not enough for the team just to rationally make choices on the use of diagnostic-therapeutic devices, in line with predefined moments in the disease. Instead, a contextualized and sensitive understanding of each situation is needed.El estudio objetivó comprender la experiencia de los adolescentes con cáncer, de los familiares y del equipo de salud relacionada a la muerte en el contexto del cuidado de salud, bajo el marco teórico de la complejidad propuesto por Edgar Morin. Participaron 12 adolescentes, 14 familiares y 25 profesionales de salud. La entrevista fue utilizada como recurso para la recolección de datos. La discusión de los datos empíricos fue conducida por el discurso dialógico vida-muerte en el contexto del cuidado del adolescente con cáncer. Se observó que la singularidad en el modo de vivir el tiempo y enfrentar la muerte por el adolescente y la posibilidad de la pérdida del ente querido por la familia puede no estar en sintonía con el cuidado ofrecido por el equipo de salud, considerando aspectos de orden estructural, organizacional y afectivo. No le basta al equipo apenas racionalmente realizar elecciones en cuanto al uso de los dispositivos diagnósticos-terapéuticos, conforme momentos

  9. Do antropocentrismo ao ecologicentrismo: formação para o cuidado ecológico na saúde Del antropocentrismo al ecologicentrismo: formación para el cuidado ecológico en la salud From anthropocentrism to ecologycentrism: training of ecological care in health

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    Marli Terezinha Stein Backes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se o significado que estudantes e professores universitários atribuem ao cuidado ecológico e como essa temática é abordada nos cursos da área da saúde de uma instituição pública federal do sul do Brasil. Nosso objetivo é discutir a categoria central. O método foi a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, com dez entrevistas, com dois grupos amostrais, entre setembro de 2008 e abril de 2009. Culminou com a formulação da teoria: vislumbrando o cuidado ecológico como um fenômeno amplo e complexo; com a categoria central: o cuidado ecológico resultante das relações, interações e associações com o ambiente global. Concluiu-se que, para a sobrevivência dos diferentes seres no planeta, não basta combater o antropocentrismo, é urgente formar para o ecologicentrismo, para a interatividade e adaptabilidade funcional sistêmica. É preciso ir além dos discursos e congressos mundiais e refazer a teia de interdependências de todos os seres e elementos da natureza.Se buscó el significado que estudiantes y profesores universitarios atribuyen al cuidado ecológico y como esta temática es abordada en los cursos del área de la salud de una institución pública federal del sur del Brasil. Nuestro objetivo es discutir la categoría central. El método fue la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos, con diez entrevistas con dos grupos muestrales entre septiembre de 2008 y abril de 2009. Culmino con la formulación de la teoría Vislumbrando el cuidado ecológico como un fenómeno amplio y complejo, con la categoría central: el cuidado ecológico como resultante de las relaciones, interacciones y asociaciones con el ambiente global. Se concluyo que para la sobrevivencia de los diferentes seres en el planeta, no basta combatir el antropocentrismo, es urgente formar para el ecologicentrismo, para la interactividad y adaptabilidad funcional sistémica. Es preciso ir además de los discursos y congresos mundiales y rehacer la tela de

  10. Ensino da enfermagem psiquiátrica/saúde mental: sua interface com a Reforma Psiquiátrica e diretrizes curriculares nacionais La enseñanza de la enfermería psiquiátrica/salud mental: su conexión con la Reforma Psiquiátrica y las directrices curriculares nacionales Teaching psychiatric nursing/mental health: its interface with the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and national curriculum guidelines

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    Josicelia Dumêt Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo teórico acerca do processo de formação em Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Saúde Mental, frente às crescentes mudanças no mundo globalizado e seu acelerado processo de modernização científica e tecnológica. Objetiva discutir o fazer pedagógico no ensino da Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Saúde Mental, e sua interface com os princípios da Reforma Psiquiátrica e das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais dos Cursos de Graduação em Enfermagem. Para sua sustentação teórica, adota como referência alguns construtos da Reforma Psiquiátrica e das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem, e sua relação com fatores constituintes do fazer pedagógico na Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Saúde Mental. Evidencia que não basta apontar questões técnicas relativas a conteúdos e ensino, procedimentos didáticos, métodos e técnicas pedagógicas; é necessário superar desafios e implementar as mudanças, pautando-se numa nova perspectiva, e ousando colocar em questão a natureza do saber e das práticas institucionais psiquiátricas.Estudio teórico acerca del proceso de formación en Enfermería Psiquiátrica y Salud Mental, frente a los crecientes cambios en el mundo globalizado y su acelerado proceso de modernización científica y tecnológica. Objetiva discutir el quehacer pedagógico en la enseñanza de Enfermería Psiquiátrica y Salud Mental, y su conexión con los principios de la Reforma Psiquiátrica y de las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales de los Cursos de Graduación en Enfermería. Para su sustentación teórica, adopta como referencia algunos constructos de la Reforma Psiquiátrica y de las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales del Curso de Graduación en Enfermería, y su relación con factores constituyentes del quehacer pedagógico en la Enfermería Psiquiátrica y Salud Mental. Evidencia que no basta apuntar cuestiones técnicas relativas a contenidos y enseñanza, procedimientos didácticos, m

  11. 农杆菌介导的转谷氨酰胺合成酶基因小麦的抗除草剂特性研究%AGROBA CTERIUM TUMEFACIENS-MEDIATED TRANSGENIC WHEAT PLANTS WITH GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASES CONFER TOLERANCE TO HERBICIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄其满; 刘伟华; 孙辉; 邓新; 苏金

    2005-01-01

    Cloning of cytosolic (GS1) cDNA and chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) cDNA from Pisum satium was carried out previously in our laboratory. To identify the functions of the GS genes, we first constructed a plant expression vector, p2GS, harboring two different isoenzymes, GS1 and GS2 cDNAs, under the control of two constitutive promoters of rice, Actin1 (Act1) and maize Ubiquitin (Ubi) genes. Then, using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method, we introduced GS1 and GS2 genes into wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, producing 2GS-transgenic wheat plants using immature embryos as the explants.Presence of the transgenes GS1 and GS2 in wheat plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization analyses. Forty-one independent transgenic wheat plants with tolerance to an herbicide (Phosphinothricin,PPT) were generated. Results from Basta tests showed that the 2GS-transgenic wheat plants were endowed with herbicide-tolerant properties. Almost all of the transgenic plants were normal in morphology, and seed production was similar to that of the control wheat plants. Our study suggest that PPT resistance is conferred by effective expression of glutamine synthetases in transformed wheat plants, and glutamine synthetase genes can serve as a selective marker gene of wheat transformation system in our study.%谷氨酰胺合成酶(Glutamine synthetase,GS,E.C.6.3.1.2)是植物氨同化过程中的关键酶,对植物的氮素吸收和代谢起着至关重要的作用.谷氨酰胺合成酶还是除草剂草胺膦(Phosphinothricin(PPT)或Basta)的靶标酶.前期工作已从我国特有的豌豆(Pisum satium)品种中克隆了细胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS1)cDNA和叶绿体型谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS2)cDNA.为了验证谷氨酰胺合成酶的功能,构建了同时含有GSl cDNA和GS2 cDNA的植物表达载体p2GS.以该表达载体通过农杆菌介导法,转化小麦(Triticum aestivum)的未成熟胚愈伤组织,经PPT筛选及分化再生培

  12. Conhecimento sobre terapêutica medicamentosa em diabetes: um desafio na atenção à saúde Conocimiento sobre la terapéutica medicamentosa en diabetes: un desafío en la atención a la salud Patients' knowledge regarding medication therapy to treat diabetes: a challenge for health care services

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    Heloisa Turcatto Gimenes Faria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento dos pacientes acerca da terapia medicamentosa em uso para o controle do diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal realizado em um centro universitário do interior paulista, em 2007. Foram entrevistados 46 pacientes com diabetes, mediante questionário que investigou variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e referentes à terapia medicamentosa. Foi realizada análise univariada dos dados e cálculo de medidas de tendência central. RESULTADOS: Dos participantes, 89,1% utilizavam antidiabéticos orais, 41,3% insulina e 30,4% terapia combinada com antidiabéticos orais e insulina. Dos 46 investigados, 56,5% apresentaram déficit no conhecimento acerca da terapia medicamentosa para o controle do diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes apresentou déficit de conhecimento em relação ao medicamento em uso. Os resultados apontam a necessidade de construção de um processo de reorientação da atenção ao paciente nos serviços de saúde, pois não basta oferecer os medicamentos, mas é preciso avaliar a forma como vêm sendo utilizados.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de los pacientes respecto a la terapia medicamentosa usada para el control de la diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en un centro universitario del interior de São Paulo, en el 2007. Fueron entrevistados 46 pacientes con diabetes, mediante un cuestionario que permitió investigar variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y referentes a la terapia medicamentosa. Fue realizado el análisis univariado de los datos y cálculo de medidas de tendencia central. RESULTADOS: De los participantes, el 89,1% utilizaban antidiabéticos orales, el 41,3% insulina y el 30,4% terapia combinada con antidiabéticos orales e insulina. De los 46 investigados, el 56,5% presentó déficit en el conocimiento respecto a la terapia medicamentosa para el control de la diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSI

  13. (INCOMPETENZE METALINGUISTICHE DI BASE IN LAUREATI IN LETTERE

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    Cristina Lavinio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non basta il possesso di una laurea triennale in Lettere per garantire la conoscenza di nozioni grammaticali elementari come le parti del discorso o di aspetti basilari della linguistica teorica già studiati all’Università. Lo dimostrano le risposte, qui esaminate con attenzione, mediamente molto insoddisfacenti, confuse, erronee di 19 laureati alle domande metalinguistiche di un questionario. Frasi  passive o interrogative vengono scambiate per esempi di dislocazioni a destra o a sinistra, non si sa cosa sia la deissi, grande è la confusione tra fonetica e fonologia… Ne emergono problemi che coinvolgono in pieno anche la didattica universitaria, soprattutto nella  prospettiva dell’attivazione dei corsi di laurea per insegnanti. In particolare, chi voglia prepararsi ad insegnare l’italiano (o altre lingue dovrebbe avere una formazione ben più solida, ampia e aggiornata su questioni grammaticali e linguistiche. Solo così potrà essere debitamente attrezzato a curare tutti gli aspetti dell’educazione linguistica a scuola.     Metalinguistic (incompetence in graduates from the literature faculty A three-year degree in Literature is not sufficient to guarantee knowledge about basic grammar like the parts of speech or basic aspects of linguistic theory for university graduates.  These are the unsatisfactory, confused, wrong results of a questionnaire on metalinguistics administered to 19 graduates.  Passive sentences or interrogatives are mistakenly identified due to word order, deixis is unfamiliar, and phonetics and phonology are mixed up… Problems effecting university didactics are brought to light, especially regarding degree courses for teachers.  Those who wish to become Italian language (or another language teachers should have more solid, ample and u-to-date training on grammar and linguistics, the only way for them to them to be capable of teaching language in school settings.

  14. El Ajo

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    Carda Paredes Antonio

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available El Ajo es del género ALLIUM, AJO, de la familia de las LILIACEAS. El ajo es una planta exótica, herbácea, anual, que fue traída de España junto con la cebolla, su congénere, en la época de la Colonia, y se aclimató muy bien en los climas fríos. El ajo es también planta bulbífera, y el bulbo llamado vulgarmente CABEZA está compuesto de varios bulbillos llamados DIENTES, cubiertos cada uno de una túnica muy delgada, seca y blanquecina. El olor del ajo es más fuerte y más difusible que el de la cebolla y basta que se le despoje de su cubierta o película que lo cubre para que este olor se deje sentir vivamente a alguna distancia. Examinado químicamente el ajo, contiene las siguientes sustancias: mucílago, azúcar, azufre, sales y un aceite volátil amarillo muy acre y de sabor muy fuerte. A este aceite se atribuyen las propiedades excitantes del bulbo. El aceite volátil del ajo se extrae por destilación de los bulbos frescos. Este acéite contiene azufre y es más pesado que el agua. El ajo no es alimenticio pero es un condimento indispensable en todas las preparaciones del arte culinario.

  15. Eff ect of microwave fi eld on trypsin inhibitors activity and protein quality of broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var. major

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    Mirosław Pysz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In human nutrition legume seeds are usually subjected to soaking and thermal processes, mainly by using traditional cooking method. This method which has been used for decades, does not allow to control and adjust the parameters of this process. Therefore it does not seem to be the optimal method. Undoubtedly, microwave fi eld is an alternative thermal process to conventional technique. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of microwave fi eld on the activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein quality of three varieties of broad bean seeds. Material and methods. The study was performed on dry seeds of broad bean varieties Windsor White, Bachus and Basta. The seeds were soaked and heated in a microwave. The seeds absorbed different energy doses from 500 J/g, through 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750 to 2000 J/g. The study material prepared in this way was tested for trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility and in vitro protein digestibility. The results were analysed by the one-way analysis of variance. Results. Microwave heating resulted in decreased activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein solubility and increased digestibility of protein in all tested varieties of broad bean seeds. With increasing doses of the microwave fi eld energy a decrease in protein solubility was observed. Satisfactory reduction in trypsin inhibitors at the level of 70-75% and highest protein digestibility were obtained by using a microwave fi eld with energy dose of 1000 J/g of seeds. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the optimal dose of microwave energy fi eld which will produce a relatively low activity of trypsin inhibitors and the highest protein digestibility together with maintaining solubility of broad been seeds was 1000 J/g seed.

  16. O conceito de Educação em Hegel

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    Pedro Geraldo Novelli

    Full Text Available A educação sempre mereceu atenção por parte dos filósofos. Basta citar o exemplo de Sócrates ensinando em praça pública. Sua atividade era um convite ao saber. O filósofo alemão G. W. F. Hegel ( 1770 - 1834 também não ficou indiferente a essa questão muito embora não tenha se manifestado detidamente sobre ela em sua obra. No entanto, Hegel sempre ocupou cargos ou desempenhou funções relacionadas à educação. Por isso é possível apontar essa preocupação em sua filosofia e sugerir as possíveis contribuições. Para Hegel não há sociedade que se sustente sem a educação, pois ela é expressão da razão que busca estabelecer a liberdade e implantá-la enquanto prática corrente. Disso deriva a concepção hegeliana de homem que se caracteriza pela construção de si com seus semelhantes através da história. Esse homem é responsável pelo seu destino e por sua felicidade que não se identifica de forma absoluta com qualquer estrutura material. Nesse sentido Hegel atribui centralidade ao conteúdo e não aos métodos e técnicas. O conteúdo deve ser ministrado enquanto direito e também necessidade, pois é por ele que o homem aprende a ser livre, isto é, racional. A liberdade como fim da educação somente se realiza na totalidade da comunidade o que implica a superação de posicionamentos individualistas.

  17. O conceito de Educação em Hegel

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    Pedro Geraldo Novelli

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A educação sempre mereceu atenção por parte dos filósofos. Basta citar o exemplo de Sócrates ensinando em praça pública. Sua atividade era um convite ao saber. O filósofo alemão G. W. F. Hegel ( 1770 - 1834 também não ficou indiferente a essa questão muito embora não tenha se manifestado detidamente sobre ela em sua obra. No entanto, Hegel sempre ocupou cargos ou desempenhou funções relacionadas à educação. Por isso é possível apontar essa preocupação em sua filosofia e sugerir as possíveis contribuições. Para Hegel não há sociedade que se sustente sem a educação, pois ela é expressão da razão que busca estabelecer a liberdade e implantá-la enquanto prática corrente. Disso deriva a concepção hegeliana de homem que se caracteriza pela construção de si com seus semelhantes através da história. Esse homem é responsável pelo seu destino e por sua felicidade que não se identifica de forma absoluta com qualquer estrutura material. Nesse sentido Hegel atribui centralidade ao conteúdo e não aos métodos e técnicas. O conteúdo deve ser ministrado enquanto direito e também necessidade, pois é por ele que o homem aprende a ser livre, isto é, racional. A liberdade como fim da educação somente se realiza na totalidade da comunidade o que implica a superação de posicionamentos individualistas.

  18. Fuga de cerebros y biografías low cost: nueva etapa en la precarización de la juventud

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    Antonio Santos Ortega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 0 false 21 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} La normalización de la precariedad entre las personas jóvenes está entrando en lo que parece una nueva fase. De la mano de, entre otros factores, los discursos empresariales y la teoría del capital humano, estamos asistiendo a una vuelta de tuerca en la presión sobre la juventud: ya no basta con la búsqueda «activa» de empleo, ahora hay que invertir en uno mismo como «empresario de sí mismo» y, en esta lógica, si es preciso hay que optar por la «movilidad internacional». Presentamos una revisión teórica y conceptual alrededor de lo que se conoce como fuga de cerebros y su justificación discursiva. Estamos ante un proceso que probablemente dejará una marca importante en una generación que ha visto truncadas sus posibilidades de transición a situaciones estables, idealmente identificadas con el mundo adulto.

  19. La nación dividida: análisis multidimensional de las políticas de construcción nacional en relación con las minorías húngaras transfronterizas

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    Dániel Gazsó

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En Europa central y oriental las estrategias de construcción nacional suelen estar relacionadas con un tipo de minorías nacionales que tienen vínculos, tanto objetivos como simbólicos, con su Estado matriz. Uno de los casos que mejor ilustran el desarrollo histórico y la situación actual de este tipo de minorías son las minorías húngaras transfronterizas. Nuestro objetivo principal es dar a conocer cómo influyen en ellas las políticas actuales de construcción nacional de Hungría y por qué estas políticas no responden a sus necesidades. Para este fin no basta realizar una investigación documental, ya que las naciones y el nacionalismo son fenómenos duales, construidos esencialmente desde arriba, pero que no pueden entenderse a menos que se analicen desde abajo. Por esta razón, después de estudiar los antecedentes históricos de Hungría; las mencionadas estrategias políticas de construcción nacional; y la situación de las minorías húngaras transfronterizas, hemos realizado trabajos de campo etnográficos en dos comunidades húngaras, la de Prekmurje/Muravidék en Eslovenia y la de Transcarpatia en Ucrania. Debido a las diferencias que hay entre ellas, su estudio a nivel local e interpersonal permite captar la diversidad de estas minorías y la complejidad de las cuestiones nacionales al respecto.

  20. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  1. Teología del Cuerpo Místico, antropología y moral social en san Alberto Hurtado: La influencia de Columba Marmión

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    Cristián Hodge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available : La teología del Cuerpo Místico de Cristo ocupó un lugar central en el pensamiento de san Alberto Hurtado. En las distintas etapas de su vida desarrolló una antropología a partir del Cuerpo Místico: el hombre está llamado a ser hijo de Dios, basta ser hombre para poder pertenecer al Cuerpo Místico, Cristo está presente en los pobres y la unidad de todos los hombres en Cristo. Este estudio muestra la influencia de Columba Marmión en nuestro autor. Esta antropología teológica es el fundamento de su moral social: la dignidad de la persona humana está fundamentada en la encarnación del Verbo. La opción por los pobres y la solidaridad social son parte de la ética social que el padre Hurtado ha fundamento con su teología del Cuerpo Místico de Cristo.The theology of the Christ Mystical Body has occupied a principal place in St. Alberto Hurtado's thought. He developed an anthropology from the Mystical Body in the different moments of his life: the man is called to be a children of God, that is enough to be a man to be able to belong at de Mystical Body, that Christ is present in the poors, and the unity of all men in Christ. This investigation shows the influence of Columba Marmión in our author. The theological anthropology is the foundation of his social morality: the dignity of human person is based in the incarnation of the Word. The option for the poors and social solidarity are part of the social ethics that padre Hurtado has based with his theology of the Christ Mystical Body.

  2. Estrutura de informação para sites municipais: reunindo cidadania e ergonomia - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i1.1499

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    Tania Fatima Calvi Tait

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Especificamente no setor público, a Internet tem procurado aproximar os cidadãos dos serviços públicos. Assim, há novas exigências para o setor público, como o fornecimento de serviços via Internet e a transparência das informações. Entretanto, não basta disponibilizar informações em um site de forma desorganizada e sem critérios. Para atender à nova forma de apresentar serviços, faz-se necessário criar uma estrutura de informação que encampe os aspectos inerentes à estrutura municipal: atividades meio (administração, fazenda, jurídico e atividades fim (esporte, cultura, educação, assistência social etc. bem como aspectos relacionados à cidadania. Dentro desse cenário, o presente artigo trata o desenvolvimento de sites municipais sob a ótica de critérios ergonômicos e cidadania. Realizou-se uma pesquisa em 24 sites municipais, e a partir da análise dos resultados procedeu-se à elaboração de critérios ergonômicos com a abordagem cidadania para o desenvolvimento de sites municipais. Além da análise desses sites, esta pesquisa apresenta tanto a estrutura de informação para sites municipais como recomendações para a elaboração de sites municipais que encampem as questões aqui tratadas e que são relevantes para o aproveitamento adequado das capacidades fornecidas pelo governo eletrônico

  3. BORGES: a “atitude interdisciplinar” como pedagogia do “ver”

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    Rafael Correia Dantas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Os múltiplos saberes se intersectam por “princípios”: basta nos educarmos para “ver”. Neste artigo, passearei pelos momentos da obra de Borges que mais contribuem para a discussão da “atitude interdisciplinar”, intercalando com situações e exemplos pedagógicos que a tornem acessível. O que mais me interessa é entender nestas páginas, o funcionamento da “atitude interdisciplinar”, bem como a ideia da especialização como “variação”, que acompanha o traço de uma prática analítica de enumeração via “princípios”, movimento que percorre a maior parte da obra do autor em estudo, de modo a levantar neste texto novas possibilidades para as atuações pedagógicas. Trata-se de uma alternativa pedagógica para a fragmentação e hiperespecialização do saber para além da hipótese racionalista da “patologia”, isto é, da especialização como aquilo que deve ser negado. Em outras palavras: com a hipótese da “variação”, a especialização passa a ser vista não como algo a ser negado, mas como um processo inerente à dinâmica do conhecimento, cuja complexidade, no decorrer dos anos, está sempre cada vez maior e que, nestes termos, permite novas concepções educativas.

  4. POSIÇÕES SINGULARES DO ‘L’ EM REESCRITAS DE FÁBULAS PRODUZIDAS POR ALUNOS DO 3º ANO DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL

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    Cristina Felipeto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa erros de grafia que apresentam combinações irregulares e em desconformidade com o sistema (ortográfico do português, por meio de uma reflexão sobre as relações que se estabelecem no processo de aquisição da ortografia. Tenta-se explicitar, por um viés linguístico, as posições singulares do l em reescritas de fábulas por alunos do 3º ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola em Maceió-AL. Para essa reflexão, busca-se apoio teórico em discussões sobre a constituição do sujeito e o funcionamento da língua (DUFOUR, 2000; AUTHIER-REVUZ, 1995; sobre a relevância de dados singulares (PLANE, 2006; VEKEN, 2002; e sobre os processos metafóricos e metonímicos (MILNER, 1989; LEMOS, 1988, motor de análise de dados em Aquisição de Linguagem. Os dados mostram que, dentre os componentes que estão em jogo na aquisição da ortografia, a grafia e a oralidade desempenham um papel fundamental. Desse modo, apenas o indício de apoio na oralidade não basta para dar conta da complexidade em questão. Durante o processo de aquisição da língua escrita, o aluno entra em contato com as especificidades dos signos gráficos e das combinações entre esses signos, o que implica na eliminação de outras grafias ou combinações.

  5. Posições singulares do 'l' em reescritas de fábulas produzidas por alunos do 3º ano do ensino fundamental

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    Cristina Felipeto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa erros de grafia que apresentam combinações irregulares e em desconformidade com o sistema (ortográfico do português, por meio de uma reflexão sobre as relações que se estabelecem no processo de aquisição da ortografia. Tenta-se explicitar, por um viés linguístico, as posições singulares do l em reescritas de fábulas por alunos do 3º ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola em Maceió-AL. Para essa reflexão, busca-se apoio teórico em discussões sobre a constituição do sujeito e o funcionamento da língua (DUFOUR, 2000; AUTHIER-REVUZ, 1995; sobre a relevância de dados singulares (PLANE, 2006; VEKEN, 2002; e sobre os processos metafóricos e metonímicos (MILNER, 1989; LEMOS, 1988, motor de análise de dados em Aquisição de Linguagem. Os dados mostram que, dentre os componentes que estão em jogo na aquisição da ortografia, a grafia e a oralidade desempenham um papel fundamental. Desse modo, apenas o indício de apoio na oralidade não basta para dar conta da complexidade em questão. Durante o processo de aquisição da língua escrita, o aluno entra em contato com as especificidades dos signos gráficos e das combinações entre esses signos, o que implica na eliminação de outras grafias ou combinações.

  6. Políticas y factores que contribuyen a la transferencia de tecnología en organizaciones del Perú

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    Santiago Roca T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En diversos países en desarrollo, entre ellos el Perú, se cree que basta fomentar el comercio y la inversión para que automáticamente las empresas extranjeras y el libre mercado transfieran en forma espontánea la tecnología. Este trabajo muestra que ello no es así. La transferencia de tecnología es un asunto complejo que requiere de determinación estratégica, políticas públicas, instituciones intermedias y capacidades a nivel de la empresa y de los individuos involucrados. Este estudio revisa la literatura de la transferencia de tecnología, tanto desde el punto de vista de las empresas como del gobierno y se centra en analizar 11 estudios de casos de transferencia tecnológica e innovación en el Perú. Se detecta que se requieren enfrentar ocho categorías de problemas que existen en los procesos de absorción y transferencia tecnológica: 1 capacidades individuales; 2 capacidades empresariales; 3 fallas de información, cooperación y coordinación; 4 vinculaciones y conexiones externas; 5 infraestructura; 6 financiamiento; 7 instituciones; y la 8 existencia de fuerzas propagadoras y sistémicas. El gobierno debe articular y hacer coherente el sistema tecnológico nacional y buscar el cumplimiento de los acuerdos de transferencia tecnológica establecidos con los organismos internacionales multilaterales.

  7. Programación de ciclos de maquinado en tornos con control numérico

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    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La realidad colombiana, como país en vía de desarrollo, ha demostrado la necesidad de introducir nuevas tecnologías para tener competitividad en los mercados nacional e internacional. Pero no basta con importar tecnología y seguir siendo dependientes de ésta, sino que se hace necesario tomar desarrollos tecnológicos y adecuarlos a nuestras necesidades. Una forma de avanzar en este sentido es desarrollar una tecnología nacional que nos permita tener cierto nivel de independencia y disminuir costos de importaciones. La Industria Metalmecánica, como principal generadora de Bienes de Capital, debe estar a la vanguardia de los avances tecnológicos. La introducción de los procesos de CAD/CAM y CNC al país ha sido lenta y generalmente subutilizada y acondicionada a la asistencia técnica de las compañías extranjeras. Por tal razón, la generación de Software y demás soportes tecnológicos en esta área constituyen la base que puede iniciar el proceso de independencia tecnológica en este campo. De acuerdo con esta línea de pensamiento, la Universidad Nacional, a través de la facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, con el ingeniero E. Córdoba, profesor de ésta facultad, está enfocando los proyectos de grado en este sentido.

  8. NUEVO PARADIGMA EN LA GESTIÓN ORGANIZACIONAL: GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO

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    William Boet Cisneros

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación exhaustiva, que tuvo la finalidad de proponer indicadores que permitieran medir el capital intangible de la organización. La motivación principal a la hora de emprender este trabajo estuvo condicionada por la ausencia de una metodología, con valores científicos apropiados para la selección de los indicadores del capital intangible (conocimientos en el Centro Universitario de Guantánamo. Para que el conocimiento se convierta en fuente de ventajas competitivas no basta con que exista, es necesario que se pueda capturar, crear, distribuir, almacenar, compartir y utilizar por los miembros de la organización, y es precisamente a través de la gestión del conocimiento, que se logran estos propósitos, de ahí la actualidad de este trabajo. El objeto de la investigación es dar respuesta a la hipótesis siguiente: Si se aprovechan las capacidades intelectuales de la organización, de forma que desarrolle su capacidad de aprendizaje, que potencie la innovación constante y la creación de nuevos conocimientos y que desarrolle los sistemas y la tecnología necesaria para ello, el Centro Universitario de Guantánamo estará en condiciones de afrontar los retos futuros, y asumir el nuevo paradigma, convertir el capital intelectual en capital financiero

    .

  9. A circulação da energia social inscrita na vitalidade dos textos

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    Luciana Salazar Salgado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Há hoje um farto universo de produções e regulamentações que fazem do livro um foco de atenções inéditas no Brasil. Com isso, também ganham terreno temas a princípio bem diversos, como letramento e marketing cultural, por exemplo. Aqui, com base em desdobramentos teóricos da Análise do Discurso de tradição francesa, examinaremos a relação entre o trabalho dos autores e o de seus interlocutores editoriais, os quais, vistos dessa perspectiva, permitem observar a diversidade de práticas e semioses que constituem o processo de criação dos textos cujo destino é circular publicamente. O que se verifica é que, sendo objetos culturais, os textos a publicar não se bastam como organização estritamente linguística ou, antes, a própria organização linguística não se basta, sua autonomia é relativa, pois está submetida a muitas coerções que são de outra ordem – a do discurso, se entendemos por isso que todo texto lido é uma enunciação efetivada e, assim, está sujeito a um conjunto de restrições semânticas que são indissociáveis de um conjunto de práticas sociais e históricas.

  10. O disfarce da força

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    Ivonil Parraz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos analisar a definição de justiça que Pascal oferece, tal como ela se apresenta no "reino da concupiscência". Para ele, a justiça é "prevenção da sedição" (La 66; B.326. Prevenir qualquer revolta é a garantia da paz no Estado. Para tanto, não basta a arte do bem governar, ressaltada nos "Trois discours sur la condition des grands", é preciso usar a força. Ora, como a força não se deixa manipular por se tratar de uma qualidade palpável, ao passo que a justiça se presta a isso, por ser uma qualidade espiritual, manipula-se a justiça para justificar a força. Esvaziado o velho conceito de justiça: "dar a cada um o que lhe é devido", esta passa a ser o disfarce da força.In this article we intend to analyze the definition of justice in the "realm of concupiscence" given by Pascal. Justice is, according to him, prevention of sedition (L. 66; B. 326. Preventing any revolt is the guarantee of peace in the State. Pascal points out in the Trois discours sur la condition des grandes that the good art in governing is not enough to achieve this goal. It is necessary to use force. Because force cannot be manipulated since it is a tangible quality unlike justice, which is a spiritual quality, justice is manipulated to justify force. Once the traditional concept of justice as "give every one his due" becomes empty, justice becomes the disguise of force.

  11. Lugar, vivienda y urbanidad

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    Fernando Campos M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de lugar revierte múltiples significados. Basta con observar las distintas acepciones que este término comporta en la lengua española, entre las que se encuentran aquellas que remiten a un espacio físico real, imaginario o abstracto (espacio, sitio, terruño y territorio, las que remiten a la noción de tiempo (ocasión, momento y oportunidad, o en referencia al uso cotidiano del lenguaje para hablar de la experiencia ( “yo en tu lugar...”. El lugar tiene una multiplicidad de significados provenientes de las distintas disciplinas o teorías que lo abordarán como su “objeto de estudio”, de manera que la filosofía, la geografía, la arquitectura y el urbanismo aportan distintas formas de comprenderlo, dando cuenta de las diferentes aristas que reviste su noción. Cada disciplina, realiza aportes a la visión de lugar dada las dinámicas concretas que asume en su ejercicio académico y profesional. A ello, se suma la evolución histórica que ha sufrido el concepto, experimentando transformaciones importantes con el despliegue de la ilustración y con la influencia de la filosofía existencialista en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se puede decir que, la noción de lugar se construye como un collage en el que se descubren diferentes focos y tensiones, según el tiempo o la disciplina desde la cual se asuma un determinado punto de vista.

  12. Nuestro valor judío de la expectación-expedición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi FULLAT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: No parece prudente proponer unos valores de la educación que sean universales. ¿No se acaba inexorablemente en un centrismo europeo?. Basta con descubrir los valores de Occidente. La civilización occidental posee tres orígenes: Grecia, Roma y Jerusalén. Este estudio se ciñe a la esfera judía esperando más adelante continuar con los otros dos. A partir del concepto hebreo de tiempo antropológico y valiéndose de un método hermenéutico, a mitad de camino entre el de Gadamer y el de Habermas, se descubre el valor del futuro —expectación—, valor que posee dimensión emancipadora —expedición—.SUMMARY: It is not cautious to propose universal values of education. When we try it, don't we fall with inexorabily in an european point of view?. It suffices to discover the main occidentalist values. In fact, the western civilization has got three origins: Greece, Rome and Jerusalem. The aim of this article is to analyze the Jewish field, and we hope, in the future, to be abble to deal with the other two. Starting from the hebrew concept of anthropological time and using the méthode of hermeneutics —between Gadamer and Habermas— we find out the value of the future (expectation, a value wich has an emancipatory side (expedition.

  13. Responsabilidad social: compromiso u obligación universitaria

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    René Aguirre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como propósito analizar la responsabilidad social desde el enfoque del compromiso u obligación que las organizaciones universitarias tienen con respecto a la sociedad en la cual interactúan, sustentándose en autores como Vallaeys et al. (2009, Guedez (2006, Pelekais y Aguirre (2008, Pelekais et al. (2007 Carneiro (2004 entre otros. Bajo un paradigma cualitativo, la investigación fue documental y analítica con un diseño bibliográfico. La técnica fue la observación documental, a través de la revisión de textos y otros documentos necesarios para conceptualizar la categoría objeto de estudio; asimismo, fuentes electrónicas. La contrastación teórica realizada dejó en evidencia que las universidades realizan esfuerzos por cumplir con acciones de responsabilidad social que beneficien a la comunidad tanto interna como externa, no obstante carecen de recursos económicos para los planes y proyectos programados, debido a la reformulación presupuestaria. En conclusión, las universidades están sustentadas en pilares éticos donde se ven apoyadas en el compromiso hacia la docencia, investigación y extensión, por tanto no basta con la transferencia de conocimientos teóricos o técnicos sino se ejerce la responsabilidad social bajo una perspectiva del compromiso de los principios y dimensiones de ella, vinculándose a la coherenciadel comportamiento ético individual como capacidad de interrelación del personal dentro y fuera de ella, del tal manera que se genera un vinculo con la universidad-sociedad-empresa generando así una triangulación por el bienestar responsable de la colectividad para garantizar el alcance del bien sustentable.

  14. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars. PMID:26734025

  15. A high-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the grass model species Brachypodium distachyon L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păcurar, Daniel Ioan; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian; Lenk, Ingo

    2008-10-01

    In the ongoing process of developing Brachypodium distachyon as a model plant for temperate cereals and forage grasses, we have developed a high-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for a diploid accession. Embryogenic callus, derived from immature embryos of the accession BDR018, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying two T-DNA plasmids, pDM805 and pWBV-Ds-Ubi-bar-Ds. Transient and stable transformation efficiencies were optimised by varying the pre-cultivation period, which had a strong effect on stable transformation efficiency. On average 55% of 17-day-old calli co-inoculated with Agrobacterium regenerated stable transgenic plants. Stable transformation frequencies of up to 80%, which to our knowledge is the highest transformation efficiency reported in graminaceous species, were observed. In a study of 177 transgenic lines transformed with pDM805, all of the regenerated transgenic lines were resistant to BASTA, while the gusA gene was expressed in 88% of the transgenic lines. Southern blot analysis revealed that 35% of the tested plants had a single T-DNA integration. Segregation analysis performed on progenies of ten selected T(0) plants indicated simple Mendelian inheritance of the two transgenes. Furthermore, the presence of two selection marker genes, bar and hpt, on the T-DNA of pWBV-Ds-Ubi-bar-Ds allowed us to characterize the developed transformation protocol with respect to full-length integration rate. Even when not selected for, full-length integration occurred in 97% of the transformants when using bialaphos as selection agent.

  16. O sujeito da psicanálise e o sujeito da ciência: Descartes, Freud e Lacan

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    Ingrid Vorsatz

    Full Text Available Partindo da problematização proposta por Lacan acerca do sujeito da psicanálise enquanto o correlato antinômico do sujeito da ciência moderna, procura-se destacar os elementos que constituem o cerne de sua argumentação. O sujeito da ciência emerge da démarche cartesiana conhecida como o cogito no momento em que o procedimento metodológico da dúvida encontra seu ponto de basta numa asserção insofismável: "sou". O sujeito da psicanálise, suposto ao inconsciente (das Unbewusste, inferido por Freud a propósito do elemento duvidoso do sonho, é tributário do procedimento cartesiano. A certeza é o ponto para o qual convergem os encaminhamentos de Descartes e Freud. Mas, enquanto o primeiro recua e institui Deus como garante da verdade, o fundador da psicanálise avança exortando o sujeito a se responsabilizar por aquilo que advém como injunção inconsciente. Do lado do discurso da ciência o sujeito é um elemento alheio ao plano dos enunciados que visam recobrir a totalidade do real - que, de resto, resiste a uma apreensão exaustiva. Recolhido pela psicanálise, esse elemento subtraído da ordem de razões, resto fecundo, tem como dever garantir o campo em relação ao qual se encontra subsumido, numa torção causal que faz ressaltar o estatuto ético do conceito maior (Grundbegriff estabelecido por Freud.

  17. Libros.

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    Alberto Fernández Liria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Ruiz Parra y cols. Seguimiento grupal de pacientes psicóticos en la red pública de salud mental de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca. (Alberto Fernández Liria Emilio Lledó. Ser quien eres. (Mauricio Jalón. Roberto Esposito. Tercera persona. Política de la vida y filosofía de lo impersonal. (Luis Aragón González. Stella Gibbons. La hija de Robert Poste. Barbara Pym. Jane y Prudente. Penelope Fitzgerald. La librería. (Mauricio Jalón. Joris K. Huysmans. Aguas grises. (Vicente Pizarro. José Manuel López Gómez. Asistencia psiquiátrica y salud mental en Burgos: Ignacio López Saiz (1910-1986. (Alicia Merisi. E. Roudinesco. Nuestro lado oscuro. Una historia de los perversos. (Luis Aragón González. Michel Onfray. El sueño de Eichmann. (Luis Aragón González. Charles Dickens. Historia de dos ciudades. (José Luis Peset. Anacleto Ferrer, Cándido Polo. Cine y locura. El pensamiento claro no nos basta. (Ana Catalán. Daniel J. Carlat. Unhinged – The trouble with Psychiatry – a doctor’s revelations about a profession in crisis. (Juan Medrano. Dylan Evans. Placebo. El triunfo de la mente sobre la material en la medicina moderna. (Juan Medrano. Irving Kirsch. The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth (Juan Medrano.

  18. Pedagogía, Psicología y didáctica de la Matemática

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    Gabriela M. Fernández Barberis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los jóvenes de hoy necesitan aprender Matemáticas. Los desafíos a los que se enfrenta la sociedad contemporánea han provocado la prolongación progresiva del nivel educativo. Y en esta educación el papel de la ciencia, de la técnica y de las Matemáticas no han hecho otra cosa que crecer. No basta con saber leer, escribir y hacer cuentas, es necesario poderse expresar oralmente y por escrito sobre temas complejos y poder discutir sobre ellos; hay que dominar también técnicas sofisticadas, para las que se exigen conocimientos matemáticos referidos a las grandes estructuras de la aritmética, del álgebra, del análisis y de la geometría, técnicas que hace un siglo estaban limitadas a un círculo restringido. Así, cada vez parece menos posible para un alumno del año 2000, afirmar que la Matemática no le atañe directamente. La didáctica y la psicología de la Matemática han nacido de la preocupación por entender mejor las dificultades que encuentran los alumnos y de ayudarles a superarlas. La competencia profesional del profesor no se basa solo en el conocimiento de la disciplina o disciplinas que enseña: reside también en su cultura general y en sus conocimientos de psicología, de pedagogía, de didáctica.

  19. Formación para la ciencia: una reflexión sobre los desafíos de la investigación en enfermería en la región de Latinoamérica

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    Laura Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Florence Nightingale, fundadora de la enfermería moderna, en el siglo XIX afirmó que el rol de enfermería es asistir al proceso de reparación natural. Si bien esta aseveración hoy es cierta, la enfermería se ha desarrollado como una profesión en si misma, con su propio cuerpo de conocimientos, un espectro de práctica definido y una educación necesaria para su ejercicio. Hoy, el avance de la ciencia y la tecnología y el contexto de práctica le imprimen una complejidad a la tarea de asistir al proceso de reparación natural. Aquel hacer de enfermería se ha transformado, complejizado, y ya no basta solo con asistir a la persona sino que además es necesario implementar nuevas formas de asistencia y de cuidado. La investigación permite a la enfermería identificar nuevas formas de cuidado y aumentar el cuerpo de conocimientos de la profesión. Este editorial tiene por objetivo compartir una reflexión sobre la práctica de la investigación en enfermería hoy e invita a pensar hacia donde deberíamos enfocar los futuros esfuerzos de producción de conocimiento. Cómo citar este artículo: Alberto L. Formación para la ciencia: una reflexión sobre los desafíos de la investigación en enfermería en la región de Latinoamérica. Rev Cuid. 2014; 5(2: 713-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v5i2.128 

  20. Il Self, la vita e il lavoro: l'esperienza dei gruppi Isadora Duncan

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    Pietro Barbetta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipendenze e psicosi. Servizi per le dipendenze e psichiatria. Delirium indotto da sostanze e delirio schizofrenico. Si tratta di due modi diversi di uscire dal seminato, di deragliare. Di due preoccupazioni diverse per i servizi della salute mentale. Di due concezioni diverse per affrontare le questioni filosofiche. Cartesio introduce per primo questa partizione distinguendo il sogno dalla follia, poi Nietszche riprende la questione sottolineando le differenze tra chi delira e chi il delirio se lo deve procurare. Dall’altra parte c’è il mondo della tecnologia dispiegata, dell’organizzazione socio sanitaria razionale. Chi ha analizzato questi argomenti con maggiore lucidità nella seconda metà del Novecento sono certamente autori che non hanno fatto parte, se non in modo marginale e critico, di questo mondo: Gregory Bateson, Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault. D’altro canto non possiamo ricondurre semplicisticamente, come a volte è stato fatto, tutta questa fenomenologia della mente moderna alla sola opera filosofica. Cartesio non basta, né forse ne è la principale fonte. Perché una mentalità fortemente improntata al metodo razionale prenda il sopravvento sono necessarie pratiche sociali che impregnano il quotidiano e che, come ha osservato Bateson, costruiscono una cibernetica del Self. In questo breve saggio si connette ciò che è accaduto nel Seicento - a partire dagli studi di Yates, Max Weber, Bercovich, Paden e lo stesso Foucault - a ciò che sta accadendo ora nell’ambito della salute mentale. Il puritanesimo, questa tecnologia del Self che guarisce e purifica, e lo psico-farmaco, come intervento chimico puritano. Si propone poi un’esperienza teatrale di recupero dei frammenti immaginari sparsi nell’orizzonte schizofrenico o affogati nei fumi dell’alcol: l’esperienza dei Gruppi Isadora Duncan.

  1. 南瓜子房注射法遗传转化的研究%Studies on Pumpkin Genetic Transformation Mediated by Ovary Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张言朝; 葛宇; 于杨; 徐文龙; 白玉娇; 崔崇士; 屈淑平

    2012-01-01

    以南瓜品种银辉1号为受体材料,用子房注射法对148个南瓜子房进行aiiA基因的遗传转化处理,共收获115个单瓜,结实率为77.7%.随机抽取56个单瓜,经0.2% Basta水溶液筛选和PCR鉴定,鉴定出7株阳性植株,均来自1个单瓜.再经PCR-Southern Blot鉴定,结果显示均有杂交信号,表明aiiA基因已经整合到银辉1号南瓜基因组DNA中,转化率为0.25%,单瓜转化率为6.36%.%Taking pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.) variety ' Yinhui No. 1' as receptor, aiiA gene was transferred into 148 pumpkin ovaries by injection. 115 fruits were obtained with 77.7% seed setting percentage. Then 56 fruits were randomly selected, screened by 0.2% Basta aqueous solution and PCR identification. Finally, 7 positive plants were all from one single fruit and all of them showed the hybridization signals by PCR-Southern Blot identification. The result indicated that the aiiA gene had been integrated into the genomic DNA of pumpkin ' Yinhui No. 1' with a converting rate of 0.25% and the converting rate per fruit was 6.36%.

  2. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  3. LA EDUCACIÓN, ENTRE LA CIENCIA Y LA TÉCNICA

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    José Alberto Rivera Piragauta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea una reflexión filosófica sobre la educación. Pretende ser un acercamiento, a modo de disertación, redescubriendo el papel que tiene la educación cuando se mueve en coordenadas tan claramente definidas como lo es la ciencia y la técnica, sin desconocer que la mirada está puesta en el horizonte de la educación desde la virtualidad. La metodología consistió en la revisión y el posterior análisis de algunos textos que se referencian a lo largo del escrito, y que son posibles caminos que orientan al lector en temas interesantes y a su vez actuales sobre la educación. Así las cosas, la hipótesis a desarrollar es: El objeto técnico es el punto de encuentro de la ciencia y la técnica que justifica la nueva metodología de la educación en los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje. Es una reflexión que se fundamenta en la riqueza propia de la historia del pensamiento humano y de sus aportes a la ciencia y, por ende, al conocimiento, si y solo si tiene su necesaria réplica en la educación. Dicha reflexión tiene una carga bastante fuerte en literatura filosófica, que sirve de base para elaborar un posterior discurso sobre la educación en medio del mundo tecnológico, ya familiar para todo el género humano. Basta, por ahora invitar al lector a descubrir las aristas y los puntos de interés para propiciar nuevas indagaciones sobre el tema.

  4. La gestión participativa en la construcción del hábitat residencial. Experiencia con 54 familias dispersas de Villa El Libertador

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    Mónica Martínez Rusconi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1995, se viene incursionando sobre la temática de la participación en el diseño y materialización del hábitat para población de escasos recursos. A través de sucesivos proyectos de investigación otorgados por la Secretaría de Extensión Universitaria (1995 y el Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la provincia de Córdoba (Martínez Rusconi 1996-1999, y en el marco de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Diseño, se ha consolidado una basta experiencia en el medio local, acercándonos a la comunidad, verdadero protagonista del ejercicio participativo. Una de las experiencias desarrolladas se lleva a cabo con un grupo de población dispersa –54 familias- de Villa El Libertador. La participación como mecanismo de gestión ha permitido el desarrollo de acciones tendientes a abordar la problemática habitacional de este grupo humano, como son la selección y compra de tierra urbana, y la elaboración y gestión del proyecto de vivienda. La obtención de tercera mención, dentro del concurso “La participación en el planeamiento y diseño del hábitat popular” (Cyted 1998, avala las experiencias, métodos y reflexiones abordados dentro de esta línea investigativa.

  5. Gloria Bautista Gutierrez: realism mágico, cosmos latinoamericano teoría y práctica. Editorial América Latina, Santafé de Bogotá, D.C., edición noviembre 1991, p. 141

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    Branka Kalenić Ramšak

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available La autora de este libro, Gloria Bautista Gutiérrez, actualmente profesora en la Universidad de Clemson (South Caroline, en Estados Unidos, ha publicado basta ahora muchos ensayos de crítica literaria fijando su especial atención en temas literarios contemponineos, sobre todo en los narradores hispanoamericanos del iglo XX, como son por ejemplo Gabriel García Márquez, Jorge Luis Borges, Emesto Sábato, Juan Rulfo, Carlos Fuentes, Isabel Allende y otros. Como resultado de varios años de investigación y ensefianza apareció en 1991 el libro Realismo mágico, cpsmos latinoamericano donde la pofesora Bautista vio la necesidad de esclarecer el término "realismo mágico" tan vaga y libremente empleado por muchos críticos literarios hispanoamericanos y europeos a lo largo de nuestro siglo. El mayor valor del libro es el esfuerzo de alumbrar y hacer más comprensible el término mencionado, de concretizar y determinar sus límites formales, tanto en el campo teórico como en el práctico, porque en la segunda parte dellibro la teoría se aplica a dos novelas, a Cien años de soledad y a La casa de los espíritus, cuyos autores son escritores muy eminentes, el Nobel colombiano Gabriel García Márquez y la chilena Isabel Allende.

  6. Psicoanálisis y derecho penal.

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    Dieter Spazier

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Para rendir homenaje a Sigmund FREUD, no basta con adornar su tumba. Cuadra mejor a su herencia, y resulta más útil para el tema que nos ocupa, el reflexionar con entera franqueza sobre su espíritu que permanece vivo. Precisamente en aquellos ámbitos en que FREUD no sentó una teoría preestablecida, limitándose a la concisa descripción e interpretación provisional de hallazgos no obstante notables, procedió según la tradición éticocientífica del pensador empírico. En ella radica su grandeza y con harta frecuencia nuestra mengua. Una exégesis estrecha de FREUD y precipitadas generalizaciones teóricas, que no sin razón se han atraído el reproche de ser acientíficas y estar teñidas de ideología, amenazan con asfixiar esas experiencias y ese pensamiento prístinos. Y por esta razón, un psicoanálisis autocrítico, venciendo a menudo grandes dificultades -y, sobre todo, expuesto al riesgo de que caiga sobre él la sospecha de renegar de sus esencias -tiene que desbrozar el camino del retorno a FREUD. Mas éste viene a coincidir con el camino de vuelta hacia un intelecto que obliga a la ciencia a cumplir con las condiciones de empirismo y pragmatismo.

  7. Los Refugiados Iraquíes en Oriente Medio: El Ascenso de la “Cuestión Iraquí”

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    Beatriz Tomé

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La invasión de Irak y 2003 y el posterior conflicto intercomunitario han desatado numerosas consecuencias locales, regionales e internacionales. Una de ellas, frecuentemente obviada, es la salida de algo más de dos millones de refugiados a los países vecinos. Lo que convierte a Oriente Medio en la región que acoge a casi la mitad de los refugiados globales. Los principales países receptores, Jordania y Siria, contemplan la llegada de los expatriados iraquíes –intensificada a partir de 2006- desde una perspectiva de seguridad ampliada: seguridad nacional, económica, del régimen y desde el miedo a que éstos actúen como “gérmenes” de los problemas de su país de origen. La respuesta al problema es compleja. No basta ya con terminar con las causas que le dieron origen. La mejor solución es el regreso a Irak: permitiría el aprovechamiento de buena parte del capital humano y financiero situado ahora al otro lado de la frontera. Pero la vuelta necesita de unas condiciones específicas: no sólo el cese de la violencia, también cierta estabilidad y la existencia de una infraestructura que sea capaz de cubrir las necesidades de los que regresan. De no ser así, la situación empeoraría con los que vuelven uniéndose a los ya más de dos millones de desplazados internos e incapaces de integrarse en el nuevo modelo estatal.

  8. Valores humanos y educación en/para la tolerancia

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    Constancio MÍNGUEZ ÁLVAREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: "Educar para/y en la tolerancia" se entiende como cauce para formar ciudadanos, solidarios con sus congéneres. La reflexión se plantea en el ámbito educativo, entendido como proceso de "preguntas y respuestas" donde se forma la persona. No basta con cambios de discurso o nuevo lenguaje, aunque son necesarios, exige un cambio de mentalidad. El objetivo de la tolerancia es una coexistencia pacífica, por lo que requiere una ruptura con la homogeneización y optar por la diversidad. En política educativa se habla de diversidad, pero es más un discurso que una práctica educativa, pues la diversidad no se acepta. Un buen método de ejercicio en tolerancia es practicar el discernimiento en la toma de decisiones. Es un camino nuevo, centrado en el respeto al pluralismo y a las minorías, superando todo tipo de fundamentalismo.ABSTRACT: Teaching for Tolerance is meant as a way of forming citizens who are solidary. Its main vule is high respect to the others. This thought is understood within the educational centext as a "question-answer" process in which a person is educated. Changing the language is not enough, although it is necessary. What is needed is a change of mind. The object of tolerance is a peaceful coexistence and so it needs a break from homogenization and a choice of diversity. In educational terms the word "diversity" is often understood as a part of speech rather than a teaching practice, since it is not generally accepted. Discerning when making decissions can be a good method of excercising tolerance. It is a new way, based on the respect for pluralism and minorities, overcaning all kinds of radicalism.

  9. Tres reflexiones éticas

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    Laín Entralgo, Pedro

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La palabra, la amistad y la enfermedad son los tres ámbitos escogidos por el autor para vertebrar estas tres reflexiones éticas que configuraron las «IV Conferencias Aranguren », En primer lugar, se pasa revista a la compleja interacción que se crea entre un hablante y su interlocutor, la cual es analizada desde un punto de vista moral, destacándose aspectos tales como la persuasión, la sinceridad o la llamada mentira piadosa. Quizá sólo alguien que une a su condición de ensayista el oficio de médico podía recordamos lo apuntado al final del trabajo, a saber, que junto a las obligaciones de los médicos para con sus pacientes o la de éstos para con aquéllos, no deben olvidarse los deberes del enfermo para consigo mismo, en tanto que sólo ellos pueden ayudarnos a transcender nuestra enfermedad y a rentabilízarla desde una perspectiva ética. El intrincado problema de la amistad constituye el núcleo y la parte central del artículo, donde se nos habla de la benefidencia como algo enteramente peculiar y sustantivo de las relaciones amistosas. Esta benefidencia representa un plus que, por encima de la benevolencia, la benedicencia o la beneficencia, transforma una relación humana en un vínculo amistoso. Según esta tesis, en el terreno de la amistad no basta con dar algo de lo que se tiene o algo de lo que se hace, sino que también se necesita dar algo de lo que se es; y en ello consiste la confidencia hecha al buen amigo.

  10. Femminicidio: per un’informazione che superi la rivittimizzazione mediatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Betti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cambiare la cultura significa cambiare il modo di pensare, con una consapevolezza e una conoscenza che permetta di rintracciare stereotipi e ruoli nascosti nelle pieghe profonde della società, e così tanto radicati nel nostro modo di essere, da risultare quasi invisibili. Stereotipi che sono parte integrante del nostro modo di vivere, e che pongono uomini e donne su piani di superiorità e subalternità in base al sesso, e senza alcuna altra motivazione, condizionando pesantemente le relazioni umane attraverso un pregiudizio. Una discriminazione che è già una forma di violenza che considera la donna come un oggetto da conquistare, possedere, controllare, e non un soggetto. La violenza maschile contro le donne non è un fenomeno né nuovo né solo italiano. E se il problema è strutturale e culturale, l’informazione e la narrazione mediatica di questa violenza, diventa uno dei fattori principali per il cambiamento. Per queste ragioni, non basta essere “sensibili” all’argomento ma bisogna conoscerlo, bisogna essere preparati, studiare, ed è fondamentale che la formazione valga per giudici, forze dell’ordine, avvocati e avvocate, psicologi e psicologhe, assistenti sociali, ma anche per i giornalisti e le giornaliste che si vogliano occupare di questi temi. La responsabilità mediatica è particolarmente grave, perché quando l’informazione si consuma sulla pelle di esseri umani – come donne e bambine che rischiano la loro stessa incolumità – ognuno di dovrebbe fare un esame di coscienza chiedendosi: quali potrebbero essere le conseguenze se sbaglio o se sono superficiale? Risolvere il problema culturale anche attraverso una corretta informazione, è il nodo da sciogliere.

  11. La alineación de un corpus paralelo multilingüe: propuesta de fases para la didáctica de traducción especializada inversa.DOI: 10.5007/2175-7968.2011v1n27p117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Castillo Rodríguez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La alineación de corpus paralelos multilingües puede parecer una tarea trivial. Sin embargo, se trata de uno de los procesos más importantes a la hora de gestionar con éxito los textos contenidos en un corpus paralelo multilingüe y así extraer el máximo provecho del análisis contrastivo de traducciones a otra lengua diferente. Generalmente, los textos de un corpus ad hoc paralelo multilingüe, extraídos de la red Internet, suelen ofrecer una estructura similar —tanto en el texto original (TO como en los distintos textos meta (TM que presenten—. No obstante, en muchas ocasiones los TM ofrecen una estructura diferente con respecto a su homólogo en lengua original, como ocurre, por ejemplo, con textos turísticos españoles del segmento de salud y belleza con versiones traducidas a otras lenguas. En este caso, para que los alumnos, y futuros traductores profesionales, puedan evaluar la calidad de dichas traducciones, no basta con la simple recopilación de los textos y posterior explotación con un programa de gestión de corpus paralelos. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una serie de pautas que deben seguirse para alinear TO con sus respectivos TM cuando éstos últimos presentan una estructura dispar a partir de un corpus de textos ad hoc paralelo multilingüe (español‑francés/inglés/italiano.

  12. Bacterial community composition in the rhizosphere of a transgenic, herbicide-resistant maize (Zea mays) and comparison to its non-transgenic cultivar Bosphore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, Achim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2002-04-01

    Bacterial communities in rhizospheres of transgenic maize (Zea mays, with the pat-gene conferring resistance to the herbicide glufosinate; syn. l-phosphinothricin) were compared to its isogenic, non-transgenic cultivar. Total DNA was extracted from bacterial cell consortia collected from rhizospheres of plants grown in an agricultural field. With the use of three different primer pairs binding to evolutionarily conserved regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, partial sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to generate genetic profiles which corresponded to the diversity of the amplified sequences. Genetic profiles of rhizospheres consisted of 40-60 distinguishable bands depending on the chosen primer pairs, and the variability between independent replicates was very low. Neither the genetic modification nor the use of the herbicide Liberty (syn. Basta; active ingredient: glufosinate) affected the SSCP profiles as investigated with digital image analysis. In contrast, PCR-SSCP profiles of bacterial communities from rhizospheres of sugar beet, grown in the same field as a control crop, were clearly different. A less pronounced but significant difference was also observed with rhizosphere samples from fine roots of maize plants collected 35 and 70 days after sowing. Sequencing of the dominant 30 products from one typical SSCP profile generated from transgenic maize rhizospheres indicated the presence of typical soil and rhizosphere bacteria: half of the bands could be attributed to Proteobacteria, mainly of the alpha- and beta-subgroups. Other SSCP bands could be assigned to members of the following phylogenetic groups: Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides, Chlamydiales-Verrucomicrobium, Planctomyces, Holophaga and to Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C DNA content.

  13. La elasticidad de la demanda por electricidad y la política energética

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    Alexander Galetovic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el análisis y la práctica de la política energética se suele suponer que la elasticidad de la demanda por energía eléctrica es irrelevante. Este trabajo muestra que durante episodios de escasez de energía una “pequeña” elasticidad basta para generar caídas “grandes” de la probabilidad de déficit y del costo del abastecimiento eléctrico. Esto se debe a que en la vecindad de la capacidad del sistema, la oferta de energía de corto plazo es cercana a vertical. Ilustramos nuestro punto cuantitativamente simulando la operación esperada del sistema eléctrico chileno durante los años de ajuste a la crisis causada por los cortes de gas argentinos, el periodo 2006-2010. Mostramos que el aumento de los precios causado por el retraso de las inversiones y los cortes de gas argentino, combinado con una “pequeña” elasticidad de la demanda mensual por energía (0.0548 en valor absoluto eran suficientes para reducir mucho la probabilidad de déficit mensual y retornarla a niveles normales. Más aún, si se soslaya el efecto de los mayores precios en el consumo, el costo marginal se sobreestima en 32% y el costo de operación esperado en 41 por ciento.

  14. DESAFÍO DOCENTE: EL ALUMNO POSTMODERNO

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    Teresa Alfaro Ramírez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las sociedades progresan: la actual, en un mundo que comandan la globalización y la informática, es una sociedad postmoderna. En ella, se han modificado las formas de transmitir y relacionar socialmente la cultura; se han desarrollado nuevos seres humanos, individuos postmodernos con características muy particulares: ellos son nuestros alumnos. ¿Cómo optimizamos la tríada del aprendizaje (alumno-docente-conocimientos? No basta saber los contenidos y ser un especialista en la materia; es indispensable ser conscientes del entorno actual para analizar y comprender las características de nuestros alumnos, también denominados “hijos de la globalización” o “nativos digitales”. Solo así conoceremos, asimismo, nuestra propia realidad como individuos y docentes. El presente ensayo procura analizar las características de nuestros alumnos y reflexionar sobre nuestro papel como docentes en un entorno complejo y cambiante. ABSTRACT: Societies progress: currently, a globalized and computer world, is a postmodern society. In it, the ways of transmitting and socializing culture have changed; new human beings have been developed postmodern individuals with very particular characteristics: they are our students. How to optimize the learning triad (student-teacher-knowledge? It is not enough to know the contents and be a specialist in the field, it is essential to be aware of the current environment to analyze and understand the characteristics of our students, also called "sons of globalization" or "digital natives". Only then shall we know, also, our own reality as individuals and teachers. This paper seeks to analyze the characteristics of our students and reflect on our role as teachers in a complex and changing environment.

  15. Development of Japonica Rice with Insect- resistant Gene Cry2A * by Agrobacterium - mediated Transformation%利用农杆菌介导法获得转cry2A抗虫基因水稻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振映; 柳絮; 王文英; 姚方印; 刘开启

    2011-01-01

    Lepidopteran pests, especially stemborers and leaffolders, had obvious repulsionto Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) toxic protein encoded by cry2A* gene, so the pC -2A plasmid with cry2A * gene was transferred into the genome of rice variety Zhendao 88 by Agrobacterium - mediated method. Then the transgenic rice plants were obtained through Basta screening based on the tight linkage of cry2A* gene with Bastaresistant gene. The PCR and AGE analysis indicated that the cry2A * gene had been successfully integrated into Zhendao 88 genome. The field test showed that the transgenic plants had much better insect resistance compared with common plants.%稻纵卷叶螟等鳞翅目害虫对cry2A 编码的Bt毒性蛋白有明显的排斥效应,从而可达到抗虫的效果.本研究利用农杆菌介导法,将载有cry2A基因的pC-2A质粒转人受体水稻品种镇稻88基因组内,获得转基因植株.由于cry2A与抗Basta基因紧密连锁,通过Basta抗性筛选,进而得到转cry2A基因阳性株.PCR和AGE分析结果表明,外源基因cry2A已成功整合到镇稻88基因组内.田间试验结果显示转基因阳性植株有明显的抗虫效果.

  16. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH genes enhanced resistance to herbicide and drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eDuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d and salt stress (200 mM NaCl were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content (RWC level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars.

  17. 农杆菌介导植酸酶基因转化大豆的研究%Transformation of Phytase Gene into Soybean via Agrobacterium-mediated Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦; 夏善勇; 张军; 段忠卫; 刘鑫磊; 李希臣

    2011-01-01

    以大豆胚尖为受体,利用农杆菌介导法将来源于泡盛曲霉的植酸酶基因phy转入黑农37和吉林小粒豆中.此法取材方便,操作简单,产生嵌合体的可能件低.在筛选培养基中经草胺膦(1.0 mg·L-1)筛选,获得抗性植侏.对获得的草胺磷抗性植株采用除草剂(10%Basta)筛查表型鉴定与目的基因、筛选标记基因PCR分子检测相结合的方法,检测结果直观、可信度高.最终获得5株阳性植株,转化率为0.5%.%The Phy gene cloned from Aspergillus awamori was transformed into soybean varieties Heinong37 and Jilinxiaoli soybean through Agrobacterium-mediated method with soybean embryonic tips as acceptors. The method has advantage of easy operation and lower chimera rate. The regenerated plants were screened by glufosinate-ammonium( 1.0 mg · L-1 )of medium.The regenerated plantlets resistant to glufosinate-ammonium were detected by combining the PCR analysis of the target gene as well as selective marker gene and the herbicide screening. The result was intuitive and credible. Finally, 5 positive plants were obtained, and the transformation efficiency reached 0. 5%.

  18. Itinerario hacia Dios.: Elementos de escatología origeniana

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    Samuel Fernández E

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La obra origeniana ofrece una teología inacabada, en investigación, que busca ser comprensible a sus contemporáneos. Orígenes critica a los milenaristas que interpretan las promesas bíblicas de modo literal, es decir, materialmente. Considera que a ellos Cristo no les basta y por eso esperan bienes materiales para la bienaventuranza final. Orígenes, por el contrario, centra en Cristo el todo contenido de las promesas bíblicas, puesto que en el Unigénito de Dios están contenidos todos los bienes. La teología origeniana del progreso espiritual plantea un ascenso y gradual de ser racional, no solo en esta vida, sino también después de la muerte, hasta la adquisición de la bienaventuranza definitiva. Bienaventuranza que, al final, será alcanzada por todos y de modo estable. Todo este proceso se verifica con gran atención a salvaguardar el libre albedrío de la naturaleza racional, aun después de su muerte.Origen’s work offers an unended theology, under research, which attempts to be understandable to his contempraries. Origens criticises the millienarits, who interpret the biblical promeses literally, that is to say, materially. He considers that for them Christ is not enough, so they expect material goods for the final beatitude. Origens, on the contrary, centres all the content of the biblical promises on Christ, as all the good are comprised in Him. Origens theology on spiritual progress, presents a slow and gradual ascension of the rational being, not only in this life, but also after death until he comes to the definite beatitude, which in the end, will be reached by everybody and in a stable way. All this process is verified with great attention to safeguard the free will of the rational nature, even after his death.

  19. [Is it enough to recommend to patients take a walk? Importance of the cadence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Existe fuerte evidencia científica sobre los beneficios que conlleva seguir un estilo de vida activo. La actividad física más característica e inherente al ser humano es la marcha, la que hoy en día es promovida por diversos profesionales para mejorar el estado de salud de la población. No obstante, al parecer no solo basta con sugerir “salga a caminar” pues es necesario alcanzar cierta cantidad de pasos y cadencia con la finalidad de inducir en el organismo una serie de efectos beneficiosos. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer los últimos avances relacionados con esta materia, con el propósito de poder entregar a la población y pacientes recomendaciones más detalladas a la hora de prescribir y sugerir caminar. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Scielo, así como una búsqueda manual entre las referencias de los estudios seleccionados. Resultados: Tras analizar la literatura se puede señalar que no solo parece ser importante cumplir cierta cantidad de pasos durante el día con la finalidad de mejorar el estado de salud de las personas, además parece ser indispensable sugerir la cadencia a la que se debiera caminar. Conclusiones: “Salga a caminar” es una efectiva y contrastada recomendación para lograr beneficios en la salud de la población, no obstante lo anterior, los profesionales de la salud podrían además sugerir alcanzar cierta cadencia o intensidad mínima para asegurarse de que sus pacientes logren dichos efectos favorables en el organismo.

  20. Efficient use of electric power in corporative 3M Mexico; Uso eficiente de la energia electrica en el corporativo 3M Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, Alfredo; Quinones Bonilla, Antonio S. [3M Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico); Bustos Antunez, Jorge I.; Reyes Arce, Manuel [Hines Interests, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    It is not enough to count on with the state of the art technology for the daily operation of a building, the challenge is to be able to make a clear analysis and with attainable goals for the optimization of rational use of the electrical energy in the operation of intelligent buildings without affecting the comfort and productivity for users as well as the functionality and profitability for the owner. This went our base to carry out control strategies that helped the efficient use of the electrical energy, obtaining important savings without neglecting the operative part, of services and human within the property. It is thus, that 3M Mexico wanting to reach these purposes, conducted actions to improve the efficiency of the equipment in the following items: electric network, general lighting, air conditioning system, ventilation and extraction, hydropneumatic system, and sumps operation. [Spanish] No basta contar con la tecnologia de punta para la operacion diaria de un edificio, el reto es ser capaces de realizar un analisis claro y con metas alcanzables para la optimizacion de uso racional de la energia electrica en las operaciones de edificios inteligentes sin afectar el confort y productividad para usuarios asi como la funcionalidad y rentabilidad para el propietario. Esta fue nuestra base para llevar a cabo estrategias de control que ayudaron al uso eficiente de la energia electrica, obteniendo ahorros importantes sin descuidar la parte operativa, de servicios y humana dentro de la propiedad. Es asi, que 3M Mexico queriendo alcanzar dichos propositos, realizo acciones para mejorar la eficiencia de los equipos en los siguientes rubros: red electrica, iluminacion general, sistema de aire acondicionado, ventilacion y extraccion, sistema hidroneumatico, y operacion de carcamos.

  1. activismo y estéticas en experimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rincón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Podemos comunicarlo todo: tenemos las tecnologías de la comunicación cada vez más cerca; pero no podemos contar nada, porque no tenemos nada qué decir, ni sabemos cómo decirlo. Hay que inventarlo todo, intervenir de nuevo la sociedad desde la comunicación. Es necesario convertir los medios en experiencia estética, social y política. ¿Cómo? Usando a las tecnologías para el activismo y el experimento; recurriendo a los llamado retro, porque no es lo más actual, lo más mercado, como experiencia de inspiración y emoción. Hay que volver a las estéticas, a los modos de narrar y a las historias que están inscritas en nuestras identidades locales; en nuestras sensibilidades femeninas, juveniles o sexuales; en nuestras tradiciones étnicas, o en nuestros modos urbanos. Sólo basta una minicámara para inventar el universo. En este ensayo se realiza un alegato contra los universos estético-narrativopolíticos construidos por la máquina televisiva y la homogeneidad del mercado. En este texto se argumenta a favor del activismo comunicativo, de la exploración tecnológica y de la inspiración étnica como estrategias para generar una mayor conciencia sobre el valor social de la comunicación, la intervención estético-narrativa de la sociedad y la importancia política de los medios de la gente.

  2. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  3. Phylogeny of choanozoa, apusozoa, and other protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E-Y

    2003-05-01

    The primary diversification of eukaryotes involved protozoa, especially zooflagellates-flagellate protozoa without plastids. Understanding the origins of the higher eukaryotic kingdoms (two purely heterotrophic, Animalia and Fungi, and two primarily photosynthetic, Plantae and Chromista) depends on clarifying evolutionary relationships among the phyla of the ancestral kingdom Protozoa. We therefore sequenced 18S rRNA genes from 10 strains from the protozoan phyla Choanozoa and Apusozoa. Eukaryote diversity is encompassed by three early-radiating, arguably monophyletic groups: Amoebozoa, opisthokonts, and bikonts. Our taxon-rich rRNA phylogeny for eukaryotes allowing for intersite rate variation strongly supports the opisthokont clade (animals, Choanozoa, Fungi). It agrees with the view that Choanozoa are sisters of or ancestral to animals and reveals a novel nonflagellate choanozoan lineage, Ministeriida, sister either to choanoflagellates, traditionally considered animal ancestors, or to animals. Maximum likelihood trees suggest that within animals Placozoa are derived from medusozoan Cnidaria (we therefore place Placozoa as a class within subphylum Medusozoa of the Cnidaria) and hexactinellid sponges evolved from demosponges. The bikont and amoebozoan radiations are both very ill resolved. Bikonts comprise the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista and three major protozoan groups: alveolates, excavates, and Rhizaria. Our analysis weakly suggests that Apusozoa, represented by Ancyromonas and the apusomonads ( Apusomonas and the highly diverse and much more ancient genus Amastigomonas, from which it evolved), are not closely related to other Rhizaria and may be the most divergent bikont lineages. Although Ancyromonas and apusomonads appear deeply divergent in 18S rRNA trees, the trees neither refute nor support the monophyly of Apusozoa. The bikont phylum Cercozoa weakly but consistently appears as sister to Retaria (Foraminifera; Radiolaria), together forming a hitherto

  4. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU r

  5. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

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    Wörheide Gert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836, a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges and Calcarea (calcareous sponges. We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early

  6. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: first comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-02-27

    The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa.Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU rRNA secondary

  7. Paleoclimate and evolution: emergence of sponges during the neoproterozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, we had to cope with many technological and conceptual obstacles. The major hindrance was the view that sponges are primitive and exist separated from the other metazoan organisms. After answering these problems, the painful scientific process to position the most enigmatic metazoan phylum, the Porifera, into the correct phylogenetic place among the eukaryotes in general and the multicellular animals in particular came to an end. The well-studied taxon Porifera (sponges) was first grouped to the animal-plants or plant-animals, then to the Zoophyta or Mesozoa, and finally to the Parazoa. Only by the application of molecular biological techniques was it possible to place the Porifera monophyletically with the other metazoan phyla, justifying a unification of all multicellular animals to only one kingdom, the Metazoa. The first strong support came from the discovery that cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules, that were cloned from sponges (mainly the demosponges Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium) and that were subsequently expressed, share high DNA sequence and protein function similarity with the corresponding molecules of other metazoans. Together with the molecular biological studies and with the use of the cell culture technologies (primmorphs), which allowed an insight into the stem cell system of these simple organisms, it was possible to stethoscope back in the paleontological history of animals. These studies confirmed the view that the sponges evolved between two epochal ice times, 710-680 Ma (Sturtian glaciation) and 605-585 Ma (Varanger-Marinoan ice age), a period which allowed evolution to proceed but resulted also in a mass extinction of most animal taxa, with the exception of the Porifera. These animals could develop in the aqueous milieu which was rich in silica, due also to their ability to live in a symbiosis with unicellular organisms (prokaryotic and also eukaryotic). Those organisms provided the sponges with the

  8. Novel mechanism for the radiation-induced bystander effect: Nitric oxide and ethylene determine the response in sponge cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Werner E.G. [Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Universitaet, Duesbergweg 6, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: wmueller@uni-mainz.de; Ushijima, Hiroshi [Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Institute of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Batel, Renato [Center for Marine Research, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, HR-52210 Rovinj (Croatia); Krasko, Anatoli [Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Universitaet, Duesbergweg 6, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Borejko, Alexandra [Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Universitaet, Duesbergweg 6, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Mueller, Isabel M. [Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Universitaet, Duesbergweg 6, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Schroeder, Heinz-C. [Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Universitaet, Duesbergweg 6, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-05-11

    Until now the bystander effect had only been described in vertebrates. In the present study the existence of this effect has been demonstrated for the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum, the Porifera. We used the demosponge Suberites domuncula for the experiments in the two-chamber-system. The lower dish contained irradiated 'donor' cells (single cells) and the upper dish the primmorphs ('recipient' primmorphs). The 'donor' cells were treated with UV-B light (40 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and 100 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), factors that exist also in the natural marine aquatic environment of sponges; these factors caused a high level of DNA strand breaks followed by a reduced viability of the cells. If these cells were added to the 'recipient' primmorphs these 3D-cell cultures started to undergo apoptosis. This effect could be abolished by the NO-specific scavenger PTIO and ethylene. The conclusion that NO is synthesized by the UV-B/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated cells was supported analytically. The cDNA encoding the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) was isolated from the 'donor' cells. High levels of DDAH transcripts were measured in UV-B/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated 'donor' cells while after ethylene treatment the steady-state level of expression drops drastically. We conclude that in the absence of ethylene the concentration of the physiological inhibitor for the NO synthase ADMA is low, due to the high level of DDAH. In consequence, high amounts of NO are released from 'donor' cells which cause apoptosis in 'recipient' primmorphs. In contrast, ethylene reduces the DDAH expression with the consequence of higher levels of ADMA which prevent the formation of larger amounts of NO. This study describes the radiation-induced bystander effect also for the most basal metazoans and demonstrates that this effect is controlled by the two gasses NO and ethylene.

  9. El desarrollo del niño hasta los 12 meses. Orientaciones al pediatra para su vigilancia con la familia

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    Carmen Sánchez-Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El pediatra tiene un papel de primera importancia en la vigilancia y promoción del desarrollo de los niños; los padres estiman que es el profesional que puede orientarlos para saber si su desarrollo es normal y sobre la forma de proveer cuidados para favorecerlo. Para atender estas demandas el pediatra debe utilizar distintas herramientas que le permitan comprender la forma en que se va organizando el desarrollo del niño, pero a la vez la forma en que los cuidados, organización del ambiente y condiciones de riesgo y alarma pueden impactar en su evolución. No basta con aplicar pruebas de cribado, deben observarse además los procesos de crianza y la forma en qué aspectos del entorno pueden favorecer o limitar el desarrollo, acompañándose de recomendaciones claras que lo promuevan.  El objetivo primario de este artículo es llamar la atención del pediatra sobre la necesidad de asesorar a los padres sobre su capacidad para vigilar y favorecer el desarrollo normal y el cuidado de sus hijos en las actividades de la vida cotidiana. Señalamos aspectos del desarrollo susceptibles de ser observados regularmente y sobre los que se puede incidir mediante recomendaciones que modulen la relación con el niño. Exponemos una visión clínica del desarrollo infantil que permita, de manera sencilla, resolver las necesidades de los padres sobre cómo supervisar y conducir el desarrollo de sus hijos. Les proponemos complementar su evaluación con indicaciones y sugerencias para que aprendan a observar a sus hijos, siguiendo determinadas secuencias que de no cumplirse indican al pediatra una condición de riesgo y la necesidad de aplicar una prueba de tamizado completa otra de mayor especialización en la que se tenga experiencia.

  10. As co-variatas políticas das mortes violentas

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    Gláucio Ary Dillon Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os fenômenos do crime, da violência e do homicídio estão fortemente relacionados com fatores políticos, basta observar a incidência da violência policial e de Estado nas ditaduras e nos regimes totalitários ou o papel das políticas públicas e da sociedade civil democrática em coibi-los. Transformar regimes em variáveis é um dos passos fundamentais para se entender a evolução das taxas de mortes ou por causas externas nos países que passaram por mudanças de regimes políticos, como os países da Europa Oriental e do antigo bloco soviético. No caso latino-americano, não houve um quadro extremado de dissolução social semelhante mas, mesmo assim, experimentou-se uma diferença significativa nas taxas de homicídios antes e depois das transições políticas. Os dados relativos ao Brasil mostram a tendência de crescimento dessas taxas durante o regime militar e de estabilidade no período pós-transição democrática, o que rompe com uma visão que destaca o fenômeno inverso, uma espécie de onda de violência acompanhando o fim da ditadura militar.Crime, violence and homicide are strongly related to political factors, as we can see by the high incidence of police and state violence in dictatorships and totalitarisms or by the role of policy and democratic civil society in reduce them. Using regimes as variables is a fundamental step to understand the evolution of rates of violent deaths or by outside causes in countries that passed through political regime changes as in Eastern Europe and the former soviet bloc. In Latin America, there was no similar picture of extreme social dissolution but, nevertheless, had experienced a significative difference in homicide rates before and after political transitions. Data on Brazil show the tendence of growth of such rates in the military regime and of stability in the post-democratic transition period, what collides with the vision of thinking that occurs the opposite phenomenom, a kind

  11. Estrutura de informação para sites municipais: reunindo cidadania e ergonomia = Information structure for e-government: citizen and ergonomic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Fatima Calvi Tait

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Especificamente no setor público, a Internet tem procurado aproximar os cidadãos dos serviços públicos. Assim, há novas exigências para o setor público, como o fornecimento de serviços via Internet e a transparência das informações. Entretanto, não basta disponibilizar informações em um site de forma desorganizada e sem critérios. Paraatender à nova forma de apresentar serviços, faz-se necessário criar uma estrutura de informação que encampe os aspectos inerentes à estrutura municipal: atividades meio (administração, fazenda, jurídico e atividades fim (esporte, cultura, educação, assistênciasocial etc. bem como aspectos relacionados à cidadania. Dentro desse cenário, o presente artigo trata o desenvolvimento de sites municipais sob a ótica de critérios ergonômicos e cidadania. Realizou-se uma pesquisa em 24 sites municipais, e a partir da análise dos resultados procedeu-se à elaboração de critérios ergonômicos com a abordagem cidadania para o desenvolvimento de sites municipais. Além da análise desses sites, esta pesquisa apresenta tanto a estrutura de informação para sites municipais como recomendações para a elaboração de sites municipais que encampem as questões aqui tratadas e que são relevantes para o aproveitamento adequado das capacidades fornecidas pelo governo eletrônico.In the public sector, the Internet has been intended approach the people to the public services. So, new exigencies are presented to the public sector as: services by Internet and information transparence. Therefore, the information needs to be presented in sites with organization and criteria. To attending this new way to present services, it becomes necessary to create an information structure that involves the cities structure: administration; financial; law; sport; culture; education; social assistance and others as well aspects related to citizens. In this scenary, this paper approaches the development of cities

  12. Marketing de Relacionamento para Retenção de Alunos na Escola de Inglês Lexical

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    Ademar Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos dias atuais, onde a concorrência está cada vez mais acirrada, e os clientes estão cada vez mais exigentes em relação aos seus direitos, não basta apenas oferecer-lhes um produto ou serviço com qualidade. É primordial, que as empresas tenham um diferencial capaz de mantê-las no mercado, e procedimentos adequados que possibilitem a fidelização de seus clientes. Assim, este artigo tem por objetivo identificar ações de marketing de relacionamento que contribuam com a satisfação e retenção dos alunos da Escola de Inglês Lexical de Tubarão. A pesquisa realizada é qualitativa, descritiva, na forma de um estudo de caso, com a aplicação de entrevista semi-estruturada. As entrevistas foram realizadas no período de 27/09/10 a 04/10/10 com todos os colaboradores da escola, para verificar quais os procedimentos realizados para retenção de alunos e sugestões de ações de marketing de relacionamento que auxiliem nesse sentido. A pesquisa documental foi utilizada ao checar no sistema ERP quais os principais motivos para desistência dos alunos no período de agosto de 2009 a agosto de 2010 e também quais os níveis de ensino que ocorrem maior desistência. Como resultados desta pesquisa, destacam-se: (i o nível de ensino I contempla o maior número de alunos desistentes; (ii os principais motivos para desistência são falta de tempo, questões financeiras e encerramento de curso; e (iii foram selecionadas treze ações de marketing de relacionamento de fácil aplicação e que não necessitam de muito investimento financeiro como sugestão de melhoria.

  13. Macroeconomíc aspects of the development plan Aspectos macroeconómicos del plan de desarrollo

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    Lorente Luis

    1999-06-01

    servicio de la deuda externa y la remision de utilidades del capital extranjero. No basta reducir el deficit comercial casi a cero en el 2002: hace falta genera un superavit, es decir, que ademas de aumentar las exportaciones, tenemos que sustituir importaciones, pero sin el proteccionismo simplista de antaño. En vez de aranceles altos, hay que crear fuentes de capital de riesgos dispuestas a financiar nuevas empresas, innovaciones tecnologicas y produccion de bienes con calidad y precio suficientes para sustiruir buena parte de lo que importamos.

  14. Prevenção de doenças em idosos: os equívocos dos atuais modelos Disease prevention in the elderly: misconceptions in current models

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    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A população brasileira está envelhecendo de forma significativa, num contexto de melhora gradual dos índices sociais e econômicos do país. O aumento da longevidade acarreta maior uso dos serviços de saúde, pressionando os sistemas de saúde pública e previdência, gerando mais custos e ameaçando a sustentabilidade do sistema. A alternativa para evitar a sobrecarga desse sistema é investir em políticas de prevenção de doenças, estabilização das enfermidades crônicas e manutenção da capacidade funcional. Este artigo visa a analisar as dificuldades de implantação de programas de prevenção e as razões do fracasso de diversos programas de promoção da saúde, prevenção e gerenciamento de doenças crônicas no grupo etário dos idosos. Não há saída possível para a crise de financiamento e reestruturação do setor sem a implantação da lógica preventiva. O conhecimento científico já identificou corretamente os fatores de risco para a população idosa, mas isso não basta. Precisamos saber utilizar esse conhecimento para efetuar a necessária transição do modelo assistencial para o modelo de prevenção.The Brazilian population is aging significantly within a context of gradual improvement in the country's social and economic indicators. Increased longevity leads to increased use of health services, pressuring the public and social welfare health services, generating higher costs, and jeopardizing the system's sustainability. The alternative to avoid overburdening the system is to invest in policies for disease prevention, stabilization of chronic diseases, and maintenance of functional capacity. The current article aims to analyze the difficulties in implementing preventive programs and the reasons for the failure of various programs in health promotion, prevention, and management of chronic diseases in the elderly. There can be no solution to the crisis in financing and restructuring the health sector without

  15. Dos intervenciones de la monarquía en apoyo de la pañería castellana a fines del reinado de Carlos II = Two measures of intervention of the monarchy in support of the Castilian cloth manufacture at the end of the reign of Charles II

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    Máximo Diago Hernando

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza dos medidas complementarias de intervencionismo estatal en el mercado de lanas en la Corona de Castilla tomadas en el año 1699 con el propósito de apoyar los intereses de los fabricantes pañeros castellanos. La primera fue la prohibición de la exportación de lanas bastas, trataba de asegurar la materia prima a la mayoría de las manufacturas pañeras del reino, especializadas en la fabricación de paños baratos, que apenas consumían lanas finas. La segunda, trató de asegurar a la manufactura de la ciudad de Segovia, la más orientada hacia la producción a gran escala de paños de mayor calidad, disponer de una cantidad suficiente de lanas finas de la máxima calidad, las llamadas «segovianas» a precios asequibles, para paliar los efectos de una súbita y brutal subida de los precios de las lanas finas en 1699. The author analyses two complementary measures of intervention by public authorities in the wool market that were taken during the year 1699, with the purpose of supporting the interests of the Castilian cloth manufacturers. The first measure was the prohibition of the export of coarse wools, and it aimed to provide enough raw material to most of the cloth manufactures of the kingdom, that were specialized in the production of cheap cloths, that barely consumed fine wools. The second measure aimed to provide the cloth manufacture of the city of Segovia, that was specialized in the large-scale production of high quality cloths, with a sufficient quantity of fine wools at an affordable price, in order to alleviate the consequences of the sudden and strong increase in the prices of fine wool that took place in Castile in 1699.

  16. Huellas de la ciudad. Reflexiones sobre la relación entre ciudad, monumento y fotografía a partir de Walter Benjamin

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    Rabe, Ana María

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a deep relationship between monument and photography which is practically inseparable in the case of a town’s landmark. The monument and moreover the town’s landmark needs to be reproduced, and that means firstly: shot. But do we really see the town when we are contemplating monuments or their reproduction? Current life of a town presents itself in thousand ways. But no thousand pictures are able to compose the face of a town. If one seeks to reflect it, one has to do more than to reproduce that what presents itself with ostentation; one has to catch in flight what appears disappearing in a fugacious moment. For this, it’s necessary to catch the accidental trace behind the intentional traces. Holding a dialogue with Walter Benjamin as well as with Alfred Döblin, this text reflects on the relationship between picture and remembrance as well as the different dimensions of time, and in this connection on possibilities and limits in representing life and character of a town.

    Hay una relación estrecha entre monumento y fotografía, que es prácticamente inseparable en el caso del símbolo de la ciudad. El monumento y más el símbolo de una ciudad necesita ser reproducido, lo cual quiere decir en primer lugar: fotografiado. ¿Pero vemos realmente la ciudad cuando contemplamos los monumentos o bien la reproducción de los mismos? La vida actual de la ciudad se manifiesta de mil maneras. Pero no son mil imágenes las que componen el rostro de la ciudad. Para reflejarlo, no basta con reproducir lo que se presenta ostensivamente; hay que atrapar al vuelo lo que aparece desapareciendo en un momento fugaz. Para ello hace falta atrapar las huellas casuales tras aquellas intencionales. En diálogo con Walter Benjamin y también con Alfred D��blin se reflexiona en este texto sobre la relación de la imagen con el recuerdo y las diferentes dimensiones del tiempo, y en este contexto sobre posibilidades y límites de la representaci

  17. Impacto y consecuencias del viaje a los Estados Unidos de 1945 en el ministerio de san Alberto Hurtado

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    Mariana Clavero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el impacto y las consecuencias del viaje de san Alberto Hurtado a los Estados Unidos en el año 1945. El acceso a nuevos documentos ha permitido iluminar de mejor manera los motivos del viaje: luego de su renuncia a la Acción Católica, es becado por Mons. Edwin O'Hara para ir a estudiar por un año a la Escuela de Trabajo Social de la Universidad Católica de Washington. El viaje le permite, además, tomar contacto con diversas obras sociales de la Iglesia de EE. UU y de Canadá, profundizar su estudio en la doctrina social de la Iglesia y sus aplicaciones prácticas, y proyectar dos de sus obras sociales más conocidas: el Hogar de Cristo y la ASICH. Finalmente, el contacto con uno de los países más desarrollados del mundo, le inspira en su ministerio sacerdotal a predicar que «la materia no basta» y la centralidad de «la visión de fe».This article shows the impact and the consequences of St. Alberto Hurta-do's trip to the United States in 1945. Access to new documents has shed further light on the reasons for the trip: after he renounced the Catholic Action, Mons. Edwin OHara gives him a scholarship to study at the Catholic University School of Social Work in Washington. The trip also allows him to get involved in several social works of the U.S. and Canadian Church, deepen his study of the Church's social doctrine and its practical applications, and plan two of his best-known social works: Hogar de Cristo and ASICH. Finally, contact with one of the world's most developed countries inspires him in his priestly ministry to preach that «what is material is not enough» and the centrality of the «vision of faith».

  18. Information, education and communication in heath: is it sufficient toact in networks? Ethical challanges in the formation of health professionals in post-modernity

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    Ana Maria Franklin de OLIVEIRA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Educar é mais do que transmitir informação. É formar: refletir sobre o que informa nossas escolhas, idéias, visões de mundo, valores, atitudes. Ou seja, na teia dos significados individuais tecer uma rede de significados coletivos, onde haja ressonância e solidariedade, no âmbito de projetos existenciais mais complexos. Numa abordagem sistêmica, a informação, a educação e a comunicação em saúde precisam ser contextualizadas num mundo em aceleradas e profundas mudanças. Não basta disponibilizar informações em avalanches quantitativas, sem que haja uma reflexão contextualizada sobre os objetivos a que se destinam. As novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação (NTIC podem apresentar-se como potentes ferramentas para democratização de oportunidades de aprendizado, num contexto de escolhas éticas definidas. Educar e comunicar pressupõem uma ética identitária, um percurso a seguir, uma responsabilização, com clareza de objetivos. Precisamos responder a questões básicas, como: o que desejamos comunicar? Para que e para quem? O que pode ser facilitado com o uso de NTIC? Quando e com que propósito utilizá-las? Também é necessário aprender a se comunicar mais efetiva e afetivamente. Somos semi-analfabetos, quando o assunto é comunicação afetiva. Mal conseguimos reconhecer nossos sentimentos. A formação do profissional de saúde no século XXI exige uma visão sistêmica, que dê conta da complexidade e transdisciplinaridade do conhecimento. Dele será exigida grande habilidade de comunicação afetiva e atualização permanente, além de competência para lidar com a subjetividade, a alteridade, as inter-relações e o conflito, pois estão sempre presentes nas equipes multidisciplinares, nas famílias, nos grupos e redes sociais.

  19. A Integração Informação- Conhecimento como Elemento Agregador de Valor Competitivo para as Empresas Contemporâneas

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    Flávia Adrilene de Araújo Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute o papel da informação e do conhecimento no âmbito organizacional, procurando enfatizar, além de sua importância, o novo foco de sua conceituação, entendimento e aplicação dentro do cenário da chamada “era do conhecimento e da aprendizagem contínua”, entendendo-a como fruto de um contexto que impõe constantes mudanças inerentes a um mundo em transformação. Este cenário parece desafiar a inteligência humana a pensar novos modelos de gestão que contemplem crescimento pessoal e organizacional, como meio de agregar valor aos seus processos, bens e serviços, única forma de sobreviver às demandas da nova sociedade. Embora sejam inúmeros os enfoques e objetivos, o que a bibliografia atual aponta como consenso é o fato de a vantagem competitiva das empresas estar diretamente ligada a ativos intangíveis, conhecimento e aprendizagem. Não basta mais prospectar informação, armazená- la, tratá-la, analisá-la, gerar decisão e implementar ações. É preciso que a empresa aprenda com as experiências vivenciadas, estruturando seu próprio processo histórico, contínuo e inacabado. Dessa forma, a conclusão do presente artigo aponta para a integração informação/ conhecimento, entendendo-se a primeira como fruto da busca e análise com vistas à sua coerente utilização; já o segundo como o resultado da aplicação contextual de forma a gerar experiência individual e coletiva, elementos precursores da chamada aprendizagem organizacional. Espera-se que este escrito, portanto, motive o leitor a repensar novos paradigmas de competitividade, estratégias organizacionais e estruturas institucionais, onde a integração entre informação e conhecimento seja considerada chave para o sucesso das empresas nesta nova ordem mundial.

  20. Percursos educativos, formativos e profissionais na Síndrome de Down Educational, formative and professional trajectories in Down Syndrome

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    Maria Elisabeth Soares Pereira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O emprego e a sua manutenção são aspectos fundamentais para todas as pessoas sobretudo para os portadores de deficiência, não só em termos da respectiva autonomia, mas também ao nível da conservação de uma saudável autoestima e bem-estar. Mas, para que estas pessoas se sintam verdadeiramente integradas e felizes com a sua condição de trabalhadores não basta possuírem um emprego. É necessário que se sintam capacitadas para o respectivo posto de trabalho e que nele se sintam felizes. Face a estes considerandos entendemos desenvolver para este estudo o seguinte objetivo principal: conhecer o grau de satisfação dos trabalhadores com Síndrome de Down relativamente à sua integração profissional (satisfação laboral, satisfação com o processo de integração na vida ativa. A amostra desta investigação é constituída por 14 sujeitos com Síndrome de Down, de ambos os sexos com idades compreendidas entre 20 e os 36 anos, todos residentes na zona que abrange Lisboa e Vale do Tejo.Being employed and staying employed are essential aspects in the lives of most people, above all, for those who have a disability, not only in terms of enabling autonomy, but also for maintaining a healthy level of self esteem and wellbeing. However, in order for these persons to feel that they are actually integrated and happy in their work environments, it is not enough merely to have a job. It is necessary that they feel prepared for their respective work placement and that they feel comfortable in their work environments. In light of these considerations, we deemed it important to conduct this study, the main objective of which was to uncover the level of satisfaction of workers with Down syndrome related to their professional integration (work satisfaction, satisfaction with their process of integration in active life. The sample in this investigation was made up of fourteen subjects with Down syndrome, both male and female, with ages ranging

  1. As práticas educativas parentais e a experiência das crianças Parental education practices and children's experience

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    Cléopâtre Montandon

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tenta mostrar o quanto é importante estudar a experiência das crianças e seus pontos de vista para podermos compreender os diferentes fenômenos sociais que lhes dizem respeito. Na perspectiva da sociologia da infância, sua experiência é considerada no âmbito das estruturas sociais e do contexto particular nos quais se insere. A partir de vários exemplos no campo da educação de crianças, a autora argumenta que não basta examinar as práticas educativas de seus educadores, mas que é necessário compreender as perspectivas das crianças ou, dito de modo mais simples, que importa analisar não apenas o que os educadores fazem com as crianças, como também o que estas fazem com o que se faz com elas. Duas pesquisas são apresentadas para apoiar essa abordagem: a primeira diz respeito à experiência que as crianças têm de sua educação no âmbito familiar e escolar; a segunda trata de um objetivo particular dos educadores modernos: o desenvolvimento da autonomia das crianças. Em ambos os estudos, a experiência das crianças foi apreendida por intermédio de suas representações, emoções e ações, e foi situada segundo suas características sociais e culturais.This paper tries to show that the experience of children and their points of view are paramount when one wants to understand the various social phenomena that concern them. According to the perspective of the Sociology of Childhood, children's experience is analyzed in the framework of the social structures and the particular contexts in which it takes place. Using different examples from the field of the education of children, the author argues that it is not sufficient to examine the educational practices of adults; it is equally important to examine the children's perspective. In other words, we should take into consideration what the children do with what is done to them. Two studies are presented to support this approach: the first one concerns the

  2. Conocimientos tradicionales: Las tensiones y perspectivas

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    Nilton Cesar da Silva Flores

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Por fuerza de la globalización se ha convertido en un importante desafío nacional el mantenimiento y la protección de los conocimientos tradicionales y los recursos genéticos. Los conocimientos tradicionales son todos aquellos común y de pertenencia a una nación, construido a partir de las prácticas, costumbres y creencias, que se transmiten de generación en generación y cuya existencia genera un impacto directo en la cultura de un país. Además, su concepción puede estar asociada con el patrimonio genético del país. Lo que  eleva la importancia de su protección. Puesto que pueden interferir no sólo en la identidad cultural, así como el desarrollo económico de la misma. Dado que, puede representar la riqueza tecnológica de una nación en contra de su uso para fines de la industria farmacéutica, biomédica, la agroindustria, entre otros. Por lo tanto, su protección debe ser objeto de una exaltación legal, especialmente en el caso de los países en desarrollo. Sin embargo, no es exactamente lo que sucede. Por lo tanto, basta simplemente analisar la   legislación brasileña al respecto. Hecho que hace que su protección sea ineficaz. Aunque carece de definiciones y conceptos esenciales y necesarios para el control adecuado de su explotación. Es sobre esta base, la aparición de la defensa que la mejor manera encontrada por su protección, que és por medio de la utilización de las indicaciones geográficas. Instituto de la Propiedad Industrial, que tiene reconocimiento internacional, se garantizaría una protección adecuada a los conocimientos tradicionales del Brasil.

  3. A mediação da informação aliada ao uso das tecnologias da informação e comunicação em uma biblioteca escolar.

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    Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Gregorio Vidotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A mediação da informação promove a aproximação entre o usuário e o conteúdo de seu interesse.Objetivos: Apresentar um recorte da dissertação “Apropriação das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação em bibliotecas escolares: em busca de um espaço dinâmico”, onde mostraremos as diversas formas para que sejam realizadas interferências no sentido de satisfazer as necessidades informacionais em uma biblioteca escolar, baseada nas propostas do “Manifesto de um bibliotecário 2.0” de Laura Cohen, bibliotecária da Universidade de Albany, nos Estados Unidos, além de apresentar estudos feitos pelo grupo de bibliotecárias australianas: Helen Partridge, Julie Lee e Carrie Munro, que organizaram um projeto para identificar as principais habilidades, conhecimentos e atributos exigidos pelo “bibliotecário 2.0”, do qual participaram 81 profissionais australianos.Metodologia: Esse estudo buscou uma pesquisa qualitativa e com análise bibliográfica das investigações apresentadas pela bibliotecária norte americana Laura Cohen e das três pesquisadoras australianas Helen Partridge, Julie Lee e Carrie Munro, para dessa forma fazermos uma comparação entre realidades e experiências, tão adversas e ao mesmo tempo semelhantes com a nossa realidade brasileira.Resultados: Não basta utilizar as TIC na biblioteca só pela modernidade ou variedade de aplicações. É necessário ter consciência da utilidade destes ou de qualquer outro meio de interesse dos alunos para poder mostrar sua qualidade e a utilidade prática. O bibliotecário, antes de utilizar as TIC, deve fazer um levantamento profundo sobre as problemáticas com as quais esse instrumento de trabalho pode contribuir de forma relevante.Conclusão: Eventos, atividades e estruturação física do ambiente proporcionam um claro exemplo de mediação da informação em uma biblioteca escolar, evidenciando a interferência positiva que o profissional da informa

  4. Il mestiere di tradurre 2: Pepa Linares

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    Pepa Linares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Con una trayectoria iniciada hace ya más de dos décadas, basta echar una rápida hojeada a los últimos títulos traducidos por Pepa Linares para dejar constancia de la variedad de temas y autores que caracterizan su intenso trabajo como traductora. Si en los últimos años ha volcado del inglés escritores tan dispares como la iraní Bahiyyih Nakhjavani (La mujer que leía demasiado, Alianza, 2012, autores noveles como Travis Holland (El archivero de la Lubianka, Alianza, 2008 o clásicos como Edith Wharton (Xingú, Contraseña, 2012, Muriel Spark (El asiento del conductor, Contraseña, 2011 y Bernard Malamud (Las vidas de Dubin, Sajalín, 2011, la extensísima nómina de escritores italianos pasa por narradores de la talla de Giuseppe Bonaviri (El enorme tiempo: apuntes para un diario de un médico siciliano, Sajalín, 2011 y Luigi Bartolini (Ladrones de bicicletas, Sajalín, 2009 o ensayistas y politólogos como Carlo Mongardini (Miedo y sociedad, 2007, Laura Zanfrini (La convivencia interétnica, 2007, Gianpietro Mazzoleni (La comunicación política, 2010 o Gianfranco Poggi (Weber, Alianza, 2006, estos últimos publicados en Alianza, por mencionar tan solo unos pocos autores. Tres de sus últimos trabajos aparecidos a lo largo de 2013, Mi Carso, de Scipio Slataper (Ardicia, Un día de fuego: cuentos completos y la novela El partisano Johnny, de Beppe Fenoglio (ambos en Sajalín pueden sin ninguna duda contarse entre las novedades editoriales más interesantes de este año. Coincidiendo con la aparición de estos relevantes títulos y abusando de su amabilidad, nos permitimos plantearle algunas preguntas sobre su interesante labor. Entrevista de Juan Pérez Andrés.

  5. A IMPLANTAÇÃO DA GESTÃO POR COMPETÊNCIAS: PRÁTICAS E RESISTÊNCIAS NO SETOR PÚBLICO

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    Simone Portella Teixeira de Mello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga a implementação da gestão por competências a partir de servidores públicos federais, relacionando as concepções do modelo com a prática desses. Inicialmente, apresentam-se aspectos gerais voltados à Gestão Pública, gestão por Competências e o que está em curso no setor público. A seguir, se esclarecem os desafios à implantação dessa abordagem de gestão diante dos novos ordenamentos jurídicos no Brasil. A pesquisa é de essência qualitativa, usa entrevistas e análise de conteúdo triangulando informações empíricas e referências sobre o tema. Aspectos como a sensibilização dos servidores, a necessária desvinculação da gestão por competências da avaliação por competências, a cultura do setor, o próprio modelo burocrático e suas disfunções, assim como ganhos pecuniários e aqueles decorrentes de momentos de tensão como greves são contextualizados no estudo. Os resultados revelam que tão importante quanto o desenvolvimento do modelo de gestão por competências está o posicionamento estratégicodas organizações, assim como a aprendizagem organizacional, pois transformar o setor público é complexo e exige um processo de aprendizagem coletiva. É um equívoco acreditar que apenas programas de formação e treinamento levem ao desenvolvimento de competências. Esses, pouco tratam da capacidade de mobilizar saberes em situação específica de trabalho. A gestão por competências exige uma organização transformada, com identidade corporativa e que enfrenta os novos desafios externos e internos. Não basta introduzir uma nova ferramenta de gestão, sem transformar de maneira simultânea o sistema todo, sem incluir políticos e cidadãos nesse processo.

  6. Anatomía de un educador

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    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Todos somos alumnos. El educador contribuyendo a la formación de sus educandos, aprende de ellos. Cada individuo posee un ciclo vital para desarrollar su potencial humano, corresponde a la determinación personal y a su constante interacción con el entorno el que se logre, o no, la máxima expresión de ese proceso. Para lograr este propósito de vida necesitamos referentes que nos señalen el camino y nos ayuden al proceso de construcción personal. El educador es la figura natural que se erige poderosa para guiar desde la ayuda desinteresada este desafío de vida. Todos somos educadores. Dice un viejo adagio africano: “Para educar a un niño hace falta toda la tribu”. Todos los individuos de un colectivo humano que contactan con los miembros más jóvenes de ese grupo son responsables, en mayor o menor grado, con más o menos intencionalidad, de la formación de esos niños y niñas maleables, inmaduros e influenciables. Todos somos alumnos, ya que aprendemos constantemente de nuestro entorno social y medioambiental; pero también todos somos educadores ya que con nuestras posiciones, conductas y relaciones estamos incidiendo en la educación de los más cercanos, especialmente en los más jóvenes y moldeables. Para ser educador no basta con querer serlo; es preciso mostrar ejemplo, transmitir valores y actuar con espíritu de ayuda hacia los demás. Para ser educador no hacen falta títulos ni cargos ni declaraciones, el educador se erige de forma natural ya que se convierte en un referente para alguien que lo ve como un faro resplandeciente que le sirve para vislumbrar su camino entre las tinieblas de la vida.

  7. [Review of enteral drugs administration for viral diseases: HIV, HBV and HCV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Villafranca, José Javier; Nieto Guindo, Miriam; Romero Domínguez, Rocío; Tortajada Goitia, Begoña; Faus Felipe, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las características demográficas de los pacientes infectados por VIH han cambiado en los últimos años y las co-infecciones por virus de la hepatitis B y C son muy comunes en estos pacientes. Debido al aumento de supervivencia, a menudo estos pacientes presentan patologías o tienen que ser sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas que imposibilitan o dificultan la ingesta siendo necesaria la utilización de la vía enteral para la administración de fármacos. De entre los factores que influyen en el fracaso terapéutico destacan falta de adherencia, la falta de concentraciones adecuadas en sangre por malabsorción o interacciones y los errores de dosificación. Por ello se pretende elaborar una guía con recomendaciones de administración por vía enteral de los medicamentos antivirales. Material y métodos: Se revisaron las fichas técnicas de los medicamentos utilizados en VIH, VHB o VHC. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos Pubmed® y Micromedex®, se contactó con los fabricantes y se revisó otra literatura al respecto. Resultados: Los resultados se detallan en la Tabla 1. Discusión: A veces, la mera suspensión del comprimido triturado en agua no basta y esta práctica hace que muchos fármacos vean alterada su biodisponibilidad con la consiguiente modificación del efecto terapéutico. Actualmente no existe suficiente evidencia que apoye las prácticas de triturado y suspensión de los fármacos expuestos en este estudio, y consideramos que deberían llevarse a cabo más estudios para determinar la biodisponibilidad de formulaciones diferentes a las convencionales, especialmente de los medicamentos de reciente comercialización.

  8. As mútuas interfaces entre projetos e ações de educação ambiental e de gestão de recursos hídricos: subsídios para políticas de estado

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    Carlos H. Saito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto problematiza os desafios postos aos gestores públicos que lidam com a necessidade de gerir recursos para apoio a projetos de educação ambiental relacionados à gestão de recursos hídricos. As questões centrais apresentadas são: "Qual Educação Ambiental (EA cabe fomentar?", "Que concepção de recurso hídrico estamos assumindo?" e "Quando um projeto de EA tem a ver com recursos hídricos e vice-versa?". Estas questões são respondidas a partir do reconhecimento da legitimidade e necessidade do Estado em assumir seu papel coordenador, seletivo e indutor, e à luz de diversos estudos de caso. Argumenta-se que não basta ao Estado fomentar projetos, sendo necessário que esse mesmo Estado se estruture para ser capaz de conhecer e avaliar a magnitude e a distribuição das diferentes modalidades de apoio concedidas, assumindo também um papel investigativo de sua própria ação e prática. Acredita-se assim poder manter a coerência entre os resultados das ações e os princípios geradores das mesmas, atendendo ainda os objetivos fundamentais da educação ambiental expressas na Política Nacional de Educação Ambiental.The manuscript deals with problems handled by policy makers which needs do manage financial resources to support environmental education projects relative to water resources management. The main questions presented are: "What kind of Environmental Education should we support?"; "Which conceptions of water resources are we taken?" and "When does a project of Environmental Education have to do with water resources and vice-versa?" These questions are answered by recognizing the legitimacy and necessity of the State to assume its coordinative, selective and inductive hole, based on several case-study. It is also said that it is not sufficient for State to only stimulate projects, and this same State should structure itself to be able to know and to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of the different kind of

  9. Os alunos de administração estão em sintonia com o mercado de trabalho?

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    Fábio Mosso Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo realiza o levantamento de demandas em relação ao perfil dos profissionais de Administração pelo mercado de trabalho, descreve tais características e analisa como os alunos do curso de Administração da UNESP/Tupã se encontram em relação a tais quesitos. Os pontos levantados demonstram interesses do mercado de trabalho não somente para conhecimentos de formação técnica-acadêmica, como também, conhecimentos e habilidades interpessoais e extracurriculares. Estes pontos foram identificados através de um estudo bibliográfico e da consulta a formulários de vagas de estágio e emprego do projeto de extensão Balcão de Estágios e Empregos, na UNESP/Tupã. A partir da comparação entre estas fontes, foi possível identificar as principais competências procuradas pelas empresas no perfil de um administrador. Com caracterização do objeto de estudo foi possível realizar comparações em relação ao termo em que o aluno se encontrava no curso (3º, 5º e 7º semestres, tanto como em relação ao período (diurno e noturno, verificando se tais competências evoluíam com o passar do curso. O trabalho conclui também que não basta para os alunos de administração restringir sua formação apenas com os conhecimentos acadêmicos, sendo necessário para a formação de um perfil adequado, o desenvolvimento de atividades extracurriculares que incrementem competências como conhecimento de informática e idiomas. Constatações relevantes demonstraram que a formação dos alunos, e a forma como reagem às demandas, estão fortemente conectadas às exigências de mercado.

  10. Adorno, semiformação e educação Adorno, semi-formation and education

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    Wolfgang Leo Maar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Semiformação (Halbbildung é a determinação social da formação na sociedade contemporânea capitalista. Na perspectiva de Adorno, a sociedade deve ser apreendida em seu processo de reprodução material como reificação, mediação socialmente invertida. Cabe à teoria ir além do momento subjetivo da coisificação, ao decifrar as determinações objetivas da subjetividade. Não basta só revelar o sujeito por trás da reificação: ele é também socialmente determinado na adequação ao vigente, como sujeito que se sujeita e não experiencia as contradições sociais da produção efetiva da sociedade, ocultas ideologicamente na ordem social imposta pela indústria cultural. A educação não é idealista, para a emancipação, mas dialeticamente baseada na crítica à semiformação real e se orienta por possibilidades presentes, embora não concretizadas, na experiência das contradições da formação social efetiva.Semi-formation (Halbbildung is the social determination of formation in the contemporary capitalist society. In Adorno's views, society, in its reproduction process, is to be apprehended as reificated, as a socially inverted mediation. Theory has to go beyond the subjective moment of reification, and unravel the objective determinations of subjectivity. Showing the subject behind reification does not suffice since it is also socially determined in accordance with the existing society, as a subject that subjects itself and does not experience the contradictions of the effective production of society, ideologically concealed in the social order imposed by the culture industry. Education is not idealistically aimed at emancipation, but dialectically based on the critique of real semi-formation, and oriented by possibilities that are present, although not effective, in the experience of the contradictions of the effective social production.

  11. O registro sanitário de medicamentos e as políticas de saúde

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    Luís Bernardo Delgado Bieber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A legislação sanitária vigente no Brasil, embora se preste a cumprir os propósitos de garantir a qualidade, a eficácia e a segurança dos medicamentos colocados no mercado, não basta para defender o interesse público relativo à implementação da política de assistência farmacêutica. Não há norma que garanta a continuidade da produção e da distribuição do medicamento de interesse das políticas públicas de saúde após o fim da validade do seu registro. A partir do registro de medicamentos, a agência reguladora (vigilância sanitária teria uma contribuição especial às políticas de saúde e, em especial à política de medicamentos, se procedesse a um verdadeiro enfrentamento dos interesses econômicos empresariais que, com não rara frequência, sobrepõem-se aos interesses da população. O artigo revisa a legislação e a doutrina sobre a matéria, concluído pela necessidade de articulação das ações de assistência farmacêutica com as de vigilância sanitária como mais um instrumento na luta pela garantia do acesso ao medicamento, e que a legislação referente ao registro de medicamentos confere às empresas reguladas um protagonismo incoerente com a nova ordem sanitária constitucional quanto às decisões relativas aos medicamentos que serão disponibilizados no mercado ou dele retirados. O autor defende que, no entanto, existem disposições constitucionais e legais que fundamentam suficientemente uma atuação mais incisiva do Estado na defesa do interesse público e da continuidade de suas políticas de saúde.

  12. Identidade e identificação: entre semiótica e psicanálise

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    Waldir Beividas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O texto investiga os conceitos de identidade e de identificação na interface da semiótica greimasiana e da psicanálise freudiana. Defende a interface com o argumento de que a semiótica não pode pretender fazer tabula rasa de conceptualizações por vezes fecundas que foram ou são trabalhadas em outros campos do saber. Basta tomá-las como problemáticas a serem semiotizadas, isto é, ajustadas à pertinência do seu método e enfoque. O texto compara sugestões sobre os conceitos, apresentadas no Dicionário de Semiótica (GREIMAS; COURTÉS, 1979, com proposições e reflexões posteriores (LANDOWSKI, 1992; ZILBERBERG, 1981. Explora em seguida formulações freudianas sobre identidade e identificação, para propor uma projeção conjunta dos dois num único “quadrado semiótico” que os integre. Propõe que a identidade seja definida como paixão-limite, pois, em sentido forte, é um impossível de se obter, nas relações passionais, e que a identificação seja definida como compaixão, no sentido de tentar (com-partilhar o pathos (isto é, valores modais e tímicos do outro. Nota, por fim, que, em semiótica e em psicanálise, tanto o principal mentor de uma (GREIMAS quanto o criador da outra (FREUD reconheceram a insuficiência deixada por ambas as teorias quanto aos conceitos em questão. O texto pretendeu apresentar algumas sugestões para tentar reverter a situação.

  13. UN NUEVO MECANISMO DE DEFENSA DEL APARATO URINARIO.

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    Pablo Gómez Martinez

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Son muchos los trabajos publicados que explican la resistencia natural del aparato urinario a la infección y las maneras como se defiende. Basta citar unos cuantos para demostrar que ninguno de ellos es plenamente satisfactorio: la naturaleza del epitelio, la evacuación completa del sistema excretor, el factor intrínseco vesical, el lavado hacia el exterior (wash
    out de Hinman, los mucoproteídos, la resistencia del paciente, la virulencia del germen infectante, son mecanismos comúnmente citados como factores en contra del proceso infeccioso.

    Sin embargo, hay que tener en cuenta que la infección no se produce si el organismo es inmune a agentes microbianos, y que si se desarrolla, es porque este mecanismo humoral está disminuido o ausente o alterado, o porque otros, posiblemente existentes, no han sido capaces de vencer el ataque infeccioso al individuo.

    Una vez establecida la infección, los mismos agentes bacterianos obran como antígenos capaces de producir anticuerpos, es decir, de desencadenar el proceso inmunológico que permitirá al paciente salir airoso de la lucha, o modificar la evolución clínica de la
    enfermedad.

    Ya sea natural o adquirida, generala local, la inmunidad es la que en esencia y básicamente, juega un papel de primera magnitud en la defensa del aparato urinario.

    Mecanismo inmunológico local. Hasta hace poco tiempo, la inmunología se ocupaba principalmente de la respuesta serológica a la infección, tanto en el hombre como en los animales y trataba de producir su inmunidad administrando una gran variedad de antígenos
    cuya respuesta se mide por el título de los anticuerpos producidos en el suero, como prueba de la eficacia del proceso. Nadie puede negar que la vacunación ha sido uno de los grandes triunfos de la humanidad en su lucha contra las epidemias.

    Sin embargo, estudios más recientes han demostrado que, aunque puede existir una relaci

  14. Principales aspectos sobre la metódica para la planificación de piezas de repuesto de las maquinas cosechadoras // Main aspects on the methodical of planning spare parts for combined harvester.

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    M. N. Navarro Ojeda

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La planificación de las piezas de repuesto de las máquinas cosechadoras constituye un elemento de vital importancia para labuena marcha de la zafra, elemento éste que aún presenta problemas de base. Basta decir, que de forma histórica, porejemplo, en la Industria Azucarera, el cálculo de las piezas de repuesto de las principales máquinas y equipos agrícolas seha hecho según datos de la experiencia; pero muchas veces estos cálculos no satisfacen el real comportamiento de losconsumos durante las reparaciones operativas y profilácticas que deben llevarse a cabo. En repetidas ocasiones ocurrenfaltantes o por el contrario sobrantes en diferentes renglones. Se describen los diferentes pasos de una metódica de cálculoque sienta sus bases en un modelo sobre desgaste y renovación de Ihle-Rößner. Su adecuación práctica permitiríaresultados muy favorables a la hora de ejecutar los ciclos de mantenimiento y reparación de las máquinas cosechadoras.Palabras claves: Piezas de repuesto, planificación, mantenimiento, cosechadoras de caña._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe planning of spare parts for sugar cane croppers constitutes an element of vital importance for the good performance ofthe sugar-cane crop. Such element still presents problems on its base.. For example, in the sugar cane industry, thecalculation of spare parts of the main machines and agricultural equipments has been made according to experience data.However, many times these calculation do not satisfy the real behaviour of the supplies during operative andprofilactic replacements. A very frequent fact is the lack or overplus of this spares parts in different line branches.In thiswork, the different steps of a calculation methodic based in a wear and renovation Ihle-Rößner model are described. Itspractical fitting will allow very favorable results for the maintenance and repair cycles of the combined harvesters

  15. Model-Based Analysis on the Pollen Viabilities of Transgenic Rice B2 at Different Temperatures%转基因水稻B2花粉活力的温度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寿东; 史佩剑; 江晓东; 姚克敏; 胡凝

    2011-01-01

    The pollen viability of a genetically-modified japonica rice, B2, containing bar gene with herbicide Basta resistance was investigated under nine temperatures(5℃, 10℃, 15℃, 20℃, 25℃, 30℃, 35℃, 40℃, and 45℃ ) by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) method in vitro after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 14 min from anther. The result showed that the pollen viability decreased with the passing time in vitro, like as "S curve", which could be accurately described by the Logistic equation. In vitro pollen viability first increased and then decreased with the rising temperature. The optimal temperature for pollen viability ranged from 20℃ to 30℃, and 25℃ was the most optimum temperature. High temperature stress on the pollen viability was more obvious than low temperature. Two equations, an exponential one and a Logistic one, could give the satisfied predicts of the pollen viability duration and pollen longevity, helping to estimate the risk of transgenic flow.%以含bar基因的抗Basta转基因粳稻B2为材料,分别在5℃、10℃、15℃、20℃、25℃、30℃、35℃、40℃、45℃下进行处理,用2,3,5-氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)染色法测定了不同温度处理下转基冈水稻B2花粉离体0、1、2、3、4、5、6、8、12、14 min 后的活力.B2花粉离体后活力呈现"S"型下降,用Logistic模型可精确模拟两者的关系;其次,B2花粉离体后活力随着温度先升后降,花粉活力的最适温度范围足20℃~30℃,25℃时活力最强,高温对花粉活力的胁迫作用更大.采用指数方程和Logistic方程分段函数,建立B2花粉活力的温度模型,可精确预测花粉存活时间和寿命,为进一步准确估算转基因水稻基因飘移距离提供依据.

  16. Gestión integrada de recursos hídricos en el Uruguay en el contexto internacional

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    Diana Margarita Míguez Caramés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de proteger el medio ambiente y en especial la cantidad y la calidad de las fuentes de agua dulce contra los efectos de las presiones naturales y antrópicas se ha vuelto cada vez más importante a nivel mundial. Para ello, no basta con aplicar tecnologías de extracción de agua y de depuración efectivas, sino que también se debería implementar sistemas de gestión participativos para alinear las actividades humanas hacia el desarrollo sostenible. La herramienta más idónea para realizarlo es la Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH mediante la cual se genera información sobre la que basar políticas de gestión ambiental y de provisión de agua potable y saneamiento equitativas, que contemplen las opiniones de todos los grupos de interés. En el caso de Uruguay, la Constitución de la República consagra el derecho de todos los habitantes del país al acceso al agua y al saneamiento. El proceso de implementación del sistema de GIRH se inició dándole participación a la ciudadanía a través de un referéndum, luego del cual los referentes en el tema de todos los sectores de la sociedad aconsejaron a nivel parlamentario, y el procesó derivó en la reglamentación de la ley del agua. Se consolidó así una estructura de gestión por cuencas hidrográficas basada en el ciclo hidrológico que se encuentra hoy en un grado de desarrollo que refleja la mejora continua de la institucionalidad de la gobernanza del agua. En esta revisión se releva el desarrollo de estos procesos tanto a nivel nacional como mundial y se propone una serie de herramientas y estrategias para hacer cada vez más eficiente la gobernanza.

  17. Autogestão: desafios políticos e metodológicos na incubação de empreendimentos econômicos solidários Self-management: political and methodological challenges to the incubation of solidarity economic enterprises

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    Noëlle M. P. Lechat

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Após sobrevoar origens históricas da autogestão na França e no Brasil, o texto questiona a capacidade de os homens se autogerirem, ou a situação de que sem chefe não há sociedade viável. Recorre a Clastres para mostrar que, se o poder político é uma necessidade inerente à vida social, ele não precisa ser hierárquico. Não há natureza humana em si, mas nossa especificidade como ser humano é justamente nossa capacidade de transformar a nós mesmos e ao mundo. Para o movimento da economia solidária brasileira, a autogestão é um conceito central, pois marca distância com as relações capitalistas, assistencialistas e acena por uma democracia radical. A autogestão possui um caráter multidimensional (social, econômico, político e técnico e, portanto, não basta querer implantar a autogestão, ainda é preciso criar as condições para a sua efetivação. O artigo apresenta, ainda, uma reflexão sobre a metodologia autogestionária praticada pelos membros de uma incubadora universitária de economia solidária.After reviewing the historic origins of self-management in France and Brazil, this article questions people's ability for self-management, or the situation in which without a boss there is no viable society. It turns to Clastres to show that, if political power is an inherent need of social life, it does not need to be hierarchical. There is no innate human nature, but our specificity as human beings is precisely our ability to transform ourselves and the world. Self-management is a central concept of the Brazilian solidarity economics movement because it distances itself from capitalist and welfare relations and encourages radical democracy. Self-management has a multidimensional character (being social, economic, political and technical and therefore, it is not enough to want to implant self-management. It is also necessary to create the conditions for its realization. The article also reflects on the methodology of

  18. A (desordem da polêmica na mídia: o caso da pílula do câncer

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    Roberto Leiser Baronas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Em seu último livro Apologie de la polémique, publicado em 2014 pela Presses Universitaires de France – PUF, Ruth Amossy nos chama a atenção para o fato de que, no momento atual, é possível constatar que os conflitos de opinião e seus desdobramentos, geralmente violentos, ocupam um lugar de bastante destaque na cena política. Nesse sentido, as mídias de uma maneira em geral, com base no argumento do interesse público, não cessam de orquestrar e de difundir polêmicas das mais variadas naturezas. Para comprovar tal asserção, basta dar uma espiada, sobretudo nos grandes jornais e revistas brasileiros e/ou estrangeiros, para ver que as menções às polêmicas pululam. No entanto, por meio de comentários nos mais diversos dispositivos midiáticos, distintos sujeitos, inscritos em diferentes posicionamentos ideológicos, têm criticado de maneira contundente essa polemização midiática. Diante desse fenômeno discursivo, do mirante dos estudos discursivos, nossa questão é tentar responder: por qual razão, mesmo sendo tão criticada pelos mais distintos atores sociais, a polêmica, ocupando um lugar bastante privilegiado nas mídias em geral – fenômeno que se acirra no momento atual, mas que já vem de longa data – insiste em se manter viva no espaço público? Para dar conta dessa problemática, tomamos a polêmica midiática envolvendo a liberação, por parte da presidente Dilma Rousseff, do uso da Fosfoetanolamina (pílula do câncer, produzida desde os anos 1990 pelo Instituto de Química da USP-São Carlos e frequentamos um extenso conjunto de matérias publicadas em 2016 acerca dessa temática, em diversos dispositivos midiáticos brasileiros.

  19. RIESGO PROFESIONAL DEL ANESTESIOLOGO y DEL PERSONAL QUE TRABAJA EN EL AREA QUIRÚRGICA. II PARTE

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    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available

    3. RIESGOS INHERENTES A PRODUCTOS QUlMlCOS USADOS EN EL QUIROFANO
    Estos pueden ser causados por gases o líquidos anestésicos detergentes y jabones, aerosoles, formaldehído, caucho y materiales plásticos, compuestos yodados y drogas variadas (55.
    Muchas veces estos productos son capaces de producir una lesión dermatológica, y frecuentemente son sustancias potencialmente antígenas y que además del contacto con la piel pueden ser inhaladas, ingeridas, inoculadas (141. Es interesante recordar que los guantes de caucho se inventaron para la enfermera y esposa del cirujano Doctor Halstead, quien era alérgico al fenol y hoy hay muchos cirujanos que son alérgicos a los guantes de caucho.
    Se pueden hac« sensibilizaciones alérgicas a cualquier droga como gases, líquidos, cremas, polvos, etc., a los cuales se está expuesto diariamente y con mayor frecuencia de la deseada.
    El anestesiólogo está expuesto a diferentes riesgos de infección que se podrán ver agravados por la interferencia en su respuesta inmunológica; basta observar las actividades diarias de un anestesiólogo: Intubación de la vía aérea conlos procedimientos asociados aellas; los actos relacionados a una traqueotomía; las venoclisis para inyección de sustancias variadas y la transfusión de sangre; las maniobras para el sondaje gástrico y la punción lumbar (139 y además, en la sala de cirugía se tratan pacientes enfermos, que muchas veces son portadores sanos o que están francamente infectados (60. Los arañazos, punciones, abrasiones etc., establecen soluciones de continuidad que son fáciles puertas de entrada.

    En las diversas encuestas: Venturini y Col. encontraron un 32% de infecciones cutáneas, 250/0 de infecciones oftalmológicas y 4130/0 pulmonares, en las encuestas de CLASA y del Brasil se encontraron un 32% y un 96% respectivamente de anestesiólogos que afirmaron haber tenido infecciones adquiridas por el ejercicio de su

  20. Pabellón del club náutico de Sevilla

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    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available This lightweight pavillion is a provisional design, until the permanent Social Headquarters of the Nautical Club of Seville is built. Its plan layout is L shaped, and it faces south and west, so that its main frontage has maximum sunshine during the colder months. As it was anticipated that this building should have multiple uses, so that it could serve as dining room, meeting, and lecture hall, etc., it was decided to suspend from the ceiling a kind of reed woven curtains, which due to their lightness and flexibility, make it easy to subdivide in various ways the building, according to particular requirements. An ondulated canopy and screens, which gyrate about a vertical axis, have been fitted on the outside. These are covered with cane material. Inside, the walls are white, except for a number of lines made with tiles. There is also a picture, and a stand with the sporting trophies; this being the only ornamentation. The furniture is mostly made of cloth and cane, and a number of plants is also distributed about the building, thereby contributing to create a «winter garden» atmosphere, which is highly compatible with the general layout.Este pabellón Iigero se ha construido, como solución de emergencia, basta edificar el Local Social definitivo del Club Nautico de Sevilla, Su planta en forma de ángulo y la orientación sur y oeste de las «fachadas principales» aseguran el aprovechamiento al máximo del soleamiento en los meses fríos. Como se pensó que este local tuviera múltiples utilizaciones —sirviendo de comedor, local de reunión, banquetes, conferencias, etc.— se han empleado unas esterillas de junco, colgadas del techo, que, dada su ligereza y movilidad, permiten efectuar las subdivisiones y variaciones oportunas con un esfuerzo mínimo. Exteriormente existen una visera ondulada y unas pantallas giratorias, en sentido vertical, cubiertas de cañas, e, interiormente, las paredes blancas interrumpidas por unas líneas de cer

  1. Sentimentos de Apego e Perda em Processos de Mudanças OrganizacionaisFeelings of Attachment and Grief in Organizational Change ProcessesSentimientos de Apego y Pérdida en Procesos de Cambios Organizacionales

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    CESAR, Ana Maria Roux Valentini Coelho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOGlobalização, tecnologia e mudanças sociais têm contribuído para a emergência de novos mercados e competidores, gerando maior competitividade. Em contrapartida, exige-se das pessoas flexibilidade para adaptação às constantes mudanças, e minimização de apego a situações passadas. Entretanto, as rupturas exigidas em mudanças podem ser percebidas como mortes simbólicas, face à sua condição de irreversibilidade aos estados anteriores; isto gera estados de luto dentre os envolvidos. Partindo da abordagem etológica em relação ao luto, este estudo analisa a existência de estado de luto junto a 400 funcionários de um banco estatal após um grande processo de reestruturação. O estudo foi feito três anos após as mudanças, vez que após este tempo o sentimento de luto pelas perdas já deveria ter dado lugar a processos de recuperação, com predominância de estados de ânimo positivos. Os dados sugerem a existência de estado de luto patológico, com forte apego às situações anteriores à mudança. Isto sinaliza que não basta preparar pessoas para as mudanças organizacionais que estão por vir e que são inevitáveis. É preciso dar condição às pessoas para que elaborem o sentimento de perda de situações que existiram e fizeram parte de suas vidas. É preciso dar-lhes oportunidade de “despedir-se” do passado para então poder aderir ao novo.ABSTRACTGlobalization, technology and social changes have contributed to the emerging of new markets and competitors, resulting in higher competitive environments. As a counterpoint, people are requested to be more flexible in adapting to constant changes, and minimizing the attachment to past situations. The ruptures required in changes can be perceived as a symbolic death, because of its irreversible condition to past situations; this generates bereavement among the people who are involved. From an ethological approach regarding bereavement, this study analyses the

  2. Distribución de esponjas (Porifera a lo largo de un gradiente de profundidad en un arrecife coralino, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela

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    Mónica Núñez Flores

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Las esponjas son uno de los grupos de animales sésiles más abundantes y diversos de los fondos marinos tropicales, siendo un componente importante en los arrecifes coralinos, aunque poco estudiado a nivel de especies. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la comunidad de esponjas en el gradiente de profundidad de un arrecife coralino en Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela. Se trabajaron siete profundidades (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 y 18m donde se midió la sedimentación neta y bruta, el índice de rugosidad, y se evaluó la riqueza, densidad y cobertura de las esponjas. Se identificaron 17 especies en 10 familias. La mayor densidad y cobertura se encontró a los 6m (6.03ind/m2, 11%, coincidiendo con la mínima sedimentación neta y la máxima rugosidad del sustrato. Las especies más abundantes fueron Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina y Scopalina rueztleri. El análisis de componentes principales arrojó una separación de esta comunidad en 3 zonas, la somera (1 y 3m, donde las esponjas están sometidas a una tensión producida por el oleaje y alta iluminación, y las zonas media (6, 9 y 12m y profunda (15 y 18m, con características más favorables, dada una menor iluminación y sedimentación.Sponges (Porifera distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela. Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18m, 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to

  3. Flecha en forjados

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    de Miguel, José Luis

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available To calculate the sag in pieces of reinforced concrete, it is only necessary to integrate the curve of its various sections. The curve is expressed as the deformation quotient of any one of the edges —it is easier to do it with one under tension— between that fractions of the edge which is the distance from the edge to the neutral fiber. Deformation under tension can be estimated on the basis of the moment, leverage and section of reinforcement. Deflection as a double integration of the curve is obtained, in symmetrical pieces supported at both ends, as the product of average expansion multiplied by the fraction of span represented by the distance between the centre of gravity of the average-span strain diagram and the end of the piece. It can be said definitively that, for a given configuration, sag is proportional to the maximum expansion of the steel and the relation of the span to the edge of the piece. The numerical factor of the expression includes the relation between average and maximum expansion (from 0.50 to 1.00, that of the fraction of span between the centre of deformation to the end (which varies correlatively to the previous figures between 0.33 and 0.25, and the fraction of edge under tension, around 50 % in rectangular-sectioned pieces and up to 90 % in T sections. If there is surplus reinforcing this reduces sag almost proportionately. The numerical factor must take account of the incidence of non-fissured parts, which, when deflection in critical, is relatively low.

    Para el cálculo de la flecha en piezas de hormigón armado, basta integrar la curvatura de sus diversas secciones. La curvatura se expresa como cociente de deformación de uno cualquiera de los bordes —siendo más fácil hacerlo con el fraccionado—, entre la fracción de canto que mide la distancia del borde a la fibra neutra. La estimación de deformación en tracción puede hacerse a partir del momento, brazo de palanca, y sección de armadura

  4. HJ-Biplot como herramienta de inspección de matrices de datos bibliométricos

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    Díaz-Faes, Adrián A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the HJ-Biplot in bibliometric studies. It is a simple and intuitive display, similar to a scatterplot, but capturing the multivariate covariance structures between bibliometric indicators. Their interpretation does not require specialized statistical knowledge, but merely to know how to interpret the length of a vector, the angle between two vectors and the distance between two points. With this aim, an analysis has been performed of the scientific output of CSIC's own centres as well as of joint centres during the period 2006-2009, in relation to a series of indicators based on impact and collaboration. Biplot methods are graphical representations of multivariate data. Using HJ-Biplot it is possible to interpret simultaneously the position of the centres, represented by dots; indicators, represented by vectors; and the relationships between them. The position of the centres in the context of their area as well as within the overall CSIC is analysed and those centres with a unique behaviour are identified. We conclude that the Humanities and Social Sciences, and Food Science and Technology are the areas with a greater homogeneous pattern in the performance of their centres, while Physics and Agriculture, are more heterogeneous.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto la utilidad del HJ-Biplot en los estudios bibliométricos. El HJ-Biplot es una representación intuitiva y sencilla, similar a un diagrama de dispersión, pero que captura las estructuras de covariación multivariantes entre los indicadores bibliométricos. Su interpretación no requiere conocimientos estadísticos especializados, basta con saber interpretar la longitud de un vector, el ángulo entre dos vectores y la distancia entre dos puntos. Con este fin, se analiza la actividad científica de los centros propios y mixtos del CSIC durante el período 2006-2009 mediante una serie de indicadores de

  5. Presentación: Hacia una nueva interculturalidad (educativa

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    Miguel Zapata Ros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Cursos Masivos Online han puesto de relieve un punto que es clave y ya estaba presente en la educación virtual fuese cual fuese su naturaleza: No basta la bondad de los medios tecnológicos ni que los alumnos estén conectados para que se produzca un aprendizaje de calidad, ni a veces un simple aprendizaje relacionado con los objetivos propuestos, ni tan siquiera para que se produzca una experiencia educativa entre los estudiantes. En otras ocasiones (Zapata-Ros, 2013a hemos hablado de la necesidad de una interacción orientada al aprendizaje. En este trabajo vamos a hablar de la comunicación efectiva de los alumnos en situaciones culturales, comunicacionales y vitales distintas. Existe un voluntarismo y un altruismo mal entendido según el cual los MOOCs y los cursos virtuales, con solo ponerlos en marcha, van a hacer posible la integración de estudiantes y profesores en unas situaciones y con unos problemas de comunicación que ya eran complejos aún en casos sencillos de la enseñanza presencial con alumnos que compartían una misma comunidad y unas mismas claves comunicacionales y vitales. Se da la paradoja de que educadores y profesionales de la educación ven los MOOCs como un medio de educar a los estudiantes en todo el mundo y no tiene la voluntad de considerar seriamente lo que pasa cuando miles de estudiantes con un amplio espectro de niveles de competencia, situaciones de aprendizaje, bagajes culturales y antecedentes académicos tratan de aprender todos, cualquiera que sea la parte del mundo donde estén, mediante conferencias grabadas en vídeo. Éste que es un problema clave en los MOOCs, en mayor o menor medida lo es igualmente en la educación virtual. Se produce en el diseño y en el desarrollo de cualquier curso online en cualquier disciplina en este momento. Y sin embargo hay un gran desconocimiento de estos hechos por parte de los organizadores y de los docentes.La idea de este monográfico de RED es poner sobre la

  6. Interfaces atuais entre a E-Justiça e a Q-Justiça no Brasil Actual interfaces between Q-Justice and E-Justice in Brazil

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    Cesar Antonio Serbena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente o sistema judicial brasileiro vive um período de rápida transformação. Os cartórios judiciais, os tribunais estaduais, federais e tribunais superiores informatizaram ou parcialmente ou integralmente todo o trâmite processual. Com a informatização da gestão dos processos judiciais, dos cartórios e dos tribunais, praticamente o escritório do advogado e das partes do processo, como o Ministério Público, fica incorporado ao processo. Para que um advogado peticione e atue no processo, ele não precisa mais deslocar-se até o fórum, basta acessar um terminal de computador. O chefe de secretaria também tende a desaparecer, pois com a eliminação do processo físico, toda a gestão processual passa a ser gerida por um sistema. Esta é a chamada Justiça eletrônica ou E-Justiça. De forma concomitante com esse processo de informatização, houve a implantação de um sistema de coleta de dados e de análise estatística do Poder Judiciário, assim como um sistema de avaliação de sua performance, através de índices específicos. Este sistema pode ser denominado Justiça quantitativa ou Q-Justiça. No presente trabalho, analisamos as interfaces atuais entre a E-Justiça e a Q-Justiça, ou seja, descrevemos os principais sistemas de coleta de dados do Poder Judiciário brasileiro, indicamos algumas observações de ordem metodológica relativa à disponibilização pública dos dados e à pesquisa estatística com dados judiciais, e apontamos as perspectivas futuras da métrica judicial com relação às novas tecnologias computacionais, como a mineração de dados e computação em nuvem.Actually the Brazilian judicial system is going through a period of rapid transformation. The state courts and the superior and federal courts have partially or fully computerized the judicial procedure. This is called electronic Justice or E-Justice. Concomitantly with this process of computerization, there was the establishment of a system

  7. Aspectos da Reologia e da Estabilidade de Suspensões Cerâmicas. Parte III: Mecanismo de Estabilização Eletroestérica de Suspensões com Alumina Aspects of Rheology and Stability of Ceramic Suspensions. Part III: Electrosteric Stabilization Mechanism of Alumina Suspensions

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    F. S. Ortega

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta terceira e última parte da revisão sobre os aspectos reológicos e de estabilização de suspensões com pós cerâmicos vem reunir a aplicação dos conhecimentos adquiridos nas primeiras duas partes publicadas anteriormente. Aqui, os fenômenos eletrostático devido à dupla camada elétrica, e estérico, relacionado à adsorção de moléculas poliméricas, são combinados para explicar o mecanismo eletroestérico de estabilização de suspensões cerâmicas. Os defloculantes que atuam através desse mecanismo abrangem uma classe específica de polímero denominada polieletrólitos, a qual é constituída por macromoléculas ionizáveis quando em solução. O estudo da forma com que os polieletrólitos atuam justifica-se devido à larga utilização desta classe de polímeros na indústria cerâmica. Os ácidos poliacrílico (PAA e polimetacrílico (PMAA são exemplos de polieletrólitos amplamente utilizados no processo de materiais à base de alumina. Dá-se destaque à influência do pH do meio e da presença de íons, sendo novamente aqui importante o conceito de força iônica da suspensão. Como aplicação prática, apresenta-se a estabilidade do sistema alumina-PMAA, reportando-se sobre o comportamento da viscosidade e da efetiva defloculação da suspensão. Este estudo é concluído apresentando resultados do efeito do peso molecular sobre a viscosidade, chamando atenção para o fato de que não basta definir apenas a classe de polímero a ser usada, sendo também fundamental especificar o peso molecular médio do polímero selecionado.The third and last part of this review about stabilization and rheological aspects of ceramic suspension gathers the knowledge in the two parts previously published. Here, the electrostatic and steric phenomena, related to the electrical double layer and polymeric molecules adsorption, respectively, are combined to explain the electrosteric stabilization mechanism of ceramic suspensions. The

  8. Evaluación del aprendizaje universitario Avaliagáo da aprendizagem universitária Assessment of University Learning

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    Flor Alba Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ, un instrumento de evaluación de la calidad de la docencia, y se discuten las experiencias obtenidas con la aplicación del mismo en la Escuela de Ciencias Humanas de la Universidad del Rosario, de Bogotá, Colombia, entre los años 2003 y 2005. El objetivo del análisis de los datos resultantes de la aplicación del CEQ es establecer si constituye un instrumento de evaluación adecuado, cuya capacidad de expresión es suficiente para medir confiablemente las características de asignaturas que tienen influencia en la calidad del aprendizaje estudiantil, por un lado, y para discriminar diferencias entre asignaturas individuales y conjuntos de asignaturas, por el otro. Los currículos de la Escuela de Ciencias Humanas, por su alto grado de estructuración y su diversidad de contenidos y métodos, mostraron ser un campo de investigación ideal para la puesta en prueba de instrumentos de evaluación de asignaturas. En efecto, la investigación realizada mostró no solo que el CEQ es un instrumento expresivo y diferenciador, sino que existen correlaciones interesantes entre los factores "buena enseñanza", "carga de trabajo apropiada" y "competencias".Neste artigo é apresentado o Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ, uma ferramenta de avaliação da qualidade da docência, e são analizadas asexperiências resultantes da sua aplicação na Escuela de Ciencias Humanas da Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colômbia, entre 2003 e 2005. Os dados obtidos da aplicacáo do CEQ são analisados afim de determinar si eles constituem um instrumento de avaliação apropriado, cuja capacidade de expressão basta para medir com confiança as características de matérias que influenciam na qualidade da aprendizagem do estudante e para diferenciar entre matérias individuais e conjunto de matérias. Os currículos da Escuela de Ciencias Humanas, por seu alto grau de estruturação e sua

  9. Dirección de recursos humanos y competitividad

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    Gregorio Calderón Hernandez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available La Dirección de Recursos Humanos (DRH es una capacidad organizacional clasificada dentro de los activos intangibles y como tal puede convertirse en apoyo importante en la construcción de ventaja competitiva sostenida para la empresa. El presente estudio tiene el propósito de establecer hasta qué punto la DRH se constituye en soporte de la empresa colombiana para alcanzar dicha ventaja competitiva. La base empírica para la elaboración del artículo es información proveniente de la investigación "La gerencia de talento humano en las empresas medianas y grandes del occidente colombiano", en la que se encuestaron gerentes de recursos humanos de 257 empresas. Se consideraron las variables: grado de desarrollo de la DRH, ubicación del área en la estructura jerárquica, tamaño de la organización, sector económico, tipo de dirección, políticas de personal, factores claves de éxito y problemas en la gestión de RH. El grado de desarrollo de la DRH se estableció a partir de nueve componentes: percepción de autonomía del director de RH, asignación presupuestal al área, nivel educativo del director, nivel de liderazgo del director, existencia de plan estratégico en el área, estrategias innovadoras que el área ha propuesto en los últimos dos años, tiempo que el director debe dedicar a actividades no operativas ni rutinarias e indicadores de gestión que emplea el área de RH. La revisión de la literatura especializada permite concluir que los RH serán una fuente de ventaja competitiva sostenida siempre y cuando sean valiosos, escasos, relativamente inimitables e insustituibles, pero que no basta con ello si la firma carece de la organización para capitalizar el valor potencial de la gente. Esta es una capacidad que le corresponde a la DRH, que de esta manera se convierte en elemento clave para darle a los RH su característica de ventaja competitiva sostenida. Los hallazgos demuestran que el grado de desarrollo de la DRH est

  10. CONHECIMENTO MATEMÁTICO PARA ENSINAR: PAPEL DA PLANIFICAÇÃO E DA REFLEXÃO NA FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES. MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHING: THE ROLE OF PLANNING AND REFLECTION IN THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS

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    Serrazina, Maria de Lurdes Marquês

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio discuto o conhecimento matemático para ensinar, em particular no caso do professor que ensina matemática nos primeiros anos de escolaridade, nomeadamente, o papel que a sequência planificação – ação – reflexão pode ter no desenvolvimento e consolidação desse conhecimento. Começo por discutir o que se espera do professor como professor de Matemática, ilustrando com exemplos concretos, que pretendem mostrar que não basta ao professor saber a Matemática que ensina, mas tem também de saber como a ensinar e como avaliar as aprendizagens que daí resultam. Discuto depois o papel da planificação da atividade letiva e da reflexão sobre a prática para o desenvolvimento do conhecimento profissional do professor. Relativamente à planificação é discutido o constructo “trajetória de aprendizagem” e as suas componentes, em especial as sequências de ensino e o papel do professor no seu desenvolvimento. A reflexão sobre a prática, tendo como referência a planificação realizada previamente, é fundamental neste processo. O ensaio termina com a apresentação e discussão de um caso, o da professora Maria, uma professora com uma larga experiência, formanda do Programa de Formação Contínua em Matemática, analisando, a partir do seu portefólio escrito, a planificação e correspondente reflexão sobre duas aulas num 2.º ano de escolaridade.In this paper I discuss the mathematics knowledge for teaching, particularly the case of the teacher who teaches mathematics in the early years of schooling, specifically the role of the sequence planning – action – reflection may have in the development and consolidation of this knowledge. First I discuss what is expected of the teacher as a mathematics teacher, illustrated with concrete examples, which intend to show that for a teacher it is not enough to know the mathematics he/she has to teach, but also how to teach it and how to assess pupils’ learning. Then I

  11. De la estructura Dom-Inó a Ciudad Bachué: reflexiones en torno a la vivienda progresiva e informal

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    Fabio Enrique Forero Suárez

    2008-12-01

    moradores pudiesen gestar un desarrollo progresivo y por autoconstrucción que beneficiara sus demandas y sentidas necesidades económicas, tal como se aprecia hoy en día cuando se recorren sus dinámicas y variadas calles. Es indudable que la autoconstrucción y la informalidad son parte esencial en el crecimiento de estas ciudades, pero no debe considerarse tampoco o afirmarse que dentro de la arquitectura y el urbanismo modernos hubiese un desconocimiento total de las formas de vivir de cada contexto, basta con hacer una juiciosa lectura de estos proyectos de Le Corbusier y sacar conclusiones que pueden dar al traste con muchas ligeras apreciaciones.

  12. Problemas éticos en el manejo del paciente terminal.

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    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Pocos tópicos existen en medicina más complicados, más controvertidos y más emocionalmente cargados que el tratamiento del enfermo sin esperanza. Aquí la tecnología compite con la compasión.

    Muchos profesionales están en la oscuridad cuando se trata de indagar sobre qué reglas se deberían seguir para la decisión de terminar o no el tratamiento que sostiene la vida de una manera más o menos artificial.

    Antes de seguir adelante es importante precisar los términos a emplear:

    Paciente terminal: es aquel que, dadas las circunstancias en que vive y la enfermedad que padece lo va a llevar inexorablemente a la muerte. No cuenta el tiempo que demore. (Definición adoptada por el Comité “ad hoc” de la Fundación Santafé.

    Un paciente es considerado como enfermo terminal si médicamente se determina que él o ella sufren de un proceso irreversible (o una combinación de estos que llevan a una posibilidad razonable que causarán su muerte en un futuro previsible. (Definición del “Terminal Care Commitee, Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center”.

    Es importante que tengamos claro que no podemos confundir el “MATAR” con el “DEJAR MORIR”, Y que hay que diferenciar un paciente en estado crítico, que puede salvarse en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI y el paciente terminal y que un paciente crítico se puede convertir en paciente terminal.

    y no olvidemos la frase de Montaigne: “La utilidad de vivir consiste no en la duración de los días, sino en el uso del tiempo; un hombre puede vivir mucho tiempo y todavía haber vivido poco”.

    Veamos qué dicen al respecto las diferentes doctrinas civiles y religiosas:

    Legislación Colombiana

    El Código Penal castiga el homicidio por piedad, Art. 326 Y aclara que no es necesario que la víctima solicite la muerte, basta que sus tribulaciones promuevan el sentimiento de

  13. Efeitos de surfatantes sobre a tensão superficial e a área de molhamento de soluções de glyphosate sobre folhas de tiririca Effects of surfactants on surface tension and foliar wetting solutions of glyphosate over purple nutsedge leaves

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    Cristiane G. de Mendonça

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da agregação de surfatantes ao herbicida glyphosate analisou-se a tensão superficial de diferentes soluções de pulverização contendo o hebicida e o surfatante, e a área de molhamento destas soluções nas folhas de Cyperus rotundus L.. Foram desenvolvidos métodos para avaliação da tensão superficial e da área de molhamento. Para analisar a tensão fez-se pesagens das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta, com os seguintes tratamentos combinados de forma fatorial (3 x 5 x 11: 3 surfatantes (Extravon, Aterbane e Silwet L-77, 5 concentrações do herbicida, produto comercial Roundup (0; 1; 2; 3,5 e 5 % e 11 concentrações de cada surfatantes (0; 0,005; 0,01; 0,02; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2; 0,5; 1; 2 e 3,5 %, num total de 165 tratamentos. Para avaliar a área de molhamento nas folhas de tiririca aplicou-se gotas de 0,48 .l. Os dados foram ajustados pelo modelo de Mitscherlich e, observou-se que para o surfatante Extravon que a eficiência decrescia gradativamente a medida em que aumentava a concentração do herbicida; para o Aterbane a eficiência foi reduzida apenas em baixas concentrações; já o surfatante Silwet L-77 apresentou eficiência bem superior aos demais e sua eficiência foi pouco alterada com a adição herbicida. Houve uma correlação positiva entre área de molhamento e tensão superficial. Concluiu-se, ainda, que não basta um surfatante reduzir a tensão superficial da água destilada, para que possa ser recomendado seu uso agrícola, assim, o surfatante deve ser submetido a testes preliminares com os defensivos em que serão conjugados para posterior recomendação.This research was undertaken to develop methods to evaluate the surface tension and foliar wetting of surfactant added in herbicide. It used three surfactants (Extravon, Aterbane and Silwet, five concentration of herbicide and eleven surfactant concentrations each. Surface tension and foliar wetting were evaluated by

  14. Study on Transformation System of Oat Trauma Embryo with Agrobacterium Mediated Method%农杆菌介导的燕麦创伤胚转化体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 刘龙龙; 孙毅; 张建珍; 崔林

    2015-01-01

    in agrobacterium liquid concentration OD600 =0.4 for 2 days, it was the best condition for genetic transformation.Seeds cultured with 0.8 mg/L glufosinate concentration could effectively inhibit germination of oat seeds.Seedlings were sprayed by 1 mg/L glufosinate concentration to select herbicide , it could obviously inhibit the growth of false positive seedlings .The Bar gene was introduced into the oat , and transgenic plants were first screened by Basta then detected by PCR and Southern blot approaches.

  15. A DISCIPLINA DE BIOÉTICA NA FACULDADE DE ODONTOLOGIA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO

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    NELITA DE VECCHIO PUPLAKSIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza de la bioética promueve el desarrollo de principios que orientan el crecimiento tecnológico, la investigación científica, la resolución de conflictos morales y colabora para la transformación de la sociedad, para que ella se vuelva más justa. A partir del año de 2004, la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de São Paulo (FOUSP, incluyó la disciplina de Bioética en su currículo. Con el objetivo de verificar la contribución de esta disciplina para la formación humanística de los alumnos, fueron realizadas dos pesquisas: estudio 1, en 2004, trabajó con alumnos que no tuvieran clases de Bioética y el estudio 2, en 2007, trabajó con alumnos que cursaron la disciplina. Se aplicó un cuestionario semi-estructurado a 20 alumnos de la graduación de la FOUSP que no tuvieron clases de Bioética y a 20 alumnos que cursaran la disciplina de Bioética en la misma institución. Este cuestionario incluyó la evolución de la relación profesional/paciente, la humanización del atendimiento y ética profesional. Otro cuestionario semi-estructurado fue aplicado a 20 pacientes en el año 2004 y a otros 20 pacientes en el año 2007, interrogando sobre a calidad del tratamiento e a relación profesional/paciente del servicio odontológico ofrecido por los alumnos. Las entrevistas fueron avaluadas cualitativamente, segundo el método de análisis de contenido de Bardin. Los resultados apuntan a que la inserción de la Bioética como disciplina obligatoria representa un paso importante para el cambio de paradigma sobre el valor de la dignidad de la persona humana. Sin embargo, como en esa Institución predomina todavía, en el contexto global del aprendizaje, la fuerte tendencia a la enseñanza centrada en la técnica, acabase por criar en los alumnos, a lo largo del curso, en la práctica, una visión parcial de la persona del paciente, reduciendo todas sus dimensiones apenas al aspecto biológico. No basta ser la Bioética una

  16. Conhecimento sobre o transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade no Brasil Knowledge about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Brazil

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    Marcelo Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o conhecimento da população sobre o transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH e de médicos, psicólogos e educadores sobre aspectos clínicos do transtorno. MÉTODOS: 2.117 indivíduos com idade > 16 anos, 500 educadores, 405 médicos (128 clínicos gerais, 45 neurologistas, 30 neuropediatras, 72 pediatras, 130 psiquiatras e 100 psicólogos foram entrevistados pelo Instituto Datafolha. A amostra da população foi estratificada por região geográfica, com controle de cotas de sexo e idade. A abordagem foi pessoal. Para os profissionais (amostra aleatória simples, os dados foram coletados por telefone em Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba e Porto Alegre. resultados: Na população, > 50% acreditavam que medicação para TDAH causa dependência, que TDAH resulta de pais ausentes, que esporte é melhor do que drogas como tratamento e que é viável o tratamento psicoterápico sem medicamentos. Dos educadores, > 50% acreditavam que TDAH resulta de pais ausentes, que tratamento psicoterápico basta e que os esportes substituem os medicamentos. Entre psicólogos, > 50% acreditavam que o tratamento pode ser somente psicoterápico. Dos médicos, > 50% de pediatras e neurologistas acreditavam que TDAH resulta de pais ausentes. CONCLUSÕES: Todos os grupos relataram crenças não respaldadas cientificamente, que podem contribuir para diagnóstico e tratamento inadequados. É urgente capacitar profissionais e estabelecer um programa de informação sobre TDAH para pais e escolas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of the general population concerning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and of physicians, psychologists and teachers concerning clinical aspects of the disorder. METHODS: 2,117 individuals (age > 16 years, 500 teachers, 405 physicians (128 general practitioners, 45 neurologists, 30 neuropediatricians, 72 pediatricians, 130

  17. ¿La experiencia es la única forma de mejorar el discurso público en la ciencia?

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    Pablo del Monte-Luna

    2015-01-01

    dimensiones del lenguaje verbal, no verbal y aptitud del individuo durante el DP, pero menos en la dimensión de la entrega del mensaje. Discusión o Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los alumnos, independientemente de la experiencia con la que inician el módulo, pueden mejorar su desempeño en el DP y desarrollar presentaciones orales eficientes si se les instruye apropiadamente con los conocimientos básicos del DP. Si a esto se le suma una práctica constante, el resultado será un dominio profesional de las presentaciones orales. Sin embargo, debe reconocerse que para que los alumnos transmitan eficientemente las ideas principales de su discurso científico, no basta con manejar adecuadamente el lenguaje verbal, no verbal y la aptitud general en el DP, sino que es indispensable comprender a fondo su propio trabajo de investigación; para ello se recomienda que los tutores académicos trabajen más estrechamente con sus alumnos. En la comunidad científica son pocos los que desarrollan en forma natural habilidades para el DP, por lo que resulta recomendable para la mayoría recibir una apropiada instrucción sobre los aspectos científicos fundamentales del DP.

  18. ¿Teología para agnósticos?

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    Sotelo Martínez, Igancio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Pretendo exponer de la manera más breve unas pocas razones que muestren que la teología concierne también al agnóstico. Por teología entiendo la reflexión sistemática en torno a la fe cristiana y por agnóstico, también en sentido muy amplio, aquel que no participa de esta fe. La tesis que defiendo es que no es necesaria la fe para interesarse por la teología; tiene sentido ocuparse de Dios sin creer en su existencia.
    ¿Por qué el agnóstico habría de ocuparse de la teología cuando el creyente parece que no la necesita? Cree antes de examinar reflexivamente su fe, que no depende de argumentos ni de demostraciones. Lo cierto es que la teología no conduce a la fe y hasta puede dudarse de si la fortalece. Conozco personas profundamente creyentes que huyen de las disquisiciones teológicas como de la peste. Viven la fe en una experiencia de amor al prójimoque no precisa de argumentos. Les basta acompañarse con las Sagradas Escrituras y de algunos libros piadosos o de espiritualidad. Cabría ampliar el horizonte de este artículo y preguntarse por el alcance y sentido que tenga la «reflexión sistemática» sobre Dios para aquellos que creen.
    En todo caso, no deja de ser paradójico intentar una defensa de la teología, cuando parece que les sobra, tanto a agnósticos como a creyentes; incluso la Iglesia ha encerrado a los teólogos en un gueto en el que, si bien gozan de mucha mayor libertad que en el pasado, la disfrutan en buena parte porque se han quedado sin audiencia. Escriben exclusivamente para los colegas que son los únicos que los leen. Claro que, dada la fragmentación actual de los saberes, lo mismo les ocurre a los demás especialistas.
    Si una buena parte de los creyentes se desentienden de la teología, ¿por qué habría de ocupar al agnóstico? Barrunto que una vindicación de la teología valga tanto para los unos como para los otros, pero en esta ocasión considero tan sólo las

  19. Estructuración del sistema de ataque 2 – 4 en balonmano. [The 2:4 attack in handball. Structuring

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    José Luis Arias Estero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Resumen El balonmano como se conoce en la actualidad ha evolucionado con respecto al balonmano de hace unos años. El balonmano actual ha progresado a causa, principalmente, de la mejora de la calidad individual de los jugadores. Gracias a este desarrollo, las posibilidades de participación de los jugadores han aumentado, tanto en defensa como en ataque. Hoy no sólo basta con destacar en algunos aspectos del juego, sino que además, se exige la utilización de las distintas variables del juego con garantías de éxito expresadas en términos de rendimiento. En este sentido, los sistemas de juego son las estructuras sobre las que se desarrolla el juego. Estas estructuras también son susceptibles a los cambios. No obstante, la literatura encontrada sobre los sistemas de juego en balonmano es escasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue mostrar la estructuración realizada del sistema ofensivo 2:4 en balonmano. El 2:4 es un sistema de juego ofensivo como tal. A parte, dentro del juego con transformación es uno de los sistemas resultantes. Palabras clave: Balonmano, Sistema de ataque 2:4, Estructuración.   Abstract The handball has been evolving for years. The present handball has progressed because of the player’s individual quality

  20. Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile, ¿legalmente suficiente?: La necesidad de cartografiar la ley antes de decidir Biodiversity conservation in Chile, legally enough?: The need for mapping the law before deciding

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    PATRICIO F. PELLET

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El 99,8 % del territorio donde se sustenta la biodiversidad es rural y ha estado tradicionalmente regulado por legislación dispersa, sectorial e inorgánica. La legislación moderna, más holística, como la Ley de Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente adolece de imperfecciones relacionadas con la vigencia, la interpretación y, sobre todo, el que la ley se haga cumplir. En este trabajo argumentamos que la aplicación de modelos tomados de la literatura ecológica buscando apoyar la biología de conservación puede ser complementada fuertemente si es acompañada de una medición de la superficie territorial (cantidad y distribución en el espacio efectivamente afectada por la legislación vigente de protección ambiental. Nuestro trabajo intenta dar respuesta a la pregunta ¿cuánto es lo que efectivamente, en superficie, queda protegido si se hace cumplir la ley? Para esto hemos expresado cartográficamente textos legales relacionados con el bosque nativo, analizamos la complejidad y los efectos de su aplicación y demostramos que basta hacer cumplir la ley para asegurar un mínimo en que, además de aumentar la superficie protegida, aumenta la conectividad y cambian los patrones de fragmentación. La metodología muestra claras ventajas relacionadas con su aplicación para el monitoreo, planificación y control de efectividad de programas socialesAbout 99.8 % of the land sustaining biodiversity in Chile is rural and regulated by legislation, which has been qualified as disperse, too specific or inorganic. Even though modern legislation like (Chilean Law of Environmental Basis tends to be more holistic in nature, serious imperfections connected with applicability, interpretation and, mainly enforcement still prevails. We argue here that any search for, or application of, ecological models as a support for conservation biology could be strongly complemented by a measurement of the land surface (amount and spatial distribution effectively affected

  1. Dimensión educativa del cuidado de las personas con enfermedades crónicas Educative dimension of the care of patients with chronic diseases

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    Rosario García González

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló este trabajo para reflexionar sobre las enfermedades no transmisibles en su seguimiento a largo plazo y como situación de aprendizaje. Se discutieron las premisas, desafíos y derivaciones prácticas que impone ese modelo de seguimiento. Si un rápido diagnóstico y terapéutica acertados pueden ser suficientes ante una situación aguda de salud, muy diferente es con los enfermos crónicos, donde el diagnóstico implica cierta frustración y el tratamiento descansa en gran medida en su destreza y motivación, lo cual impone una situación de aprendizaje y, por tanto, nuevos desafíos a la gestión del cuidado. Para prevenir es importante el diagnóstico de salud de la comunidad y el carácter interdisciplinario e intersectorial de los programas de promoción y educación para la salud. Se impone en los proveedores de salud un “saber hacer” donde no basta la actualización clínica, son necesarias determinadas destrezas para ser eficaces en la situación de aprendizaje. Se requiere desarrollar estilos de vida y ambientes saludables; la unidad indisoluble de la gestión de cuidados y educación. Se plantea que el seguimiento a largo plazo impone un paradigma de cuidado diferente que fuerza a los proveedores de salud a sobrepasar la visión fisiológica del órgano dañado para centrarse en el hombre enfermo y ayudarlo a transitar por la vida sin minusvalía innecesaria y sin suplir el papel activo que éste debe desempeñar ante el desarrollo de su estado de salud.This paper is aimed at reflecting on the non-communicable diseases and their long-term follow-up, as well as on the learning problem. The premises, challenges and practical consequences of this follow-up model are discussed. If a rapid diagnosis and a proper treatment may be enough in an acute health situation, it is very different with the chronic patients, where the diagnosis leads to certain frustration and the treatment relies mostly on their ability and

  2. 利用分子标记辅助选择培育转 Bt基因抗虫水稻%Breeding of Trans-Bt Gene Rice Varieties with Pest Resistance by Means of Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 魏志刚; 裴婷婷; 胡颂平; 余霞; 张静; 罗利军; 叶水峰; 刘国兰

    2014-01-01

    为培育转Bt基因抗虫水稻品种材料,以传统杂交的方法将3个Bt明恢63中的Bt基因cry1C*、cry2A*和cry1Ac/Ab,转育到水稻品种秀水123、湘晴、旱恢3号和沪旱1B中;以回交二代自交三代(BC2F3)水稻叶片为材料,利用分子标记辅助选择、田间除草剂筛选和试纸条检测方法,以获得新型转Bt基因株系。并在全生育期实行除不喷施农药外的正常田间管理的转基因植株的田间抗虫鉴定方法筛选出抗虫性良好、农艺性状优良的株系,为后续抗虫育种提供材料。 BC2 F3代PCR检测及试纸条检测的结果显示分别获得cry1C*和cry2A*基因的沪旱1B、秀水123和湘晴的纯合株系。同时,在田间自然诱发虫害条件下,转基因株系对稻纵卷叶螟虫表现出强抗性。%In order to breed trans-Bt gene rice materials with pest resistance,three Bt genes,cry1Ac/Ab, cry1C* and cry2A*,from the donor parents developed by Huazhong Agricultural University were introgressed into Xiushui123,Xiangqing,Hanhui No.3 and Huhan1B,namely Minghui63( Cry1C*) ,Minghui63( Cry2A*) and Minghui63 ( Cry1Ab/Ac) respectively using the method of traditional hybrid;then the new type lines of trans-Bt gene rice were by obtained means of maker-assisted selection ( MAS) ,screening of basta test in the field and test paper strip detection.In addition trans-gene rice lines of good pest resistance and fine agricultural traits were scteened by using the assays of insect-resistance in the field under normal field management but without spraying pesticide in the whole bearing stage of these trans-gene lines providing the materials for fur-ther anti-pest breeding.The homozygous lines with cry1C* and cry2A were obtained in the different back-grounds ( Xiushui123,Xiangqing and Huhan1B) respectively by the detection of PCR and test paper strip.At the same time,Bt lines showed excellent resistance to rice leaf roller in the field under the condition of its natu

  3. Breeding Transgenic Rice Varieties with Insect Resistance for HuangHuai Area by Backcrossing%利用回交转育培育黄淮稻区抗虫转基因水稻新品系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳絮; 王文英; 李军; 吴丹妮; 徐仅婷; 姚方印

    2013-01-01

    The donor parents, transgenic insect - resistant Indica rice TT51 with cry1Ab/1Ac,T2A - 1 with cry2A and T1C - 19 with cry1C from Minghui 63 and Japonica rice RJ -5 with cry1C from Zhonghua 11 were transferred into the main acceptor parents Shengdao 13 ,Shengdao 15 and Zhendao 88 cultivated in HuangHuai area by successive backcrossing. Three lines from TT51 with cry1Ab/1Ac, two lines from T2A - 1 with cry2A,three lines from T1C -19 with crylC and two lines from RJ - 5 with cry1C were selected based on the Basta detection, PCR identification and field insect - resistance selection. These lines performed better insect -resistance and high -yielding characters in field, so it laid foundation for breeding transgenic rice varieties with insect resistance in HuangHuai area.%利用黄淮稻区主栽品种圣稻13、圣稻15、镇稻88为受体亲本,选择以籼稻明恢63为背景的转基因抗虫材料TT51(cry1Ab/1Ac)、T2A-1(cry2A)、T1C-19(cry1C)和以粳稻中花11为背景的转基因抗虫材料J-5(cry1C)为供体,分别进行杂交和多代回交.每一世代后代单株,通过涂抹Basta抗性筛选,结合PCR鉴定跟踪抗虫目的基因以及田间抗虫性鉴定、农艺性状选择,培育出来源于TT51带有cry1Ab/1Ac基因的抗虫稳定株系3个,来源于T2A-1带有cry2A基因的稳定株系2个,来源于T1C-19带有cry1C基因的稳定株系3个,来源于J-5带有cry1C基因的抗虫稳定株系2个.这些株系于田间均表现出很好的抗虫性状和优质丰产性状,为黄淮稻区抗虫转基因水稻育种奠定了基础.

  4. Educação e apropriação da realidade local Education and the appropriation of local reality

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    Ladislau Dowbor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available É essencial uma criança sentir que a sucessão de anos que passa na escola lhe permite efetivamente entender o contexto onde vive, apropriar-se da realidade que a cerca. A criança, mais que o adulto que tem oportunidades de conhecer diversas regiões, interpreta o mundo pela cidade ou pelo bairro onde mora. O seu espaço de referência é o espaço local. Proibir-lhe que brinque no córrego vizinho da sua casa é prudente, mas gera apenas medo. Entender os fluxos dos riachos e as fontes concretas de poluição lhe assegura desde já ancorar o conhecimento abstrato em vivências concretas, e lhe permitirá mais tarde entender a gestão de bacias hidrográficas. Aprender a representação em escala do seu próprio bairro, das ruas que conhece, evitará mais tarde a quantidade de adultos que sabem decorar uma aula de geografia, mas que são incapazes de interpretar um mapa para se orientar. Trata-se de um investimento poderoso, tanto para tornar o ensino mais produtivo, capitalizando a motivação da criança por entender as coisas que a cercam, como por permitir que mais tarde seja um adulto que conhece a origem ou as tradições culturais que constituíram a sua cidade, os seus potenciais econômicos, os desafios ambientais, o acerto ou irracionalidade da sua organização territorial, os seus desequilíbrios sociais. Pessoas desinformadas não participam, e sem participação não há desenvolvimento. Trata-se de fechar desde cedo a imensa brecha entre o conhecimento formal curricular e o mundo onde cada pessoa se desenvolve. Estas linhas são escritas por um economista, que na era da economia do conhecimento se convenceu de que a economia não se basta a si mesma, de que uma articulação com o mundo que ensina e difunde o conhecimento é essencial.It is essential for children to feel that the years they spend in school help them understand the reality they face in their daily lives. Children, more than adults who had the opportunity to

  5. Estructuración del sistema de ataque 2 – 4 en balonmano. [The 2:4 attack in handball. Structuring

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    José Luis Arias Estero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Resumen El balonmano como se conoce en la actualidad ha evolucionado con respecto al balonmano de hace unos años. El balonmano actual ha progresado a causa, principalmente, de la mejora de la calidad individual de los jugadores. Gracias a este desarrollo, las posibilidades de participación de los jugadores han aumentado, tanto en defensa como en ataque. Hoy no sólo basta con destacar en algunos aspectos del juego, sino que además, se exige la utilización de las distintas variables del juego con garantías de éxito expresadas en términos de rendimiento. En este sentido, los sistemas de juego son las estructuras sobre las que se desarrolla el juego. Estas estructuras también son susceptibles a los cambios. No obstante, la literatura encontrada sobre los sistemas de juego en balonmano es escasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue mostrar la estructuración realizada del sistema ofensivo 2:4 en balonmano. El 2:4 es un sistema de juego ofensivo como tal. A parte, dentro del juego con transformación es uno de los sistemas resultantes. Palabras clave: Balonmano, Sistema de ataque 2:4, Estructuración.   Abstract The handball has been evolving for years. The present handball has progressed because of the

  6. Formas del Estado de Derecho y delimitación del derecho al Buen Gobierno

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    Galán Juárez, Mercedes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the suitable legal and political framework for citizens to exercise their right to good government. After describing the social condition of human beings that leads them to come together and bind themselves to a political organization through a social contract, the different historical forms of the Rule of Law are analyzed up to the Constitutional Rule of Law. The current Constitutionalism combines the principles of legality and legitimacy. This means that the validity of a regulation from a strictly formal perspective is not sufficient; its content must also respect the values, principles and fundamental rights established in the Constitution. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 emphasizes the significance of the individual and individual dignity (Section 10.1 and the instrumental role of the Public Administration as a political organization which shall serve the general interests in a spirit of objectivity (Section 103.1. This is the appropriate legal framework for achieving not only the efficiency and effectiveness of the government, but also the quality of its services. Furthermore, the government has ethical commitments to its citizens, which entails carrying out policies which are consistent with these commitments and avoiding policies which are not. This legal, political and ethical exposition makes it possible to understand good government in all its complexity.

    Este artículo analiza cuál es el marco político y jurídico adecuado para que los ciudadanos hagan efectivo su derecho al buen gobierno. Después de exponer la condición social del hombre que le lleva a agruparse con otros hombres y a vincularse a una organización política por medio de un pacto o contrato social, se analizan las distintas formas históricas del Estado de Derecho hasta llegar al Estado Constitucional de Derecho. El Constitucionalismo actual aúna el principio de legalidad y legitimidad, lo que significa que no basta con que una

  7. The Variation of the Pollen Viabilities of Transgenic Rice B68-1 at Different Temperatures and Humidity%B68-1转基因水稻花粉活力的温湿响应规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永地; 朱世杨; 胡凝; 张小玲

    2014-01-01

    为了研究转基因水稻花粉活力在各种气象条件下的变化规律,以含bar基因的抗Basta转基因籼稻B68-1为材料,分别在温度20℃、25℃、30℃、35℃及相对湿度30%、50%、70%、90%的不同温湿组合条件下进行处理,用2,3,5-氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)染色法测定了这些组合条件处理下B68-1转基因水稻花粉离体0、1、2、3、4、5、6、8、10、12、14 min后的活力。试验结果表明,B68-1花粉离体后活力变化在各种条件下呈现为“S”型或“S”型的一段;B68-1花粉离体后活力在一定湿度条件下随着温度先升后降,各湿度条件下花粉在25℃时活力最强,高温对花粉活力的胁迫作用更大;B68-1花粉离体后活力在一定的温度条件下随着湿度也是先升后降,各温度条件下花粉在相对湿度70%时活力最强,高湿对花粉活力的胁迫作用更大。通过指数形式的生长曲线(Logistic方程)分段函数,拟合构建了B68-1花粉活力在不同湿度下的温度模型,可精确预测花粉存活时间和寿命,为进一步准确估算转基因水稻基因飘移距离提供基础数据。%The pollen viability of a transgenic rice, B68-1 containing bargene with herbicide Basta resistance, was investigated under four temperatures (20℃, 25℃, 30℃, 35℃) and four kinds of humidity (30%, 50%, 70%, 90%) by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) method in vitro after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 min from anther. The test showed that B68-1 pollen viability decreased with passing time in vitro under various conditions, like“S curve”or its section, which could accurately described by the Logistic equation. In vitro, pollen viability first increased and then decreased with the rising temperature, and showed the same with humidity. 25℃ was the most optimum temperature in any determined humidity, and 70% humidity was the most optimum humidity in any determined temperature. High

  8. “Höss, Stroop y Stangl: verdugos profesionales. Estudio comparativo sobre los perpetradores del Holocausto a la luz de sus propias palabras.”

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    Martín Félix Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio comparativo sobre perpetradores del Holocausto. Luego de una breve introducción sobre el fenómeno nazi en su contexto, se analizan los casos de tres de sus protagonistas: Rudolf Höss, Jürgen Stroop y Franz Stangl; comandante del campo de exterminio Auschwitz, responsable de la liquidación del gueto de Varsovia y comandante del campo de exterminio de Treblinka respectivamente. El caso de Höss es estudiado a partir de su autobiografía, mientras que los dos restantes a partir de las entrevistas e investigaciones de Kazimierz Moczarski y Gitta Sereny. Höss, Stangl y Stroop fueron condenados por las muertes de 1.100.000, entre 750.00 y 900.00 y 350.000 personas respectivamente. En este sentido una premisa de este trabajo es que ninguno de ellos puede ser considerado hombre corriente o persona común; por el contrario siguiendo a Raul Hilberg se los piensa como sujetos totalmente identificados e impregnados de la cosmovisión y la ideología del nacionalsocialismo y las SS que desde un marco de referencia previo agresivo y violento eventualmente fueron transformándose en asesinos en masa. Como sostiene Gustavo Cosacov estos sujetos serían dueños de una “santidad maligna o invertida” que había reemplazado sus valores éticos y morales cristiano-occidentales; permitiéndoles cometer crímenes en forma sistemática. A pesar de que la cuestión de los victimarios ha sido menos abordada que la de las victimas, en el campo historiográfico existen sólidos aportes. Basta nombrar a Christopher Browning, Peter Longerich o Raul Hilberg para explicitar la corriente de investigación a la que este texto reconoce y aspira. En este sentido el objetivo de las siguientes páginas primero es describir y explicar algunos de los mecanismos históricos, psicológicos y sociológicos que producen a perpetradores de asesinatos en serie de personas tan distantes como desconocidas; como así descifrar a también su marco de

  9. TÉCNICOS DE APOYO A LA AGRICULTURA A ESCALA MUNICIPAL

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    Juan Pérez Lamas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La desintegración del campo socialista europeo a inicios de los años 90, provocó una crisis profunda del sistema alimentario cubano. Como respuesta a esta difícil coyuntura, emergió una agricultura diversificada, de sustitución de insumos químicos por biológicos, más intensiva en el uso de recursos locales y la aplicación simultánea de conocimientos científicos y tradicionales, que recibió el apoyo oficial con la definición de medidas como la descentralización de las estructuras productivas y el fortalecimiento de los servicios técnicos para una agricultura sostenible, partiendo de que no basta con que los agricultores sepan y quieran asumir una nueva manera de hacer la agricultura, sino que también se requiere que puedan contar con técnicos y decisores motivados y capaces, que los acompañen, ofrezcan asistencia técnica a partir de la disposición de un conjunto de servicios técnicos para consolidar y sostener el paso de una agricultura de insumos a una agricultura de procesos. Para ello en el presente artículo se muestran los resultados del trabajo realizado en cinco municipios participantes en el referido proyecto “Articulación agroecológica: diseño de alternativas sostenibles para la seguridad alimentaria local” (Bejucal, de la provincia de Mayabeque y Cienfuegos, Ciego de Ávila, Camagüey y Las Tunas, en similar orden en las provincias de igual nombre, con el objetivo de conocer en que grado se sienten satisfechos los agricultores, con los servicios científicotécnicos actualmente a su disposición, como punto de partida hacia el rediseño de los mismos a nivel municipal, proporcionando respuesta a las necesidades de insumos, medios y asistencia técnica a la base productiva. Este sistema tiene como objetivo fundamental lograr la articulación de los servicios técnicos locales, y parte de las demandas de sus propios usuarios (los agricultores y de que el modelo productivo a extender, tenga como premisa una

  10. Choque de gestão ou choque de racionalidades? O desempenho da administração pública em questão

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    Vanessa Brulon

    preocupação com a qualidade de vida ou com o atendimento das demandas sociais e, por isso, guia-se por uma visão de futuro que representa um Estado em que estão presentes as duas categorias aqui trabalhadas. Entretanto, o conceito de desempenho em que está pautado, engloba aspectos predominantemente instrumentais, já que se acredita que para que a administração pública mineira melhore seu desempenho basta que ela adote medidas como a redução de custos ou o foco em resultados. Portanto, conclui-se que o conceito de desempenho em que se pauta o programa Choque de Gestão não compreende as diferentes dimensões de desempenho de forma equilibrada, apesar de se guiar por um conceito de desenvolvimento que envolve elementos substantivos e instrumentais.

  11. Erros de medicação: quem foi? Medication errors: who is responsible?

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    Mário Borges Rosa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias diagnósticas e terapêuticas são cada vez mais utilizadas, melhorando a qualidade assistencial e aumentando a expectativa de vida; entretanto, a atenção à saúde vem se tornando mais cara e complexa. Os eventos adversos relacionados à assistência, especialmente os erros, são cada vez mais conhecidos, discutidos e julgados em tribunais. Os profissionais de saúde, devido à sua formação, não estão preparados para lidar com os erros, pois estes estão associados à vergonha, ao medo e às punições. A abordagem dos erros no sistema de saúde é, geralmente, feita de forma individualista, considerando os erros como atos inseguros cometidos por pessoas desatentas, desmotivadas e com treinamento deficiente. Quando o erro ocorre, a tendência é escondê-lo, perdendo-se oportunidade importante de aprendizado. Existe outro modo de lidar com erros, a visão sistêmica, que na sua aplicação apresenta bons resultados em setores como aviação, anestesia e sistemas de distribuição de medicamentos por dose unitária. Os sistemas possuem graus variados de segurança e devem levar em conta, na sua construção e funcionamento, as limitações humanas. Em relação ao uso dos medicamentos, uma mudança de paradigma é necessária, pois não basta um medicamento ter qualidade garantida, mas o seu processo de utilização também deve ser seguro. Os erros de medicação, que são por definição evitáveis, são atualmente um sério problema de saúde pública, levando a perdas de vidas e desperdício importante de recursos financeiros. A abordagem sistêmica dos erros de medicação poderá revelar as falhas do processo, sendo possível implementar melhorias, diminuindo, assim, a ocorrência desses eventos.New diagnostic and therapeutic technologies are used with growing frequency, improving the quality of medical assistance and increasing life expectancy. Health care, however, is becoming progressively more expensive and

  12. Ways to live history. Or philosophy, culture, and architecture in the origins of the museum Altes in Berlín Formas de habitar la historia. O la filosofía, la cultura y la arquitectura en la fundación del Museo Altes de Berlín Modos de habitar a história ou Filosofia, cultura e arquitetura na fundação do Altes Museum de Berlim

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    Fabiano Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From the beginnings of what we now know as our modernity, man has been surprised with his own finitude. The 18th and 19th  century bourgeois needed to formulate complex ways of preserving the past and of linking with it. In the philosophes’ circle, time concept starts to double itself in the idea of origin, that, for them, had become opaque. We just need to think of the broad-range process of structuring museums and restructuring natural history collections in cities such as Paris and Berlin, around the turn to the 19th century, so that we can be convinced that the surprise with that origin that one cannot recognize anymore, that becomes object of popular and scientific interest, leads each and all of the decisions in this process. Museum is just one of the institutions in which man, through a complex series of idealizations of space, show himself the spectacle of a lost time and, thus, of a culture whose educational thrive can only be understood by associating to these institutions. Our task is to investigate – and the case study of the grounding of the Altes Museum in Berlin, between 1822 and 1830, will perform this concretely – which educational policy made the emergence of this new ideological model possible, and , on the opposite way, which conceptual elaborations confirmed or legitimated the new pragmatic topography of time in modernity within the institution that had as aim, precisely, articulate and administrate past and memory. Desde los albores de la modernidad tal como la entendemos hoy en día, el hombre se espanta por su finitud. El burgués de los siglos XVIII y XIX tuvo que crear mecanismos complejos para la preservación del pasado y su relación con él. En el círculo de philosophes, la noción del tiempo comienza a replicarse en la idea de origen, que para ellos se convirtió en opaca. Basta pensar en el amplio

  13. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Resveratrol Synthase Gene (PcPKS5) into Huping Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba)%农杆菌介导虎杖芪合酶基因遗传转化壶瓶枣的研究

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    罗在柒; 郭辉力; 杨亚东; 杨明峰; 马兰青; 王有年

    2015-01-01

    【目的】白藜芦醇作为植物次生代谢产物不但能提高果树抗真菌能力,还能改善果品质量。遗传转化芪合酶基因能够增强植物的抗真菌能力,虎杖芪合酶基因具有较高的催化合成白藜芦醇的效率,研究虎杖芪合酶基因遗传转化壶瓶枣,以期获得具有抗真菌能力且改善枣果实品质的遗传转化新材料。【方法】通过组织培养再生体系与目的基因转化技术,优化获得茎诱导丛生芽,构建植物表达载体,优化遗传转化体系,采用农杆菌介导法将虎杖白藜芦醇生物合成关键酶基因 PcPKS5遗传转化壶瓶枣。【结果】优化壶瓶枣茎段诱导得到高分化率的丛生芽遗传转化体系,再生增植率为11.0,为壶瓶枣成功实现遗传转化奠定了基础。将壶瓶枣0.8~1.0 cm 含茎尖和茎段的外植体材料置于农杆菌浓度 OD600=0.6时侵染菌液中浸泡15.0 min,然后置于培养基上避光共培养3天;随后转入含 Cb 300 mg·L -1,AS 60 mg·L -1的丛生芽诱导分化培养基中培养5~6周。将分化丛生芽转接至含4.0 mg·L -1 Basta 的培养基中,获遗传转化植株173株;经 Basta 筛选, GUS显色、gDNA PCR、RT-PCR 等检测证实,成功获得3个阳性转基因株系,荧光实时定量检测表明株系2表达效率较高。经植物化学成分分析,转化植株中目的基因得以表达,生成了目标产物白藜芦醇,其含量为0.45μg·g -1(鲜质量)。【结论】本研究成功实现虎杖芪合酶基因遗传转化壶瓶枣,获得壶瓶枣遗传转化新材料。且 PcPKS5在枣树中异源表达,转基因材料中能够代谢合成白藜芦醇,有望提高转 PcPKS5基因壶瓶枣抗枣树病原真菌病能力。白藜芦醇是否在壶瓶枣遗传转化材料果实中积累,及转基因植株果实品质的影响仍需深入研究。%Objective]Huping jujube is widely cultivated in northern China. A resveratrol

  14. 川西北地区固体沥青和油砂的有机地球化学特征与成因%Organic geochemical characteristics and origin of solid bitumen and oil sands in northwestern Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广利; 王铁冠; 韩克猷; 王兰生; 师生宝

    2014-01-01

    川西北龙门山前山带不同时代固体沥青和油砂的烃类组成表现出一系列共有的地球化学特征。其碳同位素值小于-32‰,指示前寒武系来源。 C29甾烷相对含量大于C27和C28甾烷,推测与蓝细菌的贡献有关,三芳甾烷的分布具有类似的特征。出现较为丰富的24-正丙基胆甾烷和24-异丙基胆甾烷,分别来自远洋藻类和海绵动物的贡献。高丰度的孕甾烷系列化合物,表征还原和静滞的水体环境。重排甾烷的缺失,高丰度的30-降藿烷、C35藿烷和C24四环萜烷,以及丰富的二苯并噻吩类化合物,进一步反映出缺氧环境和较高的碳酸盐岩含量。本区固体沥青和油砂所拥有的特征,表明其来源于震旦系陡山沱组烃源岩,并与国外来源于同一时代的原油具有可比性。除此之外,UCM和25-降藿烷的存在,表明古油藏保存和破坏过程中曾经遭受了生物降解作用。古油藏是陡山沱组烃源岩在生油窗早期的产物(Rc为0.57%~0.84%),构造运动所引起的持续抬升以及之后的风化剥蚀和生物降解作用可能是古油藏破坏的主要原因。%Hydrocarbon compositions extracted from a set of solid bitumen an d oil sands collected in the northern Longmenshan Mountain, the northwestern Sichuan, South China, are unique and consistent. It is suggested that the bulkδ13 C values (<-32‰) for the extracts and each fraction show overall depleted values, which is typical of pre⁃Cambrian source. The high concentrations of C29 steranes relative to C27 and C28 steranes can be explained by the contribution of cyanobacteria, and the distribution of triaromatic steranes has similar characteristics. 24⁃n⁃propyl⁃cholestane and 24⁃isopropylcholestane are abundant, which should be derived from marine chrysophyte algae and demosponges. The high abundance of pregnane and homopregnane could be associated with such specific

  15. HERNANDO GROOT LIÉVANO (1917-2016 IN MEMORIAM. HOMENAJE AL PROFESOR HERNANDO GROOT LIÉVANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Torres

    2016-12-01

    la revista Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía de Bogotá un estudio sobre la Frecuencia de los parásitos intestinales en los enfermos del Hospital San Juan de Dios y, en la Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, otro sobre la Frecuencia con que se encuentran los huevos infecundados de Ascaris lumbricoides. Al año siguiente, 1939, se gradúa de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia con la tesis denominada Estudios sobre fosfatasa, calcio y fósforo inorgánico en el suero de los leprosos. Tales trabajos fueron el inicio de una profusa serie de publicaciones de gran valor investigativo, respaldadas por su condición de Máster en Higiene Pública, título alcanzado por él en 1942 con la palma Cum laudem en la Universidad de Harvard. En ellas se ocupa de la Bartonella, del Balantidium coli, del tifo exantemático, de la sífilis, de la leishmaniasis, del Trypanosoma ariarii, del Trypanosoma rangeli, del virus de la encefalitis equina, del de la fiebre amarilla, de los virus transmitidos por artrópodos, del dengue, del virus guaroa productor de infecciones en humanos, siendo él quien primero lo aisló. También, fue el primero en hallar la Haemobartonella tyzzeri en Colombia y realizó un estudio sistemático sobre las enterobacterias causantes de la diarrea.

    Pero no basta con registrar lo que hizo como científico, se hace necesario destacar la forma como lo hizo. Hernando Groot es el supérstite de aquella pléyade de investigadores románticos que iban, a manera de apóstoles de la salud, en plan de exploradores −conquistadores− a internarse en las selvas y en los campos inhóspitos, soportando las inclemencias de la naturaleza, tras la huella de mosquitos y garrapatas portadores de las enfermedades propias del trópico. De esa pléyade formaron también parte los profesores Luis Patiño Camargo, Ernesto Osorno Mesa, Augusto Gast Galvis y Jorge Boshell Manrique...

  16. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología. (III Parte

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    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1987-04-01

    ha comenzado a concentrar esfuerzos en tareas que se consideran triviales para cualquier adulto normal: lenguaje, sentido común, aprendizaje por experiencias pasadas.

    En cuanto al lenguaje se refiere, el mayor problema reside en que la gente entiende mucho más de lo que el léxico literalmente expresa; en lo atinente al sentido común, no basta el conocimiento de una gran cantidad de cosas sino se requiere su aplicación a una variedad de situaciones. En cambio el aprendizaje de experiencias pasadas tiene como base la memoria que facilita la aplicación de ese conocimiento en situaciones relevantes, lo que sí representaría un avance hacia verdadera inteligencia. Entonces se repite la pregunta: ¿para qué sirve la lA? Los autores mencionados responden que el concepto popular de lA se ha enfocado erróneamente hacia lo artificial o sea hacia los computadores. En realidad estos ejecutan tareas nunca antes imaginadas. Científicos e ingenieros constantemente están aumentando su utilidad y poder; pero esto no es lA; su concepto se debe enfocar por el aspecto inteligencia. Ponen como ejemplo el popular programa “Expertos” rotulado como “rulebased” en donde no hay razonamiento en la forma como lo hace un experto humano (hecho anotado en la la. parte; pues si bien es cierto que realizan tareas interesantes, no son modelos de inteligencia porque no pueden decir qué hay que hacer cuando algo no cuadra en sus reglas basadas en éxito o fracaso. Agregan que la lA es una ciencia mucho más básica de lo que generalmente se cree. Un producto hecho posible por una idea de lA tiene mérito si funciona con éxito útil, no simplemente porque sea fruto de una idea de lA.

    ¿Entonces cuáles serían las aplicaciones de la 1A? Según Schank y Hunter si ganamos en conocimiento profundo (insight o entendimiento de cómo piensa el ser humano, esos hallazgos ayudarían a la misma gente a pensar mejor y constituirían la más importante aplicación. Me explico: si

  17. Choque de gestão ou choque de racionalidades? O desempenho da administração pública em questão Management shock or rationality shock? The performance of public administration put into question

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    Vanessa Brulon

    2013-04-01

    preocupação com a qualidade de vida ou com o atendimento das demandas sociais e, por isso, guia-se por uma visão de futuro que representa um Estado em que estão presentes as duas categorias aqui trabalhadas. Entretanto, o conceito de desempenho em que está pautado, engloba aspectos predominantemente instrumentais, já que se acredita que para que a administração pública mineira melhore seu desempenho basta que ela adote medidas como a redução de custos ou o foco em resultados. Portanto, conclui-se que o conceito de desempenho em que se pauta o programa Choque de Gestão não compreende as diferentes dimensões de desempenho de forma equilibrada, apesar de se guiar por um conceito de desenvolvimento que envolve elementos substantivos e instrumentais.Since the management reform process spread worldwide, other reform proposals following the same logic were put into practice, most of them at the state level. The Management Shock program, implemented in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is one example of such a proposal and deserves to be highlighted due to the very positively evaluations it received in specialized literature. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze to what extent the program Management Shock, implemented by the Government of Minas Gerais, incorporates the different dimensions inherent to the concept of performance. For the analysis of this program, we propose a theoretical model that relates the concepts of instrumental rationality and substantive rationality, as analyzed by Ramos (1989, with the multidimensional paradigm, proposed by Sander (1995. For the latter, the notion of performance should be broadened, incorporating the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness and relevance. The concepts of efficiency and effectiveness are related to instrumental rationality or the utilitarian calculation of consequences; while effectiveness and relevance are related to substantive rationality, based on values. The relationship

  18. [RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATTERNS OF BREASTFEEDING AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN BRAZILIAN AND SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Urda, Ana Isabel; Pereira da Silva, Raiane; Bisi Molina, María del Carmen; Bresciani Salaroli, Luciane; Montero López, María del Pilar

    2015-10-01

    ón arterial; sin embar go, al comparar las dos muestras parece verse una contradicción, puesto que los niños y niñas brasileños son amamantados durante más tiempo que los españoles y sin embargo sus valores de presión arterial y su prevalencia de hipertensión, son mayores que en la muestra española. Esta aparente contradicción se resuelve al controlar el efecto de la calidad de la alimentación actual: los niños y niñas brasileños tienen peor calidad de la alimentación y, además, una de las características de su dieta es el consumo elevado de alimentos muy procesados y ricos en sodio. Conclusión: el posible efecto protector de la LM queda reducido si la alimentación en etapas posteriores del ciclo vital no es la adecuada o no reúne unos requisitos mínimos de calidad. Por lo tanto, aunque la lactancia materna juega un papel importante en la prevención de la aparición de hipertensión en la infancia, no basta con apoyar la práctica del amamantamiento, sino que el trabajo de prevención es continuo y se debe insistir en potenciar hábitos de alimentación y estilos de vida saludables a lo largo de todo el ciclo vital de las personas.

  19. Avaliação de híbridos de milho obtidos do cruzamento entre linhagens com diferentes níveis de degradabilidade da matéria seca Performance of corn hybrids obtained from crosses of lines with different dry matter degradabilities

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    Marcelo Cruz Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Na recomendação de um híbrido para produção de silagem, não basta apenas considerar a produção de matéria seca; é necessário também que a silagem tenha alta degradabilidade efetiva (DEF da matéria seca da planta inteira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características agronômicas, bromatológicas e de degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca de híbridos comerciais de milho recomendados para a produção de silagem e de híbridos experimentais provenientes do cruzamento entre linhagens de alta e baixa degradabilidade. Foi avaliado o desempenho de 23 híbridos de milho, sendo dezoito híbridos experimentais e cinco comerciais, indicados para silagem. O experimento foi instalado no ano agrícola 2003/2004, com delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e a parcela experimental constituída de quatro linhas de 5,0 metros. As plantas foram colhidas a 20 cm do solo, no estádio da linha de leite na metade do grão (farináceo/duro. As silagens foram incubadas in situ por 0, 6, 12, 24 e 96 horas, no rúmen de três vacas fistuladas e a degradabilidade efetiva foi calculada assumindo taxa de passagem de -0,05%/hora. Foi observado que entre as cultivares avaliadas, há híbridos com grande potencial para a produção de silagem de qualidade com alta degradabilidade da matéria seca de planta inteira (DEF, independentemente da textura do grão; é correto o uso da estratégia de sintetizar híbridos visando à alta degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca da planta inteira (DEF utilizando linhagens que apresentam alta DEF. A baixa correlação da degradabilidade efetiva com características agronômicas e bromatológicas, evidencia a necessidade de maior utilização da DEF na seleção de híbridos de milho, visando à produção de silagem de qualidade.In order to recommend corn hybrids for silage it is not enough to have high dry matter. It is also necessary that the silage presents high effective

  20. Produção da laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Monte Parnaso' com incisão anelar de ramos e uso de reguladores vegetais Fruit production of 'Monte Parnaso' orange trees following girdling and growth regulator sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Carlos Koller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Monte Parnaso' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck tem produtividade inferior a 10 kg de frutos/planta, em função de baixa fixação e/ou retenção de frutos. Com o propósito de solucionar esse problema, no ano agrícola de 2001-2002, plantas com 11 anos de idade, enxertadas sobre Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., em Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 Testemunha: sem anelagem e sem reguladores vegetais; 2 Incisão anelar da casca dos ramos principais, 10 dias após a queda das pétalas (02-10-2001; 3 Incisão anelar da casca dos ramos no final da queda natural de frutos (08-11-2001; 4 Pulverização com 5 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico (AG3, 10 dias após a queda das pétalas (02-10-2001; 5 Pulverização com 15 mg.L-1 de ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, no final da queda natural dos frutos (08-11-2001; 6 Pulverização com 50 mg.L-1 de ácido diclorofenoxipropiônico (2,4-DP, no final da queda natural dos frutos (08-11-2001; 7 Pulverização com 10 mg.L-1 de AG3 + 15 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D, em maio (14-05-2001 e 11-05-2002; 8 Tratamentos 2 + 3, e 9 Tratamentos 2 + 3 + 7. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições, usando 3 plantas úteis por parcela. A pulverização com 5 mg.L-1 de AG3, 10 dias após a queda das pétalas, aumenta a produção, mas diminui a massa média dos frutos em relação a outros tratamentos que aumentam a produção, e a pulverização no final da queda natural com 15 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D diminui o teor de suco dos frutos. Para aumentar a produção de frutos, basta adotar-se um dos seguintes procedimentos: em novembro, após a queda natural dos frutos, fazer a incisão anelar da casca dos ramos, ou pulverizar as plantas com 15 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D, ou pulverizar as plantas com 50 mg.L-1 de 2,4-DP; ou em maio, pulverizar as plantas com 10 mg.L-1 de AG3 + 15 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D.In order to reduce early fruit drop and increment fruit production of

  1. Comentario a la presentación del Libro "Los Versos Melánicos"

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    Alberto Gómez Vesga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apreciados señoras y señores, académicos: Todos plenos de títulos y honores nos reunimos hoy -menos endémicos- esquivando las funciones de doctores en torno a la obra de Efraím Otero y su relación un tanto iconoclasta de una vida que vivió por el alero de la medicina nuclear, que no le basta para hacer feliz su alma de poeta a Dios gracias, o gracias a algún hado y su saeta.

    Como ven no fallé ni un ápice en la rima pero sí -y totalmente- en la mesura aún así, contrario un tris la compostura y procedo a saludar a la Junta Directiva. Al Secretario Perpetuo que tiene un apellido muy difícil de rimar en nuestro idioma lo llamaré Hernando-como hemos convenido- Además … él sabe que es en broma. Sigue ahora nuestro augusto Presidente cuyo caso es todo lo contrario pues rimar con Juan en este horario bien merece un elogio del ausente. El Vicepresidente -aquí si estoy desamparado- fue para mí casi imposible, y “doy lo” que me pidan, aún doy mi doctorado, por rimar por fin con Cuellar o con Zoilo.

    A Germán Peña -Secretario- ahora elijo, por él siento especial y muy curiosa inclinación, por un lado, porque conocí bien a su hijo y por otro, a causa del vinito que tomamos al final de cada reunión. El último en la lista es Es guerra el Tesorero de Marly, muy activo calculista ha resultado con él no parece que nos faltará el dinero para darle buen sentido a las políticas de estado. Ahora bien, más que conceptos eruditos de un sesudo estudio literario quiero leerles mis versos favoritos a manera de muy corto comentario. El libro de Efraím, que he disfrutado tiene forma de auto-biografía como Juan de Castellanos ha rimadocada evento y sentimiento de su vida.

    Capítulo primero

    Inicia recordando lecturas escolares e incluye medievales y renacentistas repasando luego versos populares y algunas ocurrencias de amigos repentistas. Entre éstas leeré un verso muy sabroso que nos dice

  2. O brincar na infância: considerações a partir de uma pesquisa / Playing in the childhhood: considerations though a research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês Horn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Ensino - Brinquedoteca do Centro Universitário Univates, Lajeado/RS/Brasil, do qual participaram crianças na faixa etária de 0 a 10 anos e seus professores. Buscamos investigar de que modo umbanco de atividades lúdicas, organizadas com materiais de baixo custo, pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da criança e subsidiar professores em serviço e em formação para uma proposta pedagógica inovadora. A investigação é de caráter qualitativo e a metodologia utilizada é Análise de Conteúdo, proposta por Bardin, 1977. Pretendemos possibilitar aos sujeitos envolvidos na pesquisa a discussão sobre o valor de alguns jogos e brinquedos, analisando sua relação com a criança. Inicialmente estudamos, através de referencial teórico e de observações diretas junto às crianças, quais eram seusinteresses em relação aos jogos e brinquedos. Diante disso, foi possível construir 20 jogos com materiais de baixo custo, onde determinamos objetivos, função, tema, faixa etária e regras junto às crianças. Este banco de atividades foi testado com 150 crianças e11 professores, a fim de verificar a validade destas propostas. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, as quais foram gravadas e transcritas para análise. Ao término deste trabalho, concluímos que, quando o brincar alcançar um maior espaço nas atividades desenvolvidas em sala de aula ou as atividades apoiarem-se no brincar livremente, não será necessária a preocupação do professor no desenvolvimento da parte intelectiva das crianças. Acreditamos que não basta “dar” às crianças o direito de brincar. Para ser uma atividade significativa, é preciso despertar e manter seu desejo pelo brincar.Abstract Playing in the Childhood: Considerations through a Research – The present work was developed at the Laboratory of Teaching –Toy library (Brinquedoteca of theUnivates Academical Center

  3. Protocolo de analgesia epidural obstétrica en el contexto de la gestión innovadora de la asistencia y de los criterios de calidad y seguridad Guidelines for obstetric epidural analgesia within a framework of innovative managementand quallity and safety criteria

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    C. Campuzano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La Analgesia Epidural Obstétrica en nuestro hospital, comienza en el año 2000 a los pocos meses de inaugurar el nuevo Hospital Comarcal de Antequera. Elaboración de un Protocolo y la presencia de un Coordinador entre los distintos colectivos fueron los primeros pasos hasta el año 2002. La Unidad de Gestión Clínica del Bloque Quirúrgico comienza a funcionar en el año 2002 e implica directamente otra dinámica de trabajo, a saber: participación en el Proceso Integrado Embarazo-Parto-Puerperio y su relación con Asistencia Primaria de Salud, Actividad Asistencial Obstétrica marcada por objetivos de productividad, Recursos Humanos y Carga de Trabajo implicada en la analgesia obstétrica, Medios Materiales necesarios, Gestión de los recursos económicos, Mapa de Competencias específicas para los profesionales implicados e Informatización de las técnicas analgésicas dirigida a la obtención de determinados indicadores de actividad con los datos estadísticos pertinentes. Criterios de Calidad y de Seguridad desarrollados en la Unidad de Gestión Clínica serán expuestos en este artículo: Audits Clínicos de cumplimentación del protocolo, eficacia analgésica, satisfacción del usuario, valoración de partos instrumentales, inicio de epidural ambulante, control de la morbilidad a través de otro protocolo de Complicaciones de Loco-Regional de la Unidad, detección de eventos adversos y valoración e investigación de los casos centinelas ocurridos. Indudablemente no basta con efectuar la técnica, la Unidad Clínica y sus Objetivos han creado mecanismos de información sobre lo que hacemos y sobre las rectificaciones y mejoras a implementar. Es el camino a seguir y incluye un periodo de adaptación de los profesionales donde las motivaciones tanto económicas como de satisfacción profesional van marcadas por objetivos. Saber negociar estos objetivos anuales entre los gestores y los profesionales es el reto del futuro

  4. Características sensoriais da carne ovina Sensorial characteristics of sheep meat

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    José Carlos da Silveira Osório

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a tendência mundial é produzir o que se consome e que a ciência da carne busca o mais alto grau de satisfação do consumidor, o estudo aborda as características que propiciam essa satisfação na carne ovina. A utilização dos órgãos dos sentidos humanos na percepção das características que propiciam a mais alta satisfação do consumidor, passou a ser definição de "qualidade"; que aponta como características sensoriais importantes da carne ovina a suculência (capacidade de retenção de água, cor, textura (dureza ou maciez, odor e sabor e o flavor (odor + sabor. Estas características variam de acordo com a espécie, raça, idade, sexo, alimentação, manejo pós-mortem e as condições e tempo de conservação do produto. Sendo que á maioria das investigações relacionam estas características direta ou indiretamente com as do produto cárnico cozido. O produtor, a indústria e os segmentos da cadeia devem ter em conta que as propriedades sensoriais aceitáveis são fundamentais no momento da venda e consumo. No agronegócio da carne, todos os segmentos da cadeia são responsáveis e participam direta ou indiretamente na máxima satisfação do consumidor, quer através dos atributos do produto ou pelo preço. Assim, o aperfeiçoamento dos processos de produção, industrialização e comercialização para obter um produto de qualidade serão consolidados se existirem técnicas claras e práticas para descrever os caracteres relacionados com a qualidade da carne, que possam ser medidos na carcaça e que tenham relação biológica com uma avaliação in vivo. A carne de qualidade é a que provoca o mais alto grau de satisfação do consumidor e as características sensoriais estão relacionadas à porção comestível, principalmente a relação músculo/gordura e composição e valor biológico destes. Porém, não basta somente estudar o alimento, é importante ter presente que a meta é o consumidor e

  5. Las Afecciones Prostáticas y su Tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cavelier Gaviria

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En la actualidad se sabe que el cáncer de la próstata se presenta aproximadamente en el 25% de todos los hombres mayores de 50 años, lo cual significa que esta neoplasia es aún más frecuente que el cáncer del pulmón o del colon. Este aumento y su hallazgo se deben a una mejor metodología para diagnosticar y reportar los casos, lo cual a su vez permite a los hombres vivir hasta una edad más avanzada.

    Debido a esto, se recomienda en la actualidad las evaluaciones anuales en todos los hombres mayores de 50 años. Sin embargo, como este cáncer ocurre con más frecuencia en hombres jóvenes de la raza negra, se recomienda que éstos se sometan a una temprana evaluación tan pronto han cumplido los 40 años. Igualmente quienes tienen una historia clínica de cáncer de la próstata en la familia también deben hacerse los debidos controles desde los 40 años.

    El cáncer de la próstata a menudo se desarrolla sin que haya síntomas que lo delaten hasta que ya está bastante avanzado. Hasta hace poco, los médicos confiaban en el tacto rectal para detectarlo, pero hoy sabemos que esta prueba no basta ya que la totalidad de la próstata no puede ser examinada exactamente. Aunque las áreas de tejido denso y endurecido suelen revelar la existencia de un tumor, también hay protuberancias anormales que se desarrollan sin que haya cambios en la textura de los tejidos y por ser blandas pueden escapar así al tacto rectal.

    Hace tres años comenzó a utilizarse un sencillo análísis de la sangre, el de los antígenos específicos de la próstata. Este análisis mide los niveles de la proteína o enzima prostática que producen tanto las células sanas como las cancerosas. Las células malignas, por naturaleza, se reproducen rápidamente de modo que producen mayores cantidades de antígenos específicos de la próstata, elevando los niveles citados más allá del máximo que se considera normal.

    Sin embargo, en los hombres

  6. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade

    2008-01-01

    medio que nos permite ser críticos de la realidad del conocimiento. La sociedad de la información es la sociedad del no conocimiento, porque con la presión de las tecnologías de información y la abrumadora cantidad de datos por procesar, pretendemos interpretar todos los fenómenos como problemas derivados del desconocimiento. De manera que la sociedad de la informaciónes también la sociedad del desconocimiento.La autoridad para el conocimiento pareciera centrarse no en el conocimiento mismo, sino en las fuentes de información. Internet es una prueba del lugar donde la credibilidad del conocimiento se cuestiona en forma más aguda. No importa mucho el grado de verdad que el conocimiento genera,sino que la confianza esté centrada en las fuentes de información. Por supuesto, esto ofende la moral científica del conocimiento. La ética debe aprender a convivir con la cada vez menor jerarquía de los valores.Se buscan mecanismos de validación (o contrastación del conocimiento a través de fuentes de información más confiables que aquellas dictaminadas por el mercado. De allí la importancia de los sistemas que registran a las fuentes hemerográficas. En Enl@ce, nos empeñamos en ser un referente confiable para la ciencia. No nos basta con publicar la verdad del conocimiento, tenemos que validar nuestras fuentes, para que la revista sea confiable en la producción científica de conocimiento.No nos ha hecho falta comercializar el conocimiento para hacer de la revista un punto referencial en los sistemas de difusión científica. La visibilidad de Enl@ce ha crecido exponencialmente sin tener que recurrir al mercado. Hemos sentado las bases para el desarrollo de aspectos asociados a programas de investigación, en particular a los aspectos concernientes a la difusión del conocimiento.Cada vez son más los índices que reconocen a Enl@ce como una fuente válida de conocimiento.Hemos sido incluidos en el Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ y en Hispanic

  7. Opinión acerca de la estructura de un juicio de responsabilidad necesaria para definir la existencia de una Práctica Comercial Restrictiva, de acuerdo con el sistema de derecho continental imperante en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Velandia Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available He criticado últimamente el comportamiento del nuevo mundo por su constante copia frente a la legislación foránea. En estas latitudes se sigue, sin estudios previos, los mandatos y decisiones de ciertos países, dejando de lado lo propio, que puede diferir de lo extranjero, ya que todo pueblo tiene su cultura, inclusive la jurídica, la cual parte del supuesto social para convertirse después de la regulación en un supuesto jurídico. De ahí que contemos por los lados latinos con poca labor creativa. escasos son los casos que pueden ser contados como inspiraciones propias y originales. Pero la realidad es que a veces basta con nombrar un libro foráneo, basado en normas extranjeras, para silenciar al oponente .En la práctica como docente universitario y dentro de la práctica profesional como abogado he tenido posibilidad de leer diferente literatura acerca de las políticas y legislaciones de competencia en diferentes continentes. Dentro de esa lectura he percibido que, quizás, por tener su origen el derecho de la competencia en el Common Law, al momento de ser acogida su regulación por el civil law y al adelantarse su aplicación, han sido completamente olvidados los elementos propios de la teoría general de responsabilidad sobre la cual descansa el civil Law. El Civil Law basa todo su desarrollo en juicios de responsabilidad que están dotados de una estructura rígida de normas escritas, generosa en sus probabilidades de acercamiento a la verdad acerca de la demostración de la causa que generó la consecuencia, así como el entorno de su ocurrencia, donde se desarrollan componentes objetivos o subjetivos de comportamientos que permiten el desarrollo del derecho del debido proceso y del derecho de defensa, de acuerdoa la forma como hubiere quedado escrita la prohibición. Así se habla en la mayoría de casos de daño, culpa y nexo causal, y a la forma de desvirtuar esos elementos, en los casos cuando se trata de un particular que

  8. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade

    2006-09-01

    la toma de decisiones oportunas. Para ello, los valores organizacionales deberían estar alineados con lasnecesidades de cambio que tienen que ver con los valores de las instituciones.Esos son algunos de los retos que hoy enfrentamos y que son tratados en este nueva entrega de Enl@ce, de la mano de expertos que reconocen la necesidad de confrontar sus experienciasy esfuerzos académicos, a través de la publicación de interpretaciones y resultados de análisiscientíficos.Vale la pena recordar que las modificaciones del pensamiento, expresadas en situacionesespaciales y temporales que se presentan en forma de conocimiento, responden a la necesidad detrascender a la tradicional fragmentación de la realidad del conocimiento científico referencial einstrumental, que inspira a buena parte de los trabajos que se publican en revistas limitadas porlos espacios “naturales” de la especialización. Es así como Enl@ce brinda una ventana para elencuentro del amplio conocimiento de la tecnología y la información, que permite confrontar lascontradicciones propias de la mundialización y discusión del conocimiento. Basta revisar el índiceacumulado de este número, para constatar que Enl@ce es una tribuna abierta a la discusión delpensamiento crítico en materia de tecnología, información y conocimiento.Deseo agradecer a los autores que durante este año 2006 confiaron en Enl@ce, porque se sumaron con verdadero entusiasmo a este proyecto editorial, garantizando, una vez más, la calidaddel contenido de esta publicación. Al Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONACIT por valorarnuestro esfuerzo, y al Vicerrectorado Académico de la Universidad del Zulia que durante este añoconfió en nuestro trabajo académico e hizo posible la continuidad y la consolidación de Enl@ce.

  9. What We Have Learnt in Ten Years′Study of Rice Transgene Flow%转基因水稻基因飘流研究十年回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾士荣; 钱前; 袁潜华; 王丰; 姚克敏; 裴新梧; 胡凝; 王志兴; 王旭静; 柳武革

    2014-01-01

    China is the largest rice producer worldwide and is one of the origins of Asian cultivated rice as well. Along with the rapid development of transgenic rice in China, the potential impact of rice transgene flow on the environment and food safety has become one of the major concerns. Gene flow is an important parameter in the risk assessment and regulation of transgenic rice on the scientific basis. In accordance with this situation, we have formed a team and systematically studied the rice transgene flow since 2002. The results obtained in recent ten years are as following: (1) the patterns of transgene flow and the major biological and meteorological factors controlling rice gene flow have been elucidated. Following the prevailing wind direction in rice flowering period, a rectangular design of field experiments were conducted at 3 locations(Sanya, Hainan Island;Guangzhou, Guangdong;and Hangzhou, Zhejiang)in 2-3 years by using a homozygous transgenic line L201 or B2 (sister lines) with bar gene inserted, resistant to herbicide Basta, as a pollen donor, and totally 19 non-transgenic rice as recipients, including male sterile (ms) lines, common rice cultivars (CRC), F1 hybrid rice, and common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Results indicated that the frequency of transgene flow to ms lines was the highest, while gene flow to CRC and F1 hybrids was the lowest (less than 1%or 0.1%at parallel plantation). The frequency of transgene flow to O. rufipogon was in between. By comparison, the maximum frequency of gene flow to ms lines is one to three orders of magnitude higher than that to O. rufipogon and CRC. Gene flow frequency decreased exponentially as the distance increase, with a sharp cut-off point at about 1-2 m in Guangzhou and Hangzhou, while it was approximately 5m in Sanya. It indicates that the sharp cut-off point is closely related to the wind speed during rice flowering period at a given location. By using a concentric circle design of field experiment and an ms

  10. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade

    2011-01-01

    íticas que hacen muchos expertos en materia de ciencia y tecnología, abogan por un regresoa las estructuras científicas del pasado. Sin embargo, la hipocresía no ha dejado de existir. Desde los másaferrados detractores del gobierno nacional, hasta quienes defienden la gran “política nacional” en materia de Ciencia y Tecnología acudieron al llamado realizado por el ONCTI con el fin de participar en el nuevo PEI, cuyo incentivo se centra casi exclusivamente en los aspectos monetarios. Como política científica apunta, al igual que lo hacía el PPI, a la promoción del investigador y no de la investigación. No se trata, en principio, de elevar los niveles de hacer ciencia, sino más bien de realizar ajustes al deteriorado ingreso que reciben los investigadores del país. Se trata por lo tanto, de políticas de estímulo para que quienes se dediquen a las actividades de investigación, lo hagan con un ingreso adicional al que perciben en sus centros de trabajos, siempre y cuando el proyecto de investigación que desarrollen esté enmarcado dentro del Plan Nacional Simón Bolívar.Una de las contradicciones de mayor peso es la que concierne a las publicaciones científicas. En el anterior PPI, se calificaba la calidad de las publicaciones realizadas por los participantes. Un criterio, por ejemplo, era que la publicación científica para ser aceptada debía ser hecha en una revista que al menos estuviera registrada en uno de los siguientes índices: Latindex Catálogo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Biosis, Med Line/Pub-Med, Scielo Internacional, CLASE, Mathematical Review, Cover to Cover o Compedex, y ello servía como un criterio de calidad. Con el PEI, no existe un parámetro que señale la calidad de la publicación; el instructivo indica que se considerará prioritaria si la revista es venezolana, no se indica nada en relación con su calidad. Basta con que el trabajo sea arbitrado para ser aceptado como un producto de investigación e innovación. Quizás por

  11. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Triest.let's finish—aus basta Some move atoms around to hear how they sound.Karl-Heinz Rieder, Erice, 6 April 1998 From reciprocal space to real space in surface science contents From reciprocal space to real space in surface scienceLudwig Bartels and Karl-Heinz Ernst Karl-Heinz Reider: the quiet pioneerGiorgio Benedek Scattering of CO and N2 molecules by a graphite surfaceJunepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura, W W Hayes and J R Manson Helium, neon and argon diffraction from Ru(0001)M Minniti, C Díaz, J L Fernández Cuñado, A Politano, D Maccariello, F Martín, D Farías and R Miranda Enhanced charge transfer in a monolayer of the organic charge transfer complex TTF-TNAP on Au(111)T R Umbach, I Fernandez-Torrente, J N Ladenthin, J I Pascual and K J Franke Extended pattern recognition scheme for self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo simulationsSyed Islamuddin Shah, Giridhar Nandipati, Abdelkader Kara and Talat S Rahman Acetylene on Cu(111): imaging a molecular surface arrangement with a constantly rearranging tipYeming Zhu, Jonathan Wyrick, Kamelia D Cohen, Katie Marie Magnone, Connor Holzke, Daniel Salib, Quan Ma, Dezheng Sun and Ludwig Bartels Coulomb attraction during the carpet growth mode of NaClFriederike Matthaei, Sarah Heidorn, Konrad Boom, Cord Bertram, Ali Safiei, Jörg Henzl and Karina Morgenstern Molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface: interplay between substrate templating and intermolecular interactionsMarkus Kittelmann, Philipp Rahe and Angelika Kühnle Vertical manipulation of native adatoms on the InAs(111)A surfaceJ Yang, C Nacci, J Martínez-Blanco, K Kanisawa and S Fölsch Charge transfer between isomer domains on n+-doped Si(111)-2 × 1: energetic stabilizationR M Feenstra, G Bussetti, B Bonanni, A Violante, C Goletti, P Chiaradia, M G Betti and C Mariani Probing the properties of metal-oxide interfaces: silica films on Mo and Ru supportsLeonid Lichtenstein, Markus Heyde, Stefan Ulrich, Niklas Nilius

  12. EDITORIAL EFECTOS ADVERSOS DE MEDICAMENTOS: UNA PATOLOGÍA MULTIFORME RESPONSABILIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Ramon Laporte

    2009-09-01

    haya a día de hoy pruebas de su eficacia.- Los antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINE, sobre todo celecoxib y diclofenac, incrementan el riesgo de infarto de miocardio en un 50% a 70%, lo que, dado su consumo entre las personas de edad avanzada, supone un número considerable de muertes adicionales por infarto causado por estos fármacos. También incrementan el riesgo de ictus y de descompensación e insuficiencia cardíaca.- Los inhibidores de la bomba de protones, los antidepresivos ISRS, las benzodiacepinas y los antipsicóticos serían causa de miles de casos de fractura de cuello de fémur en personas de edad avanzada.- Las epoetinas a dosis altas (para alcanzar 12 g/dl de hemoglobina o más aumentan la mortalidad en un 25%, de modo que basta con tratar a cuatro pacientes de este modo para inducir una muerte adicional.Estos son sólo unos ejemplos. La lista es larguísima, y abarca todas las especialidades médicas y quirúrgicas y prácticamente cualquier patología: por ejemplo, obesidad y/o parkinsonismo por antipsicóticos y procinéticos, incremento del riesgo de suicidio en niños por anti-depresivos ISRS, así como en adultos tratados con antiepilépticos (a menudo en indicaciones no autorizadas, ictus y muerte por antipsicóticos, depresión respiratoria por fentanilo y otros derivados opioides, accidentes de tráfico por depresores de SNC, cáncer por immunosupressores, infecciones hospitalarias resistentes u oportunistas por antibióticos de amplio espectro, fracturas por tiazolidindionas, cáncer por ezetimiba... En algunas áreas de alta especialización debemos reconocer que casi no conocemos nada; pensemos por ejemplo en la seguridad de los nuevos y viejos quimioterápicos antineoplásicos en la práctica real.Los estudios de utilización de medicamentos indican invariablemente que, en mayor o menor medida, muchos medicamentos son tomados sin que haya necesidad de ellos, y viceversa: muchas personas que los necesitan no los toman, por falta de

  13. O impacto da MFC na saúde do Brasil The impact of Family and Community Medicine upon health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inez Padula Anderson

    2010-11-01

    -socorros, hospitais e especialistas focais. Mudar isso é tarefa de todos os que assumem a APS e a MFC. Não basta somente a boa prática e o bom trabalho nos locais onde se atua. É necessário a sua demonstração consistente e a divulgação das diferenças. Isso só pode ser bem aquilatado por meio de pesquisas científicas bem conduzidas.Mais que uma disciplina ou um nível de atenção, a MFC constitui hoje um campo do conhecimento científico a ser explorado. Nesta perspectiva, Willian Phillips e Deborah Haynes1 nos alertam que somente nós, os médicos de família, podemos delimitar o território da nossa especialidade. Se não estivermos dispostos a dizer ‘não’, qualquer outra coisa que dizemos poderá não importar. A assistência está em crise nesta loucura que é a medicina moderna. A especialidade da medicina de família não somente dispõe dos meios como tem a responsabilidade de agregar o serviço, a ciência e o bom senso que sabemos necessários. Ela tem de ser enxergada a partir da visão ampla do relacionamento, da integralidade e do profissionalismo, e percorrida pelos caminhos da assistência ao paciente e do serviço comunitário. A melhor forma de explorar este terreno é tomando posição, avançando contra as fronteiras da ciência e dos sistemas. Não há mapa que possa nos guiar através deste campo rico e diversificado. E, citando o professor Ian McWhinney, concluem: “Quando se trata de curar, chega um momento em que temos de deixar os nossos mapas de lado e explorar o terreno de mãos dadas com o paciente”.Neste sentido, a Diretoria da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade, notadamente a de Pesquisa Científica e a de Publicações, coloca-se como parceira no desenvolvimento dessas investigações, apoiando os seus membros para que possamos mostrar à população e aos governos das diversas esferas o papel central que a APS tem na promoção e manutenção da saúde da população. A idéia é que no 9º Congresso Brasileiro

  14. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientí­cas, que se propõem a torná-los acessí­veis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equí­vocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mí­dia para os

  15. Diversidad étnica e identidad en la llanura costera del istmo oaxaqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanga Villagómez Velázquez

    2004-01-01

    to communication and commercial networks, as well as exercising political influence among the ethnic groups, while other ethnic groups are excluded from these luxuries, not only due to their indigenous stature, but because they are subordinated by the domination that other ethnic groups exercise. Key to the current discussion about this area of Oaxaca is the exploitation and appropriation of the considerable range of natural resources found in the isthmus. Not only are the system of lakes in the Tehuantepec Gulf, the nature reserves in Chimalapas and the cattle ranching in the Mixe important sites of economic exploitation that have strengthened the power of local groups, but they are also sites of strategic control for the future development of Mexico. In the Oaxacan Isthmus exists valuable natural resources in water, forests, and endemic species that can play an important role in the regional and national economy. The question remains to understand which social or legal mechanisms have been put in place in order to define the beneficiaries of the natural riches found in the isthmus.En este artículo se desarrollan una serie puntos para entender al istmo oaxaqueño como una zona de convergencia cultural diversa, múltiple y por lo tanto diferenciada tanto en el ámbito de la historia de los pueblos que en ella viven, como en el ámbito de la estructura económica que permite su reproducción no sólo como grupos étnicos, sino como comunidades. El autor plantea que las manifestaciones culturales de cada grupo se confunden, se entrelazan se influencian mutuamente y en una lógica asociada a la perdurabilidad de dichos procesos, terminan por imponerse. Para comprender las relaciones interétnicas no basta con dar cuenta de las características generales de estos grupos sino que es necesario actualizar la información que se ha obtenido de ellos, sobre todo ahora que nuevos procesos nacionales o internacionales están afectando de manera irreversible la composición y

  16. La Medicina en la Obra Literaria de Gabriel García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Torres

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Es sabido que los temas médicos han tenido marcada atracción para muchos escritores reconocidos como tales por la crítica literaria mundial. No ha sido condición sine qua non que simultáneamente hayan pertenecido a la familia médica; basta que hayan sido escritores, y sobre todo escritores románticos: novelistas, cronistas o cuentistas. En algunos de ellos el amor y la medicina han ido de brazo. Y el amor, para el personaje de quien voy a ocuparme, es, según sus palabras, el motor de sus libros, su único argumento, su ideología exclusiva (1. No es de extrañar, como que su venerado maestro Lope de Vega ya lo decía:

    “Amor, divina invención
    … extraños efetos son
    los que de tu ciencia nacen,
    pues las tinieblas deshacen,
    pues hacen hablar los mudos;
    pues los ingenios más rudos
    sabios y discretos hacen”. (2

    Está bien, el amor ha servido de acicate, de inspiración, al laureado escritor colombiano. Pero, ¿y la medicina? No es difícil demostrar que ha sido una ciencia muy afin a él. En 1981, en Crónica de una muerte anunciada, pone en boca del narrador, que se supone era él mismo, que “en una época incierta en que trataba de entender algo de mí mismo vendiendo enciclopedias y libros de medicina por los pueblos de la Goajira…” (3. Tal noticia es corroborada por Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda (4, a quien el mismo escritor le confesó en alguna ocasión que había sido vendedor de libros (enciclopedias de la Editorial Uteha por lados de Valledupar y la Guajira.

    Por su parte, Dasso Saldívar -buen biografista de Gabo- refiere que éste, en los pueblos, “visitaba a los médicos, jueces, notarios, alcaldes” para convencerlos de la bondad de los libros técnicos que ofrecía (5; de seguro antes los

  17. Energía y cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    ésticos eficientes en materia de energía hasta la ayuda a los países para que eliminen las barreras de acceso al uso de energías renovables. También promueve una transición a largo plazo hacia formas de transporte con bajas emisiones de carbono y sostenibles. El potencial acumulado de calentamiento del planeta que se ha evitado como resultado de la labor del PNUD en materia de sustancias que agotan el ozono en todo el mundo, asciende a 24,5 millones de toneladas métricas de CO2 (4. La clave, entonces, es influir sobre la conducta de las instituciones y las personas y alentar las inversiones en empresas y actividades inocuas para el medio ambiente. La Unión Europea, asumiendo el liderazgo mundial en la lucha contra el cambio climático y a la vez en su afán de protegerse de energía ante eventuales crisis internacionales, ha emprendido como reto una gran reforma energética común, considerada histórica, con énfasis en la protección del medioambiente a través de la energía renovable. Sus líderes, en marzo de 2007, se comprometieron a alcanzar la estrategia energética, conocida como 20-20-20, hasta el año 2020. Esta estrategia implica el cumplimiento de tres grandes objetivos: 1 reducir 20% el consumo energético mediante una mayor eficiencia energética; 2 incrementar el uso de energías renovables hasta alcanzar 20% el consumo energético total, y 3 reducir en 20% las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en relación con las emisiones de 1990. De acuerdo con las tendencias de consumo energético, todo parece indicar que el cambio climático es y será inevitable, y la Tierra continuará calentándose. Solo basta imaginar que de llegar el incremento del consumo energético al 83,7% hasta el año 2025, tal como está previsto desde 1990, el planeta recibirá el 76,4% más de CO2 en este lapso (5. Mientras más tardemos en asumir las decisiones y en modificar nuestros patrones dominantes de generación y uso de energía, más altos serán los costos por adaptaci

  18. Aquifer overexploitation: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio

    2002-02-01

    actividades humanas y por la propia explotación del acuífero. Sin embargo, en la práctica se suele considerar que hay sobreexplotación cuando se observan o se perciben ciertos resultados negativos de la explotación, tales como un descenso continuado del nive